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Stromal cell-derived factor 1 regulates the actin organization of chondrocytes and chondrocyte hypertrophy.
Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12/PBSF) plays important roles in the biological and physiological functions of haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. This chemokine regulates the formation of multiple organ systems during embryogenesis. However, its roles in skeletal development remain unclear. Here we investigated the roles of SDF-1 in chondrocyte differentiation. We demonstrated that SDF-1 protein was expressed at pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the newly formed endochondral callus of rib fracture as well as in the growth plate of normal mouse tibia by immunohistochemical analysis. Using SDF-1(-/-) mouse embryo, we histologically showed that the total length of the whole humeri of SDF-1(-/-) mice was significantly shorter than that of wild-type mice, which was contributed mainly by shorter hypertrophic and calcified zones in SDF-1(-/-) mice. Actin cytoskeleton of hypertrophic chondrocytes in SDF-1(-/-) mouse humeri showed less F-actin and rounder shape than that of wild-type mice. Primary chondrocytes from SDF-1(-/-) mice showed the enhanced formation of philopodia and loss of F-actin. The administration of SDF-1 to primary chondrocytes of wild-type mice and SDF-1(-/-) mice promoted the formation of actin stress fibers. Organ culture of embryonic metatarsals from SDF-1(-/-) mice showed the growth delay, which was recovered by an exogenous administration of SDF-1. mRNA expression of type X collagen in metatarsals and in primary chondrocytes of SDF-1(-/-) mouse embryo was down-regulated while the administration of SDF-1 to metatarsals recovered. These data suggests that SDF-1 regulates the actin organization and stimulates bone growth by mediating chondrocyte hypertrophy.
Authors: Joshua A. Brand, Timothy E. McAlindon, Li Zeng.
Published: 01-31-2012
Cartilage destruction is a central pathological feature of osteoarthritis, a leading cause of disability in the US. Cartilage in the adult does not regenerate very efficiently in vivo; and as a result, osteoarthritis leads to irreversible cartilage loss and is accompanied by chronic pain and immobility 1,2. Cartilage tissue engineering offers promising potential to regenerate and restore tissue function. This technology typically involves seeding chondrocytes into natural or synthetic scaffolds and culturing the resulting 3D construct in a balanced medium over a period of time with a goal of engineering a biochemically and biomechanically mature tissue that can be transplanted into a defect site in vivo 3-6. Achieving an optimal condition for chondrocyte growth and matrix deposition is essential for the success of cartilage tissue engineering. In the native joint cavity, cartilage at the articular surface of the bone is bathed in synovial fluid. This clear and viscous fluid provides nutrients to the avascular articular cartilage and contains growth factors, cytokines and enzymes that are important for chondrocyte metabolism 7,8. Furthermore, synovial fluid facilitates low-friction movement between cartilaginous surfaces mainly through secreting two key components, hyaluronan and lubricin 9 10. In contrast, tissue engineered cartilage is most often cultured in artificial media. While these media are likely able to provide more defined conditions for studying chondrocyte metabolism, synovial fluid most accurately reflects the natural environment of which articular chondrocytes reside in. Indeed, synovial fluid has the advantage of being easy to obtain and store, and can often be regularly replenished by the body. Several groups have supplemented the culture medium with synovial fluid in growing human, bovine, rabbit and dog chondrocytes, but mostly used only low levels of synovial fluid (below 20%) 11-25. While chicken, horse and human chondrocytes have been cultured in the medium with higher percentage of synovial fluid, these culture systems were two-dimensional 26-28. Here we present our method of culturing human articular chondrocytes in a 3D system with a high percentage of synovial fluid (up to 100%) over a period of 21 days. In doing so, we overcame a major hurdle presented by the high viscosity of the synovial fluid. This system provides the possibility of studying human chondrocytes in synovial fluid in a 3D setting, which can be further combined with two other important factors (oxygen tension and mechanical loading) 29,30 that constitute the natural environment for cartilage to mimic the natural milieu for cartilage growth. Furthermore, This system may also be used for assaying synovial fluid activity on chondrocytes and provide a platform for developing cartilage regeneration technologies and therapeutic options for arthritis.
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A System for ex vivo Culturing of Embryonic Pancreas
Authors: Kristin M. Petzold, Francesca M. Spagnoli.
Institutions: Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine.
The pancreas controls vital functions of our body, including the production of digestive enzymes and regulation of blood sugar levels1. Although in the past decade many studies have contributed to a solid foundation for understanding pancreatic organogenesis, important gaps persist in our knowledge of early pancreas formation2. A complete understanding of these early events will provide insight into the development of this organ, but also into incurable diseases that target the pancreas, such as diabetes or pancreatic cancer. Finally, this information will generate a blueprint for developing cell-replacement therapies in the context of diabetes. During embryogenesis, the pancreas originates from distinct embryonic outgrowths of the dorsal and ventral foregut endoderm at embryonic day (E) 9.5 in the mouse embryo3,4. Both outgrowths evaginate into the surrounding mesenchyme as solid epithelial buds, which undergo proliferation, branching and differentiation to generate a fully mature organ2,5,6. Recent evidences have suggested that growth and differentiation of pancreatic cell lineages, including the insulin-producing β-cells, depends on proper tissue-architecture, epithelial remodeling and cell positioning within the branching pancreatic epithelium7,8. However, how branching morphogenesis occurs and is coordinated with proliferation and differentiation in the pancreas is largely unknown. This is in part due to the fact that current knowledge about these developmental processes has relied almost exclusively on analysis of fixed specimens, while morphogenetic events are highly dynamic. Here, we report a method for dissecting and culturing mouse embryonic pancreatic buds ex vivo on glass bottom dishes, which allow direct visualization of the developing pancreas (Figure 1). This culture system is ideally devised for confocal laser scanning microscopy and, in particular, live-cell imaging. Pancreatic explants can be prepared not only from wild-type mouse embryos, but also from genetically engineered mouse strains (e.g. transgenic or knockout), allowing real-time studies of mutant phenotypes. Moreover, this ex vivo culture system is valuable to study the effects of chemical compounds on pancreatic development, enabling to obtain quantitative data about proliferation and growth, elongation, branching, tubulogenesis and differentiation. In conclusion, the development of an ex vivo pancreatic explant culture method combined with high-resolution imaging provides a strong platform for observing morphogenetic and differentiation events as they occur within the developing mouse embryo.
Developmental Biology, Issue 66, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Physiology, pancreas, organ culture, epithelial morphogenesis, confocal microscopy, live imaging
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Measurement of Cellular Chemotaxis with ECIS/Taxis
Authors: Kathryn M. Pietrosimone, Xiuyin Yin, David A. Knecht, Michael A. Lynes.
Institutions: University of Connecticut, University of Connecticut.
Cellular movement in response to external stimuli is fundamental to many cellular processes including wound healing, inflammation and the response to infection. A common method to measure chemotaxis is the Boyden chamber assay, in which cells and chemoattractant are separated by a porous membrane. As cells migrate through the membrane toward the chemoattractant, they adhere to the underside of the membrane, or fall into the underlying media, and are subsequently stained and visually counted 1. In this method, cells are exposed to a steep and transient chemoattractant gradient, which is thought to be a poor representation of gradients found in tissues 2. Another assay system, the under-agarose chemotaxis assay, 3, 4 measures cell movement across a solid substrate in a thin aqueous film that forms under the agarose layer. The gradient that develops in the agarose is shallow and is thought to be an appropriate representation of naturally occurring gradients. Chemotaxis can be evaluated by microscopic imaging of the distance traveled. Both the Boyden chamber assay and the under-agarose assay are usually configured as endpoint assays. The automated ECIS/Taxis system combines the under-agarose approach with Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) 5, 6. In this assay, target electrodes are located in each of 8 chambers. A large counter-electrode runs through each of the 8 chambers (Figure 2). Each chamber is filled with agarose and two small wells are the cut in the agarose on either side of the target electrode. One well is filled with the test cell population, while the other holds the sources of diffusing chemoattractant (Figure 3). Current passed through the system can be used to determine the change in resistance that occurs as cells pass over the target electrode. Cells on the target electrode increase the resistance of the system 6. In addition, rapid fluctuations in the resistance represent changes in the interactions of cells with the electrode surface and are indicative of ongoing cellular shape changes. The ECIS/Taxis system can measure movement of the cell population in real-time over extended periods of time, but is also sensitive enough to detect the arrival of a single cell at the target electrode. Dictyostelium discoidium is known to migrate in the presence of a folate gradient 7, 8 and its chemotactic response can be accurately measured by ECIS/Taxis 9. Leukocyte chemotaxis, in response to SDF1α and to chemotaxis antagonists has also been measured with ECIS/Taxis 10, 11. An example of the leukocyte response to SDF1α is shown in Figure 1.
Cellular Biology, Issue 62, Electric Cell- substrate Impedance Sensing, ECIS, ECIS/Taxis, Chemotaxis
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Human Cartilage Tissue Fabrication Using Three-dimensional Inkjet Printing Technology
Authors: Xiaofeng Cui, Guifang Gao, Tomo Yonezawa, Guohao Dai.
Institutions: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Stemorgan Inc., Technical University of Munich, Wuhan University, The Scripps Research Institute, Tokyo University of Science.
Bioprinting, which is based on thermal inkjet printing, is one of the most attractive enabling technologies in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. With digital control cells, scaffolds, and growth factors can be precisely deposited to the desired two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) locations rapidly. Therefore, this technology is an ideal approach to fabricate tissues mimicking their native anatomic structures. In order to engineer cartilage with native zonal organization, extracellular matrix composition (ECM), and mechanical properties, we developed a bioprinting platform using a commercial inkjet printer with simultaneous photopolymerization capable for 3D cartilage tissue engineering. Human chondrocytes suspended in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) were printed for 3D neocartilage construction via layer-by-layer assembly. The printed cells were fixed at their original deposited positions, supported by the surrounding scaffold in simultaneous photopolymerization. The mechanical properties of the printed tissue were similar to the native cartilage. Compared to conventional tissue fabrication, which requires longer UV exposure, the viability of the printed cells with simultaneous photopolymerization was significantly higher. Printed neocartilage demonstrated excellent glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II production, which was consistent with gene expression. Therefore, this platform is ideal for accurate cell distribution and arrangement for anatomic tissue engineering.
Bioengineering, Issue 88, cartilage, inkjet printing, chondrocytes, hydrogel, photopolymerization, tissue engineering
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Mechanical Stimulation of Chondrocyte-agarose Hydrogels
Authors: James A. Kaupp, Joanna F. Weber, Stephen D. Waldman.
Institutions: Queen's University , Queen's University .
Articular cartilage suffers from a limited repair capacity when damaged by mechanical insult or degraded by disease, such as osteoarthritis. To remedy this deficiency, several medical interventions have been developed. One such method is to resurface the damaged area with tissue-engineered cartilage; however, the engineered tissue typically lacks the biochemical properties and durability of native cartilage, questioning its long-term survivability. This limits the application of cartilage tissue engineering to the repair of small focal defects, relying on the surrounding tissue to protect the implanted material. To improve the properties of the developed tissue, mechanical stimulation is a popular method utilized to enhance the synthesis of cartilaginous extracellular matrix as well as the resultant mechanical properties of the engineered tissue. Mechanical stimulation applies forces to the tissue constructs analogous to those experienced in vivo. This is based on the premise that the mechanical environment, in part, regulates the development and maintenance of native tissue1,2. The most commonly applied form of mechanical stimulation in cartilage tissue engineering is dynamic compression at physiologic strains of approximately 5-20% at a frequency of 1 Hz1,3. Several studies have investigated the effects of dynamic compression and have shown it to have a positive effect on chondrocyte metabolism and biosynthesis, ultimately affecting the functional properties of the developed tissue4-8. In this paper, we illustrate the method to mechanically stimulate chondrocyte-agarose hydrogel constructs under dynamic compression and analyze changes in biosynthesis through biochemical and radioisotope assays. This method can also be readily modified to assess any potentially induced changes in cellular response as a result of mechanical stimuli.
Cellular Biology, Issue 68, Tissue Engineering, Mechanical Stimulation, Chondrocytes, Agarose, Cartilage
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Design of a Biaxial Mechanical Loading Bioreactor for Tissue Engineering
Authors: Bahar Bilgen, Danielle Chu, Robert Stefani, Roy K. Aaron.
Institutions: The Warren Alpert Brown Medical School of Brown University and the Rhode Island Hospital, VA Medical Center, Providence, RI, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center .
We designed a loading device that is capable of applying uniaxial or biaxial mechanical strain to a tissue engineered biocomposites fabricated for transplantation. While the device primarily functions as a bioreactor that mimics the native mechanical strains, it is also outfitted with a load cell for providing force feedback or mechanical testing of the constructs. The device subjects engineered cartilage constructs to biaxial mechanical loading with great precision of loading dose (amplitude and frequency) and is compact enough to fit inside a standard tissue culture incubator. It loads samples directly in a tissue culture plate, and multiple plate sizes are compatible with the system. The device has been designed using components manufactured for precision-guided laser applications. Bi-axial loading is accomplished by two orthogonal stages. The stages have a 50 mm travel range and are driven independently by stepper motor actuators, controlled by a closed-loop stepper motor driver that features micro-stepping capabilities, enabling step sizes of less than 50 nm. A polysulfone loading platen is coupled to the bi-axial moving platform. Movements of the stages are controlled by Thor-labs Advanced Positioning Technology (APT) software. The stepper motor driver is used with the software to adjust load parameters of frequency and amplitude of both shear and compression independently and simultaneously. Positional feedback is provided by linear optical encoders that have a bidirectional repeatability of 0.1 μm and a resolution of 20 nm, translating to a positional accuracy of less than 3 μm over the full 50 mm of travel. These encoders provide the necessary position feedback to the drive electronics to ensure true nanopositioning capabilities. In order to provide the force feedback to detect contact and evaluate loading responses, a precision miniature load cell is positioned between the loading platen and the moving platform. The load cell has high accuracies of 0.15% to 0.25% full scale.
Bioengineering, Issue 74, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cell Engineering, Bioreactors, Culture Techniques, Cell Engineering, Tissue Engineering, compression loads, shear loads, Tissues, bioreactor, mechanical loading, compression, shear, musculoskeletal, cartilage, bone, transplantation, cell culture
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Two Methods for Establishing Primary Human Endometrial Stromal Cells from Hysterectomy Specimens
Authors: Kasey Jividen, Mercedeh Javanbakht Movassagh, Amir Jazaeri, Hui Li.
Institutions: University of Virginia, University of Virginia.
Many efforts have been devoted to establish in vitro cell culture systems. These systems are designed to model a vast number of in vivo processes. Cell culture systems arising from human endometrial samples are no exception. Applications range from normal cyclic physiological processes to endometrial pathologies such as gynecological cancers, infectious diseases, and reproductive deficiencies. Here, we provide two methods for establishing primary endometrial stromal cells from surgically resected endometrial hysterectomy specimens. The first method is referred to as “the scraping method” and incorporates mechanical scraping using surgical or razor blades whereas the second method is termed “the trypsin method.” This latter method uses the enzymatic activity of trypsin to promote the separation of cells and primary cell outgrowth. We illustrate step-by-step methodology through digital images and microscopy. We also provide examples for validating endometrial stromal cell lines via quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) and immunofluorescence (IF).
Medicine, Issue 87, uterus, endometrium, endometrial stroma, (primary) cell culture, surgical blade, trypsin, tissue procurement, spontaneous decidualization
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Treatment of Osteochondral Defects in the Rabbit's Knee Joint by Implantation of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Fibrin Clots
Authors: Markus T. Berninger, Gabriele Wexel, Ernst J. Rummeny, Andreas B. Imhoff, Martina Anton, Tobias D. Henning, Stephan Vogt.
Institutions: Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Uniklinik Köln.
The treatment of osteochondral articular defects has been challenging physicians for many years. The better understanding of interactions of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in recent years led to increased attention to restoration of the entire osteochondral unit. In comparison to chondral lesions the regeneration of osteochondral defects is much more complex and a far greater surgical and therapeutic challenge. The damaged tissue does not only include the superficial cartilage layer but also the subchondral bone. For deep, osteochondral damage, as it occurs for example with osteochondrosis dissecans, the full thickness of the defect needs to be replaced to restore the joint surface 1. Eligible therapeutic procedures have to consider these two different tissues with their different intrinsic healing potential 2. In the last decades, several surgical treatment options have emerged and have already been clinically established 3-6. Autologous or allogeneic osteochondral transplants consist of articular cartilage and subchondral bone and allow the replacement of the entire osteochondral unit. The defects are filled with cylindrical osteochondral grafts that aim to provide a congruent hyaline cartilage covered surface 3,7,8. Disadvantages are the limited amount of available grafts, donor site morbidity (for autologous transplants) and the incongruence of the surface; thereby the application of this method is especially limited for large defects. New approaches in the field of tissue engineering opened up promising possibilities for regenerative osteochondral therapy. The implantation of autologous chondrocytes marked the first cell based biological approach for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage lesions and is now worldwide established with good clinical results even 10 to 20 years after implantation 9,10. However, to date, this technique is not suitable for the treatment of all types of lesions such as deep defects involving the subchondral bone 11. The sandwich-technique combines bone grafting with current approaches in Tissue Engineering 5,6. This combination seems to be able to overcome the limitations seen in osteochondral grafts alone. After autologous bone grafting to the subchondral defect area, a membrane seeded with autologous chondrocytes is sutured above and facilitates to match the topology of the graft with the injured site. Of course, the previous bone reconstruction needs additional surgical time and often even an additional surgery. Moreover, to date, long-term data is missing 12. Tissue Engineering without additional bone grafting aims to restore the complex structure and properties of native articular cartilage by chondrogenic and osteogenic potential of the transplanted cells. However, again, it is usually only the cartilage tissue that is more or less regenerated. Additional osteochondral damage needs a specific further treatment. In order to achieve a regeneration of the multilayered structure of osteochondral defects, three-dimensional tissue engineered products seeded with autologous/allogeneic cells might provide a good regeneration capacity 11. Beside autologous chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) seem to be an attractive alternative for the development of a full-thickness cartilage tissue. In numerous preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, mesenchymal stem cells have displayed excellent tissue regeneration potential 13,14. The important advantage of mesenchymal stem cells especially for the treatment of osteochondral defects is that they have the capacity to differentiate in osteocytes as well as chondrocytes. Therefore, they potentially allow a multilayered regeneration of the defect. In recent years, several scaffolds with osteochondral regenerative potential have therefore been developed and evaluated with promising preliminary results 1,15-18. Furthermore, fibrin glue as a cell carrier became one of the preferred techniques in experimental cartilage repair and has already successfully been used in several animal studies 19-21 and even first human trials 22. The following protocol will demonstrate an experimental technique for isolating mesenchymal stem cells from a rabbit's bone marrow, for subsequent proliferation in cell culture and for preparing a standardized in vitro-model for fibrin-cell-clots. Finally, a technique for the implantation of pre-established fibrin-cell-clots into artificial osteochondral defects of the rabbit's knee joint will be described.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 75, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Stem Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering, Surgery, Mesenchymal stem cells, fibrin clot, cartilage, osteochondral defect, rabbit, experimental, subchondral bone, knee injury, bone grafting, regenerative therapy, chondrocytes, cell culture, isolation, transplantation, animal model
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Manual Isolation of Adipose-derived Stem Cells from Human Lipoaspirates
Authors: Min Zhu, Sepideh Heydarkhan-Hagvall, Marc Hedrick, Prosper Benhaim, Patricia Zuk.
Institutions: Cytori Therapeutics Inc, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.
In 2001, researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, described the isolation of a new population of adult stem cells from liposuctioned adipose tissue that they initially termed Processed Lipoaspirate Cells or PLA cells. Since then, these stem cells have been renamed as Adipose-derived Stem Cells or ASCs and have gone on to become one of the most popular adult stem cells populations in the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Thousands of articles now describe the use of ASCs in a variety of regenerative animal models, including bone regeneration, peripheral nerve repair and cardiovascular engineering. Recent articles have begun to describe the myriad of uses for ASCs in the clinic. The protocol shown in this article outlines the basic procedure for manually and enzymatically isolating ASCs from large amounts of lipoaspirates obtained from cosmetic procedures. This protocol can easily be scaled up or down to accommodate the volume of lipoaspirate and can be adapted to isolate ASCs from fat tissue obtained through abdominoplasties and other similar procedures.
Cellular Biology, Issue 79, Adipose Tissue, Stem Cells, Humans, Cell Biology, biology (general), enzymatic digestion, collagenase, cell isolation, Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF), Adipose-derived Stem Cells, ASCs, lipoaspirate, liposuction
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Live Imaging of Drug Responses in the Tumor Microenvironment in Mouse Models of Breast Cancer
Authors: Elizabeth S. Nakasone, Hanne A. Askautrud, Mikala Egeblad.
Institutions: Watson School of Biological Sciences, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital.
The tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and the response to anti-cancer therapies. Three-dimensional co-culture systems are frequently used to explicate tumor-stroma interactions, including their role in drug responses. However, many of the interactions that occur in vivo in the intact microenvironment cannot be completely replicated in these in vitro settings. Thus, direct visualization of these processes in real-time has become an important tool in understanding tumor responses to therapies and identifying the interactions between cancer cells and the stroma that can influence these responses. Here we provide a method for using spinning disk confocal microscopy of live, anesthetized mice to directly observe drug distribution, cancer cell responses and changes in tumor-stroma interactions following administration of systemic therapy in breast cancer models. We describe procedures for labeling different tumor components, treatment of animals for observing therapeutic responses, and the surgical procedure for exposing tumor tissues for imaging up to 40 hours. The results obtained from this protocol are time-lapse movies, in which such processes as drug infiltration, cancer cell death and stromal cell migration can be evaluated using image analysis software.
Cancer Biology, Issue 73, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Oncology, Pharmacology, Surgery, Tumor Microenvironment, Intravital imaging, chemotherapy, Breast cancer, time-lapse, mouse models, cancer cell death, stromal cell migration, cancer, imaging, transgenic, animal model
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Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy
Authors: Nikki M. Curthoys, Michael J. Mlodzianoski, Dahan Kim, Samuel T. Hess.
Institutions: University of Maine.
Localization-based super resolution microscopy can be applied to obtain a spatial map (image) of the distribution of individual fluorescently labeled single molecules within a sample with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. Using either photoactivatable (PAFP) or photoswitchable (PSFP) fluorescent proteins fused to proteins of interest, or organic dyes conjugated to antibodies or other molecules of interest, fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) can simultaneously image multiple species of molecules within single cells. By using the following approach, populations of large numbers (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of individual molecules are imaged in single cells and localized with a precision of ~10-30 nm. Data obtained can be applied to understanding the nanoscale spatial distributions of multiple protein types within a cell. One primary advantage of this technique is the dramatic increase in spatial resolution: while diffraction limits resolution to ~200-250 nm in conventional light microscopy, FPALM can image length scales more than an order of magnitude smaller. As many biological hypotheses concern the spatial relationships among different biomolecules, the improved resolution of FPALM can provide insight into questions of cellular organization which have previously been inaccessible to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In addition to detailing the methods for sample preparation and data acquisition, we here describe the optical setup for FPALM. One additional consideration for researchers wishing to do super-resolution microscopy is cost: in-house setups are significantly cheaper than most commercially available imaging machines. Limitations of this technique include the need for optimizing the labeling of molecules of interest within cell samples, and the need for post-processing software to visualize results. We here describe the use of PAFP and PSFP expression to image two protein species in fixed cells. Extension of the technique to living cells is also described.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Microscopy, Super-resolution imaging, Multicolor, single molecule, FPALM, Localization microscopy, fluorescent proteins
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Human T Lymphocyte Isolation, Culture and Analysis of Migration In Vitro
Authors: Craig T. Lefort, Minsoo Kim.
Institutions: University of Rochester.
The migration of T lymphocytes involves the adhesive interaction of cell surface integrins with ligands expressed on other cells or with extracellular matrix proteins. The precise spatiotemporal activation of integrins from a low affinity state to a high affinity state at the cell leading edge is important for T lymphocyte migration 1. Likewise, retraction of the cell trailing edge, or uropod, is a necessary step in maintaining persistent integrin-dependent T lymphocyte motility 2. Many therapeutic approaches to autoimmune or inflammatory diseases target integrins as a means to inhibit the excessive recruitment and migration of leukocytes 3. To study the molecular events that regulate human T lymphocyte migration, we have utilized an in vitro system to analyze cell migration on a two-dimensional substrate that mimics the environment that a T lymphocyte encounters during recruitment from the vasculature. T lymphocytes are first isolated from human donors and are then stimulated and cultured for seven to ten days. During the assay, T lymphocytes are allowed to adhere and migrate on a substrate coated with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a ligand for integrin LFA-1, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). Our data show that T lymphocytes exhibit a migratory velocity of ~15 μm/min. T lymphocyte migration can be inhibited by integrin blockade 1 or by inhibitors of the cellular actomyosin machinery that regulates cell migration 2.
Immunology, Issue 40, T lymphocyte, Migration, Integrin, LFA-1, ICAM-1, Chemokine
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An Ex vivo Culture System to Study Thyroid Development
Authors: Anne-Sophie Delmarcelle, Mylah Villacorte, Anne-Christine Hick, Christophe E. Pierreux.
Institutions: Université catholique de Louvain & de Duve Institute.
The thyroid is a bilobated endocrine gland localized at the base of the neck, producing the thyroid hormones T3, T4, and calcitonin. T3 and T4 are produced by differentiated thyrocytes, organized in closed spheres called follicles, while calcitonin is synthesized by C-cells, interspersed in between the follicles and a dense network of blood capillaries. Although adult thyroid architecture and functions have been extensively described and studied, the formation of the “angio-follicular” units, the distribution of C-cells in the parenchyma and the paracrine communications between epithelial and endothelial cells is far from being understood. This method describes the sequential steps of mouse embryonic thyroid anlagen dissection and its culture on semiporous filters or on microscopy plastic slides. Within a period of four days, this culture system faithfully recapitulates in vivo thyroid development. Indeed, (i) bilobation of the organ occurs (for e12.5 explants), (ii) thyrocytes precursors organize into follicles and polarize, (iii) thyrocytes and C-cells differentiate, and (iv) endothelial cells present in the microdissected tissue proliferate, migrate into the thyroid lobes, and closely associate with the epithelial cells, as they do in vivo. Thyroid tissues can be obtained from wild type, knockout or fluorescent transgenic embryos. Moreover, explants culture can be manipulated by addition of inhibitors, blocking antibodies, growth factors, or even cells or conditioned medium. Ex vivo development can be analyzed in real-time, or at any time of the culture by immunostaining and RT-qPCR. In conclusion, thyroid explant culture combined with downstream whole-mount or on sections imaging and gene expression profiling provides a powerful system for manipulating and studying morphogenetic and differentiation events of thyroid organogenesis.
Cellular Biology, Issue 88, Development, cellular biology, thyroid, organ culture, epithelial morphogenesis, immunostaining, imaging, RNA
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Intravital Microscopy of the Microcirculation in the Mouse Cremaster Muscle for the Analysis of Peripheral Stem Cell Migration
Authors: Peter Donndorf, Marion Ludwig, Fabian Wildschütz, Dritan Useini, Alexander Kaminski, Brigitte Vollmar, Gustav Steinhoff.
Institutions: University Rostock, University of Rostock.
In the era of intravascular cell application protocols in the context of regenerative cell therapy, the underlying mechanisms of stem cell migration to nonmarrow tissue have not been completely clarified. We describe here the technique of intravital microscopy applied to the mouse cremaster microcirculation for analysis of peripheral bone marrow stem cell migration in vivo. Intravital microscopy of the M. cremaster has been previously introduced in the field of inflammatory research for direct observation of leucocyte interaction with the vascular endothelium. Since sufficient peripheral stem and progenitor cell migration includes similar initial steps of rolling along and firm adhesion at the endothelial lining it is conceivable to apply the M. cremaster model for the observation and quantification of the interaction of intravasculary administered stem cells with the endothelium. As various chemical components can be selectively applied to the target tissue by simple superfusion techniques, it is possible to establish essential microenvironmental preconditions, for initial stem cell recruitment to take place in a living organism outside the bone marrow.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 81, migration, intravital microscopy, cremaster muscle, bone marrow, endothelium, microsurgery
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A Novel Three-dimensional Flow Chamber Device to Study Chemokine-directed Extravasation of Cells Circulating under Physiological Flow Conditions
Authors: Valentina Goncharova, Sophia K. Khaldoyanidi.
Institutions: Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Cascade LifeSciences Inc..
Extravasation of circulating cells from the bloodstream plays a central role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including stem cell homing and tumor metastasis. The three-dimensional flow chamber device (hereafter the 3D device) is a novel in vitro technology that recreates physiological shear stress and allows each step of the cell extravasation cascade to be quantified. The 3D device consists of an upper compartment in which the cells of interest circulate under shear stress, and a lower compartment of static wells that contain the chemoattractants of interest. The two compartments are separated by porous inserts coated with a monolayer of endothelial cells (EC). An optional second insert with microenvironmental cells of interest can be placed immediately beneath the EC layer. A gas exchange unit allows the optimal CO2 tension to be maintained and provides an access point to add or withdraw cells or compounds during the experiment. The test cells circulate in the upper compartment at the desired shear stress (flow rate) controlled by a peristaltic pump. At the end of the experiment, the circulating and migrated cells are collected for further analyses. The 3D device can be used to examine cell rolling on and adhesion to EC under shear stress, transmigration in response to chemokine gradients, resistance to shear stress, cluster formation, and cell survival. In addition, the optional second insert allows the effects of crosstalk between EC and microenvironmental cells to be examined. The translational applications of the 3D device include testing of drug candidates that target cell migration and predicting the in vivo behavior of cells after intravenous injection. Thus, the novel 3D device is a versatile and inexpensive tool to study the molecular mechanisms that mediate cellular extravasation.
Bioengineering, Issue 77, Cellular Biology, Biophysics, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Immunology, Cells, Biological Factors, Equipment and Supplies, Cell Physiological Phenomena, Natural Science Disciplines, Life Sciences (General), circulating cells, extravasation, physiological shear stress, endothelial cells, microenvironment, chemokine gradient, flow, chamber, cell culture, assay
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Experimental Generation of Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) from Human Mammary Fibroblasts
Authors: Urszula M. Polanska, Ahmet Acar, Akira Orimo.
Institutions: University of Manchester, Juntendo University.
Carcinomas are complex tissues comprised of neoplastic cells and a non-cancerous compartment referred to as the 'stroma'. The stroma consists of extracellular matrix (ECM) and a variety of mesenchymal cells, including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, pericytes and leukocytes 1-3. The tumour-associated stroma is responsive to substantial paracrine signals released by neighbouring carcinoma cells. During the disease process, the stroma often becomes populated by carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) including large numbers of myofibroblasts. These cells have previously been extracted from many different types of human carcinomas for their in vitro culture. A subpopulation of CAFs is distinguishable through their up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression4,5. These cells are a hallmark of 'activated fibroblasts' that share similar properties with myofibroblasts commonly observed in injured and fibrotic tissues 6. The presence of this myofibroblastic CAF subset is highly related to high-grade malignancies and associated with poor prognoses in patients. Many laboratories, including our own, have shown that CAFs, when injected with carcinoma cells into immunodeficient mice, are capable of substantially promoting tumourigenesis 7-10. CAFs prepared from carcinoma patients, however, frequently undergo senescence during propagation in culture limiting the extensiveness of their use throughout ongoing experimentation. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a novel technique to experimentally generate immortalised human mammary CAF cell lines (exp-CAFs) from human mammary fibroblasts, using a coimplantation breast tumour xenograft model. In order to generate exp-CAFs, parental human mammary fibroblasts, obtained from the reduction mammoplasty tissue, were first immortalised with hTERT, the catalytic subunit of the telomerase holoenzyme, and engineered to express GFP and a puromycin resistance gene. These cells were coimplanted with MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells expressing an activated ras oncogene (MCF-7-ras cells) into a mouse xenograft. After a period of incubation in vivo, the initially injected human mammary fibroblasts were extracted from the tumour xenografts on the basis of their puromycin resistance 11. We observed that the resident human mammary fibroblasts have differentiated, adopting a myofibroblastic phenotype and acquired tumour-promoting properties during the course of tumour progression. Importantly, these cells, defined as exp-CAFs, closely mimic the tumour-promoting myofibroblastic phenotype of CAFs isolated from breast carcinomas dissected from patients. Our tumour xenograft-derived exp-CAFs therefore provide an effective model to study the biology of CAFs in human breast carcinomas. The described protocol may also be extended for generating and characterising various CAF populations derived from other types of human carcinomas.
Medicine, Issue 56, cancer, stromal myofibroblasts, experimentally generated carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (exp-CAFs), fibroblast, human mammary carcinomas, tumour xenografts
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Matrix-assisted Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation for Remodeling and Repair of Chondral Defects in a Rabbit Model
Authors: Markus T. Berninger, Gabriele Wexel, Ernst J. Rummeny, Andreas B. Imhoff, Martina Anton, Tobias D. Henning, Stephan Vogt.
Institutions: Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Uniklinik Köln.
Articular cartilage defects are considered a major health problem because articular cartilage has a limited capacity for self-regeneration 1. Untreated cartilage lesions lead to ongoing pain, negatively affect the quality of life and predispose for osteoarthritis. During the last decades, several surgical techniques have been developed to treat such lesions. However, until now it was not possible to achieve a full repair in terms of covering the defect with hyaline articular cartilage or of providing satisfactory long-term recovery 2-4. Therefore, articular cartilage injuries remain a prime target for regenerative techniques such as Tissue Engineering. In contrast to other surgical techniques, which often lead to the formation of fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue, Tissue Engineering aims at fully restoring the complex structure and properties of the original articular cartilage by using the chondrogenic potential of transplanted cells. Recent developments opened up promising possibilities for regenerative cartilage therapies. The first cell based approach for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage or osteochondral lesions was performed in 1994 by Lars Peterson and Mats Brittberg who pioneered clinical autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) 5. Today, the technique is clinically well-established for the treatment of large hyaline cartilage defects of the knee, maintaining good clinical results even 10 to 20 years after implantation 6. In recent years, the implantation of autologous chondrocytes underwent a rapid progression. The use of an artificial three-dimensional collagen-matrix on which cells are subsequently replanted became more and more popular 7-9. MACT comprises of two surgical procedures: First, in order to collect chondrocytes, a cartilage biopsy needs to be performed from a non weight-bearing cartilage area of the knee joint. Then, chondrocytes are being extracted, purified and expanded to a sufficient cell number in vitro. Chondrocytes are then seeded onto a three-dimensional matrix and can subsequently be re-implanted. When preparing a tissue-engineered implant, proliferation rate and differentiation capacity are crucial for a successful tissue regeneration 10. The use of a three-dimensional matrix as a cell carrier is thought to support these cellular characteristics 11. The following protocol will summarize and demonstrate a technique for the isolation of chondrocytes from cartilage biopsies, their proliferation in vitro and their seeding onto a 3D-matrix (Chondro-Gide, Geistlich Biomaterials, Wollhusen, Switzerland). Finally, the implantation of the cell-matrix-constructs into artificially created chondral defects of a rabbit's knee joint will be described. This technique can be used as an experimental setting for further experiments of cartilage repair.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 75, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Tissue Engineering, Surgery, Autologous chondrocyte implantation, matrix-assisted, matrix, collagen scaffold, chondral lesion, cartilage, rabbit, experimental, cartilage defects, cartilage repair, regenerative therapy, chondrocytes, cell culture, isolation, transplantation, animal model
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From a 2DE-Gel Spot to Protein Function: Lesson Learned From HS1 in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Authors: Benedetta Apollonio, Maria Teresa Sabrina Bertilaccio, Umberto Restuccia, Pamela Ranghetti, Federica Barbaglio, Paolo Ghia, Federico Caligaris-Cappio, Cristina Scielzo.
Institutions: IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, King's College London, IFOM, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele.
The identification of molecules involved in tumor initiation and progression is fundamental for understanding disease’s biology and, as a consequence, for the clinical management of patients. In the present work we will describe an optimized proteomic approach for the identification of molecules involved in the progression of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). In detail, leukemic cell lysates are resolved by 2-dimensional Electrophoresis (2DE) and visualized as “spots” on the 2DE gels. Comparative analysis of proteomic maps allows the identification of differentially expressed proteins (in terms of abundance and post-translational modifications) that are picked, isolated and identified by Mass Spectrometry (MS). The biological function of the identified candidates can be tested by different assays (i.e. migration, adhesion and F-actin polymerization), that we have optimized for primary leukemic cells.
Medicine, Issue 92, Lymphocytes, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, 2D Electrophoresis, Mass Spectrometry, Cytoskeleton, Migration
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Peptide-based Identification of Functional Motifs and their Binding Partners
Authors: Martin N. Shelton, Ming Bo Huang, Syed Ali, Kateena Johnson, William Roth, Michael Powell, Vincent Bond.
Institutions: Morehouse School of Medicine, Institute for Systems Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Specific short peptides derived from motifs found in full-length proteins, in our case HIV-1 Nef, not only retain their biological function, but can also competitively inhibit the function of the full-length protein. A set of 20 Nef scanning peptides, 20 amino acids in length with each overlapping 10 amino acids of its neighbor, were used to identify motifs in Nef responsible for its induction of apoptosis. Peptides containing these apoptotic motifs induced apoptosis at levels comparable to the full-length Nef protein. A second peptide, derived from the Secretion Modification Region (SMR) of Nef, retained the ability to interact with cellular proteins involved in Nef's secretion in exosomes (exNef). This SMRwt peptide was used as the "bait" protein in co-immunoprecipitation experiments to isolate cellular proteins that bind specifically to Nef's SMR motif. Protein transfection and antibody inhibition was used to physically disrupt the interaction between Nef and mortalin, one of the isolated SMR-binding proteins, and the effect was measured with a fluorescent-based exNef secretion assay. The SMRwt peptide's ability to outcompete full-length Nef for cellular proteins that bind the SMR motif, make it the first inhibitor of exNef secretion. Thus, by employing the techniques described here, which utilize the unique properties of specific short peptides derived from motifs found in full-length proteins, one may accelerate the identification of functional motifs in proteins and the development of peptide-based inhibitors of pathogenic functions.
Virology, Issue 76, Biochemistry, Immunology, Infection, Infectious Diseases, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Genetics, Microbiology, Genomics, Proteins, Exosomes, HIV, Peptides, Exocytosis, protein trafficking, secretion, HIV-1, Nef, Secretion Modification Region, SMR, peptide, AIDS, assay
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Visualizing Neuroblast Cytokinesis During C. elegans Embryogenesis
Authors: Denise Wernike, Chloe van Oostende, Alisa Piekny.
Institutions: Concordia University.
This protocol describes the use of fluorescence microscopy to image dividing cells within developing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. In particular, this protocol focuses on how to image dividing neuroblasts, which are found underneath the epidermal cells and may be important for epidermal morphogenesis. Tissue formation is crucial for metazoan development and relies on external cues from neighboring tissues. C. elegans is an excellent model organism to study tissue morphogenesis in vivo due to its transparency and simple organization, making its tissues easy to study via microscopy. Ventral enclosure is the process where the ventral surface of the embryo is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells. This event is thought to be facilitated by the underlying neuroblasts, which provide chemical guidance cues to mediate migration of the overlying epithelial cells. However, the neuroblasts are highly proliferative and also may act as a mechanical substrate for the ventral epidermal cells. Studies using this experimental protocol could uncover the importance of intercellular communication during tissue formation, and could be used to reveal the roles of genes involved in cell division within developing tissues.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, C. elegans, morphogenesis, cytokinesis, neuroblasts, anillin, microscopy, cell division
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High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry
Authors: Subarna Bhattacharya, Paul W. Burridge, Erin M. Kropp, Sandra L. Chuppa, Wai-Meng Kwok, Joseph C. Wu, Kenneth R. Boheler, Rebekah L. Gundry.
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, Stanford University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Hong Kong University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin.
There is an urgent need to develop approaches for repairing the damaged heart, discovering new therapeutic drugs that do not have toxic effects on the heart, and improving strategies to accurately model heart disease. The potential of exploiting human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology to generate cardiac muscle “in a dish” for these applications continues to generate high enthusiasm. In recent years, the ability to efficiently generate cardiomyogenic cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has greatly improved, offering us new opportunities to model very early stages of human cardiac development not otherwise accessible. In contrast to many previous methods, the cardiomyocyte differentiation protocol described here does not require cell aggregation or the addition of Activin A or BMP4 and robustly generates cultures of cells that are highly positive for cardiac troponin I and T (TNNI3, TNNT2), iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-4 (IRX4), myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC2v) and myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) by day 10 across all human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and hiPSC lines tested to date. Cells can be passaged and maintained for more than 90 days in culture. The strategy is technically simple to implement and cost-effective. Characterization of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent cells often includes the analysis of reference markers, both at the mRNA and protein level. For protein analysis, flow cytometry is a powerful analytical tool for assessing quality of cells in culture and determining subpopulation homogeneity. However, technical variation in sample preparation can significantly affect quality of flow cytometry data. Thus, standardization of staining protocols should facilitate comparisons among various differentiation strategies. Accordingly, optimized staining protocols for the analysis of IRX4, MLC2v, MLC2a, TNNI3, and TNNT2 by flow cytometry are described.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, human induced pluripotent stem cell, flow cytometry, directed differentiation, cardiomyocyte, IRX4, TNNI3, TNNT2, MCL2v, MLC2a
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Analysis of Cell Migration within a Three-dimensional Collagen Matrix
Authors: Nadine Rommerswinkel, Bernd Niggemann, Silvia Keil, Kurt S. Zänker, Thomas Dittmar.
Institutions: Witten/Herdecke University.
The ability to migrate is a hallmark of various cell types and plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. However, cell migration is also a key mechanism in cancer enabling these cancer cells to detach from the primary tumor to start metastatic spreading. Within the past years various cell migration assays have been developed to analyze the migratory behavior of different cell types. Because the locomotory behavior of cells markedly differs between a two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environment it can be assumed that the analysis of the migration of cells that are embedded within a 3D environment would yield in more significant cell migration data. The advantage of the described 3D collagen matrix migration assay is that cells are embedded within a physiological 3D network of collagen fibers representing the major component of the extracellular matrix. Due to time-lapse video microscopy real cell migration is measured allowing the determination of several migration parameters as well as their alterations in response to pro-migratory factors or inhibitors. Various cell types could be analyzed using this technique, including lymphocytes/leukocytes, stem cells, and tumor cells. Likewise, also cell clusters or spheroids could be embedded within the collagen matrix concomitant with analysis of the emigration of single cells from the cell cluster/ spheroid into the collagen lattice. We conclude that the 3D collagen matrix migration assay is a versatile method to analyze the migration of cells within a physiological-like 3D environment.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cell migration, 3D collagen matrix, cell tracking
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Actin Co-Sedimentation Assay; for the Analysis of Protein Binding to F-Actin
Authors: Jyoti Srivastava, Diane Barber.
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco - UCSF.
The actin cytoskeleton within the cell is a network of actin filaments that allows the movement of cells and cellular processes, and that generates tension and helps maintains cellular shape. Although the actin cytoskeleton is a rigid structure, it is a dynamic structure that is constantly remodeling. A number of proteins can bind to the actin cytoskeleton. The binding of a particular protein to F-actin is often desired to support cell biological observations or to further understand dynamic processes due to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin co-sedimentation assay is an in vitro assay routinely used to analyze the binding of specific proteins or protein domains with F-actin. The basic principles of the assay involve an incubation of the protein of interest (full length or domain of) with F-actin, ultracentrifugation step to pellet F-actin and analysis of the protein co-sedimenting with F-actin. Actin co-sedimentation assays can be designed accordingly to measure actin binding affinities and in competition assays.
Biochemistry, Issue 13, F-actin, protein, in vitro binding, ultracentrifugation
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Monitoring Actin Disassembly with Time-lapse Microscopy
Authors: Hao Yuan Kueh.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
Cellular Biology, Issue 1, cytoskeleton, actin, timelapse, filament, chamber
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