The direct functionalization of C-H bonds is an important and long standing goal in organic chemistry. Such transformations can be very powerful in order to streamline synthesis by saving steps, time and material compared to conventional methods that require the introduction and removal of activating or directing groups. Therefore, the functionalization of C-H bonds is also attractive for green chemistry. Under oxidative conditions, two C-H bonds or one C-H and one heteroatom-H bond can be transformed to C-C and C-heteroatom bonds, respectively. Often these oxidative coupling reactions require synthetic oxidants, expensive catalysts or high temperatures. Here, we describe a two-step procedure to functionalize indole derivatives, more specifically tetrahydrocarbazoles, by C-H amination using only elemental oxygen as oxidant. The reaction uses the principle of C-H functionalization via Intermediate PeroxideS (CHIPS). In the first step, a hydroperoxide is generated oxidatively using visible light, a photosensitizer and elemental oxygen. In the second step, the N-nucleophile, an aniline, is introduced by Brønsted-acid catalyzed activation of the hydroperoxide leaving group. The products of the first and second step often precipitate and can be conveniently filtered off. The synthesis of a biologically active compound is shown.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
Screening Assay for Oxidative Stress in a Feline Astrocyte Cell Line, G355-5
Institutions: Western University of Health Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, Products.
An often-suggested mechanism of virus induced neuronal damage is oxidative stress. Astrocytes have an important role in controlling oxidative stress of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Astrocytes help maintain a homeostatic environment for neurons as well as protecting neurons from Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). CM-H2DCFDA is a cell-permeable indicator for the presence of ROS. CM-H2
DCFDA enters the cell as a non-fluorescent compound, and becomes fluorescent after cellular esterases remove the acetate groups, and the compound is oxidized. The number of cells, measured by flow cytometry, that are found to be green fluorescing is an indication of the number of cells that are in an oxidative state. CM-H2
DCFDA is susceptible to oxidation by a large number of different ROS. This lack of specificity, regarding which ROS can oxidize CM-H2
DCFDA, makes this compound a valuable regent for use in the early stages of a pathogenesis investigation, as this assay can be used to screen for an oxidative cellular environment regardless of which oxygen radical or combination of ROS are responsible for the cellular conditions. Once it has been established that ROS are present by oxidation of CM-H2
DCFDA, then additional experiments can be performed to determine which ROS or combination of ROSs are involved in the particular pathogenesis process. The results of this study demonstrate that with the addition of hydrogen peroxide an increase in CM-H2
DCFDA fluoresce was detected relative to the saline controls, indicating that this assay is a valuable test for detecting an oxidative environment within G355-5 cells, a feline astrocyte cell line.
Neuroscience, Issue 53, Astrocytes, oxidative stress, flow cytometry, CM-H2DCFDA
The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins
Institutions: Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e.
endocytosis) followed by trafficking to lysosomes for degradation or to the plasma membrane for recycling. The cell based L-glutathione protection assays can be used to study endocytosis and recycling of protein receptors, channels, transporters, and adhesion molecules localized at the cell surface. The endocytic assay requires labeling of cell surface proteins with a cell membrane impermeable biotin containing a disulfide bond and the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester at 4 ºC - a temperature at which membrane trafficking does not occur. Endocytosis of biotinylated plasma membrane proteins is induced by incubation at 37 ºC. Next, the temperature is decreased again to 4 ºC to stop endocytic trafficking and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins that have remained at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione. At this point, only proteins that were endocytosed remain protected from L-glutathione and thus remain biotinylated. After cell lysis, biotinylated proteins are isolated with streptavidin agarose, eluted from agarose, and the biotinylated protein of interest is detected by western blotting. During the recycling assay, after biotinylation cells are incubated at 37 °C to load endocytic vesicles with biotinylated proteins and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins remaining at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione at 4 ºC as in the endocytic assay. Next, cells are incubated again at 37 °C to allow biotinylated proteins from endocytic vesicles to recycle to the plasma membrane. Cells are then incubated at 4 ºC, and the disulfide bond in biotin attached to proteins that recycled to the plasma membranes is reduced with L-glutathione. The biotinylated proteins protected from L-glutathione are those that did not recycle to the plasma membrane.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Endocytosis, recycling, plasma membrane, cell surface, EZLink, Sulfo-NHS-SS-Biotin, L-Glutathione, GSH, thiol group, disulfide bond, epithelial cells, cell polarization
Synthesis of an Intein-mediated Artificial Protein Hydrogel
Institutions: Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas A&M University, College Station.
We present the synthesis of a highly stable protein hydrogel mediated by a split-intein-catalyzed protein trans
-splicing reaction. The building blocks of this hydrogel are two protein block-copolymers each containing a subunit of a trimeric protein that serves as a crosslinker and one half of a split intein. A highly hydrophilic random coil is inserted into one of the block-copolymers for water retention. Mixing of the two protein block copolymers triggers an intein trans
-splicing reaction, yielding a polypeptide unit with crosslinkers at either end that rapidly self-assembles into a hydrogel. This hydrogel is very stable under both acidic and basic conditions, at temperatures up to 50 °C, and in organic solvents. The hydrogel rapidly reforms after shear-induced rupture. Incorporation of a "docking station peptide" into the hydrogel building block enables convenient incorporation of "docking protein"-tagged target proteins. The hydrogel is compatible with tissue culture growth media, supports the diffusion of 20 kDa molecules, and enables the immobilization of bioactive globular proteins. The application of the intein-mediated protein hydrogel as an organic-solvent-compatible biocatalyst was demonstrated by encapsulating the horseradish peroxidase enzyme and corroborating its activity.
Bioengineering, Issue 83, split-intein, self-assembly, shear-thinning, enzyme, immobilization, organic synthesis
A Technique to Functionalize and Self-assemble Macroscopic Nanoparticle-ligand Monolayer Films onto Template-free Substrates
Institutions: Naval Research Laboratory.
This protocol describes a self-assembly technique to create macroscopic monolayer films composed of ligand-coated nanoparticles1,2
. The simple, robust and scalable technique efficiently functionalizes metallic nanoparticles with thiol-ligands in a miscible water/organic solvent mixture allowing for rapid grafting of thiol groups onto the gold nanoparticle surface. The hydrophobic ligands on the nanoparticles then quickly phase separate the nanoparticles from the aqueous based suspension and confine them to the air-fluid interface. This drives the ligand-capped nanoparticles to form monolayer domains at the air-fluid interface. The use of water-miscible organic solvents is important as it enables the transport of the nanoparticles from the interface onto template-free substrates. The flow is mediated by a surface tension gradient3,4
and creates macroscopic, high-density, monolayer nanoparticle-ligand films. This self-assembly technique may be generalized to include the use of particles of different compositions, size, and shape and may lead to an efficient assembly method to produce low-cost, macroscopic, high-density, monolayer nanoparticle films for wide-spread applications.
Chemistry, Issue 87, phase transfer, nanoparticle, self-assembly, bottom-up, fabrication, low-cost, monolayer, thin film, nanostructure, array, metamaterial
Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish Embryos
Institutions: University of Torino, Vesalius Research Center, VIB.
High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause a change of cellular redox state towards oxidative stress condition. This situation causes oxidation of molecules (lipid, DNA, protein) and leads to cell death. Oxidative stress also impacts the progression of several pathological conditions such as diabetes, retinopathies, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Thus, it is important to define tools to investigate oxidative stress conditions not only at the level of single cells but also in the context of whole organisms. Here, we consider the zebrafish embryo as a useful in vivo
system to perform such studies and present a protocol to measure in vivo
oxidative stress. Taking advantage of fluorescent ROS probes and zebrafish transgenic fluorescent lines, we develop two different methods to measure oxidative stress in vivo
: i) a “whole embryo ROS-detection method” for qualitative measurement of oxidative stress and ii) a “single-cell ROS detection method” for quantitative measurements of oxidative stress. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of these procedures by increasing oxidative stress in tissues by oxidant agents and physiological or genetic methods. This protocol is amenable for forward genetic screens and it will help address cause-effect relationships of ROS in animal models of oxidative stress-related pathologies such as neurological disorders and cancer.
Developmental Biology, Issue 89, Danio rerio, zebrafish embryos, endothelial cells, redox state analysis, oxidative stress detection, in vivo ROS measurements, FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorter), molecular probes
In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions
Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ
characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3
(bpy = bipyridine), onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ
time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ
IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.
Chemistry, Issue 88, soft landing, mass selected ions, electrospray, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, organometallic, catalysis
High Throughput Quantitative Expression Screening and Purification Applied to Recombinant Disulfide-rich Venom Proteins Produced in E. coli
Institutions: Aix-Marseille Université, Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) Saclay, France.
Escherichia coli (E. coli)
is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, purifying proteins is sometimes challenging since many proteins are expressed in an insoluble form. When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. The protocols were automated with the use of a liquid handling robot but can also be performed manually without specialized equipment.
Disulfide-rich venom proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their potential as therapeutic drug leads. They can be highly potent and selective, but their complex disulfide bond networks make them challenging to produce. As a member of the FP7 European Venomics project (www.venomics.eu), our challenge is to develop successful production strategies with the aim of producing thousands of novel venom proteins for functional characterization. Aided by the redox properties of disulfide bond isomerase DsbC, we adapted our HTP production pipeline for the expression of oxidized, functional venom peptides in the E. coli
cytoplasm. The protocols are also applicable to the production of diverse disulfide-rich proteins. Here we demonstrate our pipeline applied to the production of animal venom proteins. With the protocols described herein it is likely that soluble disulfide-rich proteins will be obtained in as little as a week. Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive micro-assays.
Bioengineering, Issue 89, E. coli, expression, recombinant, high throughput (HTP), purification, auto-induction, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), tobacco etch virus protease (TEV) cleavage, disulfide bond isomerase C (DsbC) fusion, disulfide bonds, animal venom proteins/peptides
EPR Monitored Redox Titration of the Cofactors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nar1
Institutions: Delft University of Technology.
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) monitored redox titrations are a powerful method to determine the midpoint potential of cofactors in proteins and to identify and quantify the cofactors in their detectable redox state.
The technique is complementary to direct electrochemistry (voltammetry) approaches, as it does not offer information on electron transfer rates, but does establish the identity and redox state of the cofactors in the protein under study. The technique is widely applicable to any protein containing an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) detectable cofactor.
A typical titration requires 2 ml protein with a cofactor concentration in the range of 1-100 µM. The protein is titrated with a chemical reductant (sodium dithionite) or oxidant (potassium ferricyanide) in order to poise the sample at a certain potential. A platinum wire and a Ag/AgCl reference electrode are connected to a voltmeter to measure the potential of the protein solution. A set of 13 different redox mediators is used to equilibrate between the redox cofactors of the protein and the electrodes. Samples are drawn at different potentials and the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectra, characteristic for the different redox cofactors in the protein, are measured. The plot of the signal intensity versus the sample potential is analyzed using the Nernst equation in order to determine the midpoint potential of the cofactor.
Biochemistry, Issue 93, Redox titration, electron paramagnetic resonance, Nar1, cofactor, iron-sulfur cluster, mononuclear iron, midpoint potential
Glutamine Flux Imaging Using Genetically Encoded Sensors
Institutions: Virginia Tech.
Genetically encoded sensors allow real-time monitoring of biological molecules at a subcellular resolution. A tremendous variety of such sensors for biological molecules became available in the past 15 years, some of which became indispensable tools that are used routinely in many laboratories.
One of the exciting applications of genetically encoded sensors is the use of these sensors in investigating cellular transport processes. Properties of transporters such as kinetics and substrate specificities can be investigated at a cellular level, providing possibilities for cell-type specific analyses of transport activities. In this article, we will demonstrate how transporter dynamics can be observed using genetically encoded glutamine sensor as an example. Experimental design, technical details of the experimental settings, and considerations for post-experimental analyses will be discussed.
Bioengineering, Issue 89, glutamine sensors, FRET, metabolites, in vivo imaging, cellular transport, genetically encoded sensors
Nanomechanics of Drug-target Interactions and Antibacterial Resistance Detection
Institutions: University College London.
The cantilever sensor, which acts as a transducer of reactions between model bacterial cell wall matrix immobilized on its surface and antibiotic drugs in solution, has shown considerable potential in biochemical sensing applications with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity1-5
. The drug-target interactions generate surface stress, causing the cantilever to bend, and the signal can be analyzed optically when it is illuminated by a laser. The change in surface stress measured with nano-scale precision allows disruptions of the biomechanics of model bacterial cell wall targets to be tracked in real time. Despite offering considerable advantages, multiple cantilever sensor arrays have never been applied in quantifying drug-target binding interactions.
Here, we report on the use of silicon multiple cantilever arrays coated with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers mimicking bacterial cell wall matrix to quantitatively study antibiotic binding interactions. To understand the impact of vancomycin on the mechanics of bacterial cell wall structures1,6,7
. We developed a new model1
which proposes that cantilever bending can be described by two independent factors; i) namely a chemical factor, which is given by a classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm, from which we calculate the thermodynamic equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd
) and ii) a geometrical factor, essentially a measure of how bacterial peptide receptors are distributed on the cantilever surface. The surface distribution of peptide receptors (p
) is used to investigate the dependence of geometry and ligand loading. It is shown that a threshold value of p ~
10% is critical to sensing applications. Below which there is no detectable bending signal while above this value, the bending signal increases almost linearly, revealing that stress is a product of a local chemical binding factor and a geometrical factor combined by the mechanical connectivity of reacted regions and provides a new paradigm for design of powerful agents to combat superbug infections.
Immunology, Issue 80, Engineering, Technology, Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Early Diagnosis, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Lipids, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, Chemical Actions and Uses, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, Surface stress, vancomycin, mucopeptides, cantilever sensor
Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy
Institutions: University of Maine.
Localization-based super resolution microscopy can be applied to obtain a spatial map (image) of the distribution of individual fluorescently labeled single molecules within a sample with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. Using either photoactivatable (PAFP) or photoswitchable (PSFP) fluorescent proteins fused to proteins of interest, or organic dyes conjugated to antibodies or other molecules of interest, fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) can simultaneously image multiple species of molecules within single cells. By using the following approach, populations of large numbers (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of individual molecules are imaged in single cells and localized with a precision of ~10-30 nm. Data obtained can be applied to understanding the nanoscale spatial distributions of multiple protein types within a cell. One primary advantage of this technique is the dramatic increase in spatial resolution: while diffraction limits resolution to ~200-250 nm in conventional light microscopy, FPALM can image length scales more than an order of magnitude smaller. As many biological hypotheses concern the spatial relationships among different biomolecules, the improved resolution of FPALM can provide insight into questions of cellular organization which have previously been inaccessible to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In addition to detailing the methods for sample preparation and data acquisition, we here describe the optical setup for FPALM. One additional consideration for researchers wishing to do super-resolution microscopy is cost: in-house setups are significantly cheaper than most commercially available imaging machines. Limitations of this technique include the need for optimizing the labeling of molecules of interest within cell samples, and the need for post-processing software to visualize results. We here describe the use of PAFP and PSFP expression to image two protein species in fixed cells. Extension of the technique to living cells is also described.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Microscopy, Super-resolution imaging, Multicolor, single molecule, FPALM, Localization microscopy, fluorescent proteins
Production and Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Cancers
Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine.
Reactive oxygen species include a number of molecules that damage DNA and RNA and oxidize proteins and lipids (lipid peroxydation). These reactive molecules contain an oxygen and include H2
(hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), O2-
(oxide anion), peroxynitrite (ONOO-
), hydrochlorous acid (HOCl), and hydroxyl radical (OH-
Oxidative species are produced not only under pathological situations (cancers, ischemic/reperfusion, neurologic and cardiovascular pathologies, infectious diseases, inflammatory diseases 1
, autoimmune diseases 2
, etc…) but also during physiological (non-pathological) situations such as cellular metabolism 3, 4
. Indeed, ROS play important roles in many cellular signaling pathways (proliferation, cell activation 5, 6
, migration 7
etc..). ROS can be detrimental (it is then referred to as "oxidative and nitrosative stress") when produced in high amounts in the intracellular compartments and cells generally respond to ROS by upregulating antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) that protects them by converting dangerous free radicals to harmless molecules (i.e. water). Vitamins C and E have also been described as ROS scavengers (antioxidants).
Free radicals are beneficial in low amounts 3
. Macrophage and neutrophils-mediated immune responses involve the production and release of NO, which inhibits viruses, pathogens and tumor proliferation 8
. NO also reacts with other ROS and thus, also has a role as a detoxifier (ROS scavenger). Finally NO acts on vessels to regulate blood flow which is important for the adaptation of muscle to prolonged exercise 9, 10
. Several publications have also demonstrated that ROS are involved in insulin sensitivity 11, 12
Numerous methods to evaluate ROS production are available. In this article we propose several simple, fast, and affordable assays; these assays have been validated by many publications and are routinely used to detect ROS or its effects in mammalian cells. While some of these assays detect multiple ROS, others detect only a single ROS.
Medicine, Issue 57, reactive oxygen species (ROS), stress, ischemia, cancer, chemotherapy, immune response
Detection of Toxin Translocation into the Host Cytosol by Surface Plasmon Resonance
Institutions: University of Central Florida.
AB toxins consist of an enzymatic A subunit and a cell-binding B subunit1
. These toxins are secreted into the extracellular milieu, but they act upon targets within the eukaryotic cytosol. Some AB toxins travel by vesicle carriers from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before entering the cytosol2-4
. In the ER, the catalytic A chain dissociates from the rest of the toxin and moves through a protein-conducting channel to reach its cytosolic target5
. The translocated, cytosolic A chain is difficult to detect because toxin trafficking to the ER is an extremely inefficient process: most internalized toxin is routed to the lysosomes for degradation, so only a small fraction of surface-bound toxin reaches the Golgi apparatus and ER6-12
To monitor toxin translocation from the ER to the cytosol in cultured cells, we combined a subcellular fractionation protocol with the highly sensitive detection method of surface plasmon resonance (SPR)13-15
. The plasma membrane of toxin-treated cells is selectively permeabilized with digitonin, allowing collection of a cytosolic fraction which is subsequently perfused over an SPR sensor coated with an anti-toxin A chain antibody. The antibody-coated sensor can capture and detect pg/mL quantities of cytosolic toxin. With this protocol, it is possible to follow the kinetics of toxin entry into the cytosol and to characterize inhibitory effects on the translocation event. The concentration of cytosolic toxin can also be calculated from a standard curve generated with known quantities of A chain standards that have been perfused over the sensor. Our method represents a rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection system that does not require radiolabeling or other modifications to the target toxin.
Immunology, Issue 59, Surface plasmon resonance, AB toxin, translocation, endoplasmic reticulum, cell culture, cholera toxin, pertussis toxin
Profiling Thiol Redox Proteome Using Isotope Tagging Mass Spectrometry
Institutions: University of Florida , University of Florida , University of Florida , University of Florida .
strain DC3000 not only causes bacterial speck disease in Solanum lycopersicum
but also on Brassica
species, as well as on Arabidopsis thaliana
, a genetically tractable host plant1,2
. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cotyledons inoculated with DC3000 indicates a role of ROS in modulating necrotic cell death during bacterial speck disease of tomato3
. Hydrogen peroxide, a component of ROS, is produced after inoculation of tomato plants with Pseudomonas3
. Hydrogen peroxide can be detected using a histochemical stain 3'-3' diaminobenzidine (DAB)4
. DAB staining reacts with hydrogen peroxide to produce a brown stain on the leaf tissue4
. ROS has a regulatory role of the cellular redox environment, which can change the redox status of certain proteins5
. Cysteine is an important amino acid sensitive to redox changes. Under mild oxidation, reversible oxidation of cysteine sulfhydryl groups serves as redox sensors and signal transducers that regulate a variety of physiological processes6,7
. Tandem mass tag (TMT) reagents enable concurrent identification and multiplexed quantitation of proteins in different samples using tandem mass spectrometry8,9
. The cysteine-reactive TMT (cysTMT) reagents enable selective labeling and relative quantitation of cysteine-containing peptides from up to six biological samples. Each isobaric cysTMT tag has the same nominal parent mass and is composed of a sulfhydryl-reactive group, a MS-neutral spacer arm and an MS/MS reporter10
. After labeling, the samples were subject to protease digestion. The cysteine-labeled peptides were enriched using a resin containing anti-TMT antibody. During MS/MS analysis, a series of reporter ions (i.e., 126-131 Da) emerge in the low mass region, providing information on relative quantitation. The workflow is effective for reducing sample complexity, improving dynamic range and studying cysteine modifications. Here we present redox proteomic analysis of the Pst
DC3000 treated tomato (Rio Grande) leaves using cysTMT technology. This high-throughput method has the potential to be applied to studying other redox-regulated physiological processes.
Genetics, Issue 61, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), redox proteome, cysteine-reactive tandem mass tag (cysTMT), LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry
Bacterial Detection & Identification Using Electrochemical Sensors
Institutions: Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, University of California, Los Angeles , GeneFluidics, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, University of California, Los Angeles .
Electrochemical sensors are widely used for rapid and accurate measurement of blood glucose and can be adapted for detection of a wide variety of analytes. Electrochemical sensors operate by transducing a biological recognition event into a useful electrical signal. Signal transduction occurs by coupling the activity of a redox enzyme to an amperometric electrode. Sensor specificity is either an inherent characteristic of the enzyme, glucose oxidase in the case of a glucose sensor, or a product of linkage between the enzyme and an antibody or probe.
Here, we describe an electrochemical sensor assay method to directly detect and identify bacteria. In every case, the probes described here are DNA oligonucleotides. This method is based on sandwich hybridization of capture and detector probes with target ribosomal RNA (rRNA). The capture probe is anchored to the sensor surface, while the detector probe is linked to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). When a substrate such as 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is added to an electrode with capture-target-detector complexes bound to its surface, the substrate is oxidized by HRP and reduced by the working electrode. This redox cycle results in shuttling of electrons by the substrate from the electrode to HRP, producing current flow in the electrode.
Bioengineering, Issue 74, Microbiology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Immunology, Bacteria, Electrochemical sensor, ribosomal RNA, rRNA, 16S RNA, DNA, probe, assay
Preparation and Use of Samarium Diiodide (SmI2) in Organic Synthesis: The Mechanistic Role of HMPA and Ni(II) Salts in the Samarium Barbier Reaction
Institutions: Lehigh University .
Although initially considered an esoteric reagent, SmI2
has become a common tool for synthetic organic chemists. SmI2
is generated through the addition of molecular iodine to samarium metal in THF.1,2-3
It is a mild and selective single electron reductant and its versatility is a result of its ability to initiate a wide range of reductions including C-C bond-forming and cascade or sequential reactions. SmI2
can reduce a variety of functional groups including sulfoxides and sulfones, phosphine oxides, epoxides, alkyl and aryl halides, carbonyls, and conjugated double bonds.2-12
One of the fascinating features of SmI-2
-mediated reactions is the ability to manipulate the outcome of reactions through the selective use of cosolvents or additives. In most instances, additives are essential in controlling the rate of reduction and the chemo- or stereoselectivity of reactions.13-14
Additives commonly utilized to fine tune the reactivity of SmI2
can be classified into three major groups: (1) Lewis bases (HMPA, other electron-donor ligands, chelating ethers, etc.), (2) proton sources (alcohols, water etc.), and (3) inorganic additives (Ni(acac)2
Understanding the mechanism of SmI2
reactions and the role of the additives enables utilization of the full potential of the reagent in organic synthesis. The Sm-Barbier reaction is chosen to illustrate the synthetic importance and mechanistic role of two common additives: HMPA and Ni(II) in this reaction. The Sm-Barbier reaction is similar to the traditional Grignard reaction with the only difference being that the alkyl halide, carbonyl, and Sm reductant are mixed simultaneously in one pot.1,15
Examples of Sm-mediated Barbier reactions with a range of coupling partners have been reported,1,3,7,10,12
and have been utilized in key steps of the synthesis of large natural products.16,17
Previous studies on the effect of additives on SmI2
reactions have shown that HMPA enhances the reduction potential of SmI2
by coordinating to the samarium metal center, producing a more powerful,13-14,18
sterically encumbered reductant19-21
and in some cases playing an integral role in post electron-transfer steps facilitating subsequent bond-forming events.22
In the Sm-Barbier reaction, HMPA has been shown to additionally activate the alkyl halide by forming a complex in a pre-equilibrium step.23
Ni(II) salts are a catalytic additive used frequently in Sm-mediated transformations.24-27
Though critical for success, the mechanistic role of Ni(II) was not known in these reactions. Recently it has been shown that SmI2
reduces Ni(II) to Ni(0), and the reaction is then carried out through organometallic Ni(0) chemistry.28
These mechanistic studies highlight that although the same Barbier product is obtained, the use of different additives in the SmI2
reaction drastically alters the mechanistic pathway of the reaction. The protocol for running these SmI2
-initiated reactions is described.
Chemistry, Issue 72, Organic Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biochemistry, Samarium diiodide, Sml2, Samarium-Barbier Reaction, HMPA, hexamethylphosphoramide, Ni(II), Nickel(II) acetylacetonate, nickel, samarium, iodine, additives, synthesis, catalyst, reaction, synthetic organic chemistry
Determination of the Gas-phase Acidities of Oligopeptides
Institutions: University of the Pacific.
Amino acid residues located at different positions in folded proteins often exhibit different degrees of acidities. For example, a cysteine residue located at or near the N-terminus of a helix is often more acidic than that at or near the C-terminus 1-6
. Although extensive experimental studies on the acid-base properties of peptides have been carried out in the condensed phase, in particular in aqueous solutions 6-8
, the results are often complicated by solvent effects 7
. In fact, most of the active sites in proteins are located near the interior region where solvent effects have been minimized 9,10
. In order to understand intrinsic acid-base properties of peptides and proteins, it is important to perform the studies in a solvent-free environment.
We present a method to measure the acidities of oligopeptides in the gas-phase. We use a cysteine-containing oligopeptide, Ala3
CH), as the model compound. The measurements are based on the well-established extended Cooks kinetic method (Figure 1
. The experiments are carried out using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer interfaced with an electrospray ionization (ESI) ion source (Figure 2
). For each peptide sample, several reference acids are selected. The reference acids are structurally similar organic compounds with known gas-phase acidities. A solution of the mixture of the peptide and a reference acid is introduced into the mass spectrometer, and a gas-phase proton-bound anionic cluster of peptide-reference acid is formed. The proton-bound cluster is mass isolated and subsequently fragmented via collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. The resulting fragment ion abundances are analyzed using a relationship between the acidities and the cluster ion dissociation kinetics. The gas-phase acidity of the peptide is then obtained by linear regression of the thermo-kinetic plots 17,18
The method can be applied to a variety of molecular systems, including organic compounds, amino acids and their derivatives, oligonucleotides, and oligopeptides. By comparing the gas-phase acidities measured experimentally with those values calculated for different conformers, conformational effects on the acidities can be evaluated.
Chemistry, Issue 76, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Oligopeptide, gas-phase acidity, kinetic method, collision-induced dissociation, triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry, oligopeptides, peptides, mass spectrometry, MS
Detection of Protein Palmitoylation in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons by Immunoprecipitation and Acyl-Biotin Exchange (ABE)
Institutions: University of British Columbia .
Palmitoylation is a post-translational lipid modification involving the attachment of a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitate, to cysteine residues of substrate proteins through a labile thioester bond [reviewed in1
]. Palmitoylation of a substrate protein increases its hydrophobicity, and typically facilitates its trafficking toward cellular membranes. Recent studies have shown palmitoylation to be one of the most common lipid modifications in neurons1, 2
, suggesting that palmitate turnover is an important mechanism by which these cells regulate the targeting and trafficking of proteins. The identification and detection of palmitoylated substrates can therefore better our understanding of protein trafficking in neurons.
Detection of protein palmitoylation in the past has been technically hindered due to the lack of a consensus sequence among substrate proteins, and the reliance on metabolic labeling of palmitoyl-proteins with 3
H-palmitate, a time-consuming biochemical assay with low sensitivity. Development of the Acyl-Biotin Exchange (ABE) assay enables more rapid and high sensitivity detection of palmitoylated proteins2-4
, and is optimal for measuring the dynamic turnover of palmitate on neuronal proteins. The ABE assay is comprised of three biochemical steps (Figure 1
): 1) irreversible blockade of unmodified cysteine thiol groups using N-ethylmaliemide (NEM), 2) specific cleavage and unmasking of the palmitoylated cysteine's thiol group by hydroxylamine (HAM), and 3) selective labeling of the palmitoylated cysteine using a thiol-reactive biotinylation reagent, biotin-BMCC. Purification of the thiol-biotinylated proteins following the ABE steps has differed, depending on the overall goal of the experiment.
Here, we describe a method to purify a palmitoylated protein of interest in primary hippocampal neurons by an initial immunoprecipitation (IP) step using an antibody directed against the protein, followed by the ABE assay and western blotting to directly measure palmitoylation levels of that protein, which is termed the IP-ABE assay. Low-density cultures of embryonic rat hippocampal neurons have been widely used to study the localization, function, and trafficking of neuronal proteins, making them ideally suited for studying neuronal protein palmitoylation using the IP-ABE assay. The IP-ABE assay mainly requires standard IP and western blotting reagents, and is only limited by the availability of antibodies against the target substrate. This assay can easily be adapted for the purification and detection of transfected palmitoylated proteins in heterologous cell cultures, primary neuronal cultures derived from various brain tissues of both mouse and rat, and even primary brain tissue itself.
Neuroscience, Issue 72, Biochemistry, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Proteins, synapse, cultured hippocampal neurons, palmitoylation, lipid, immunoprecipitation, western blotting, biotin, Acyl-Biotin Exchange, ABE, neuron, brain, cell culture, rat, mouse, animal model
Metabolic Labeling of Newly Transcribed RNA for High Resolution Gene Expression Profiling of RNA Synthesis, Processing and Decay in Cell Culture
Institutions: Max von Pettenkofer Institute, University of Cambridge, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich.
The development of whole-transcriptome microarrays and next-generation sequencing has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity of cellular gene expression. Along with a better understanding of the involved molecular mechanisms, precise measurements of the underlying kinetics have become increasingly important. Here, these powerful methodologies face major limitations due to intrinsic properties of the template samples they study, i.e.
total cellular RNA. In many cases changes in total cellular RNA occur either too slowly or too quickly to represent the underlying molecular events and their kinetics with sufficient resolution. In addition, the contribution of alterations in RNA synthesis, processing, and decay are not readily differentiated.
We recently developed high-resolution gene expression profiling to overcome these limitations. Our approach is based on metabolic labeling of newly transcribed RNA with 4-thiouridine (thus also referred to as 4sU-tagging) followed by rigorous purification of newly transcribed RNA using thiol-specific biotinylation and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. It is applicable to a broad range of organisms including vertebrates, Drosophila
, and yeast. We successfully applied 4sU-tagging to study real-time kinetics of transcription factor activities, provide precise measurements of RNA half-lives, and obtain novel insights into the kinetics of RNA processing. Finally, computational modeling can be employed to generate an integrated, comprehensive analysis of the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Genetics, Issue 78, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Eukaryota, Investigative Techniques, Biological Phenomena, Gene expression profiling, RNA synthesis, RNA processing, RNA decay, 4-thiouridine, 4sU-tagging, microarray analysis, RNA-seq, RNA, DNA, PCR, sequencing
Ratiometric Biosensors that Measure Mitochondrial Redox State and ATP in Living Yeast Cells
Institutions: Columbia University, Columbia University.
Mitochondria have roles in many cellular processes, from energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis to control of cellular lifespan and programmed cell death. These processes affect and are affected by the redox status of and ATP production by mitochondria. Here, we describe the use of two ratiometric, genetically encoded biosensors that can detect mitochondrial redox state and ATP levels at subcellular resolution in living yeast cells. Mitochondrial redox state is measured using redox-sensitive Green Fluorescent Protein (roGFP) that is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. Mito-roGFP contains cysteines at positions 147 and 204 of GFP, which undergo reversible and environment-dependent oxidation and reduction, which in turn alter the excitation spectrum of the protein. MitGO-ATeam is a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe in which the ε subunit of the Fo
-ATP synthase is sandwiched between FRET donor and acceptor fluorescent proteins. Binding of ATP to the ε subunit results in conformation changes in the protein that bring the FRET donor and acceptor in close proximity and allow for fluorescence resonance energy transfer from the donor to acceptor.
Bioengineering, Issue 77, Microbiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, life sciences, roGFP, redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein, GO-ATeam, ATP, FRET, ROS, mitochondria, biosensors, GFP, ImageJ, microscopy, confocal microscopy, cell, imaging
Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer to Study Conformational Changes in Membrane Proteins Expressed in Mammalian Cells
Institutions: University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.
Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, or LRET, is a powerful technique used to measure distances between two sites in proteins within the distance range of 10-100 Å. By measuring the distances under various ligated conditions, conformational changes of the protein can be easily assessed. With LRET, a lanthanide, most often chelated terbium, is used as the donor fluorophore, affording advantages such as a longer donor-only emission lifetime, the flexibility to use multiple acceptor fluorophores, and the opportunity to detect sensitized acceptor emission as an easy way to measure energy transfer without the risk of also detecting donor-only signal. Here, we describe a method to use LRET on membrane proteins expressed and assayed on the surface of intact mammalian cells. We introduce a protease cleavage site between the LRET fluorophore pair. After obtaining the original LRET signal, cleavage at that site removes the specific LRET signal from the protein of interest allowing us to quantitatively subtract the background signal that remains after cleavage. This method allows for more physiologically relevant measurements to be made without the need for purification of protein.
Bioengineering, Issue 91, LRET, FRET, Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, glutamate receptors, acid sensing ion channel, protein conformation, protein dynamics, fluorescence, protein-protein interactions