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Bacteria and protozoa differentially modulate the expression of Rab proteins.
Phagocytic cells represent an important line of innate defense against microorganisms. Uptake of microorganisms by these cells involves the formation of a phagosome that matures by fusing with endocytic compartments, resulting in killing of the enclosed microbe. Small GTPases of the Rab family are key regulators of vesicular trafficking in the endocytic pathway. Intracellular pathogens can interfere with the function of these proteins in order to subvert host immune responses. However, it is unknown if this subversion can be achieved through the modulation of Rab gene expression. We compared the expression level of 23 distinct Rab GTPases in mouse macrophages after infection with the protozoan Plasmodium berghei, and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. We found that P. berghei induces an increase in the expression of a different set of Rab genes than E. coli and S. enterica, which behaved similarly. Strikingly, when one of the Rab proteins whose expression was increased by P. berghei, namely Rab14, was silenced, we observed a significant increase in the phagocytosis of P. berghei, whereas Rab14 overexpression led to a decrease in phagocytosis. This suggests that the parasite might induce the increase of Rab14 expression for its own advantage. Similarly, when Rab9a, whose expression was increased by E. coli and S. enterica, was silenced, we observed an increase in the phagocytosis of both bacterial species, whereas Rab9a overexpression caused a reduction in phagocytosis. This further suggests that the modulation of Rab gene expression could represent a mechanism of immune evasion. Thus, our study analyzes the modulation of Rab gene expression induced by bacteria and protozoa and suggests that this modulation could be necessary for the success of microbial infection.
Authors: Ann-Kristin Mueller, Jochen Behrends, Jannike Blank, Ulrich E. Schaible, Bianca E. Schneider.
Published: 02-17-2014
Coinfections naturally occur due to the geographic overlap of distinct types of pathogenic organisms. Concurrent infections most likely modulate the respective immune response to each single pathogen and may thereby affect pathogenesis and disease outcome. Coinfected patients may also respond differentially to anti-infective interventions. Coinfection between tuberculosis as caused by mycobacteria and the malaria parasite Plasmodium, both of which are coendemic in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, has not been studied in detail. In order to approach the challenging but scientifically and clinically highly relevant question how malaria-tuberculosis coinfection modulate host immunity and the course of each disease, we established an experimental mouse model that allows us to dissect the elicited immune responses to both pathogens in the coinfected host. Of note, in order to most precisely mimic naturally acquired human infections, we perform experimental infections of mice with both pathogens by their natural routes of infection, i.e. aerosol and mosquito bite, respectively.
24 Related JoVE Articles!
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Analyzing the Function of Small GTPases by Microinjection of Plasmids into Polarized Epithelial Cells
Authors: Rita Nokes Cook, Su Fen Ang, Richard Seung-on Kang, Heike Fölsch.
Institutions: Northwestern University.
Epithelial cells polarize their plasma membrane into biochemically and functionally distinct apical and basolateral domains where the apical domain faces the 'free' surfaces and the basolateral membrane is in contact with the substrate and neighboring cells. Both membrane domains are separated by tight junctions, which form a diffusion barrier. Apical-basolateral polarization can be recapitulated successfully in culture when epithelial cells such as Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells are seeded at high density on polycarbonate filters and cultured for several days 1 2. Establishment and maintenance of cell polarity is regulated by an array of small GTPases of the Ras superfamily such as RalA, Cdc42, Rab8, Rab10 and Rab13 3 4 5 6 7. Like all GTPases these proteins cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. Specific mutations in the nucleotide binding regions interfere with this cycling 8. For example, Rab13T22N is permanently locked in the GDP-form and thus dubbed 'dominant negative', whereas Rab13Q67L can no longer hydrolyze GTP and is thus locked in a 'dominant active' state 7. To analyze their function in cells both dominant negative and dominant active alleles of GTPases are typically expressed at high levels to interfere with the function of the endogenous proteins 9. An elegant way to achieve high levels of overexpression in a short amount of time is to introduce the plasmids encoding the relevant proteins directly into the nuclei of polarized cells grown on filter supports using microinjection technique. This is often combined with the co-injection of reporter plasmids that encode plasma membrane receptors that are specifically sorted to the apical or basolateral domain. A cargo frequently used to analyze cargo sorting to the basolateral domain is a temperature sensitive allele of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVGts045) 10. This protein cannot fold properly at 39°C and will thus be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) while the regulatory protein of interest is assembled in the cytosol. A shift to 31°C will then allow VSVGts045 to fold properly, leave the ER and travel to the plasma membrane 11. This chase is typically performed in the presence of cycloheximide to prevent further protein synthesis leading to cleaner results. Here we describe in detail the procedure of microinjecting plasmids into polarized cells and subsequent incubations including temperature shifts that allow a comprehensive analysis of regulatory proteins involved in basolateral sorting.
Cellular Biology, Issue 51, Epithelial cells, cell polarity, microinjection, basolateral sorting, MDCK
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In vivo Imaging Method to Distinguish Acute and Chronic Inflammation
Authors: Jen-Chieh Tseng, Andrew L. Kung.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, Columbia University Medical Center.
Inflammation is a fundamental aspect of many human diseases. In this video report, we demonstrate non-invasive bioluminescence imaging techniques that distinguish acute and chronic inflammation in mouse models. With tissue damage or pathogen invasion, neutrophils are the first line of defense, playing a major role in mediating the acute inflammatory response. As the inflammatory reaction progresses, circulating monocytes gradually migrate into the site of injury and differentiate into mature macrophages, which mediate chronic inflammation and promote tissue repair by removing tissue debris and producing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Intraperitoneal injection of luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione, sodium salt) enables detection of acute inflammation largely mediated by tissue-infiltrating neutrophils. Luminol specifically reacts with the superoxide generated within the phagosomes of neutrophils since bioluminescence results from a myeloperoxidase (MPO) mediated reaction. Lucigenin (bis-N-methylacridinium nitrate) also reacts with superoxide in order to generate bioluminescence. However, lucigenin bioluminescence is independent of MPO and it solely relies on phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Phox) in macrophages during chronic inflammation. Together, luminol and lucigenin allow non-invasive visualization and longitudinal assessment of different phagocyte populations across both acute and chronic inflammatory phases. Given the important role of inflammation in a variety of human diseases, we believe this non-invasive imaging method can help investigate the differential roles of neutrophils and macrophages in a variety of pathological conditions.
Immunology, Issue 78, Infection, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Cancer Biology, Stem Cell Biology, Inflammation, Phagocytes, Phagocyte, Superoxides, Molecular Imaging, chemiluminescence, in vivo imaging, superoxide, bioluminescence, chronic inflammation, acute inflammation, phagocytes, cells, imaging, animal model
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High-throughput Assay to Phenotype Salmonella enterica Typhimurium Association, Invasion, and Replication in Macrophages
Authors: Jing Wu, Roberta Pugh, Richard C. Laughlin, Helene Andrews-Polymenis, Michael McClelland, Andreas J. Bäumler, L. Garry Adams.
Institutions: Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, University of California, Irvine, University of California, Davis.
Salmonella species are zoonotic pathogens and leading causes of food borne illnesses in humans and livestock1. Understanding the mechanisms underlying Salmonella-host interactions are important to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of Salmonella infection. The Gentamicin protection assay to phenotype Salmonella association, invasion and replication in phagocytic cells was adapted to allow high-throughput screening to define the roles of deletion mutants of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in host interactions using RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Under this protocol, the variance in measurements is significantly reduced compared to the standard protocol, because wild-type and multiple mutant strains can be tested in the same culture dish and at the same time. The use of multichannel pipettes increases the throughput and enhances precision. Furthermore, concerns related to using less host cells per well in 96-well culture dish were addressed. Here, the protocol of the modified in vitro Salmonella invasion assay using phagocytic cells was successfully employed to phenotype 38 individual Salmonella deletion mutants for association, invasion and intracellular replication. The in vitro phenotypes are presented, some of which were subsequently confirmed to have in vivo phenotypes in an animal model. Thus, the modified, standardized assay to phenotype Salmonella association, invasion and replication in macrophages with high-throughput capacity could be utilized more broadly to study bacterial-host interactions.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 90, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, association, invasion, replication, phenotype, intracellular pathogens, macrophages
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Automated Separation of C. elegans Variably Colonized by a Bacterial Pathogen
Authors: Kwame Twumasi-Boateng, Maureen Berg, Michael Shapira.
Institutions: University of California, Berkeley.
The wormsorter is an instrument analogous to a FACS machine that is used in studies of Caenorhabditis elegans, typically to sort worms based on expression of a fluorescent reporter. Here, we highlight an alternative usage of this instrument, for sorting worms according to their degree of colonization by a GFP-expressing pathogen. This new usage allowed us to address the relationship between colonization of the worm intestine and induction of immune responses. While C. elegans immune responses to different pathogens have been documented, it is still unknown what initiates them. The two main possibilities (which are not mutually exclusive) are recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and detection of damage caused by infection. To differentiate between the two possibilities, exposure to the pathogen must be dissociated from the damage it causes. The wormsorter enabled separation of worms that were extensively-colonized by the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with the damage likely caused by pathogen load, from worms that were similarly exposed, but not, or marginally, colonized. These distinct populations were used to assess the relationship between pathogen load and the induction of transcriptional immune responses. The results suggest that the two are dissociated, supporting the possibility of pathogen recognition.
Immunology, Issue 85, Innate Immunity, C. elegans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, wormsorter, pathogen recognition
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Testing Protozoacidal Activity of Ligand-lytic Peptides Against Termite Gut Protozoa in vitro (Protozoa Culture) and in vivo (Microinjection into Termite Hindgut)
Authors: Claudia Husseneder, Amit Sethi, Lane Foil, Jennifer Delatte.
Institutions: Louisiana State University Agricultural Center.
We are developing a novel approach to subterranean termite control that would lead to reduced reliance on the use of chemical pesticides. Subterranean termites are dependent on protozoa in the hindguts of workers to efficiently digest wood. Lytic peptides have been shown to kill a variety of protozoan parasites (Mutwiri et al. 2000) and also protozoa in the gut of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Husseneder and Collier 2009). Lytic peptides are part of the nonspecific immune system of eukaryotes, and destroy the membranes of microorganisms (Leuschner and Hansel 2004). Most lytic peptides are not likely to harm higher eukaryotes, because they do not affect the electrically neutral cholesterol-containing cell membranes of higher eukaryotes (Javadpour et al. 1996). Lytic peptide action can be targeted to specific cell types by the addition of a ligand. For example, Hansel et al. (2007) reported that lytic peptides conjugated with cancer cell membrane receptor ligands could be used to destroy breast cancer cells, while lytic peptides alone or conjugated with non-specific peptides were not effective. Lytic peptides also have been conjugated to human hormones that bind to receptors on tumor cells for targeted destruction of prostate and testicular cancer cells (Leuschner and Hansel 2004). In this article we present techniques used to demonstrate the protozoacidal activity of a lytic peptide (Hecate) coupled to a heptapeptide ligand that binds to the surface membrane of protozoa from the gut of the Formosan subterranean termite. These techniques include extirpation of the gut from termite workers, anaerobic culture of gut protozoa (Pseudotrichonympha grassii, Holomastigotoides hartmanni,Spirotrichonympha leidyi), microscopic confirmation that the ligand marked with a fluorescent dye binds to the termite gut protozoa and other free-living protozoa but not to bacteria or gut tissue. We also demonstrate that the same ligand coupled to a lytic peptide efficiently kills termite gut protozoa in vitro (protozoa culture) and in vivo (microinjection into hindgut of workers), but is less bacteriacidal than the lytic peptide alone. The loss of protozoa leads to the death of the termites in less than two weeks. In the future, we will genetically engineer microorganisms that can survive in the termite hindgut and spread through a termite colony as "Trojan Horses" to express ligand-lytic peptides that would kill the protozoa in the termite gut and subsequently kill the termites in the colony. Ligand-lytic peptides also could be useful for drug development against protozoan parasites.
Microbiology, Issue 46, Isoptera, Coptotermes formosanus, Formosan subterranean termite, termite control, paratransgenesis, symbionts, anaerobic, fluorescence
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An Analytical Tool-box for Comprehensive Biochemical, Structural and Transcriptome Evaluation of Oral Biofilms Mediated by Mutans Streptococci
Authors: Marlise I. Klein, Jin Xiao, Arne Heydorn, Hyun Koo.
Institutions: University of Rochester Medical Center, Sichuan University, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark, University of Rochester Medical Center.
Biofilms are highly dynamic, organized and structured communities of microbial cells enmeshed in an extracellular matrix of variable density and composition 1, 2. In general, biofilms develop from initial microbial attachment on a surface followed by formation of cell clusters (or microcolonies) and further development and stabilization of the microcolonies, which occur in a complex extracellular matrix. The majority of biofilm matrices harbor exopolysaccharides (EPS), and dental biofilms are no exception; especially those associated with caries disease, which are mostly mediated by mutans streptococci 3. The EPS are synthesized by microorganisms (S. mutans, a key contributor) by means of extracellular enzymes, such as glucosyltransferases using sucrose primarily as substrate 3. Studies of biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are particularly challenging owing to their constant exposure to environmental challenges associated with complex diet-host-microbial interactions occurring in the oral cavity. Better understanding of the dynamic changes of the structural organization and composition of the matrix, physiology and transcriptome/proteome profile of biofilm-cells in response to these complex interactions would further advance the current knowledge of how oral biofilms modulate pathogenicity. Therefore, we have developed an analytical tool-box to facilitate biofilm analysis at structural, biochemical and molecular levels by combining commonly available and novel techniques with custom-made software for data analysis. Standard analytical (colorimetric assays, RT-qPCR and microarrays) and novel fluorescence techniques (for simultaneous labeling of bacteria and EPS) were integrated with specific software for data analysis to address the complex nature of oral biofilm research. The tool-box is comprised of 4 distinct but interconnected steps (Figure 1): 1) Bioassays, 2) Raw Data Input, 3) Data Processing, and 4) Data Analysis. We used our in vitro biofilm model and specific experimental conditions to demonstrate the usefulness and flexibility of the tool-box. The biofilm model is simple, reproducible and multiple replicates of a single experiment can be done simultaneously 4, 5. Moreover, it allows temporal evaluation, inclusion of various microbial species 5 and assessment of the effects of distinct experimental conditions (e.g. treatments 6; comparison of knockout mutants vs. parental strain 5; carbohydrates availability 7). Here, we describe two specific components of the tool-box, including (i) new software for microarray data mining/organization (MDV) and fluorescence imaging analysis (DUOSTAT), and (ii) in situ EPS-labeling. We also provide an experimental case showing how the tool-box can assist with biofilms analysis, data organization, integration and interpretation.
Microbiology, Issue 47, Extracellular matrix, polysaccharides, biofilm, mutans streptococci, glucosyltransferases, confocal fluorescence, microarray
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Using Coculture to Detect Chemically Mediated Interspecies Interactions
Authors: Elizabeth Anne Shank.
Institutions: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill .
In nature, bacteria rarely exist in isolation; they are instead surrounded by a diverse array of other microorganisms that alter the local environment by secreting metabolites. These metabolites have the potential to modulate the physiology and differentiation of their microbial neighbors and are likely important factors in the establishment and maintenance of complex microbial communities. We have developed a fluorescence-based coculture screen to identify such chemically mediated microbial interactions. The screen involves combining a fluorescent transcriptional reporter strain with environmental microbes on solid media and allowing the colonies to grow in coculture. The fluorescent transcriptional reporter is designed so that the chosen bacterial strain fluoresces when it is expressing a particular phenotype of interest (i.e. biofilm formation, sporulation, virulence factor production, etc.) Screening is performed under growth conditions where this phenotype is not expressed (and therefore the reporter strain is typically nonfluorescent). When an environmental microbe secretes a metabolite that activates this phenotype, it diffuses through the agar and activates the fluorescent reporter construct. This allows the inducing-metabolite-producing microbe to be detected: they are the nonfluorescent colonies most proximal to the fluorescent colonies. Thus, this screen allows the identification of environmental microbes that produce diffusible metabolites that activate a particular physiological response in a reporter strain. This publication discusses how to: a) select appropriate coculture screening conditions, b) prepare the reporter and environmental microbes for screening, c) perform the coculture screen, d) isolate putative inducing organisms, and e) confirm their activity in a secondary screen. We developed this method to screen for soil organisms that activate biofilm matrix-production in Bacillus subtilis; however, we also discuss considerations for applying this approach to other genetically tractable bacteria.
Microbiology, Issue 80, High-Throughput Screening Assays, Genes, Reporter, Microbial Interactions, Soil Microbiology, Coculture, microbial interactions, screen, fluorescent transcriptional reporters, Bacillus subtilis
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Tractable Mammalian Cell Infections with Protozoan-primed Bacteria
Authors: Samuel L. Drennan, Amrita Lama, Ben Doron, Eric D. Cambronne.
Institutions: Oregon Health & Science University.
Many intracellular bacterial pathogens use freshwater protozoans as a natural reservoir for proliferation in the environment. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia, gains a pathogenic advantage over in vitro cultured bacteria when first harvested from protozoan cells prior to infection of mammalian macrophages. This suggests that important virulence factors may not be properly expressed in vitro. We have developed a tractable system for priming L. pneumophila through its natural protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii prior to mammalian cell infection. The contribution of any virulence factor can be examined by comparing intracellular growth of a mutant strain to wild-type bacteria after protozoan priming. GFP-expressing wild-type and mutant L. pneumophila strains are used to infect protozoan monolayers in a priming step and allowed to reach late stages of intracellular growth. Fluorescent bacteria are then harvested from these infected cells and normalized by spectrophotometry to generate comparable numbers of bacteria for a subsequent infection into mammalian macrophages. For quantification, live bacteria are monitored after infection using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and by colony plating. This technique highlights and relies on the contribution of host cell-dependent gene expression by mimicking the environment that would be encountered in a natural acquisition route. This approach can be modified to accommodate any bacterium that uses an intermediary host as a means for gaining a pathogenic advantage.
Infection, Issue 74, Immunology, Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Bacteria, Bacterial Infections, Mycoses, Legionella, amoeba, macrophage, priming, intracellular pathogen, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, cell
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Reconstitution of a Kv Channel into Lipid Membranes for Structural and Functional Studies
Authors: Sungsoo Lee, Hui Zheng, Liang Shi, Qiu-Xing Jiang.
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.
To study the lipid-protein interaction in a reductionistic fashion, it is necessary to incorporate the membrane proteins into membranes of well-defined lipid composition. We are studying the lipid-dependent gating effects in a prototype voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, and have worked out detailed procedures to reconstitute the channels into different membrane systems. Our reconstitution procedures take consideration of both detergent-induced fusion of vesicles and the fusion of protein/detergent micelles with the lipid/detergent mixed micelles as well as the importance of reaching an equilibrium distribution of lipids among the protein/detergent/lipid and the detergent/lipid mixed micelles. Our data suggested that the insertion of the channels in the lipid vesicles is relatively random in orientations, and the reconstitution efficiency is so high that no detectable protein aggregates were seen in fractionation experiments. We have utilized the reconstituted channels to determine the conformational states of the channels in different lipids, record electrical activities of a small number of channels incorporated in planar lipid bilayers, screen for conformation-specific ligands from a phage-displayed peptide library, and support the growth of 2D crystals of the channels in membranes. The reconstitution procedures described here may be adapted for studying other membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, especially for the investigation of the lipid effects on the eukaryotic voltage-gated ion channels.
Molecular Biology, Issue 77, Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Structural Biology, Biophysics, Membrane Lipids, Phospholipids, Carrier Proteins, Membrane Proteins, Micelles, Molecular Motor Proteins, life sciences, biochemistry, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, lipid-protein interaction, channel reconstitution, lipid-dependent gating, voltage-gated ion channel, conformation-specific ligands, lipids
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Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Authors: Yves Molino, Françoise Jabès, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Nicolas Gaudin, Michel Khrestchatisky.
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2 on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3 cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
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Studying Interactions of Staphylococcus aureus with Neutrophils by Flow Cytometry and Time Lapse Microscopy
Authors: Bas G.J. Surewaard, Jos A.G. van Strijp, Reindert Nijland.
Institutions: University Medical Center Utrecht.
We present methods to study the effect of phenol soluble modulins (PSMs) and other toxins produced and secreted by Staphylococcus aureus on neutrophils. To study the effects of the PSMs on neutrophils we isolate fresh neutrophils using density gradient centrifugation. These neutrophils are loaded with a dye that fluoresces upon calcium mobilization. The activation of neutrophils by PSMs initiates a rapid and transient increase in the free intracellular calcium concentration. In a flow cytometry experiment this rapid mobilization can be measured by monitoring the fluorescence of a pre-loaded dye that reacts to the increased concentration of free Ca2+. Using this method we can determine the PSM concentration necessary to activate the neutrophil, and measure the effects of specific and general inhibitors of the neutrophil activation. To investigate the expression of the PSMs in the intracellular space, we have constructed reporter fusions of the promoter of the PSMα operon to GFP. When these reporter strains of S. aureus are phagocytosed by neutrophils, the induction of expression can be observed using fluorescence microscopy.
Infection, Issue 77, Immunology, Cellular Biology, Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, Genetics, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Neutrophils, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacterial Toxins, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Time-Lapse Imaging, Phagocytosis, phenol soluble modulins, PSMs, Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils, PMNs, intracellular expression, time-lapse microscopy, flow cytometry, cell, isolation, cell culture
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Bone Marrow-derived Macrophage Production
Authors: Virginie Trouplin, Nicolas Boucherit, Laurent Gorvel, Filippo Conti, Giovanna Mottola, Eric Ghigo.
Institutions: Aix-Marseille Université, University of Naples "Federico II".
Macrophages are critical components of the innate and adaptive immune responses, and they are the first line of defense against foreign invaders because of their powerful microbicidal activities. Macrophages are widely distributed throughout the body and are present in the lymphoid organs, liver, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, bone, and skin. Because of their repartition, they participate in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Macrophages are highly versatile cells that are able to recognize microenvironmental alterations and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Numerous pathogens have evolved mechanisms to use macrophages as Trojan horses to survive, replicate in, and infect both humans and animals and to propagate throughout the body. The recent explosion of interest in evolutionary, genetic, and biochemical aspects of host-pathogen interactions has renewed scientific attention regarding macrophages. Here, we describe a procedure to isolate and cultivate macrophages from murine bone marrow that will provide large numbers of macrophages for studying host-pathogen interactions as well as other processes.
Immunology, Issue 81, biology (general), immunology, Life Sciences (General) macrophages, bone marrow, phagocytosis, phagosomes, lysosomes, endocytosis
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Development of a Negative Selectable Marker for Entamoeba histolytica
Authors: Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Sarah M Haviland, Carol A Gilchrist, William A Petri, Jr..
Institutions: University of Virginia Health System.
Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and infects up to 10% of the world's population. The molecular techniques that have enabled the up- and down-regulation of gene expression rely on the transfection of stably maintained plasmids. While these have increased our understanding of Entamoeba virulence factors, the capacity to integrate exogenous DNA into genome, which would allow reverse genetics experiments, would be a significant advantage in the study of this parasite. The challenges presented by this organism include inability to select for homologous recombination events and difficulty to cure episomal plasmid DNA from transfected trophozoites. The later results in a high background of exogenous DNA, a major problem in the identification of trophozoites in which a bona fide genomic integration event has occurred. We report the development of a negative selection system based upon transgenic expression of a yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyl transferase chimera (FCU1) and selection with prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC). The FCU1 enzyme converts non-toxic 5-FC into toxic 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluorouridine-5'-monophosphate. E. histolytica lines expressing FCU1 were found to be 30 fold more sensitive to the prodrug compared to the control strain.
Infectious Disease, Issue 46, Entamoeba, negative selectable marker, 5-fluorocytosine, gene knockout, Cytosine deaminase, UPRT CMFDA.
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High Throughput Fluorometric Technique for Assessment of Macrophage Phagocytosis and Actin Polymerization
Authors: Jana Ninković, Sabita Roy.
Institutions: University of Minnesota, University of Minnesota, 3M Corporate Research Laboratory.
The goal of fluorometric analysis is to serve as an efficient, cost effective, high throughput method of analyzing phagocytosis and other cellular processes. This technique can be used on a variety of cell types, both adherent and non-adherent, to examine a variety of cellular properties. When studying phagocytosis, fluorometric technique utilizes phagocytic cell types such as macrophages, and fluorescently labeled opsonized particles whose fluorescence can be extinguished in the presence of trypan blue. Following plating of adherent macrophages in 96-well plates, fluorescent particles (green or red) are administered and cells are allowed to phagocytose for varied amounts of time. Following internalization of fluorescent particles, cells are washed with trypan blue, which facilitates extinction of fluorescent signal from bacteria which are not internalized, or are merely adhering to the cell surface. Following the trypan wash, cells are washed with PBS, fixed, and stained with DAPI (nuclear blue fluorescent label), which serves to label nuclei of cells. By a simple fluorometric quantification through plate reading of nuclear (blue) or particle (red/green) fluorescence we can examine the ratio of relative fluorescence units of green:blue and determine a phagocytic index indicative of amount of fluorescent bacteria internalized per cell. The duration of assay using a 96-well method and multichannel pipettes for washing, from end of phagocytosis to end of data acquisition, is less than 45 min. Flow cytometry could be used in a similar manner but the advantage of fluorometry is its high throughput, rapid method of assessment with minimal manipulation of samples and quick quantification of fluorescent intensity per cell. Similar strategies can be applied to non adherent cells, live labeled bacteria, actin polymerization, and essentially any process utilizing fluorescence. Therefore, fluorometry is a promising method for its low cost, high throughput capabilities in the study of cellular processes.
Immunology, Issue 93, Fluorometry, phagocytosis, high throughput assay, actin polymerization, immunology
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Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods
Authors: Erin R. Sanders.
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles .
Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: ● Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. ● Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating method. ● Use pour-plating and spread-plating methods to determine the concentration of bacteria. ● Perform soft agar overlays when working with phage. ● Transfer bacterial cells from one plate to another using the replica-plating procedure. ● Given an experimental task, select the appropriate plating method.
Basic Protocols, Issue 63, Streak plates, pour plates, soft agar overlays, spread plates, replica plates, bacteria, colonies, phage, plaques, dilutions
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Fluorescence Microscopy Methods for Determining the Viability of Bacteria in Association with Mammalian Cells
Authors: M. Brittany Johnson, Alison K. Criss.
Institutions: University of Virginia Health Sciences Center.
Central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis is the ability to define if and how microbes survive after exposure to eukaryotic cells. Current protocols to address these questions include colony count assays, gentamicin protection assays, and electron microscopy. Colony count and gentamicin protection assays only assess the viability of the entire bacterial population and are unable to determine individual bacterial viability. Electron microscopy can be used to determine the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding their localization in host cells. However, bacteria often display a range of electron densities, making assessment of viability difficult. This article outlines protocols for the use of fluorescent dyes that reveal the viability of individual bacteria inside and associated with host cells. These assays were developed originally to assess survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in primary human neutrophils, but should be applicable to any bacterium-host cell interaction. These protocols combine membrane-permeable fluorescent dyes (SYTO9 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]), which stain all bacteria, with membrane-impermeable fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide and SYTOX Green), which are only accessible to nonviable bacteria. Prior to eukaryotic cell permeabilization, an antibody or fluorescent reagent is added to identify extracellular bacteria. Thus these assays discriminate the viability of bacteria adherent to and inside eukaryotic cells. A protocol is also provided for using the viability dyes in combination with fluorescent antibodies to eukaryotic cell markers, in order to determine the subcellular localization of individual bacteria. The bacterial viability dyes discussed in this article are a sensitive complement and/or alternative to traditional microbiology techniques to evaluate the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding where bacteria survive in host cells.
Microbiology, Issue 79, Immunology, Infection, Cancer Biology, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Microscopy, Confocal, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Bacteria, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, bacteria, infection, viability, fluorescence microscopy, cell, imaging
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Use of Shigella flexneri to Study Autophagy-Cytoskeleton Interactions
Authors: Maria J. Mazon Moya, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy.
Institutions: Imperial College London, Institut Pasteur, Unité Macrophages et Développement de l'Immunité.
Shigella flexneri is an intracellular pathogen that can escape from phagosomes to reach the cytosol, and polymerize the host actin cytoskeleton to promote its motility and dissemination. New work has shown that proteins involved in actin-based motility are also linked to autophagy, an intracellular degradation process crucial for cell autonomous immunity. Strikingly, host cells may prevent actin-based motility of S. flexneri by compartmentalizing bacteria inside ‘septin cages’ and targeting them to autophagy. These observations indicate that a more complete understanding of septins, a family of filamentous GTP-binding proteins, will provide new insights into the process of autophagy. This report describes protocols to monitor autophagy-cytoskeleton interactions caused by S. flexneri in vitro using tissue culture cells and in vivo using zebrafish larvae. These protocols enable investigation of intracellular mechanisms that control bacterial dissemination at the molecular, cellular, and whole organism level.
Infection, Issue 91, ATG8/LC3, autophagy, cytoskeleton, HeLa cells, p62, septin, Shigella, zebrafish
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Study of Phagolysosome Biogenesis in Live Macrophages
Authors: Marc Bronietzki, Bahram Kasmapour, Maximiliano Gabriel Gutierrez.
Institutions: Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, National Institute for Medical Research.
Phagocytic cells play a major role in the innate immune system by removing and eliminating invading microorganisms in their phagosomes. Phagosome maturation is the complex and tightly regulated process during which a nascent phagosome undergoes drastic transformation through well-orchestrated interactions with various cellular organelles and compartments in the cytoplasm. This process, which is essential for the physiological function of phagocytic cells by endowing phagosomes with their lytic and bactericidal properties, culminates in fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes and biogenesis of phagolysosomes which is considered to be the last and critical stage of maturation for phagosomes. In this report, we describe a live cell imaging based method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamic process of lysosome to phagosome content delivery, which is a hallmark of phagolysosome biogenesis. This approach uses IgG-coated microbeads as a model for phagocytosis and fluorophore-conjugated dextran molecules as a luminal lysosomal cargo probe, in order to follow the dynamic delivery of lysosmal content to the phagosomes in real time in live macrophages using time-lapse imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Here we describe in detail the background, the preparation steps and the step-by-step experimental setup to enable easy and precise deployment of this method in other labs. Our described method is simple, robust, and most importantly, can be easily adapted to study phagosomal interactions and maturation in different systems and under various experimental settings such as use of various phagocytic cells types, loss-of-function experiments, different probes, and phagocytic particles.
Immunology, Issue 85, Lysosome, Phagosome, phagolysosome, live-cell imaging, phagocytes, macrophages
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A Toolkit to Enable Hydrocarbon Conversion in Aqueous Environments
Authors: Eva K. Brinkman, Kira Schipper, Nadine Bongaerts, Mathias J. Voges, Alessandro Abate, S. Aljoscha Wahl.
Institutions: Delft University of Technology, Delft University of Technology.
This work puts forward a toolkit that enables the conversion of alkanes by Escherichia coli and presents a proof of principle of its applicability. The toolkit consists of multiple standard interchangeable parts (BioBricks)9 addressing the conversion of alkanes, regulation of gene expression and survival in toxic hydrocarbon-rich environments. A three-step pathway for alkane degradation was implemented in E. coli to enable the conversion of medium- and long-chain alkanes to their respective alkanols, alkanals and ultimately alkanoic-acids. The latter were metabolized via the native β-oxidation pathway. To facilitate the oxidation of medium-chain alkanes (C5-C13) and cycloalkanes (C5-C8), four genes (alkB2, rubA3, rubA4and rubB) of the alkane hydroxylase system from Gordonia sp. TF68,21 were transformed into E. coli. For the conversion of long-chain alkanes (C15-C36), theladA gene from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans was implemented. For the required further steps of the degradation process, ADH and ALDH (originating from G. thermodenitrificans) were introduced10,11. The activity was measured by resting cell assays. For each oxidative step, enzyme activity was observed. To optimize the process efficiency, the expression was only induced under low glucose conditions: a substrate-regulated promoter, pCaiF, was used. pCaiF is present in E. coli K12 and regulates the expression of the genes involved in the degradation of non-glucose carbon sources. The last part of the toolkit - targeting survival - was implemented using solvent tolerance genes, PhPFDα and β, both from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3. Organic solvents can induce cell stress and decreased survivability by negatively affecting protein folding. As chaperones, PhPFDα and β improve the protein folding process e.g. under the presence of alkanes. The expression of these genes led to an improved hydrocarbon tolerance shown by an increased growth rate (up to 50%) in the presences of 10% n-hexane in the culture medium were observed. Summarizing, the results indicate that the toolkit enables E. coli to convert and tolerate hydrocarbons in aqueous environments. As such, it represents an initial step towards a sustainable solution for oil-remediation using a synthetic biology approach.
Bioengineering, Issue 68, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Oil remediation, alkane metabolism, alkane hydroxylase system, resting cell assay, prefoldin, Escherichia coli, synthetic biology, homologous interaction mapping, mathematical model, BioBrick, iGEM
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High Yield Purification of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoites For Use in Opsonizing Antibody Assays
Authors: Danika L. Hill, Emily M. Eriksson, Louis Schofield.
Institutions: Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, University of Melbourne.
Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens are under development as potential malaria vaccines. One aspect of immunity against malaria is the removal of free merozoites from the blood by phagocytic cells. However assessing the functional efficacy of merozoite specific opsonizing antibodies is challenging due to the short half-life of merozoites and the variability of primary phagocytic cells. Described in detail herein is a method for generating viable merozoites using the E64 protease inhibitor, and an assay of merozoite opsonin-dependent phagocytosis using the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. E64 prevents schizont rupture while allowing the development of merozoites which are released by filtration of treated schizonts.  Ethidium bromide labelled merozoites are opsonized with human plasma samples and added to THP-1 cells. Phagocytosis is assessed by a standardized high throughput protocol. Viable merozoites are a valuable resource for assessing numerous aspects of P. falciparum biology, including assessment of immune function. Antibody levels measured by this assay are associated with clinical immunity to malaria in naturally exposed individuals. The assay may also be of use for assessing vaccine induced antibodies.  
Immunology, Issue 89, Parasitic Diseases, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, hemozoin, antibody, Fc Receptor, opsonization, merozoite, phagocytosis, THP-1
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Use of Galleria mellonella as a Model Organism to Study Legionella pneumophila Infection
Authors: Clare R. Harding, Gunnar N. Schroeder, James W. Collins, Gad Frankel.
Institutions: Imperial College London.
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of a severe pneumonia named Legionnaires' disease, is an important human pathogen that infects and replicates within alveolar macrophages. Its virulence depends on the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS), which is essential to establish a replication permissive vacuole known as the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV). L. pneumophila infection can be modeled in mice however most mouse strains are not permissive, leading to the search for novel infection models. We have recently shown that the larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella are suitable for investigation of L. pneumophila infection. G. mellonella is increasingly used as an infection model for human pathogens and a good correlation exists between virulence of several bacterial species in the insect and in mammalian models. A key component of the larvae's immune defenses are hemocytes, professional phagocytes, which take up and destroy invaders. L. pneumophila is able to infect, form a LCV and replicate within these cells. Here we demonstrate protocols for analyzing L. pneumophila virulence in the G. mellonella model, including how to grow infectious L. pneumophila, pretreat the larvae with inhibitors, infect the larvae and how to extract infected cells for quantification and immunofluorescence microscopy. We also describe how to quantify bacterial replication and fitness in competition assays. These approaches allow for the rapid screening of mutants to determine factors important in L. pneumophila virulence, describing a new tool to aid our understanding of this complex pathogen.
Infection, Issue 81, Bacterial Infections, Infection, Disease Models, Animal, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Galleria mellonella, Legionella pneumophila, insect model, bacterial infection, Legionnaires' disease, haemocytes
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In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration
Authors: Mark E. Kusek, Michael A. Pazos, Waheed Pirzai, Bryan P. Hurley.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, MGH for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Mucosal surfaces serve as protective barriers against pathogenic organisms. Innate immune responses are activated upon sensing pathogen leading to the infiltration of tissues with migrating inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. This process has the potential to be destructive to tissues if excessive or held in an unresolved state.  Cocultured in vitro models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. This type of model provides versatility in experimental design with opportunity for controlled manipulation of the pathogen, epithelial barrier, or neutrophil. Pathogenic infection of the apical surface of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable transwell filters instigates physiologically relevant basolateral to apical trans-epithelial migration of neutrophils applied to the basolateral surface. The in vitro model described herein demonstrates the multiple steps necessary for demonstrating neutrophil migration across a polarized lung epithelial monolayer that has been infected with pathogenic P. aeruginosa (PAO1). Seeding and culturing of permeable transwells with human derived lung epithelial cells is described, along with isolation of neutrophils from whole human blood and culturing of PAO1 and nonpathogenic K12 E. coli (MC1000).  The emigrational process and quantitative analysis of successfully migrated neutrophils that have been mobilized in response to pathogenic infection is shown with representative data, including positive and negative controls. This in vitro model system can be manipulated and applied to other mucosal surfaces. Inflammatory responses that involve excessive neutrophil infiltration can be destructive to host tissues and can occur in the absence of pathogenic infections. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote neutrophil trans-epithelial migration through experimental manipulation of the in vitro coculture assay system described herein has significant potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for a range of mucosal infectious as well as inflammatory diseases.
Infection, Issue 83, Cellular Biology, Epithelium, Neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Neutrophils, epithelial barriers, pathogens, transmigration
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Live-cell Video Microscopy of Fungal Pathogen Phagocytosis
Authors: Leanne E. Lewis, Judith M. Bain, Blessing Okai, Neil A.R. Gow, Lars Peter Erwig.
Institutions: University of Aberdeen, University of Aberdeen.
Phagocytic clearance of fungal pathogens, and microorganisms more generally, may be considered to consist of four distinct stages: (i) migration of phagocytes to the site where pathogens are located; (ii) recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs); (iii) engulfment of microorganisms bound to the phagocyte cell membrane, and (iv) processing of engulfed cells within maturing phagosomes and digestion of the ingested particle. Studies that assess phagocytosis in its entirety are informative1, 2, 3, 4, 5 but are limited in that they do not normally break the process down into migration, engulfment and phagosome maturation, which may be affected differentially. Furthermore, such studies assess uptake as a single event, rather than as a continuous dynamic process. We have recently developed advanced live-cell imaging technologies, and have combined these with genetic functional analysis of both pathogen and host cells to create a cross-disciplinary platform for the analysis of innate immune cell function and fungal pathogenesis. These studies have revealed novel aspects of phagocytosis that could only be observed using systematic temporal analysis of the molecular and cellular interactions between human phagocytes and fungal pathogens and infectious microorganisms more generally. For example, we have begun to define the following: (a) the components of the cell surface required for each stage of the process of recognition, engulfment and killing of fungal cells1, 6, 7, 8; (b) how surface geometry influences the efficiency of macrophage uptake and killing of yeast and hyphal cells7; and (c) how engulfment leads to alteration of the cell cycle and behavior of macrophages 9, 10. In contrast to single time point snapshots, live-cell video microscopy enables a wide variety of host cells and pathogens to be studied as continuous sequences over lengthy time periods, providing spatial and temporal information on a broad range of dynamic processes, including cell migration, replication and vesicular trafficking. Here we describe in detail how to prepare host and fungal cells, and to conduct the video microscopy experiments. These methods can provide a user-guide for future studies with other phagocytes and microorganisms.
Infection, Issue 71, Immunology, Microbiology, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Infectious Diseases, Mycoses, Candidiasis, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Immune System Diseases, Live-cell imaging, phagocytosis, Candida albicans, host-pathogen interaction, pathogen, pathogen-associated molecular patterns, pattern recognition receptors, macrophage, fungus
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High Resolution Electron Microscopy of the Helicobacter pylori Cag Type IV Secretion System Pili Produced in Varying Conditions of Iron Availability
Authors: Kathryn Patricia Haley, Eric Joshua Blanz, Jennifer Angeline Gaddy.
Institutions: Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, U. S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs.
Helicobacter pylori is a helical-shaped, gram negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric niche of half of the human population1,2. H. pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide3. One virulence factor that has been associated with increased risk of gastric disease is the Cag-pathogenicity island, a 40-kb region within the chromosome of H. pylori that encodes a type IV secretion system and the cognate effector molecule, CagA4,5. The Cag-T4SS is responsible for translocating CagA and peptidoglycan into host epithelial cells5,6. The activity of the Cag-T4SS results in numerous changes in host cell biology including upregulation of cytokine expression, activation of proinflammatory pathways, cytoskeletal remodeling, and induction of oncogenic cell-signaling networks5-8. The Cag-T4SS is a macromolecular machine comprised of sub-assembly components spanning the inner and outer membrane and extending outward from the cell into the extracellular space. The extracellular portion of the Cag-T4SS is referred to as the “pilus”5. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the Cag-T4SS pili are formed at the host-pathogen interface9,10. However, the environmental features that regulate the biogenesis of this important organelle remain largely obscure. Recently, we reported that conditions of low iron availability increased the Cag-T4SS activity and pilus biogenesis. Here we present an optimized protocol to grow H. pylori in varying conditions of iron availability prior to co-culture with human gastric epithelial cells. Further, we present the comprehensive protocol for visualization of the hyper-piliated phenotype exhibited in iron restricted conditions by high resolution scanning electron microscopy analyses.
Infection, Issue 93, Helicobacter pylori, iron acquisition, cag pathogenicity island, type IV secretion, pili
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