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Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 21 by allelic ratio analysis using targeted massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA.
Plasma DNA obtained from a pregnant woman contains a mixture of maternal and fetal DNA. The fetal DNA proportion in maternal plasma is relatively consistent as determined using polymorphic genetic markers across different chromosomes in euploid pregnancies. For aneuploid pregnancies, the observed fetal DNA proportion measured using polymorphic genetic markers for the aneuploid chromosome would be perturbed. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of analyzing single nucleotide polymorphisms using targeted massively parallel sequencing to detect such perturbations in mothers carrying trisomy 21 fetuses.
Authors: Rebecca C. Holmberg, Alissa Gindlesperger, Tinsley Stokes, Dane Brady, Nitu Thakore, Philip Belgrader, Christopher G. Cooney, Darrell P. Chandler.
Published: 06-11-2013
TruTip is a simple nucleic acid extraction technology whereby a porous, monolithic binding matrix is inserted into a pipette tip. The geometry of the monolith can be adapted for specific pipette tips ranging in volume from 1.0 to 5.0 ml. The large porosity of the monolith enables viscous or complex samples to readily pass through it with minimal fluidic backpressure. Bi-directional flow maximizes residence time between the monolith and sample, and enables large sample volumes to be processed within a single TruTip. The fundamental steps, irrespective of sample volume or TruTip geometry, include cell lysis, nucleic acid binding to the inner pores of the TruTip monolith, washing away unbound sample components and lysis buffers, and eluting purified and concentrated nucleic acids into an appropriate buffer. The attributes and adaptability of TruTip are demonstrated in three automated clinical sample processing protocols using an Eppendorf epMotion 5070, Hamilton STAR and STARplus liquid handling robots, including RNA isolation from nasopharyngeal aspirate, genomic DNA isolation from whole blood, and fetal DNA extraction and enrichment from large volumes of maternal plasma (respectively).
22 Related JoVE Articles!
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Massively Parallel Reporter Assays in Cultured Mammalian Cells
Authors: Alexandre Melnikov, Xiaolan Zhang, Peter Rogov, Li Wang, Tarjei S. Mikkelsen.
Institutions: Broad Institute.
The genetic reporter assay is a well-established and powerful tool for dissecting the relationship between DNA sequences and their gene regulatory activities. The potential throughput of this assay has, however, been limited by the need to individually clone and assay the activity of each sequence on interest using protein fluorescence or enzymatic activity as a proxy for regulatory activity. Advances in high-throughput DNA synthesis and sequencing technologies have recently made it possible to overcome these limitations by multiplexing the construction and interrogation of large libraries of reporter constructs. This protocol describes implementation of a Massively Parallel Reporter Assay (MPRA) that allows direct comparison of hundreds of thousands of putative regulatory sequences in a single cell culture dish.
Genetics, Issue 90, gene regulation, transcriptional regulation, sequence-activity mapping, reporter assay, library cloning, transfection, tag sequencing, mammalian cells
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Assessment and Evaluation of the High Risk Neonate: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale
Authors: Barry M. Lester, Lynne Andreozzi-Fontaine, Edward Tronick, Rosemarie Bigsby.
Institutions: Brown University, Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts, Boston.
There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used.
Behavior, Issue 90, NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale, NNNS, High risk infant, Assessment, Evaluation, Prediction, Long term outcome
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Genotyping of Plant and Animal Samples without Prior DNA Purification
Authors: Pak Y. Chum, Josh D. Haimes, Chas P. André, Pia K. Kuusisto, Melissa L. Kelley.
Institutions: Thermo Fisher Scientific.
The Direct PCR approach facilitates PCR amplification directly from small amounts of unpurified samples, and is demonstrated here for several plant and animal tissues (Figure 1). Direct PCR is based on specially engineered Thermo Scientific Phusion and Phire DNA Polymerases, which include a double-stranded DNA binding domain that gives them unique properties such as high tolerance of inhibitors. PCR-based target DNA detection has numerous applications in plant research, including plant genotype analysis and verification of transgenes. PCR from plant tissues traditionally involves an initial DNA isolation step, which may require expensive or toxic reagents. The process is time consuming and increases the risk of cross contamination1, 2. Conversely, by using Thermo Scientific Phire Plant Direct PCR Kit the target DNA can be easily detected, without prior DNA extraction. In the model demonstrated here, an example of derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis (dCAPS)3,4 is performed directly from Arabidopsis plant leaves. dCAPS genotyping assays can be used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by SNP allele-specific restriction endonuclease digestion3. Some plant samples tend to be more challenging when using Direct PCR methods as they contain components that interfere with PCR, such as phenolic compounds. In these cases, an additional step to remove the compounds is traditionally required2,5. Here, this problem is overcome by using a quick and easy dilution protocol followed by Direct PCR amplification (Figure 1). Fifteen year-old oak leaves are used as a model for challenging plants as the specimen contains high amounts of phenolic compounds including tannins. Gene transfer into mice is broadly used to study the roles of genes in development, physiology and human disease. The use of these animals requires screening for the presence of the transgene, usually with PCR. Traditionally, this involves a time consuming DNA isolation step, during which DNA for PCR analysis is purified from ear, tail or toe tissues6,7. However, with the Thermo Scientific Phire Animal Tissue Direct PCR Kit transgenic mice can be genotyped without prior DNA purification. In this protocol transgenic mouse genotyping is achieved directly from mouse ear tissues, as demonstrated here for a challenging example where only one primer set is used for amplification of two fragments differing greatly in size.
Genetics, Issue 67, Molecular Biology, Plant Biology, Medicine, Direct PCR, DNA amplification, DNA purification, dCAPS, PCR-based target DNA detection, genotyping, Arabidopsis, oak, mouse tissues
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A Noninvasive Hair Sampling Technique to Obtain High Quality DNA from Elusive Small Mammals
Authors: Philippe Henry, Alison Henry, Michael A. Russello.
Institutions: University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus.
Noninvasive genetic sampling approaches are becoming increasingly important to study wildlife populations. A number of studies have reported using noninvasive sampling techniques to investigate population genetics and demography of wild populations1. This approach has proven to be especially useful when dealing with rare or elusive species2. While a number of these methods have been developed to sample hair, feces and other biological material from carnivores and medium-sized mammals, they have largely remained untested in elusive small mammals. In this video, we present a novel, inexpensive and noninvasive hair snare targeted at an elusive small mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We describe the general set-up of the hair snare, which consists of strips of packing tape arranged in a web-like fashion and placed along travelling routes in the pikas’ habitat. We illustrate the efficiency of the snare at collecting a large quantity of hair that can then be collected and brought back to the lab. We then demonstrate the use of the DNA IQ system (Promega) to isolate DNA and showcase the utility of this method to amplify commonly used molecular markers including nuclear microsatellites, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), mitochondrial sequences (800bp) as well as a molecular sexing marker. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of this novel noninvasive hair snare as a sampling technique for wildlife population biologists. We anticipate that this approach will be applicable to a variety of small mammals, opening up areas of investigation within natural populations, while minimizing impact to study organisms.
Genetics, Issue 49, Conservation genetics, noninvasive genetic sampling, Hair snares, Microsatellites, AFLPs, American pika, Ochotona princeps
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Using Quantitative Real-time PCR to Determine Donor Cell Engraftment in a Competitive Murine Bone Marrow Transplantation Model
Authors: Ningfei An, Yubin Kang.
Institutions: Medical University of South Carolina.
Murine bone marrow transplantation models provide an important tool in measuring hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions and determining genes/molecules that regulate HSCs. In these transplant model systems, the function of HSCs is determined by the ability of these cells to engraft and reconstitute lethally irradiated recipient mice. Commonly, the donor cell contribution/engraftment is measured by antibodies to donor- specific cell surface proteins using flow cytometry. However, this method heavily depends on the specificity and the ability of the cell surface marker to differentiate donor-derived cells from recipient-originated cells, which may not be available for all mouse strains. Considering the various backgrounds of genetically modified mouse strains in the market, this cell surface/ flow cytometry-based method has significant limitations especially in mouse strains that lack well-defined surface markers to separate donor cells from congenic recipient cells. Here, we reported a PCR-based technique to determine donor cell engraftment/contribution in transplant recipient mice. We transplanted male donor bone marrow HSCs to lethally irradiated congenic female mice. Peripheral blood samples were collected at different time points post transplantation. Bone marrow samples were obtained at the end of the experiments. Genomic DNA was isolated and the Y chromosome specific gene, Zfy1, was amplified using quantitative Real time PCR. The engraftment of male donor-derived cells in the female recipient mice was calculated against standard curve with known percentage of male vs. female DNAs. Bcl2 was used as a reference gene to normalize the total DNA amount. Our data suggested that this approach reliably determines donor cell engraftment and provides a useful, yet simple method in measuring hematopoietic cell reconstitution in murine bone marrow transplantation models. Our method can be routinely performed in most laboratories because no costly equipment such as flow cytometry is required.
Medicine, Issue 73, Biomedical Engineering, Stem Cell Biology, Genetics, Immunology, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Surgery, Y Chromosome, Hematopoietic Stem Cells, HSC, stem cells, Bone Marrow Transplantation, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, rtPCR, PCR, Chimerism, Y chromosome specific gene, graft, engraftment, isolation, transplantation, cell culture, murine model, animal model
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An Allele-specific Gene Expression Assay to Test the Functional Basis of Genetic Associations
Authors: Silvia Paracchini, Anthony P. Monaco, Julian C. Knight.
Institutions: University of Oxford.
The number of significant genetic associations with common complex traits is constantly increasing. However, most of these associations have not been understood at molecular level. One of the mechanisms mediating the effect of DNA variants on phenotypes is gene expression, which has been shown to be particularly relevant for complex traits1. This method tests in a cellular context the effect of specific DNA sequences on gene expression. The principle is to measure the relative abundance of transcripts arising from the two alleles of a gene, analysing cells which carry one copy of the DNA sequences associated with disease (the risk variants)2,3. Therefore, the cells used for this method should meet two fundamental genotypic requirements: they have to be heterozygous both for DNA risk variants and for DNA markers, typically coding polymorphisms, which can distinguish transcripts based on their chromosomal origin (Figure 1). DNA risk variants and DNA markers do not need to have the same allele frequency but the phase (haplotypic) relationship of the genetic markers needs to be understood. It is also important to choose cell types which express the gene of interest. This protocol refers specifically to the procedure adopted to extract nucleic acids from fibroblasts but the method is equally applicable to other cells types including primary cells. DNA and RNA are extracted from the selected cell lines and cDNA is generated. DNA and cDNA are analysed with a primer extension assay, designed to target the coding DNA markers4. The primer extension assay is carried out using the MassARRAY (Sequenom)5 platform according to the manufacturer's specifications. Primer extension products are then analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Because the selected markers are heterozygous they will generate two peaks on the MS profiles. The area of each peak is proportional to the transcript abundance and can be measured with a function of the MassARRAY Typer software to generate an allelic ratio (allele 1: allele 2) calculation. The allelic ratio obtained for cDNA is normalized using that measured from genomic DNA, where the allelic ratio is expected to be 1:1 to correct for technical artifacts. Markers with a normalised allelic ratio significantly different to 1 indicate that the amount of transcript generated from the two chromosomes in the same cell is different, suggesting that the DNA variants associated with the phenotype have an effect on gene expression. Experimental controls should be used to confirm the results.
Cellular Biology, Issue 45, Gene expression, regulatory variant, haplotype, association study, primer extension, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, single nucleotide polymorphism, allele-specific
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FISH for Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis
Authors: Paul N. Scriven, Toby L. Kirby, Caroline Mackie Ogilvie.
Institutions: Guy’s & St Thomas’ Centre for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an established alternative to pre-natal diagnosis, and involves selecting pre-implantation embryos from a cohort generated by assisted reproduction technology (ART). This selection may be required because of familial monogenic disease (e.g. cystic fibrosis), or because one partner carries a chromosome rearrangement (e.g. a two-way reciprocal translocation). PGD is available for couples who have had previous affected children, and/or in the case of chromosome rearrangements, recurrent miscarriages, or infertility. Oocytes aspirated following ovarian stimulation are fertilized by in vitro immersion in semen (IVF) or by intracytoplasmic injection of an individual spermatozoon (ICSI). Pre-implantation cleavage-stage embryos are biopsied, usually by the removal of a single cell on day 3 post-fertilization, and the biopsied cell is tested to establish the genetic status of the embryo. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the fixed nuclei of biopsied cells with target-specific DNA probes is the technique of choice to detect chromosome imbalance associated with chromosome rearrangements, and to select female embryos in families with X-linked disease for which there is no mutation-specific test. FISH has also been used to screen embryos for spontaneous chromosome aneuploidy (also known as PGS or PGD-AS) in order to try and improve the efficiency of assisted reproduction; however, the predictive value of this test using the spreading and FISH technique described here is likely to be unacceptably low in most people's hands and it is not recommended for routine clinical use. We describe the selection of suitable probes for single-cell FISH, spreading techniques for blastomere nuclei, and in situ hybridization and signal scoring, applied to PGD in a clinical setting.
Medicine, Issue 48, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, PGD, Sex determination, Translocations, Chromosome aneuploidy
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Mouse Oocyte Microinjection, Maturation and Ploidy Assessment
Authors: Paula Stein, Karen Schindler.
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania.
Mistakes in chromosome segregation lead to aneuploid cells. In somatic cells, aneuploidy is associated with cancer but in gametes, aneuploidy leads to infertility, miscarriages or developmental disorders like Down syndrome. Haploid gametes form through species-specific developmental programs that are coupled to meiosis. The first meiotic division (MI) is unique to meiosis because sister chromatids remain attached while homologous chromosomes are segregated. For reasons not fully understood, this reductional division is prone to errors and is more commonly the source of aneuploidy than errors in meiosis II (MII) or than errors in male meiosis 1,2. In mammals, oocytes arrest at prophase of MI with a large, intact germinal vesicle (GV; nucleus) and only resume meiosis when they receive ovulatory cues. Once meiosis resumes, oocytes complete MI and undergo an asymmetric cell division, arresting again at metaphase of MII. Eggs will not complete MII until they are fertilized by sperm. Oocytes also can undergo meiotic maturation using established in vitro culture conditions 3. Because generation of transgenic and gene-targeted mouse mutants is costly and can take long periods of time, manipulation of female gametes in vitro is a more economical and time-saving strategy. Here, we describe methods to isolate prophase-arrested oocytes from mice and for microinjection. Any material of choice may be introduced into the oocyte, but because meiotically-competent oocytes are transcriptionally silent 4,5 cRNA, and not DNA, must be injected for ectopic expression studies. To assess ploidy, we describe our conditions for in vitro maturation of oocytes to MII eggs. Historically, chromosome-spreading techniques are used for counting chromosome number 6. This method is technically challenging and is limited to only identifying hyperploidies. Here, we describe a method to determine hypo-and hyperploidies using intact eggs 7-8. This method uses monastrol, a kinesin-5 inhibitor, that collapses the bipolar spindle into a monopolar spindle 9 thus separating chromosomes such that individual kinetochores can readily be detected and counted by using an anti-CREST autoimmune serum. Because this method is performed in intact eggs, chromosomes are not lost due to operator error.
Cell biology, Issue 53, oocyte, microinjection, meiosis, meiotic maturation, aneuploidy
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A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses
Authors: Daniel T. Claiborne, Jessica L. Prince, Eric Hunter.
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro replication of chronically derived gag-pro sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 90, HIV-1, Gag, viral replication, replication capacity, viral fitness, MJ4, CEM, GXR25
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An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings
Authors: Justen Manasa, Siva Danaviah, Sureshnee Pillay, Prevashinee Padayachee, Hloniphile Mthiyane, Charity Mkhize, Richard John Lessells, Christopher Seebregts, Tobias F. Rinke de Wit, Johannes Viljoen, David Katzenstein, Tulio De Oliveira.
Institutions: University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Jembi Health Systems, University of Amsterdam, Stanford Medical School.
HIV-1 drug resistance has the potential to seriously compromise the effectiveness and impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART). As ART programs in sub-Saharan Africa continue to expand, individuals on ART should be closely monitored for the emergence of drug resistance. Surveillance of transmitted drug resistance to track transmission of viral strains already resistant to ART is also critical. Unfortunately, drug resistance testing is still not readily accessible in resource limited settings, because genotyping is expensive and requires sophisticated laboratory and data management infrastructure. An open access genotypic drug resistance monitoring method to manage individuals and assess transmitted drug resistance is described. The method uses free open source software for the interpretation of drug resistance patterns and the generation of individual patient reports. The genotyping protocol has an amplification rate of greater than 95% for plasma samples with a viral load >1,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. The sensitivity decreases significantly for viral loads <1,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. The method described here was validated against a method of HIV-1 drug resistance testing approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Viroseq genotyping method. Limitations of the method described here include the fact that it is not automated and that it also failed to amplify the circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG from a validation panel of samples, although it amplified subtypes A and B from the same panel.
Medicine, Issue 85, Biomedical Technology, HIV-1, HIV Infections, Viremia, Nucleic Acids, genetics, antiretroviral therapy, drug resistance, genotyping, affordable
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Fetal Echocardiography and Pulsed-wave Doppler Ultrasound in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction
Authors: Ryan Hodges, Masayuki Endo, Andre La Gerche, Elisenda Eixarch, Philip DeKoninck, Vessilina Ferferieva, Jan D'hooge, Euan M. Wallace, Jan Deprest.
Institutions: University Hospitals Leuven, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universitat de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER).
Fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in abnormal cardiac function that is apparent antenatally due to advances in fetoplacental Doppler ultrasound and fetal echocardiography. Increasingly, these imaging modalities are being employed clinically to examine cardiac function and assess wellbeing in utero, thereby guiding timing of birth decisions. Here, we used a rabbit model of IUGR that allows analysis of cardiac function in a clinically relevant way. Using isoflurane induced anesthesia, IUGR is surgically created at gestational age day 25 by performing a laparotomy, exposing the bicornuate uterus and then ligating 40-50% of uteroplacental vessels supplying each gestational sac in a single uterine horn. The other horn in the rabbit bicornuate uterus serves as internal control fetuses. Then, after recovery at gestational age day 30 (full term), the same rabbit undergoes examination of fetal cardiac function. Anesthesia is induced with ketamine and xylazine intramuscularly, then maintained by a continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine and xylazine to minimize iatrogenic effects on fetal cardiac function. A repeat laparotomy is performed to expose each gestational sac and a microultrasound examination (VisualSonics VEVO 2100) of fetal cardiac function is performed. Placental insufficiency is evident by a raised pulsatility index or an absent or reversed end diastolic flow of the umbilical artery Doppler waveform. The ductus venosus and middle cerebral artery Doppler is then examined. Fetal echocardiography is performed by recording B mode, M mode and flow velocity waveforms in lateral and apical views. Offline calculations determine standard M-mode cardiac variables, tricuspid and mitral annular plane systolic excursion, speckle tracking and strain analysis, modified myocardial performance index and vascular flow velocity waveforms of interest. This small animal model of IUGR therefore affords examination of in utero cardiac function that is consistent with current clinical practice and is therefore useful in a translational research setting.
Medicine, Issue 76, Developmental Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Cardiology, Fetal Therapies, Obstetric Surgical Procedures, Fetal Development, Surgical Procedures, Operative, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal echocardiography, Doppler ultrasound, fetal hemodynamics, animal model, clinical techniques
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Determination of the Transport Rate of Xenobiotics and Nanomaterials Across the Placenta using the ex vivo Human Placental Perfusion Model
Authors: Stefanie Grafmüller, Pius Manser, Harald F. Krug, Peter Wick, Ursula von Mandach.
Institutions: University Hospital Zurich, EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, University of Bern.
Decades ago the human placenta was thought to be an impenetrable barrier between mother and unborn child. However, the discovery of thalidomide-induced birth defects and many later studies afterwards proved the opposite. Today several harmful xenobiotics like nicotine, heroin, methadone or drugs as well as environmental pollutants were described to overcome this barrier. With the growing use of nanotechnology, the placenta is likely to come into contact with novel nanoparticles either accidentally through exposure or intentionally in the case of potential nanomedical applications. Data from animal experiments cannot be extrapolated to humans because the placenta is the most species-specific mammalian organ 1. Therefore, the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion, developed by Panigel et al. in 1967 2 and continuously modified by Schneider et al. in 1972 3, can serve as an excellent model to study the transfer of xenobiotics or particles. Here, we focus on the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion protocol and its further development to acquire reproducible results. The placentae were obtained after informed consent of the mothers from uncomplicated term pregnancies undergoing caesarean delivery. The fetal and maternal vessels of an intact cotyledon were cannulated and perfused at least for five hours. As a model particle fluorescently labelled polystyrene particles with sizes of 80 and 500 nm in diameter were added to the maternal circuit. The 80 nm particles were able to cross the placental barrier and provide a perfect example for a substance which is transferred across the placenta to the fetus while the 500 nm particles were retained in the placental tissue or maternal circuit. The ex vivo human placental perfusion model is one of few models providing reliable information about the transport behavior of xenobiotics at an important tissue barrier which delivers predictive and clinical relevant data.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 76, Medicine, Bioengineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Pharmacology, Obstetrics, Nanotechnology, Placenta, Pharmacokinetics, Nanomedicine, humans, ex vivo perfusion, perfusion, biological barrier, xenobiotics, nanomaterials, clinical model
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2D and 3D Chromosome Painting in Malaria Mosquitoes
Authors: Phillip George, Atashi Sharma, Igor V Sharakhov.
Institutions: Virginia Tech.
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of whole arm chromosome probes is a robust technique for mapping genomic regions of interest, detecting chromosomal rearrangements, and studying three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromosomes in the cell nucleus. The advent of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and whole genome amplification (WGA) allows obtaining large quantities of DNA from single cells. The increased sensitivity of WGA kits prompted us to develop chromosome paints and to use them for exploring chromosome organization and evolution in non-model organisms. Here, we present a simple method for isolating and amplifying the euchromatic segments of single polytene chromosome arms from ovarian nurse cells of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. This procedure provides an efficient platform for obtaining chromosome paints, while reducing the overall risk of introducing foreign DNA to the sample. The use of WGA allows for several rounds of re-amplification, resulting in high quantities of DNA that can be utilized for multiple experiments, including 2D and 3D FISH. We demonstrated that the developed chromosome paints can be successfully used to establish the correspondence between euchromatic portions of polytene and mitotic chromosome arms in An. gambiae. Overall, the union of LCM and single-chromosome WGA provides an efficient tool for creating significant amounts of target DNA for future cytogenetic and genomic studies.
Immunology, Issue 83, Microdissection, whole genome amplification, malaria mosquito, polytene chromosome, mitotic chromosomes, fluorescence in situ hybridization, chromosome painting
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A Novel Surgical Approach for Intratracheal Administration of Bioactive Agents in a Fetal Mouse Model
Authors: Marianne S. Carlon, Jaan Toelen, Marina Mori da Cunha, Dragana Vidović, Anke Van der Perren, Steffi Mayer, Lourenço Sbragia, Johan Nuyts, Uwe Himmelreich, Zeger Debyser, Jan Deprest.
Institutions: KU Leuven, KU Leuven, KU Leuven, KU Leuven, KU Leuven.
Prenatal pulmonary delivery of cells, genes or pharmacologic agents could provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies for a variety of genetic and acquired diseases. Apart from congenital or inherited abnormalities with the requirement for long-term expression of the delivered gene, several non-inherited perinatal conditions, where short-term gene expression or pharmacological intervention is sufficient to achieve therapeutic effects, are considered as potential future indications for this kind of approach. Candidate diseases for the application of short-term prenatal therapy could be the transient neonatal deficiency of surfactant protein B causing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome1,2 or hyperoxic injuries of the neonatal lung3. Candidate diseases for permanent therapeutic correction are Cystic Fibrosis (CF)4, genetic variants of surfactant deficiencies5 and α1-antitrypsin deficiency6. Generally, an important advantage of prenatal gene therapy is the ability to start therapeutic intervention early in development, at or even prior to clinical manifestations in the patient, thus preventing irreparable damage to the individual. In addition, fetal organs have an increased cell proliferation rate as compared to adult organs, which could allow a more efficient gene or stem cell transfer into the fetus. Furthermore, in utero gene delivery is performed when the individual's immune system is not completely mature. Therefore, transplantation of heterologous cells or supplementation of a non-functional or absent protein with a correct version should not cause immune sensitization to the cell, vector or transgene product, which has recently been proven to be the case with both cellular and genetic therapies7. In the present study, we investigated the potential to directly target the fetal trachea in a mouse model. This procedure is in use in larger animal models such as rabbits and sheep8, and even in a clinical setting9, but has to date not been performed before in a mouse model. When studying the potential of fetal gene therapy for genetic diseases such as CF, the mouse model is very useful as a first proof-of-concept because of the wide availability of different transgenic mouse strains, the well documented embryogenesis and fetal development, less stringent ethical regulations, short gestation and the large litter size. Different access routes have been described to target the fetal rodent lung, including intra-amniotic injection10-12, (ultrasound-guided) intrapulmonary injection13,14 and intravenous administration into the yolk sac vessels15,16 or umbilical vein17. Our novel surgical procedure enables researchers to inject the agent of choice directly into the fetal mouse trachea which allows for a more efficient delivery to the airways than existing techniques18.
Medicine, Issue 68, Fetal, intratracheal, intra-amniotic, cross-fostering, lung, microsurgery, gene therapy, mice, rAAV
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Mouse Genome Engineering Using Designer Nucleases
Authors: Mario Hermann, Tomas Cermak, Daniel F. Voytas, Pawel Pelczar.
Institutions: University of Zurich, University of Minnesota.
Transgenic mice carrying site-specific genome modifications (knockout, knock-in) are of vital importance for dissecting complex biological systems as well as for modeling human diseases and testing therapeutic strategies. Recent advances in the use of designer nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system for site-specific genome engineering open the possibility to perform rapid targeted genome modification in virtually any laboratory species without the need to rely on embryonic stem (ES) cell technology. A genome editing experiment typically starts with identification of designer nuclease target sites within a gene of interest followed by construction of custom DNA-binding domains to direct nuclease activity to the investigator-defined genomic locus. Designer nuclease plasmids are in vitro transcribed to generate mRNA for microinjection of fertilized mouse oocytes. Here, we provide a protocol for achieving targeted genome modification by direct injection of TALEN mRNA into fertilized mouse oocytes.
Genetics, Issue 86, Oocyte microinjection, Designer nucleases, ZFN, TALEN, Genome Engineering
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Construction of Vapor Chambers Used to Expose Mice to Alcohol During the Equivalent of all Three Trimesters of Human Development
Authors: Russell A. Morton, Marvin R. Diaz, Lauren A. Topper, C. Fernando Valenzuela.
Institutions: University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center.
Exposure to alcohol during development can result in a constellation of morphological and behavioral abnormalities that are collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). At the most severe end of the spectrum is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphology, and neurobehavioral deficits. Studies with animal models, including rodents, have elucidated many molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of FASDs. Ethanol administration to pregnant rodents has been used to model human exposure during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Third trimester ethanol consumption in humans has been modeled using neonatal rodents. However, few rodent studies have characterized the effect of ethanol exposure during the equivalent to all three trimesters of human pregnancy, a pattern of exposure that is common in pregnant women. Here, we show how to build vapor chambers from readily obtainable materials that can each accommodate up to six standard mouse cages. We describe a vapor chamber paradigm that can be used to model exposure to ethanol, with minimal handling, during all three trimesters. Our studies demonstrate that pregnant dams developed significant metabolic tolerance to ethanol. However, neonatal mice did not develop metabolic tolerance and the number of fetuses, fetus weight, placenta weight, number of pups/litter, number of dead pups/litter, and pup weight were not significantly affected by ethanol exposure. An important advantage of this paradigm is its applicability to studies with genetically-modified mice. Additionally, this paradigm minimizes handling of animals, a major confound in fetal alcohol research.
Medicine, Issue 89, fetal, ethanol, exposure, paradigm, vapor, development, alcoholism, teratogenic, animal, mouse, model
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Genetic Manipulation in Δku80 Strains for Functional Genomic Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii
Authors: Leah M. Rommereim, Miryam A. Hortua Triana, Alejandra Falla, Kiah L. Sanders, Rebekah B. Guevara, David J. Bzik, Barbara A. Fox.
Institutions: The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth.
Targeted genetic manipulation using homologous recombination is the method of choice for functional genomic analysis to obtain a detailed view of gene function and phenotype(s). The development of mutant strains with targeted gene deletions, targeted mutations, complemented gene function, and/or tagged genes provides powerful strategies to address gene function, particularly if these genetic manipulations can be efficiently targeted to the gene locus of interest using integration mediated by double cross over homologous recombination. Due to very high rates of nonhomologous recombination, functional genomic analysis of Toxoplasma gondii has been previously limited by the absence of efficient methods for targeting gene deletions and gene replacements to specific genetic loci. Recently, we abolished the major pathway of nonhomologous recombination in type I and type II strains of T. gondii by deleting the gene encoding the KU80 protein1,2. The Δku80 strains behave normally during tachyzoite (acute) and bradyzoite (chronic) stages in vitro and in vivo and exhibit essentially a 100% frequency of homologous recombination. The Δku80 strains make functional genomic studies feasible on the single gene as well as on the genome scale1-4. Here, we report methods for using type I and type II Δku80Δhxgprt strains to advance gene targeting approaches in T. gondii. We outline efficient methods for generating gene deletions, gene replacements, and tagged genes by targeted insertion or deletion of the hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HXGPRT) selectable marker. The described gene targeting protocol can be used in a variety of ways in Δku80 strains to advance functional analysis of the parasite genome and to develop single strains that carry multiple targeted genetic manipulations. The application of this genetic method and subsequent phenotypic assays will reveal fundamental and unique aspects of the biology of T. gondii and related significant human pathogens that cause malaria (Plasmodium sp.) and cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium).
Infectious Diseases, Issue 77, Genetics, Microbiology, Infection, Medicine, Immunology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Genomics, Parasitology, Pathology, Apicomplexa, Coccidia, Toxoplasma, Genetic Techniques, Gene Targeting, Eukaryota, Toxoplasma gondii, genetic manipulation, gene targeting, gene deletion, gene replacement, gene tagging, homologous recombination, DNA, sequencing
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Detecting Somatic Genetic Alterations in Tumor Specimens by Exon Capture and Massively Parallel Sequencing
Authors: Helen H Won, Sasinya N Scott, A. Rose Brannon, Ronak H Shah, Michael F Berger.
Institutions: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Efforts to detect and investigate key oncogenic mutations have proven valuable to facilitate the appropriate treatment for cancer patients. The establishment of high-throughput, massively parallel "next-generation" sequencing has aided the discovery of many such mutations. To enhance the clinical and translational utility of this technology, platforms must be high-throughput, cost-effective, and compatible with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples that may yield small amounts of degraded or damaged DNA. Here, we describe the preparation of barcoded and multiplexed DNA libraries followed by hybridization-based capture of targeted exons for the detection of cancer-associated mutations in fresh frozen and FFPE tumors by massively parallel sequencing. This method enables the identification of sequence mutations, copy number alterations, and select structural rearrangements involving all targeted genes. Targeted exon sequencing offers the benefits of high throughput, low cost, and deep sequence coverage, thus conferring high sensitivity for detecting low frequency mutations.
Molecular Biology, Issue 80, Molecular Diagnostic Techniques, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Genetics, Neoplasms, Diagnosis, Massively parallel sequencing, targeted exon sequencing, hybridization capture, cancer, FFPE, DNA mutations
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Transformation of Plasmid DNA into E. coli Using the Heat Shock Method
Authors: Alexandrine Froger, James E. Hall.
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Transformation of plasmid DNA into E. coli using the heat shock method is a basic technique of molecular biology. It consists of inserting a foreign plasmid or ligation product into bacteria. This video protocol describes the traditional method of transformation using commercially available chemically competent bacteria from Genlantis. After a short incubation in ice, a mixture of chemically competent bacteria and DNA is placed at 42°C for 45 seconds (heat shock) and then placed back in ice. SOC media is added and the transformed cells are incubated at 37°C for 30 min with agitation. To be assured of isolating colonies irrespective of transformation efficiency, two quantities of transformed bacteria are plated. This traditional protocol can be used successfully to transform most commercially available competent bacteria. The turbocells from Genlantis can also be used in a novel 3-minute transformation protocol, described in the instruction manual.
Issue 6, Basic Protocols, DNA, transformation, plasmid, cloning
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Electroporation of Mycobacteria
Authors: Renan Goude, Tanya Parish.
Institutions: Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry.
High efficiency transformation is a major limitation in the study of mycobacteria. The genus Mycobacterium can be difficult to transform; this is mainly caused by the thick and waxy cell wall, but is compounded by the fact that most molecular techniques have been developed for distantly-related species such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In spite of these obstacles, mycobacterial plasmids have been identified and DNA transformation of many mycobacterial species have now been described. The most successful method for introducing DNA into mycobacteria is electroporation. Many parameters contribute to successful transformation; these include the species/strain, the nature of the transforming DNA, the selectable marker used, the growth medium, and the conditions for the electroporation pulse. Optimized methods for the transformation of both slow- and fast-grower are detailed here. Transformation efficiencies for different mycobacterial species and with various selectable markers are reported.
Microbiology, Issue 15, Springer Protocols, Mycobacteria, Electroporation, Bacterial Transformation, Transformation Efficiency, Bacteria, Tuberculosis, M. Smegmatis, Springer Protocols
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Purifying Plasmid DNA from Bacterial Colonies Using the Qiagen Miniprep Kit
Authors: Shenyuan Zhang, Michael D. Cahalan.
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Plasmid DNA purification from E. coli is a core technique for molecular cloning. Small scale purification (miniprep) from less than 5 ml of bacterial culture is a quick way for clone verification or DNA isolation, followed by further enzymatic reactions (polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion). Here, we video-recorded the general procedures of miniprep through the QIAGEN's QIAprep 8 Miniprep Kit, aiming to introducing this highly efficient technique to the general beginners for molecular biology techniques. The whole procedure is based on alkaline lysis of E. coli cells followed by adsorption of DNA onto silica in the presence of high salt. It consists of three steps: 1) preparation and clearing of a bacterial lysate, 2) adsorption of DNA onto the QIAprep membrane, 3) washing and elution of plasmid DNA. All steps are performed without the use of phenol, chloroform, CsCl, ethidium bromide, and without alcohol precipitation. It usually takes less than 2 hours to finish the entire procedure.
Issue 6, Basic Protocols, plasmid, DNA, purification, Qiagen
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Pyrosequencing: A Simple Method for Accurate Genotyping
Authors: Cristi King, Tiffany Scott-Horton.
Institutions: Washington University in St. Louis.
Pharmacogenetic research benefits first-hand from the abundance of information provided by the completion of the Human Genome Project. With such a tremendous amount of data available comes an explosion of genotyping methods. Pyrosequencing(R) is one of the most thorough yet simple methods to date used to analyze polymorphisms. It also has the ability to identify tri-allelic, indels, short-repeat polymorphisms, along with determining allele percentages for methylation or pooled sample assessment. In addition, there is a standardized control sequence that provides internal quality control. This method has led to rapid and efficient single-nucleotide polymorphism evaluation including many clinically relevant polymorphisms. The technique and methodology of Pyrosequencing is explained.
Cellular Biology, Issue 11, Springer Protocols, Pyrosequencing, genotype, polymorphism, SNP, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, PCR
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