Pulmonary hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Historically, there has been significant study of the signaling pathways involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction in PASMC from fetal sheep. While sheep make an excellent model of term pulmonary hypertension, they are very expensive and lack the advantage of genetic manipulation found in mice. Conversely, the inability to isolate PASMC from mice was a significant limitation of that system. Here we described the isolation of primary cultures of mouse PASMC from P7, P14, and P21 mice using a variation of the previously described technique of Marshall et al.26 that was previously used to isolate rat PASMC. These murine PASMC represent a novel tool for the study of signaling pathways in the neonatal period. Briefly, a slurry of 0.5% (w/v) agarose + 0.5% iron particles in M199 media is infused into the pulmonary vascular bed via the right ventricle (RV). The iron particles are 0.2 μM in diameter and cannot pass through the pulmonary capillary bed. Thus, the iron lodges in the small pulmonary arteries (PA). The lungs are inflated with agarose, removed and dissociated. The iron-containing vessels are pulled down with a magnet. After collagenase (80 U/ml) treatment and further dissociation, the vessels are put into a tissue culture dish in M199 media containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and antibiotics (M199 complete media) to allow cell migration onto the culture dish. This initial plate of cells is a 50-50 mixture of fibroblasts and PASMC. Thus, the pull down procedure is repeated multiple times to achieve a more pure PASMC population and remove any residual iron. Smooth muscle cell identity is confirmed by immunostaining for smooth muscle myosin and desmin.
18 Related JoVE Articles!
Inducing Dendritic Growth in Cultured Sympathetic Neurons
Institutions: University of California, Davis.
The shape of the dendritic arbor determines the total synaptic input a neuron can receive 1-3
, and influences the types and distribution of these inputs 4-6
. Altered patterns of dendritic growth and plasticity are associated with impaired neurobehavioral function in experimental models 7
, and are thought to contribute to clinical symptoms observed in both neurodevelopmental disorders 8-10
and neurodegenerative diseases 11-13
. Such observations underscore the functional importance of precisely regulating dendritic morphology, and suggest that identifying mechanisms that control dendritic growth will not only advance understanding of how neuronal connectivity is regulated during normal development, but may also provide insight on novel therapeutic strategies for diverse neurological diseases.
Mechanistic studies of dendritic growth would be greatly facilitated by the availability of a model system that allows neurons to be experimentally switched from a state in which they do not extend dendrites to one in which they elaborate a dendritic arbor comparable to that of their in vivo
counterparts. Primary cultures of sympathetic neurons dissociated from the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) of perinatal rodents provide such a model. When cultured in defined medium in the absence of serum and ganglionic glial cells, sympathetic neurons extend a single process which is axonal, and this unipolar state persists for weeks to months in culture 14,15
. However, the addition of either bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) 16,17
or Matrigel 18
to the culture medium triggers these neurons to extend multiple processes that meet the morphologic, biochemical and functional criteria for dendrites. Sympathetic neurons dissociated from the SCG of perinatal rodents and grown under defined conditions are a homogenous population of neurons 19
that respond uniformly to the dendrite-promoting activity of Matrigel, BMP-7 and other BMPs of the decapentaplegic (dpp) and 60A subfamilies 17,18,20,21
. Importantly, Matrigel- and BMP-induced dendrite formation occurs in the absence of changes in cell survival or axonal growth 17,18
Here, we describe how to set up dissociated cultures of sympathetic neurons derived from the SCG of perinatal rats so that they are responsive to the selective dendrite-promoting activity of Matrigel or BMPs.
Neuroscience, Issue 61, Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), Matrigel, dendrite, dendritogenesis, neuronal morphogenesis, sympathetic neurons
Characterization of the Isolated, Ventilated, and Instrumented Mouse Lung Perfused with Pulsatile Flow
Institutions: University of Wisconsin – Madison.
The isolated, ventilated and instrumented mouse lung preparation allows steady and pulsatile pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships to be measured with independent control over pulmonary arterial flow rate, flow rate waveform, airway pressure and left atrial pressure. Pulmonary vascular resistance is calculated based on multi-point, steady pressure-flow curves; pulmonary vascular impedance is calculated from pulsatile pressure-flow curves obtained at a range of frequencies. As now recognized clinically, impedance is a superior measure of right ventricular afterload than resistance because it includes the effects of vascular compliance, which are not negligible, especially in the pulmonary circulation. Three important metrics of impedance - the zero hertz impedance Z0
, the characteristic impedance ZC
, and the index of wave reflection RW
- provide insight into distal arterial cross-sectional area available for flow, proximal arterial stiffness and the upstream-downstream impedance mismatch, respectively. All results obtained in isolated, ventilated and perfused lungs are independent of sympathetic nervous system tone, volume status and the effects of anesthesia. We have used this technique to quantify the impact of pulmonary emboli and chronic hypoxia on resistance and impedance, and to differentiate between sites of action (i.e., proximal vs. distal) of vasoactive agents and disease using the pressure dependency of ZC
. Furthermore, when these techniques are used with the lungs of genetically engineered strains of mice, the effects of molecular-level defects on pulmonary vascular structure and function can be determined.
Medicine, Issue 50, ex-vivo, mouse, lung, pulmonary vascular impedance, characteristic impedance
2-Vessel Occlusion/Hypotension: A Rat Model of Global Brain Ischemia
Institutions: Wayne State University School of Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine.
Cardiac arrest followed by resuscitation often results in dramatic brain damage caused by ischemia and subsequent reperfusion of the brain. Global brain ischemia produces damage to specific brain regions shown to be highly sensitive to ischemia 1
. Hippocampal neurons have higher sensitivity to ischemic insults compared to other cell populations, and specifically, the CA1 region of the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to ischemia/reperfusion 2
The design of therapeutic interventions, or study of mechanisms involved in cerebral damage, requires a model that produces damage similar to the clinical condition and in a reproducible manner. Bilateral carotid vessel occlusion with hypotension (2VOH) is a model that produces reversible forebrain ischemia, emulating the cerebral events that can occur during cardiac arrest and resuscitation. We describe a model modified from Smith et al
. (1984) 2
, as first presented in its current form in Sanderson, et al.
, which produces reproducible injury to selectively vulnerable brain regions 3-6
. The reliability of this model is dictated by precise control of systemic blood pressure during applied hypotension, the duration of ischemia, close temperature control, a specific anesthesia regimen, and diligent post-operative care. An 8-minute ischemic insult produces cell death of CA1 hippocampal neurons that progresses over the course of 6 to 24 hr of reperfusion, while less vulnerable brain regions are spared. This progressive cell death is easily quantified after 7-14 days of reperfusion, as a near complete loss of CA1 neurons is evident at this time.
In addition to this brain injury model, we present a method for CA1 damage quantification using a simple, yet thorough, methodology. Importantly, quantification can be accomplished using a simple camera-mounted microscope, and a free ImageJ (NIH) software plugin, obviating the need for cost-prohibitive stereology software programs and a motorized microscopic stage for damage assessment.
Medicine, Issue 76, Biomedical Engineering, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Immunology, Anatomy, Physiology, Cardiology, Brain Ischemia, ischemia, reperfusion, cardiac arrest, resuscitation, 2VOH, brain injury model, CA1 hippocampal neurons, brain, neuron, blood vessel, occlusion, hypotension, animal model
Murine Spinotrapezius Model to Assess the Impact of Arteriolar Ligation on Microvascular Function and Remodeling
Institutions: University of Virginia, California Polytechnic State University, University of Virginia, Johns Hopkins University.
The murine spinotrapezius is a thin, superficial skeletal support muscle that extends from T3 to L4, and is easily accessible via dorsal skin incision. Its unique anatomy makes the spinotrapezius useful for investigation of ischemic injury and subsequent microvascular remodeling. Here, we demonstrate an arteriolar ligation model in the murine spinotrapezius muscle that was developed by our research team and previously published1-3
. For certain vulnerable mouse strains, such as the Balb/c mouse, this ligation surgery reliably creates skeletal muscle ischemia and serves as a platform for investigating therapies that stimulate revascularization. Methods of assessment are also demonstrated, including the use of intravital and confocal microscopy. The spinotrapezius is well suited to such imaging studies due to its accessibility (superficial dorsal anatomy) and relative thinness (60-200 μm). The spinotrapezius muscle can be mounted en face, facilitating imaging of whole-muscle microvascular networks without histological sectioning. We describe the use of intravital microscopy to acquire metrics following a functional vasodilation procedure; specifically, the increase in arterilar diameter as a result of muscle contraction. We also demonstrate the procedures for harvesting and fixing the tissues, a necessary precursor to immunostaining studies and the use of confocal microscopy.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 73, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Immunology, Hematology, Microvessels, Capillaries, Arterioles, Venules, Vascular Diseases, Ischemia, spinotrapezius, peripheral vascular disease, functional vasodilation, arteriolar ligation, vessels, circulation, confocal microscopy, animal model
Pressure Controlled Ventilation to Induce Acute Lung Injury in Mice
Institutions: University of Colorado.
Murine models are extensively used to investigate acute injuries of different organs systems (1-34). Acute lung injury (ALI), which occurs with prolonged mechanical ventilation, contributes to morbidity and mortality of critical illness, and studies on novel genetic or pharmacological targets are areas of intense investigation (1-3, 5, 8, 26, 30, 33-36). ALI is defined by the acute onset of the disease, which leads to non-cardiac pulmonary edema and subsequent impairment of pulmonary gas exchange (36). We have developed a murine model of ALI by using a pressure-controlled ventilation to induce ventilator-induced lung injury (2). For this purpose, C57BL/6 mice are anesthetized and a tracheotomy is performed followed by induction of ALI via mechanical ventilation. Mice are ventilated in a pressure-controlled setting with an inspiratory peak pressure of 45 mbar over 1 - 3 hours. As outcome parameters, pulmonary edema (wet-to-dry ratio), bronchoalveolar fluid albumin content, bronchoalveolar fluid and pulmonary tissue myeloperoxidase content and pulmonary gas exchange are assessed (2). Using this technique we could show that it sufficiently induces acute lung inflammation and can distinguish between different treatment groups or genotypes (1-3, 5). Therefore this technique may be helpful for researchers who pursue molecular mechanisms involved in ALI using a genetic approach in mice with gene-targeted deletion.
Medicine, Issue 51, Ventilator-induced lung injury, acute lung injury, targeted gene deletion, murine model, lung
Human Internal Mammary Artery (IMA) Transplantation and Stenting: A Human Model to Study the Development of In-Stent Restenosis
Institutions: TSI-Lab, Germany, University of Hamburg, University of Alberta, Stanford University School of Medicine , University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Hechingen, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Preclinical in vivo
research models to investigate pathobiological and pathophysiological processes in the development of intimal hyperplasia after vessel stenting are crucial for translational approaches1,2
The commonly used animal models include mice, rats, rabbits, and pigs3-5
. However, the translation of these models into clinical settings remains difficult, since those biological processes are already studied in animal vessels but never performed before in human research models6,7
. In this video we demonstrate a new humanized model to overcome this translational gap. The shown procedure is reproducible, easy, and fast to perform and is suitable to study the development of intimal hyperplasia and the applicability of diverse stents.
This video shows how to perform the stent technique in human vessels followed by transplantation into immunodeficient rats, and identifies the origin of proliferating cells as human.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 63, physiology, stent, Human Internal Mammary Artery (IMA) Transplantation, restenosis
Protein Isolation from the Developing Embryonic Mouse Heart Valve Region
Institutions: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill-Cornell Medical Center.
Western blot analysis is a commonly employed technique for detecting and quantifying protein levels. However, for small tissue samples, this analysis method may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect a protein of interest. To overcome these difficulties, we examined protocols for obtaining protein from adult human cardiac valves and modified these protocols for the developing early embryonic mouse counterparts. In brief, the mouse embryonic aortic valve regions, including the aortic valve and surrounding aortic wall, are collected in the minimal possible volume of a Tris-based lysis buffer with protease inhibitors. If required based on the breeding strategy, embryos are genotyped prior to pooling four embryonic aortic valve regions for homogenization. After homogenization, an SDS-based sample buffer is used to denature the sample for running on an SDS-PAGE gel and subsequent western blot analysis. Although the protein concentration remains too low to quantify using spectrophotometric protein quantification assays and have sample remaining for subsequent analyses, this technique can be used to successfully detect and semi-quantify phosphorylated proteins via western blot from pooled samples of four embryonic day 13.5 mouse aortic valve regions, each of which yields approximately 1 μg of protein. This technique will be of benefit for studying cell signaling pathway activation and protein expression levels during early embryonic mouse valve development.
Developmental Biology, Issue 91, heart, valve, embryonic, mouse, development, protein, western blot
Heterotopic Heart Transplantation in Mice
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco - UCSF.
The mouse heterotopic heart transplantation has been used widely since it was introduced by Drs. Corry and Russell in 1973. It is particularly valuable for studying rejection and immune response now that newer transgenic and gene knockout mice are available, and a large number of immunologic reagents have been developed. The heart transplant model is less stringent than the skin transplant models, although technically more challenging. We have developed a modified technique and have completed over 1000 successful cases of heterotopic heart transplantation in mice. When making anastomosis of the ascending aorta and abdominal aorta, two stay sutures are placed at the proximal and distal apexes of recipient abdominal aorta with the donor s ascending aorta, then using 11-0 suture for anastomosis on both side of aorta with continuing sutures. The stay sutures make the anastomosis easier and 11-0 is an ideal suture size to avoid bleeding and thrombosis.
When making anastomosis of pulmonary artery and inferior vena cava, two stay sutures are made at the proximal apex and distal apex of the recipient s inferior vena cava with the donor s pulmonary artery. The left wall of the inferior vena cava and donor s pulmonary artery is closed with continuing sutures in the inside of the inferior vena cava after, one knot with the proximal apex stay suture the right wall of the inferior vena cava and the donor s pulmonary artery are closed with continuing sutures outside the inferior vena cave with 10-0 sutures. This method is easier to perform because anastomosis is made just on the one side of the inferior vena cava and 10-0 sutures is the right size to avoid bleeding and thrombosis. In this article, we provide details of the technique to supplement the video.
Developmental Biology, Issue 6, Microsurgical Techniques, Heart Transplant, Allograft Rejection Model
Adult and Embryonic Skeletal Muscle Microexplant Culture and Isolation of Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells
Institutions: University of Birmingham.
Cultured embryonic and adult skeletal muscle cells have a number of different uses. The micro-dissected explants technique described in this chapter is a robust and reliable method for isolating relatively large numbers of proliferative skeletal muscle cells from juvenile, adult or embryonic muscles as a source of skeletal muscle stem cells. The authors have used micro-dissected explant cultures to analyse the growth characteristics of skeletal muscle cells in wild-type and dystrophic muscles. Each of the components of tissue growth, namely cell survival, proliferation, senescence and differentiation can be analysed separately using the methods described here. The net effect of all components of growth can be established by means of measuring explant outgrowth rates. The micro-explant method can be used to establish primary cultures from a wide range of different muscle types and ages and, as described here, has been adapted by the authors to enable the isolation of embryonic skeletal muscle precursors.
Uniquely, micro-explant cultures have been used to derive clonal (single cell origin) skeletal muscle stem cell (SMSc) lines which can be expanded and used for in vivo
transplantation. In vivo
transplanted SMSc behave as functional, tissue-specific, satellite cells which contribute to skeletal muscle fibre regeneration but which are also retained (in the satellite cell niche) as a small pool of undifferentiated stem cells which can be re-isolated into culture using the micro-explant method.
Cellular Biology, Issue 43, Skeletal muscle stem cell, embryonic tissue culture, apoptosis, growth factor, proliferation, myoblast, myogenesis, satellite cell, skeletal muscle differentiation, muscular dystrophy
Isolation of CD133+ Liver Stem Cells for Clonal Expansion
Institutions: Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, School of Medicine.
Liver stem cell, or oval cells, proliferate during chronic liver injury, and are proposed to differentiate into both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In addition, liver stem cells are hypothesized to be the precursors for a subset of liver cancer, Hepatocellular carcinoma. One of the primary challenges to stem cell work in any solid organ like the liver is the isolation of a rare population of cells for detailed analysis. For example, the vast majority of cells in the liver are hepatocytes (parenchymal fraction), which are significantly larger than non-parenchymal cells. By enriching the specific cellular compartments of the liver (i.e. parenchymal and non-parenchymal fractions), and selecting for CD45 negative cells, we are able to enrich the starting population of stem cells by over 600-fold.The proceduresdetailed in this report allow for a relatively rare population of cells from a solid organ to be sorted efficiently. This process can be utilized to isolateliver stem cells from normal murine liver as well as chronic liver injury models, which demonstrate increased liver stem cell proliferation. This method has clear advantages over standard immunohistochemistry of frozen or formalin fixed liver as functional studies using live cells can be performed after initial co-localization experiments. To accomplish the procedure outlined in this report, a working relationship with a research based flow-cytometry core is strongly encouraged as the details of FACS isolation are highly dependent on specialized instrumentation and a strong working knowledge of basic flow-cytometry procedures. The specific goal of this process is to isolate a population of liver stem cells that can be clonally expanded in vitro
Developmental Biology, Issue 56, CD133, liver stem cell, oval cell, liver cancer stem cell, stem cell, cell isolation, non-parenchymal fraction of liver, flow cytometry
Echocardiographic Assessment of the Right Heart in Mice
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
Transgenic and toxic models of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are widely used to study the pathophysiology of PAH and to investigate potential therapies. Given the expense and time involved in creating animal models of disease, it is critical that researchers have tools to accurately assess phenotypic expression of disease. Right ventricular dysfunction is the major manifestation of pulmonary hypertension. Echocardiography is the mainstay of the noninvasive assessment of right ventricular function in rodent models and has the advantage of clear translation to humans in whom the same tool is used. Published echocardiography protocols in murine models of PAH are lacking.
In this article, we describe a protocol for assessing RV and pulmonary vascular function in a mouse model of PAH with a dominant negative BMPRII mutation; however, this protocol is applicable to any diseases affecting the pulmonary vasculature or right heart. We provide a detailed description of animal preparation, image acquisition and hemodynamic calculation of stroke volume, cardiac output and an estimate of pulmonary artery pressure.
Medicine, Issue 81, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Cardiology, Cardiac Imaging Techniques, Echocardiography, Echocardiography, Doppler, Cardiovascular Physiological Processes, Cardiovascular System, Cardiovascular Diseases, Echocardiography, right ventricle, right ventricular function, pulmonary hypertension, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, transgenic models, hemodynamics, animal model
Isolation of Microvascular Endothelial Tubes from Mouse Resistance Arteries
Institutions: University of Missouri, Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center.
The control of blood flow by the resistance vasculature regulates the supply of oxygen and nutrients concomitant with the removal of metabolic by-products, as exemplified by exercising skeletal muscle. Endothelial cells (ECs) line the intima of all resistance vessels and serve a key role in controlling diameter (e.g.
endothelium-dependent vasodilation) and, thereby, the magnitude and distribution of tissue blood flow. The regulation of vascular resistance by ECs is effected by intracellular Ca2+
signaling, which leads to production of diffusible autacoids (e.g.
nitric oxide and arachidonic acid metabolites)1-3
that elicit smooth muscle cell relaxation. Thus understanding the dynamics of endothelial Ca2+
signaling is a key step towards understanding mechanisms governing blood flow control. Isolating endothelial tubes eliminates confounding variables associated with blood in the vessel lumen and with surrounding smooth muscle cells and perivascular nerves, which otherwise influence EC structure and function. Here we present the isolation of endothelial tubes from the superior epigastric artery (SEA) using a protocol optimized for this vessel.
To isolate endothelial tubes from an anesthetized mouse, the SEA is ligated in situ
to maintain blood within the vessel lumen (to facilitate visualizing it during dissection), and the entire sheet of abdominal muscle is excised. The SEA is dissected free from surrounding skeletal muscle fibers and connective tissue, blood is flushed from the lumen, and mild enzymatic digestion is performed to enable removal of adventitia, nerves and smooth muscle cells using gentle trituration. These freshly-isolated preparations of intact endothelium retain their native morphology, with individual ECs remaining functionally coupled to one another, able to transfer chemical and electrical signals intercellularly through gap junctions6,7
. In addition to providing new insight into calcium signaling and membrane biophysics, these preparations enable molecular studies of gene expression and protein localization within native microvascular endothelium.
Basic Protocol, Issue 81, endothelial tubes, microcirculation, calcium signaling, resistance vasculature, Confocal microscopy
Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice
Institutions: New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, New York University School of Medicine.
The function of the right heart is to pump blood through the lungs, thus linking right heart physiology and pulmonary vascular physiology. Inflammation is a common modifier of heart and lung function, by elaborating cellular infiltration, production of cytokines and growth factors, and by initiating remodeling processes 1
Compared to the left ventricle, the right ventricle is a low-pressure pump that operates in a relatively narrow zone of pressure changes. Increased pulmonary artery pressures are associated with increased pressure in the lung vascular bed and pulmonary hypertension 2
. Pulmonary hypertension is often associated with inflammatory lung diseases, for example chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or autoimmune diseases 3
. Because pulmonary hypertension confers a bad prognosis for quality of life and life expectancy, much research is directed towards understanding the mechanisms that might be targets for pharmaceutical intervention 4
. The main challenge for the development of effective management tools for pulmonary hypertension remains the complexity of the simultaneous understanding of molecular and cellular changes in the right heart, the lungs and the immune system.
Here, we present a procedural workflow for the rapid and precise measurement of pressure changes in the right heart of mice and the simultaneous harvest of samples from heart, lungs and immune tissues. The method is based on the direct catheterization of the right ventricle via the jugular vein in close-chested mice, first developed in the late 1990s as surrogate measure of pressures in the pulmonary artery5-13
. The organized team-approach facilitates a very rapid right heart catheterization technique. This makes it possible to perform the measurements in mice that spontaneously breathe room air. The organization of the work-flow in distinct work-areas reduces time delay and opens the possibility to simultaneously perform physiology experiments and harvest immune, heart and lung tissues.
The procedural workflow outlined here can be adapted for a wide variety of laboratory settings and study designs, from small, targeted experiments, to large drug screening assays. The simultaneous acquisition of cardiac physiology data that can be expanded to include echocardiography5,14-17
and harvest of heart, lung and immune tissues reduces the number of animals needed to obtain data that move the scientific knowledge basis forward. The procedural workflow presented here also provides an ideal basis for gaining knowledge of the networks that link immune, lung and heart function. The same principles outlined here can be adapted to study other or additional organs as needed.
Immunology, Issue 71, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cardiology, Surgery, Cardiovascular Abnormalities, Inflammation, Respiration Disorders, Immune System Diseases, Cardiac physiology, mouse, pulmonary hypertension, right heart function, lung immune response, lung inflammation, lung remodeling, catheterization, mice, tissue, animal model
Videomorphometric Analysis of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction of Intra-pulmonary Arteries Using Murine Precision Cut Lung Slices
Acute alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) - also known as von Euler-Liljestrand mechanism - which serves to match lung perfusion to ventilation. Up to now, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The major vascular segment contributing to HPV is the intra-acinar artery. This vessel section is responsible for the blood supply of an individual acinus, which is defined as the portion of lung distal to a terminal bronchiole. Intra-acinar arteries are mostly located in that part of the lung that cannot be selectively reached by a number of commonly used techniques such as measurement of the pulmonary artery pressure in isolated perfused lungs or force recordings from dissected proximal pulmonary artery segments1,2
. The analysis of subpleural vessels by real-time confocal laser scanning luminescence microscopy is limited to vessels with up to 50 µm in diameter3
We provide a technique to study HPV of murine intra-pulmonary arteries in the range of 20-100 µm inner diameters. It is based on the videomorphometric analysis of cross-sectioned arteries in precision cut lung slices (PCLS). This method allows the quantitative measurement of vasoreactivity of small intra-acinar
arteries with inner diameter between 20-40 µm which are located at gussets of alveolar septa next to alveolar ducts and of larger pre-acinar
arteries with inner diameters between 40-100 µm which run adjacent to bronchi and bronchioles. In contrast to real-time imaging of subpleural vessels in anesthetized and ventilated mice, videomorphometric analysis of PCLS occurs under conditions free of shear stress. In our experimental model both arterial segments exhibit a monophasic HPV when exposed to medium gassed with 1% O2
and the response fades after 30-40 min at hypoxia.
Medicine, Issue 83, Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, murine lungs, precision cut lung slices, intra-pulmonary, pre- and intra-acinar arteries, videomorphometry
Covalent Binding of BMP-2 on Surfaces Using a Self-assembled Monolayer Approach
Institutions: University of Heidelberg, Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems at Stuttgart.
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a growth factor embedded in the extracellular matrix of bone tissue. BMP-2 acts as trigger of mesenchymal cell differentiation into osteoblasts, thus stimulating healing and de novo
bone formation. The clinical use of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) in conjunction with scaffolds has raised recent controversies, based on the mode of presentation and the amount to be delivered. The protocol presented here provides a simple and efficient way to deliver BMP-2 for in vitro
studies on cells. We describe how to form a self-assembled monolayer consisting of a heterobifunctional linker, and show the subsequent binding step to obtain covalent immobilization of rhBMP-2. With this approach it is possible to achieve a sustained presentation of BMP-2 while maintaining the biological activity of the protein. In fact, the surface immobilization of BMP-2 allows targeted investigations by preventing unspecific adsorption, while reducing the amount of growth factor and, most notably, hindering uncontrolled release from the surface. Both short- and long-term signaling events triggered by BMP-2 are taking place when cells are exposed to surfaces presenting covalently immobilized rhBMP-2, making this approach suitable for in vitro
studies on cell responses to BMP-2 stimulation.
Chemistry, Issue 78, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Genetics, Chemical Biology, Physical Chemistry, Proteins, life sciences, Biological Factors, Chemistry and Materials (General), Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), self-assembled monolayer (SAM), covalent immobilization, NHS-linker, BMP-2 signaling, protein, assay
Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice
Institutions: University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine.
Current astrocytoma models are limited in their ability to define the roles of oncogenic mutations in specific brain cell types during disease pathogenesis and their utility for preclinical drug development. In order to design a better model system for these applications, phenotypically wild-type cortical astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) from conditional, genetically engineered mice (GEM) that harbor various combinations of floxed oncogenic alleles were harvested and grown in culture. Genetic recombination was induced in vitro
using adenoviral Cre-mediated recombination, resulting in expression of mutated oncogenes and deletion of tumor suppressor genes. The phenotypic consequences of these mutations were defined by measuring proliferation, transformation, and drug response in vitro
. Orthotopic allograft models, whereby transformed cells are stereotactically injected into the brains of immune-competent, syngeneic littermates, were developed to define the role of oncogenic mutations and cell type on tumorigenesis in vivo
. Unlike most established human glioblastoma cell line xenografts, injection of transformed GEM-derived cortical astrocytes into the brains of immune-competent littermates produced astrocytomas, including the most aggressive subtype, glioblastoma, that recapitulated the histopathological hallmarks of human astrocytomas, including diffuse invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Bioluminescence imaging of orthotopic allografts from transformed astrocytes engineered to express luciferase was utilized to monitor in vivo
tumor growth over time. Thus, astrocytoma models using astrocytes and NSC harvested from GEM with conditional oncogenic alleles provide an integrated system to study the genetics and cell biology of astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro
and in vivo
and may be useful in preclinical drug development for these devastating diseases.
Neuroscience, Issue 90, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
A Swine Model of Neonatal Asphyxia
Institutions: University of Alberta, University of Alberta.
Annually more than 1 million neonates die worldwide as related to asphyxia. Asphyxiated neonates commonly have multi-organ failure including hypotension, perfusion deficit, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, pulmonary hypertension, vasculopathic enterocolitis, renal failure and thrombo-embolic complications. Animal models are developed to help us understand the patho-physiology and pharmacology of neonatal asphyxia. In comparison to rodents and newborn lambs, the newborn piglet has been proven to be a valuable model. The newborn piglet has several advantages including similar development as that of 36-38 weeks human fetus with comparable body systems, large body size (˜1.5-2 kg at birth) that allows the instrumentation and monitoring of the animal and controls the confounding variables of hypoxia and hemodynamic derangements.
We here describe an experimental protocol to simulate neonatal asphyxia and allow us to examine the systemic and regional hemodynamic changes during the asphyxiating and reoxygenation process as well as the respective effects of interventions. Further, the model has the advantage of studying multi-organ failure or dysfunction simultaneously and the interaction with various body systems. The experimental model is a non-survival procedure that involves the surgical instrumentation of newborn piglets (1-3 day-old and 1.5-2.5 kg weight, mixed breed) to allow the establishment of mechanical ventilation, vascular (arterial and central venous) access and the placement of catheters and flow probes (Transonic Inc.) for the continuously monitoring of intra-vascular pressure and blood flow across different arteries including main pulmonary, common carotid, superior mesenteric and left renal arteries. Using these surgically instrumented piglets, after stabilization for 30-60 minutes as defined by Z<10% variation in hemodynamic parameters and normal blood gases, we commence an experimental protocol of severe hypoxemia which is induced via normocapnic alveolar hypoxia. The piglet is ventilated with 10-15% oxygen by increasing the inhaled concentration of nitrogen gas for 2h, aiming for arterial oxygen saturations of 30-40%. This degree of hypoxemia will produce clinical asphyxia with severe metabolic acidosis, systemic hypotension and cardiogenic shock with hypoperfusion to vital organs. The hypoxia is followed by reoxygenation with 100% oxygen for 0.5h and then 21% oxygen for 3.5h. Pharmacologic interventions can be introduced in due course and their effects investigated in a blinded, block-randomized fashion.
Medicine, Issue 56, Developmental Biology, pigs, newborn, hypoxia, asphyxia, reoxygenation
Isolation of Human Umbilical Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells (HUASMC)
Institutions: Universidade da Beira Interior.
The human umbilical cord (UC) is a biological sample that can be easily obtained just after birth. This biological sample is, most of the time, discarded and their collection does not imply any added risk to the newborn or mother s health. Moreover no ethical concerns are raised. The UC is composed by one vein and two arteries from which both endothelial cells (ECs) 1
and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) 2
, two of the main cellular components of blood vessels, can be isolated. In this project the SMCs were obtained after enzymatic treatment of the UC arteries accordingly the experimental procedure previously described by Jaffe et al 3
. After cell isolation they were kept in t-flash with DMEM-F12 supplemented with 5% of fetal bovine serum and were cultured for several passages. Cells maintained their morphological and other phenotypic characteristics in the different generations. The aim of this study was to isolate smooth muscle cells in order to use them as models for future assays with constrictor drugs, isolate and structurally characterize L-type calcium channels, to study cellular and molecular aspects of the vascular function 4
and to use them in tissue engineering.
Cellular Biology, Issue 41, Human Cells, Umbilical Cord, Tissue Engineering, Cell Culture