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Pseudomonas aeruginosa overrides the virulence inducing effect of opioids when it senses an abundance of phosphate.
The gut during critical illness represents a complex ecology dominated by the presence of healthcare associated pathogens, nutrient scarce conditions, and compensatory host stress signals. We have previously identified key environmental cues, opioids and phosphate depletion that independently activate the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Opioids induce quinolone signal production (PQS), whereas phosphate depletion leads to a triangulated response between MvfR-PQS, pyoverdin, and phosphosensory/phosphoregulatory systems (PstS-PhoB). Yet how P. aeruginosa manages its response to opioids during nutrient scarce conditions when growth is limited and a quorum is unlikely to be achieved is important in the context of pathogenesis in gut during stress. To mimic this environment, we created nutrient poor conditions and exposed P. aeruginosa PAO1 to the specific k-opioid receptor agonist U-50,488. Bacterial cells exposed to the k-opioid expressed a striking increase in virulence- and multi-drug resistance-related genes that correlated to a lethal phenotype in C. elegans killing assays. Under these conditions, HHQ, a precursor of PQS, rather than PQS itself, became the main inducer for pqsABCDE operon expression. P. aeruginosa virulence expression in response to k-opioids required PqsE since ?PqsE was attenuated in its ability to activate virulence- and efflux pumps-related genes. Extracellular inorganic phosphate completely changed the transcriptional response of PAO1 to the k- opioid preventing pqsABCDE expression, the activation of multiple virulence- and efflux pumps-related genes, and the ability of P. aeruginosa to kill C. elegans. These results indicate that when P. aeruginosa senses resource abundance in the form of phosphate, it overrides its response to compensatory host signals such as opioids to express a virulent and lethal phenotype. These studies confirm a central role for phosphate in P. aeruginosa virulence that might be exploited to design novel anti- virulence strategies.
Authors: Sebastian Kirchner, Joanne L Fothergill, Elli A. Wright, Chloe E. James, Eilidh Mowat, Craig Winstanley.
Published: 06-05-2012
There is growing concern about the relevance of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility tests when applied to isolates of P. aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Existing methods rely on single or a few isolates grown aerobically and planktonically. Predetermined cut-offs are used to define whether the bacteria are sensitive or resistant to any given antibiotic1. However, during chronic lung infections in CF, P. aeruginosa populations exist in biofilms and there is evidence that the environment is largely microaerophilic2. The stark difference in conditions between bacteria in the lung and those during diagnostic testing has called into question the reliability and even relevance of these tests3. Artificial sputum medium (ASM) is a culture medium containing the components of CF patient sputum, including amino acids, mucin and free DNA. P. aeruginosa growth in ASM mimics growth during CF infections, with the formation of self-aggregating biofilm structures and population divergence4,5,6. The aim of this study was to develop a microtitre-plate assay to study antimicrobial susceptibility of P. aeruginosa based on growth in ASM, which is applicable to both microaerophilic and aerobic conditions. An ASM assay was developed in a microtitre plate format. P. aeruginosa biofilms were allowed to develop for 3 days prior to incubation with antimicrobial agents at different concentrations for 24 hours. After biofilm disruption, cell viability was measured by staining with resazurin. This assay was used to ascertain the sessile cell minimum inhibitory concentration (SMIC) of tobramycin for 15 different P. aeruginosa isolates under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions and SMIC values were compared to those obtained with standard broth growth. Whilst there was some evidence for increased MIC values for isolates grown in ASM when compared to their planktonic counterparts, the biggest differences were found with bacteria tested in microaerophilic conditions, which showed a much increased resistance up to a >128 fold, towards tobramycin in the ASM system when compared to assays carried out in aerobic conditions. The lack of association between current susceptibility testing methods and clinical outcome has questioned the validity of current methods3. Several in vitro models have been used previously to study P. aeruginosa biofilms7, 8. However, these methods rely on surface attached biofilms, whereas the ASM biofilms resemble those observed in the CF lung9 . In addition, reduced oxygen concentration in the mucus has been shown to alter the behavior of P. aeruginosa2 and affect antibiotic susceptibility10. Therefore using ASM under microaerophilic conditions may provide a more realistic environment in which to study antimicrobial susceptibility.
18 Related JoVE Articles!
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Identification of Novel Genes Associated with Alginate Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using Mini-himar1 Mariner Transposon-mediated Mutagenesis
Authors: T. Ryan Withers, Yeshi Yin, Hongwei D. Yu.
Institutions: Marshall University.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, environmental bacterium with versatile metabolic capabilities. P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen which establishes chronic pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The overproduction of a capsular polysaccharide called alginate, also known as mucoidy, promotes the formation of mucoid biofilms which are more resistant than planktonic cells to antibiotic chemotherapy and host defenses. Additionally, the conversion from the nonmucoid to mucoid phenotype is a clinical marker for the onset of chronic infection in CF. Alginate overproduction by P. aeruginosa is an endergonic process which heavily taxes cellular energy. Therefore, alginate production is highly regulated in P. aeruginosa. To better understand alginate regulation, we describe a protocol using the mini-himar1 transposon mutagenesis for the identification of novel alginate regulators in a prototypic strain PAO1. The procedure consists of two basic steps. First, we transferred the mini-himar1 transposon (pFAC) from host E. coli SM10/λpir into recipient P. aeruginosa PAO1 via biparental conjugation to create a high-density insertion mutant library, which were selected on Pseudomonas isolation agar plates supplemented with gentamycin. Secondly, we screened and isolated the mucoid colonies to map the insertion site through inverse PCR using DNA primers pointing outward from the gentamycin cassette and DNA sequencing. Using this protocol, we have identified two novel alginate regulators, mucE (PA4033) and kinB (PA5484), in strain PAO1 with a wild-type mucA encoding the anti-sigma factor MucA for the master alginate regulator AlgU (AlgT, σ22). This high-throughput mutagenesis protocol can be modified for the identification of other virulence-related genes causing change in colony morphology.
Immunology, Issue 85, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, alginate, mucoidy, mutagenesis, mini-himar1 mariner transposon, pFAC
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Long Term Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Airway Infection in Mice
Authors: Marcella Facchini, Ida De Fino, Camilla Riva, Alessandra Bragonzi.
Institutions: San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Italian Cystic Fibrosis Research Foundation.
A mouse model of chronic airway infection is a key asset in cystic fibrosis (CF) research, although there are a number of concerns regarding the model itself. Early phases of inflammation and infection have been widely studied by using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa agar-beads mouse model, while only few reports have focused on the long-term chronic infection in vivo. The main challenge for long term chronic infection remains the low bacterial burden by P. aeruginosa and the low percentage of infected mice weeks after challenge, indicating that bacterial cells are progressively cleared by the host. This paper presents a method for obtaining efficient long-term chronic infection in mice. This method is based on the embedding of the P. aeruginosa clinical strains in the agar-beads in vitro, followed by intratracheal instillation in C57Bl/6NCrl mice. Bilateral lung infection is associated with several measurable read-outs including weight loss, mortality, chronic infection, and inflammatory response. The P. aeruginosa RP73 clinical strain was preferred over the PAO1 reference laboratory strain since it resulted in a comparatively lower mortality, more severe lesions, and higher chronic infection. P. aeruginosa colonization may persist in the lung for over three months. Murine lung pathology resembles that of CF patients with advanced chronic pulmonary disease. This murine model most closely mimics the course of the human disease and can be used both for studies on the pathogenesis and for the evaluation of novel therapies.
Infection, Issue 85, Opportunistic Infections, Respiratory Tract Infections, Inflammation, Lung Diseases, Cystic Fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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Characterization of Inflammatory Responses During Intranasal Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae
Authors: Alicja Puchta, Chris P. Verschoor, Tanja Thurn, Dawn M. E. Bowdish.
Institutions: McMaster University .
Nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a prerequisite to invasion to the lungs or bloodstream1. This organism is capable of colonizing the mucosal surface of the nasopharynx, where it can reside, multiply and eventually overcome host defences to invade to other tissues of the host. Establishment of an infection in the normally lower respiratory tract results in pneumonia. Alternatively, the bacteria can disseminate into the bloodstream causing bacteraemia, which is associated with high mortality rates2, or else lead directly to the development of pneumococcal meningitis. Understanding the kinetics of, and immune responses to, nasopharyngeal colonization is an important aspect of S. pneumoniae infection models. Our mouse model of intranasal colonization is adapted from human models3 and has been used by multiple research groups in the study of host-pathogen responses in the nasopharynx4-7. In the first part of the model, we use a clinical isolate of S. pneumoniae to establish a self-limiting bacterial colonization that is similar to carriage events in human adults. The procedure detailed herein involves preparation of a bacterial inoculum, followed by the establishment of a colonization event through delivery of the inoculum via an intranasal route of administration. Resident macrophages are the predominant cell type in the nasopharynx during the steady state. Typically, there are few lymphocytes present in uninfected mice8, however mucosal colonization will lead to low- to high-grade inflammation (depending on the virulence of the bacterial species and strain) that will result in an immune response and the subsequent recruitment of host immune cells. These cells can be isolated by a lavage of the tracheal contents through the nares, and correlated to the density of colonization bacteria to better understand the kinetics of the infection.
Immunology, Issue 83, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Nasal lavage, nasopharynx, murine, flow cytometry, RNA, Quantitative PCR, recruited macrophages, neutrophils, T-cells, effector cells, intranasal colonization
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Purification and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative Bacteria by Hot Aqueous-phenol Extraction
Authors: Michael R. Davis, Jr., Joanna B. Goldberg.
Institutions: University of Virginia Health System.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes. It is a tripartite molecule consisting of lipid A, which is embedded in the outer membrane, a core oligosaccharide and repeating O-antigen units that extend outward from the surface of the cell1, 2. LPS is an immunodominant molecule that is important for the virulence and pathogenesis of many bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella species, and Escherichia coli3-5, and differences in LPS O-antigen composition form the basis for serotyping of strains. LPS is involved in attachment to host cells at the initiation of infection and provides protection from complement-mediated killing; strains that lack LPS can be attenuated for virulence6-8. For these reasons, it is important to visualize LPS, particularly from clinical isolates. Visualizing LPS banding patterns and recognition by specific antibodies can be useful tools to identify strain lineages and to characterize various mutants. In this report, we describe a hot aqueous-phenol method for the isolation and purification of LPS from Gram-negative bacterial cells. This protocol allows for the extraction of LPS away from nucleic acids and proteins that can interfere with visualization of LPS that occurs with shorter, less intensive extraction methods9. LPS prepared this way can be separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and directly stained using carbohydrate/glycoprotein stains or standard silver staining methods. Many anti-sera to LPS contain antibodies that cross-react with outer membrane proteins or other antigenic targets that can hinder reactivity observed following Western immunoblot of SDS-PAGE-separated crude cell lysates. Protease treatment of crude cell lysates alone is not always an effective way of removing this background using this or other visualization methods. Further, extensive protease treatment in an attempt to remove this background can lead to poor quality LPS that is not well resolved by any of the aforementioned methods. For these reasons, we believe that the following protocol, adapted from Westpahl and Jann10, is ideal for LPS extraction.
Immunology, Issue 63, Microbiology, Gram-negative, LPS, extraction, polysaccharide staining, Western immunoblot
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Expression, Detergent Solubilization, and Purification of a Membrane Transporter, the MexB Multidrug Resistance Protein
Authors: Forum H. Bhatt, Constance J. Jeffery.
Institutions: University of Illinois Chicago - UIC.
Multidrug resistance (MDR), the ability of a cancer cell or pathogen to be resistant to a wide range of structurally and functionally unrelated anti-cancer drugs or antibiotics, is a current serious problem in public health. This multidrug resistance is largely due to energy-dependent drug efflux pumps. The pumps expel anti-cancer drugs or antibiotics into the external medium, lowering their intracellular concentration below a toxic threshold. We are studying multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes infections in patients with many types of injuries or illness, for example, burns or cystic fibrosis, and also in immuno-compromised cancer, dialysis, and transplantation patients. The major MDR efflux pumps in P. aeruginosa are tripartite complexes comprised of an inner membrane proton-drug antiporter (RND), an outer membrane channel (OMF), and a periplasmic linker protein (MFP) 1-8. The RND and OMF proteins are transmembrane proteins. Transmembrane proteins make up more than 30% of all proteins and are 65% of current drug targets. The hydrophobic transmembrane domains make the proteins insoluble in aqueous buffer. Before a transmembrane protein can be purified, it is necessary to find buffer conditions containing a mild detergent that enable the protein to be solubilized as a protein detergent complex (PDC) 9-11. In this example, we use an RND protein, the P. aeruginosa MexB transmembrane transporter, to demonstrate how to express a recombinant form of a transmembrane protein, solubilize it using detergents, and then purify the protein detergent complexes. This general method can be applied to the expression, purification, and solubilization of many other recombinantly expressed membrane proteins. The protein detergent complexes can later be used for biochemical or biophysical characterization including X-ray crystal structure determination or crosslinking studies.
Cellular Biology, Issue 46, multidrug resistance, membrane protein, purification, transmembrane transport, MexB, detergent solubilization, protein detergent complex
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Automated Separation of C. elegans Variably Colonized by a Bacterial Pathogen
Authors: Kwame Twumasi-Boateng, Maureen Berg, Michael Shapira.
Institutions: University of California, Berkeley.
The wormsorter is an instrument analogous to a FACS machine that is used in studies of Caenorhabditis elegans, typically to sort worms based on expression of a fluorescent reporter. Here, we highlight an alternative usage of this instrument, for sorting worms according to their degree of colonization by a GFP-expressing pathogen. This new usage allowed us to address the relationship between colonization of the worm intestine and induction of immune responses. While C. elegans immune responses to different pathogens have been documented, it is still unknown what initiates them. The two main possibilities (which are not mutually exclusive) are recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and detection of damage caused by infection. To differentiate between the two possibilities, exposure to the pathogen must be dissociated from the damage it causes. The wormsorter enabled separation of worms that were extensively-colonized by the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with the damage likely caused by pathogen load, from worms that were similarly exposed, but not, or marginally, colonized. These distinct populations were used to assess the relationship between pathogen load and the induction of transcriptional immune responses. The results suggest that the two are dissociated, supporting the possibility of pathogen recognition.
Immunology, Issue 85, Innate Immunity, C. elegans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, wormsorter, pathogen recognition
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RNA Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Colonizing the Murine Gastrointestinal Tract
Authors: Eduardo Lopez-Medina, Megan M. Neubauer, Gerald B. Pier, Andrew Y. Koh.
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , Harvard Medical School, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center .
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infections result in significant morbidity and mortality in hosts with compromised immune systems, such as patients with leukemia, severe burn wounds, or organ transplants1. In patients at high-risk for developing PA bloodstream infections, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the main reservoir for colonization2, but the mechanisms by which PA transitions from an asymptomatic colonizing microbe to an invasive, and often deadly, pathogen are unclear. Previously, we performed in vivo transcription profiling experiments by recovering PA mRNA from bacterial cells residing in the cecums of colonized mice 3 in order to identify changes in bacterial gene expression during alterations to the host’s immune status. As with any transcription profiling experiment, the rate-limiting step is in the isolation of sufficient amounts of high quality mRNA. Given the abundance of enzymes, debris, food residues, and particulate matter in the GI tract, the challenge of RNA isolation is daunting. Here, we present a method for reliable and reproducible isolation of bacterial RNA recovered from the murine GI tract. This method utilizes a well-established murine model of PA GI colonization and neutropenia-induced dissemination4. Once GI colonization with PA is confirmed, mice are euthanized and cecal contents are recovered and flash frozen. RNA is then extracted using a combination of mechanical disruption, boiling, phenol/chloroform extractions, DNase treatment, and affinity chromatography. Quantity and purity are confirmed by spectrophotometry (Nanodrop Technologies) and bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies) (Fig 1). This method of GI microbial RNA isolation can easily be adapted to other bacteria and fungi as well.
Immunology, Issue 55, Pseudomonas, RNA, murine, cecum, transcriptome, qPCR, RT-PCR, PCR
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The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins
Authors: Kristine M. Cihil, Agnieszka Swiatecka-Urban.
Institutions: Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed by trafficking to lysosomes for degradation or to the plasma membrane for recycling. The cell based L-glutathione protection assays can be used to study endocytosis and recycling of protein receptors, channels, transporters, and adhesion molecules localized at the cell surface. The endocytic assay requires labeling of cell surface proteins with a cell membrane impermeable biotin containing a disulfide bond and the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester at 4 ºC - a temperature at which membrane trafficking does not occur. Endocytosis of biotinylated plasma membrane proteins is induced by incubation at 37 ºC. Next, the temperature is decreased again to 4 ºC to stop endocytic trafficking and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins that have remained at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione. At this point, only proteins that were endocytosed remain protected from L-glutathione and thus remain biotinylated. After cell lysis, biotinylated proteins are isolated with streptavidin agarose, eluted from agarose, and the biotinylated protein of interest is detected by western blotting. During the recycling assay, after biotinylation cells are incubated at 37 °C to load endocytic vesicles with biotinylated proteins and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins remaining at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione at 4 ºC as in the endocytic assay. Next, cells are incubated again at 37 °C to allow biotinylated proteins from endocytic vesicles to recycle to the plasma membrane. Cells are then incubated at 4 ºC, and the disulfide bond in biotin attached to proteins that recycled to the plasma membranes is reduced with L-glutathione. The biotinylated proteins protected from L-glutathione are those that did not recycle to the plasma membrane.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Endocytosis, recycling, plasma membrane, cell surface, EZLink, Sulfo-NHS-SS-Biotin, L-Glutathione, GSH, thiol group, disulfide bond, epithelial cells, cell polarization
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Tractable Mammalian Cell Infections with Protozoan-primed Bacteria
Authors: Samuel L. Drennan, Amrita Lama, Ben Doron, Eric D. Cambronne.
Institutions: Oregon Health & Science University.
Many intracellular bacterial pathogens use freshwater protozoans as a natural reservoir for proliferation in the environment. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia, gains a pathogenic advantage over in vitro cultured bacteria when first harvested from protozoan cells prior to infection of mammalian macrophages. This suggests that important virulence factors may not be properly expressed in vitro. We have developed a tractable system for priming L. pneumophila through its natural protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii prior to mammalian cell infection. The contribution of any virulence factor can be examined by comparing intracellular growth of a mutant strain to wild-type bacteria after protozoan priming. GFP-expressing wild-type and mutant L. pneumophila strains are used to infect protozoan monolayers in a priming step and allowed to reach late stages of intracellular growth. Fluorescent bacteria are then harvested from these infected cells and normalized by spectrophotometry to generate comparable numbers of bacteria for a subsequent infection into mammalian macrophages. For quantification, live bacteria are monitored after infection using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and by colony plating. This technique highlights and relies on the contribution of host cell-dependent gene expression by mimicking the environment that would be encountered in a natural acquisition route. This approach can be modified to accommodate any bacterium that uses an intermediary host as a means for gaining a pathogenic advantage.
Infection, Issue 74, Immunology, Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Bacteria, Bacterial Infections, Mycoses, Legionella, amoeba, macrophage, priming, intracellular pathogen, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, cell
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Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Authors: Yves Molino, Françoise Jabès, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Nicolas Gaudin, Michel Khrestchatisky.
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2 on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3 cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
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Use of Galleria mellonella as a Model Organism to Study Legionella pneumophila Infection
Authors: Clare R. Harding, Gunnar N. Schroeder, James W. Collins, Gad Frankel.
Institutions: Imperial College London.
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of a severe pneumonia named Legionnaires' disease, is an important human pathogen that infects and replicates within alveolar macrophages. Its virulence depends on the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS), which is essential to establish a replication permissive vacuole known as the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV). L. pneumophila infection can be modeled in mice however most mouse strains are not permissive, leading to the search for novel infection models. We have recently shown that the larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella are suitable for investigation of L. pneumophila infection. G. mellonella is increasingly used as an infection model for human pathogens and a good correlation exists between virulence of several bacterial species in the insect and in mammalian models. A key component of the larvae's immune defenses are hemocytes, professional phagocytes, which take up and destroy invaders. L. pneumophila is able to infect, form a LCV and replicate within these cells. Here we demonstrate protocols for analyzing L. pneumophila virulence in the G. mellonella model, including how to grow infectious L. pneumophila, pretreat the larvae with inhibitors, infect the larvae and how to extract infected cells for quantification and immunofluorescence microscopy. We also describe how to quantify bacterial replication and fitness in competition assays. These approaches allow for the rapid screening of mutants to determine factors important in L. pneumophila virulence, describing a new tool to aid our understanding of this complex pathogen.
Infection, Issue 81, Bacterial Infections, Infection, Disease Models, Animal, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Galleria mellonella, Legionella pneumophila, insect model, bacterial infection, Legionnaires' disease, haemocytes
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Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods
Authors: Erin R. Sanders.
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles .
Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: ● Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. ● Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating method. ● Use pour-plating and spread-plating methods to determine the concentration of bacteria. ● Perform soft agar overlays when working with phage. ● Transfer bacterial cells from one plate to another using the replica-plating procedure. ● Given an experimental task, select the appropriate plating method.
Basic Protocols, Issue 63, Streak plates, pour plates, soft agar overlays, spread plates, replica plates, bacteria, colonies, phage, plaques, dilutions
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The Insect Galleria mellonella as a Powerful Infection Model to Investigate Bacterial Pathogenesis
Authors: Nalini Ramarao, Christina Nielsen-Leroux, Didier Lereclus.
Institutions: INRA, Micalis UMR1319, France.
The study of bacterial virulence often requires a suitable animal model. Mammalian models of infection are costly and may raise ethical issues. The use of insects as infection models provides a valuable alternative. Compared to other non-vertebrate model hosts such as nematodes, insects have a relatively advanced system of antimicrobial defenses and are thus more likely to produce information relevant to the mammalian infection process. Like mammals, insects possess a complex innate immune system1. Cells in the hemolymph are capable of phagocytosing or encapsulating microbial invaders, and humoral responses include the inducible production of lysozyme and small antibacterial peptides2,3. In addition, analogies are found between the epithelial cells of insect larval midguts and intestinal cells of mammalian digestive systems. Finally, several basic components essential for the bacterial infection process such as cell adhesion, resistance to antimicrobial peptides, tissue degradation and adaptation to oxidative stress are likely to be important in both insects and mammals1. Thus, insects are polyvalent tools for the identification and characterization of microbial virulence factors involved in mammalian infections. Larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella have been shown to provide a useful insight into the pathogenesis of a wide range of microbial infections including mammalian fungal (Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans) and bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes or Enterococcus faecalis4-7. Regardless of the bacterial species, results obtained with Galleria larvae infected by direct injection through the cuticle consistently correlate with those of similar mammalian studies: bacterial strains that are attenuated in mammalian models demonstrate lower virulence in Galleria, and strains causing severe human infections are also highly virulent in the Galleria model8-11. Oral infection of Galleria is much less used and additional compounds, like specific toxins, are needed to reach mortality. G. mellonella larvae present several technical advantages: they are relatively large (last instar larvae before pupation are about 2 cm long and weight 250 mg), thus enabling the injection of defined doses of bacteria; they can be reared at various temperatures (20 °C to 30 °C) and infection studies can be conducted between 15 °C to above 37 °C12,13, allowing experiments that mimic a mammalian environment. In addition, insect rearing is easy and relatively cheap. Infection of the larvae allows monitoring bacterial virulence by several means, including calculation of LD5014, measurement of bacterial survival15,16 and examination of the infection process17. Here, we describe the rearing of the insects, covering all life stages of G. mellonella. We provide a detailed protocol of infection by two routes of inoculation: oral and intra haemocoelic. The bacterial model used in this protocol is Bacillus cereus, a Gram positive pathogen implicated in gastrointestinal as well as in other severe local or systemic opportunistic infections18,19.
Infection, Issue 70, Microbiology, Immunology, Molecular Biology, Bacteriology, Entomology, Bacteria, Galleria mellonella, greater wax moth, insect larvae, intra haemocoelic injection, ingestion, animal model, host pathogen interactions
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induced Lung Injury Model
Authors: Varsha Suresh Kumar, Ruxana T. Sadikot, Jeanette E. Purcell, Asrar B. Malik, Yuru Liu.
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago, Emory University, University of Illinois at Chicago.
In order to study human acute lung injury and pneumonia, it is important to develop animal models to mimic various pathological features of this disease. Here we have developed a mouse lung injury model by intra-tracheal injection of bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa or PA). Using this model, we were able to show lung inflammation at the early phase of injury. In addition, alveolar epithelial barrier leakiness was observed by analyzing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); and alveolar cell death was observed by Tunel assay using tissue prepared from injured lungs. At a later phase following injury, we observed cell proliferation required for the repair process. The injury was resolved 7 days from the initiation of P. aeruginosa injection. This model mimics the sequential course of lung inflammation, injury and repair during pneumonia. This clinically relevant animal model is suitable for studying pathology, mechanism of repair, following acute lung injury, and also can be used to test potential therapeutic agents for this disease.
Immunology, Issue 92, Lung, injury, pseudomonas, pneumonia, mouse model, alveoli
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Co-culture Models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Grown on Live Human Airway Cells
Authors: Sophie Moreau-Marquis, Carly V. Redelman, Bruce A. Stanton, Gregory G. Anderson.
Institutions: Dartmouth College, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis.
Bacterial biofilms have been associated with a number of different human diseases, but biofilm development has generally been studied on non-living surfaces. In this paper, we describe protocols for forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on human airway epithelial cells (CFBE cells) grown in culture. In the first method (termed the Static Co-culture Biofilm Model), P. aeruginosa is incubated with CFBE cells grown as confluent monolayers on standard tissue culture plates. Although the bacterium is quite toxic to epithelial cells, the addition of arginine delays the destruction of the monolayer long enough for biofilms to form on the CFBE cells. The second method (termed the Flow Cell Co-culture Biofilm Model), involves adaptation of a biofilm flow cell apparatus, which is often used in biofilm research, to accommodate a glass coverslip supporting a confluent monolayer of CFBE cells. This monolayer is inoculated with P. aeruginosa and a peristaltic pump then flows fresh medium across the cells. In both systems, bacterial biofilms form within 6-8 hours after inoculation. Visualization of the biofilm is enhanced by the use of P. aeruginosa strains constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). The Static and Flow Cell Co-culture Biofilm assays are model systems for early P. aeruginosa infection of the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung, and these techniques allow different aspects of P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and virulence to be studied, including biofilm cytotoxicity, measurement of biofilm CFU, and staining and visualizing the biofilm.
Cellular Biology, Issue 44, biofilm, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, airway, epithelial cells, co-culture, cytotoxicity, Cystic Fibrosis, virulence
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Using Coculture to Detect Chemically Mediated Interspecies Interactions
Authors: Elizabeth Anne Shank.
Institutions: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill .
In nature, bacteria rarely exist in isolation; they are instead surrounded by a diverse array of other microorganisms that alter the local environment by secreting metabolites. These metabolites have the potential to modulate the physiology and differentiation of their microbial neighbors and are likely important factors in the establishment and maintenance of complex microbial communities. We have developed a fluorescence-based coculture screen to identify such chemically mediated microbial interactions. The screen involves combining a fluorescent transcriptional reporter strain with environmental microbes on solid media and allowing the colonies to grow in coculture. The fluorescent transcriptional reporter is designed so that the chosen bacterial strain fluoresces when it is expressing a particular phenotype of interest (i.e. biofilm formation, sporulation, virulence factor production, etc.) Screening is performed under growth conditions where this phenotype is not expressed (and therefore the reporter strain is typically nonfluorescent). When an environmental microbe secretes a metabolite that activates this phenotype, it diffuses through the agar and activates the fluorescent reporter construct. This allows the inducing-metabolite-producing microbe to be detected: they are the nonfluorescent colonies most proximal to the fluorescent colonies. Thus, this screen allows the identification of environmental microbes that produce diffusible metabolites that activate a particular physiological response in a reporter strain. This publication discusses how to: a) select appropriate coculture screening conditions, b) prepare the reporter and environmental microbes for screening, c) perform the coculture screen, d) isolate putative inducing organisms, and e) confirm their activity in a secondary screen. We developed this method to screen for soil organisms that activate biofilm matrix-production in Bacillus subtilis; however, we also discuss considerations for applying this approach to other genetically tractable bacteria.
Microbiology, Issue 80, High-Throughput Screening Assays, Genes, Reporter, Microbial Interactions, Soil Microbiology, Coculture, microbial interactions, screen, fluorescent transcriptional reporters, Bacillus subtilis
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In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration
Authors: Mark E. Kusek, Michael A. Pazos, Waheed Pirzai, Bryan P. Hurley.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, MGH for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Mucosal surfaces serve as protective barriers against pathogenic organisms. Innate immune responses are activated upon sensing pathogen leading to the infiltration of tissues with migrating inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. This process has the potential to be destructive to tissues if excessive or held in an unresolved state.  Cocultured in vitro models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. This type of model provides versatility in experimental design with opportunity for controlled manipulation of the pathogen, epithelial barrier, or neutrophil. Pathogenic infection of the apical surface of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable transwell filters instigates physiologically relevant basolateral to apical trans-epithelial migration of neutrophils applied to the basolateral surface. The in vitro model described herein demonstrates the multiple steps necessary for demonstrating neutrophil migration across a polarized lung epithelial monolayer that has been infected with pathogenic P. aeruginosa (PAO1). Seeding and culturing of permeable transwells with human derived lung epithelial cells is described, along with isolation of neutrophils from whole human blood and culturing of PAO1 and nonpathogenic K12 E. coli (MC1000).  The emigrational process and quantitative analysis of successfully migrated neutrophils that have been mobilized in response to pathogenic infection is shown with representative data, including positive and negative controls. This in vitro model system can be manipulated and applied to other mucosal surfaces. Inflammatory responses that involve excessive neutrophil infiltration can be destructive to host tissues and can occur in the absence of pathogenic infections. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote neutrophil trans-epithelial migration through experimental manipulation of the in vitro coculture assay system described herein has significant potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for a range of mucosal infectious as well as inflammatory diseases.
Infection, Issue 83, Cellular Biology, Epithelium, Neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Neutrophils, epithelial barriers, pathogens, transmigration
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A Visual Assay to Monitor T6SS-mediated Bacterial Competition
Authors: Abderrahman Hachani, Nadine S. Lossi, Alain Filloux.
Institutions: Imperial College London .
Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are molecular nanomachines allowing Gram-negative bacteria to transport and inject proteins into a wide variety of target cells1,2. The T6SS is composed of 13 core components and displays structural similarities with the tail-tube of bacteriophages3. The phage uses a tube and a puncturing device to penetrate the cell envelope of target bacteria and inject DNA. It is proposed that the T6SS is an inverted bacteriophage device creating a specific path in the bacterial cell envelope to drive effectors and toxins to the surface. The process could be taken further and the T6SS device could perforate other cells with which the bacterium is in contact, thus injecting the effectors into these targets. The tail tube and puncturing device parts of the T6SS are made with Hcp and VgrG proteins, respectively4,5. The versatility of the T6SS has been demonstrated through studies using various bacterial pathogens. The Vibrio cholerae T6SS can remodel the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic host cells by injecting an "evolved" VgrG carrying a C-terminal actin cross-linking domain6,7. Another striking example was recently documented using Pseudomonas aeruginosa which is able to target and kill bacteria in a T6SS-dependent manner, therefore promoting the establishment of bacteria in specific microbial niches and competitive environment8,9,10. In the latter case, three T6SS-secreted proteins, namely Tse1, Tse2 and Tse3 have been identified as the toxins injected in the target bacteria (Figure 1). The donor cell is protected from the deleterious effect of these effectors via an anti-toxin mechanism, mediated by the Tsi1, Tsi2 and Tsi3 immunity proteins8,9,10. This antimicrobial activity can be monitored when T6SS-proficient bacteria are co-cultivated on solid surfaces in competition with other bacterial species or with T6SS-inactive bacteria of the same species8,11,12,13. The data available emphasized a numerical approach to the bacterial competition assay, including time-consuming CFU counting that depends greatly on antibiotic makers. In the case of antibiotic resistant strains like P. aeruginosa, these methods can be inappropriate. Moreover, with the identification of about 200 different T6SS loci in more than 100 bacterial genomes14, a convenient screening tool is highly desirable. We developed an assay that is easy to use and requires standard laboratory material and reagents. The method offers a rapid and qualitative technique to monitor the T6SS-dependent bactericidal/bacteriostasis activity by using a reporter strain as a prey (in this case Escherichia coli DH5α) allowing a-complementation of the lacZ gene. Overall, this method is graphic and allows rapid identification of T6SS-related phenotypes on agar plates. This experimental protocol may be adapted to other strains or bacterial species taking into account specific conditions such as growth media, temperature or time of contact.
Infection, Issue 73, Microbiology, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Biochemistry, Cellular Biology, Bacteriology, Bacteria, Type Six Secretion System, T6SS, Bacterial Competition, Killing Assay, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, lacZ, CFU, bacterial screen, pathogens, assay
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