Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
Multiplex Detection of Bacteria in Complex Clinical and Environmental Samples using Oligonucleotide-coupled Fluorescent Microspheres
Institutions: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, University of Saskatchewan , National Research Council of Canada.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a recurring polymicrobial syndrome that is characterized by a change in the "normal" microbiota from Lactobacillus
-dominated to a microbiota dominated by a number of bacterial species, including Gardnerella vaginalis
, Atopobium vaginae
, and others1-3
. This condition is associated with a range of negative health outcomes, including HIV acquisition4
, and it can be difficult to manage clinically5
. Furthermore, diagnosis of BV has relied on the use of Gram stains of vaginal swab smears that are scored on various numerical criteria6,7
. While this diagnostic is simple, inexpensive, and well suited to resource-limited settings, it can suffer from problems related to subjective interpretations and it does not give a detailed profile of the composition of the vaginal microbiota8
. Recent deep sequencing efforts have revealed a rich, diverse vaginal microbiota with clear differences between samples taken from individuals that are diagnosed with BV compared to those individuals that are considered normal9,10
, which has resulted in the identification of a number of potential targets for molecular diagnosis of BV11,12
. These studies have provided a wealth of useful information, but deep sequencing is not yet practical as a diagnostic method in a clinical setting. We have recently described a method for rapidly profiling the vaginal microbiota in a multiplex format using oligonucleotide-coupled fluorescent beads with detection on a Luminex platform13
. This method, like current Gram stain-based methods, is rapid and simple but adds the additional advantage of exploiting molecular knowledge arising from sequencing studies in probe design. This method therefore provides a way to profile the major microorganisms that are present in a vaginal swab that can be used to diagnose BV with high specificity and sensitivity compared to Gram stain while providing additional information on species presence and abundance in a semi-quantitative and rapid manner. This multiplex method is expandable well beyond the range of current quantitative PCR assays for particular organisms, which is currently limited to 5 or 6 different assays in a single sample14
. Importantly, the method is not limited to the detection of bacteria in vaginal swabs and can be easily adapted to rapidly profile nearly any microbial community of interest. For example, we have recently begun to apply this methodology to the development of diagnostic tools for use in wastewater treatment plants.
Immunology, Issue 56, Medicine, chaperonin-60, hsp60, luminex, multiplex, diagnostics, bacterial vaginosis, PCR
Humanized Mouse Model to Study Bacterial Infections Targeting the Microvasculature
Institutions: Paris Cardiovascular Research Centre, Université Paris Descartes.
causes a severe, frequently fatal sepsis when it enters the human blood stream. Infection leads to extensive damage of the blood vessels resulting in vascular leak, the development of purpuric rashes and eventual tissue necrosis. Studying the pathogenesis of this infection was previously limited by the human specificity of the bacteria, which makes in vivo
models difficult. In this protocol, we describe a humanized model for this infection in which human skin, containing dermal microvessels, is grafted onto immunocompromised mice. These vessels anastomose with the mouse circulation while maintaining their human characteristics. Once introduced into this model, N. meningitidis
adhere exclusively to the human vessels, resulting in extensive vascular damage, inflammation and in some cases the development of purpuric rash. This protocol describes the grafting, infection and evaluation steps of this model in the context of N. meningitidis
infection. The technique may be applied to numerous human specific pathogens that infect the blood stream.
Infection, Issue 86, Disease Models, Bacteria, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Neisseria meningitidis, purpura, vascular infection, humanized model
Characterization of Inflammatory Responses During Intranasal Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae
Institutions: McMaster University .
Nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae
is a prerequisite to invasion to the lungs or bloodstream1
. This organism is capable of colonizing the mucosal surface of the nasopharynx, where it can reside, multiply and eventually overcome host defences to invade to other tissues of the host. Establishment of an infection in the normally lower respiratory tract results in pneumonia. Alternatively, the bacteria can disseminate into the bloodstream causing bacteraemia, which is associated with high mortality rates2
, or else lead directly to the development of pneumococcal meningitis. Understanding the kinetics of, and immune responses to, nasopharyngeal colonization is an important aspect of S. pneumoniae
Our mouse model of intranasal colonization is adapted from human models3
and has been used by multiple research groups in the study of host-pathogen responses in the nasopharynx4-7
. In the first part of the model, we use a clinical isolate of S. pneumoniae
to establish a self-limiting bacterial colonization that is similar to carriage events in human adults. The procedure detailed herein involves preparation of a bacterial inoculum, followed by the establishment of a colonization event through delivery of the inoculum via an intranasal route of administration. Resident macrophages are the predominant cell type in the nasopharynx during the steady state. Typically, there are few lymphocytes present in uninfected mice8
, however mucosal colonization will lead to low- to high-grade inflammation (depending on the virulence of the bacterial species and strain) that will result in an immune response and the subsequent recruitment of host immune cells. These cells can be isolated by a lavage of the tracheal contents through the nares, and correlated to the density of colonization bacteria to better understand the kinetics of the infection.
Immunology, Issue 83, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Nasal lavage, nasopharynx, murine, flow cytometry, RNA, Quantitative PCR, recruited macrophages, neutrophils, T-cells, effector cells, intranasal colonization
Fluorescence Microscopy Methods for Determining the Viability of Bacteria in Association with Mammalian Cells
Institutions: University of Virginia Health Sciences Center.
Central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis is the ability to define if and how microbes survive after exposure to eukaryotic cells. Current protocols to address these questions include colony count assays, gentamicin protection assays, and electron microscopy. Colony count and gentamicin protection assays only assess the viability of the entire bacterial population and are unable to determine individual bacterial viability. Electron microscopy can be used to determine the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding their localization in host cells. However, bacteria often display a range of electron densities, making assessment of viability difficult. This article outlines protocols for the use of fluorescent dyes that reveal the viability of individual bacteria inside and associated with host cells. These assays were developed originally to assess survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
in primary human neutrophils, but should be applicable to any bacterium-host cell interaction. These protocols combine membrane-permeable fluorescent dyes (SYTO9 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]), which stain all bacteria, with membrane-impermeable fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide and SYTOX Green), which are only accessible to nonviable bacteria. Prior to eukaryotic cell permeabilization, an antibody or fluorescent reagent is added to identify extracellular bacteria. Thus these assays discriminate the viability of bacteria adherent to and inside eukaryotic cells. A protocol is also provided for using the viability dyes in combination with fluorescent antibodies to eukaryotic cell markers, in order to determine the subcellular localization of individual bacteria. The bacterial viability dyes discussed in this article are a sensitive complement and/or alternative to traditional microbiology techniques to evaluate the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding where bacteria survive in host cells.
Microbiology, Issue 79, Immunology, Infection, Cancer Biology, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Microscopy, Confocal, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Bacteria, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, bacteria, infection, viability, fluorescence microscopy, cell, imaging
Enteric Bacterial Invasion Of Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vitro Is Dramatically Enhanced Using a Vertical Diffusion Chamber Model
Institutions: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.
The interactions of bacterial pathogens with host cells have been investigated extensively using in vitro
cell culture methods. However as such cell culture assays are performed under aerobic conditions, these in vitro
models may not accurately represent the in vivo
environment in which the host-pathogen interactions take place. We have developed an in vitro
model of infection that permits the coculture of bacteria and host cells under different medium and gas conditions. The Vertical Diffusion Chamber (VDC) model mimics the conditions in the human intestine where bacteria will be under conditions of very low oxygen whilst tissue will be supplied with oxygen from the blood stream. Placing polarized intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) monolayers grown in Snapwell inserts into a VDC creates separate apical and basolateral compartments. The basolateral compartment is filled with cell culture medium, sealed and perfused with oxygen whilst the apical compartment is filled with broth, kept open and incubated under microaerobic conditions. Both Caco-2 and T84 IECs can be maintained in the VDC under these conditions without any apparent detrimental effects on cell survival or monolayer integrity. Coculturing experiments performed with different C. jejuni
wild-type strains and different IEC lines in the VDC model with microaerobic conditions in the apical compartment reproducibly result in an increase in the number of interacting (almost 10-fold) and intracellular (almost 100-fold) bacteria compared to aerobic culture conditions1
. The environment created in the VDC model more closely mimics the environment encountered by C. jejuni
in the human intestine and highlights the importance of performing in vitro
infection assays under conditions that more closely mimic the in vivo
reality. We propose that use of the VDC model will allow new interpretations of the interactions between bacterial pathogens and host cells.
Infection, Issue 80, Gram-Negative Bacteria, Bacterial Infections, Gastrointestinal Diseases, Campylobacter jejuni, bacterial invasion, intestinal epithelial cells, models of infection
In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, MGH for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Mucosal surfaces serve as protective barriers against pathogenic organisms. Innate immune responses are activated upon sensing pathogen leading to the infiltration of tissues with migrating inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. This process has the potential to be destructive to tissues if excessive or held in an unresolved state. Cocultured in vitro
models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. This type of model provides versatility in experimental design with opportunity for controlled manipulation of the pathogen, epithelial barrier, or neutrophil. Pathogenic infection of the apical surface of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable transwell filters instigates physiologically relevant basolateral to apical trans-epithelial migration of neutrophils applied to the basolateral surface. The in vitro
model described herein demonstrates the multiple steps necessary for demonstrating neutrophil migration across a polarized lung epithelial monolayer that has been infected with pathogenic P. aeruginosa
(PAO1). Seeding and culturing of permeable transwells with human derived lung epithelial cells is described, along with isolation of neutrophils from whole human blood and culturing of PAO1 and nonpathogenic K12 E. coli
(MC1000). The emigrational process and quantitative analysis of successfully migrated neutrophils that have been mobilized in response to pathogenic infection is shown with representative data, including positive and negative controls. This in vitro
model system can be manipulated and applied to other mucosal surfaces. Inflammatory responses that involve excessive neutrophil infiltration can be destructive to host tissues and can occur in the absence of pathogenic infections. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote neutrophil trans-epithelial migration through experimental manipulation of the in vitro
coculture assay system described herein has significant potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for a range of mucosal infectious as well as inflammatory diseases.
Infection, Issue 83, Cellular Biology, Epithelium, Neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Neutrophils, epithelial barriers, pathogens, transmigration
Use of Shigella flexneri to Study Autophagy-Cytoskeleton Interactions
Institutions: Imperial College London, Institut Pasteur, Unité Macrophages et Développement de l'Immunité.
is an intracellular pathogen that can escape from phagosomes to reach the cytosol, and polymerize the host actin cytoskeleton to promote its motility and dissemination. New work has shown that proteins involved in actin-based motility are also linked to autophagy, an intracellular degradation process crucial for cell autonomous immunity. Strikingly, host cells may prevent actin-based motility of S. flexneri
by compartmentalizing bacteria inside ‘septin cages’ and targeting them to autophagy. These observations indicate that a more complete understanding of septins, a family of filamentous GTP-binding proteins, will provide new insights into the process of autophagy. This report describes protocols to monitor autophagy-cytoskeleton interactions caused by S. flexneri in vitro
using tissue culture cells and in vivo
using zebrafish larvae. These protocols enable investigation of intracellular mechanisms that control bacterial dissemination at the molecular, cellular, and whole organism level.
Infection, Issue 91, ATG8/LC3, autophagy, cytoskeleton, HeLa cells, p62, septin, Shigella, zebrafish
Using Coculture to Detect Chemically Mediated Interspecies Interactions
Institutions: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill .
In nature, bacteria rarely exist in isolation; they are instead surrounded by a diverse array of other microorganisms that alter the local environment by secreting metabolites. These metabolites have the potential to modulate the physiology and differentiation of their microbial neighbors and are likely important factors in the establishment and maintenance of complex microbial communities. We have developed a fluorescence-based coculture screen to identify such chemically mediated microbial interactions. The screen involves combining a fluorescent transcriptional reporter strain with environmental microbes on solid media and allowing the colonies to grow in coculture. The fluorescent transcriptional reporter is designed so that the chosen bacterial strain fluoresces when it is expressing a particular phenotype of interest (i.e.
biofilm formation, sporulation, virulence factor production, etc
.) Screening is performed under growth conditions where this phenotype is not
expressed (and therefore the reporter strain is typically nonfluorescent). When an environmental microbe secretes a metabolite that activates this phenotype, it diffuses through the agar and activates the fluorescent reporter construct. This allows the inducing-metabolite-producing microbe to be detected: they are the nonfluorescent colonies most proximal to the fluorescent colonies. Thus, this screen allows the identification of environmental microbes that produce diffusible metabolites that activate a particular physiological response in a reporter strain. This publication discusses how to: a) select appropriate coculture screening conditions, b) prepare the reporter and environmental microbes for screening, c) perform the coculture screen, d) isolate putative inducing organisms, and e) confirm their activity in a secondary screen. We developed this method to screen for soil organisms that activate biofilm matrix-production in Bacillus subtilis
; however, we also discuss considerations for applying this approach to other genetically tractable bacteria.
Microbiology, Issue 80, High-Throughput Screening Assays, Genes, Reporter, Microbial Interactions, Soil Microbiology, Coculture, microbial interactions, screen, fluorescent transcriptional reporters, Bacillus subtilis
Discovery of New Intracellular Pathogens by Amoebal Coculture and Amoebal Enrichment Approaches
Institutions: University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne.
Intracellular pathogens such as legionella, mycobacteria and Chlamydia-like organisms are difficult to isolate because they often grow poorly or not at all on selective media that are usually used to cultivate bacteria. For this reason, many of these pathogens were discovered only recently or following important outbreaks. These pathogens are often associated with amoebae, which serve as host-cell and allow the survival and growth of the bacteria. We intend here to provide a demonstration of two techniques that allow isolation and characterization of intracellular pathogens present in clinical or environmental samples: the amoebal coculture and the amoebal enrichment. Amoebal coculture allows recovery of intracellular bacteria by inoculating the investigated sample onto an amoebal lawn that can be infected and lysed by the intracellular bacteria present in the sample. Amoebal enrichment allows recovery of amoebae present in a clinical or environmental sample. This can lead to discovery of new amoebal species but also of new intracellular bacteria growing specifically in these amoebae. Together, these two techniques help to discover new intracellular bacteria able to grow in amoebae. Because of their ability to infect amoebae and resist phagocytosis, these intracellular bacteria might also escape phagocytosis by macrophages and thus, be pathogenic for higher eukaryotes.
Immunology, Issue 80, Environmental Microbiology, Soil Microbiology, Water Microbiology, Amoebae, microorganisms, coculture, obligate intracellular bacteria
Investigating the Effects of Probiotics on Pneumococcal Colonization Using an In Vitro Adherence Assay
Institutions: Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, The University of Melbourne.
Adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae
(the pneumococcus) to the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx can result in colonization and is considered a prerequisite for pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia and otitis media. In vitro
adherence assays can be used to study the attachment of pneumococci to epithelial cell monolayers and to investigate potential interventions, such as the use of probiotics, to inhibit pneumococcal colonization. The protocol described here is used to investigate the effects of the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius
on the adherence of pneumococci to the human epithelial cell line CCL-23 (sometimes referred to as HEp-2 cells). The assay involves three main steps: 1) preparation of epithelial and bacterial cells, 2) addition of bacteria to epithelial cell monolayers, and 3) detection of adherent pneumococci by viable counts (serial dilution and plating) or quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This technique is relatively straightforward and does not require specialized equipment other than a tissue culture setup. The assay can be used to test other probiotic species and/or potential inhibitors of pneumococcal colonization and can be easily modified to address other scientific questions regarding pneumococcal adherence and invasion.
Immunology, Issue 86, Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections, Pneumonia, Bacterial, Lung Diseases, Respiratory Tract Infections, Streptococcus pneumoniae, adherence, colonization, probiotics, Streptococcus salivarius, In Vitro assays
Measurement of Tactile Allodynia in a Murine Model of Bacterial Prostatitis
Institutions: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
(UPEC) are pathogens that play an important role in urinary tract infections and bacterial prostatitis1
. We have recently shown that UPEC have an important role in the initiation of chronic pelvic pain2
, a feature of Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS)3,4
. Infection of the prostate by clinically relevant UPEC can initiate and establish chronic pain through mechanisms that may involve tissue damage and the initiation of mechanisms of autoimmunity5
A challenge to understanding the pathogenesis of UPEC in the prostate is the relative inaccessibility of the prostate gland to manipulation. We utilized a previously described intraurethral infection method6
to deliver a clinical strain of UPEC into male mice thereby establishing an ascending infection of the prostate. Here, we describe our protocols for standardizing the bacterial inoculum7
as well as the procedure for catheterizing anesthetized male mice for instillation of bacteria.
CP/CPPS is primarily characterized by the presence of tactile allodynia4
. Behavior testing was based on the concept of cutaneous hyperalgesia resulting from referred visceral pain8-10
. An irritable focus in visceral tissues reduces cutaneous pain thresholds allowing for an exaggerated response to normally non-painful stimuli (allodynia). Application of normal force to the skin result in abnormal responses that tend to increase with the intensity of the underlying visceral pain. We describe methodology in NOD/ShiLtJ mice that utilize von Frey fibers to quantify tactile allodynia over time in response to a single infection with UPEC bacteria.
Infection, Issue 71, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, Medicine, Urology, Pathology, Autoimmune Diseases, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Male Urogenital Diseases, Bacterial pathogenesis, pain, autoimmunity, prostatitis, catheterization, mice, animal model
Single Cell Measurements of Vacuolar Rupture Caused by Intracellular Pathogens
Institutions: Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
are pathogenic bacteria that invade host cells entering into an endocytic vacuole. Subsequently, the rupture of this membrane-enclosed compartment allows bacteria to move within the cytosol, proliferate and further invade neighboring cells. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
is phagocytosed by immune cells, and has recently been shown to rupture phagosomal membrane in macrophages. We developed a robust assay for tracking phagosomal membrane disruption after host cell entry of Shigella flexneri
or Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. The approach makes use of CCF4, a FRET reporter sensitive to β-lactamase that equilibrates in the cytosol of host cells. Upon invasion of host cells by bacterial pathogens, the probe remains intact as long as the bacteria reside in membrane-enclosed compartments. After disruption of the vacuole, β-lactamase activity on the surface of the intracellular pathogen cleaves CCF4 instantly leading to a loss of FRET signal and switching its emission spectrum. This robust ratiometric assay yields accurate information about the timing of vacuolar rupture induced by the invading bacteria, and it can be coupled to automated microscopy and image processing by specialized algorithms for the detection of the emission signals of the FRET donor and acceptor. Further, it allows investigating the dynamics of vacuolar disruption elicited by intracellular bacteria in real time in single cells. Finally, it is perfectly suited for high-throughput analysis with a spatio-temporal resolution exceeding previous methods. Here, we provide the experimental details of exemplary protocols for the CCF4 vacuolar rupture assay on HeLa cells and THP-1 macrophages for time-lapse experiments or end points experiments using Shigella flexneri
as well as multiple mycobacterial strains such as Mycobacterium marinum
, Mycobacterium bovis,
and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Infection, Issue 76, Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Medicine, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Pathology, Bacteria, biology (general), life sciences, CCF4-AM, Shigella flexneri, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, vacuolar rupture, fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, pathogens, cell culture
Chronic Salmonella Infected Mouse Model
Institutions: University of Rochester.
The bacterial infected mouse model is a powerful model system for studying areas such as infection, inflammation, immunology, signal transduction, and tumorigenesis. Many researchers have taken advantage of the colitis induced by Salmonella
typhimurium for the studies on the early phase of inflammation and infection. However, only few reports are on the chronic infection in vivo
. Mice with Salmonella
persistent existence in the gastrointestinal tract allow us to explore the long-term host-bacterial interaction, signal transduction, and tumorigenesis. We have established a chronic bacterial infected mouse model with Salmonella
typhimurium colonization in the mouse intestine over 6 months. To use this system, it is necessary for the researcher to learn how to prepare the bacterial culture and gavage the animals. We detail a methodology for prepare bacterial culture and gavage mice. We also show how to detect the Salmonella
persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. Overall, this protocol will aid researchers using the bacterial infected mouse model to address fundamentally important biological and microbiological questions.
Microbiology, Issue 39, Salmonella, intestine, colitis, chronic infection, mouse model
Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles .
Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories
(BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection
(ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to:
● Perform plating procedures without contaminating media.
● Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating method.
● Use pour-plating and spread-plating methods to determine the concentration of bacteria.
● Perform soft agar overlays when working with phage.
● Transfer bacterial cells from one plate to another using the replica-plating procedure.
● Given an experimental task, select the appropriate plating method.
Basic Protocols, Issue 63, Streak plates, pour plates, soft agar overlays, spread plates, replica plates, bacteria, colonies, phage, plaques, dilutions
Application of a Mouse Ligated Peyer’s Patch Intestinal Loop Assay to Evaluate Bacterial Uptake by M cells
Institutions: RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology.
The inside of our gut is inhabited with enormous number of commensal bacteria. The mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to them and occasionally to pathogens. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) play a key role for induction of the mucosal immune response to these microbes1, 2
. To initiate the mucosal immune response, the mucosal antigens must be transported from the gut lumen across the epithelial barrier into organized lymphoid follicles such as Peyer's patches. This antigen transcytosis is mediated by specialized epithelial M cells3, 4
. M cells are atypical epithelial cells that actively phagocytose macromolecules and microbes. Unlike dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, which target antigens to lysosomes for degradation, M cells mainly transcytose the internalized antigens. This vigorous macromolecular transcytosis through M cells delivers antigen to the underlying organized lymphoid follicles and is believed to be essential for initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses. However, the molecular mechanisms promoting this antigen uptake by M cells are largely unknown. We have previously reported that glycoprotein 2 (Gp2), specifically expressed on the apical plasma membrane of M cells among enterocytes, serves as a transcytotic receptor for a subset of commensal and pathogenic enterobacteria, including Escherichia coli
and Salmonella enterica
serovar Typhimurium (S.
Typhimurium), by recognizing FimH, a component of type I pili on the bacterial outer membrane 5
. Here, we present a method for the application of a mouse Peyer's patch intestinal loop assay to evaluate bacterial uptake by M cells. This method is an improved version of the mouse intestinal loop assay previously described 6, 7
. The improved points are as follows: 1. Isoflurane was used as an anesthetic agent. 2. Approximately 1 cm ligated intestinal loop including Peyer's patch was set up. 3. Bacteria taken up by M cells were fluorescently labeled by fluorescence labeling reagent or by overexpressing fluorescent protein such as green fluorescent protein (GFP). 4. M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium covering Peyer's patch were detected by whole-mount immunostainig with anti Gp2 antibody. 5. Fluorescent bacterial transcytosis by M cells were observed by confocal microscopic analysis. The mouse Peyer's patch intestinal loop assay could supply the answer what kind of commensal or pathogenic bacteria transcytosed by M cells, and may lead us to understand the molecular mechanism of how to stimulate mucosal immune system through M cells.
Neuroscience, Issue 58, M cell, Peyer's patch, bacteria, immunosurveillance, confocal microscopy, Glycoprotein 2
One-day Workflow Scheme for Bacterial Pathogen Detection and Antimicrobial Resistance Testing from Blood Cultures
Institutions: Maastricht University Medical Center, Erasmus Medical Center.
Bloodstream infections are associated with high mortality rates because of the probable manifestation of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock1
. Therefore, rapid administration of adequate antibiotic therapy is of foremost importance in the treatment of bloodstream infections. The critical element in this process is timing, heavily dependent on the results of bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Both of these parameters are routinely obtained by culture-based testing, which is time-consuming and takes on average 24-48 hours2, 4
. The aim of the study was to develop DNA-based assays for rapid identification of bloodstream infections, as well as rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The first assay is a eubacterial 16S rDNA-based real-time PCR assay complemented with species- or genus-specific probes5
. Using these probes, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa
and Escherichia coli
as well as Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus
spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.,
and Streptococcus pneumoniae
could be distinguished. Using this multiprobe assay, a first identification of the causative micro-organism was given after 2 h.
Secondly, we developed a semi-molecular assay for antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus, Enterococcus
spp. and (facultative) aerobe Gram-negative rods6
. This assay was based on a study in which PCR was used to measure the growth of bacteria7
. Bacteria harvested directly from blood cultures are incubated for 6 h with a selection of antibiotics, and following a Sybr Green-based real-time PCR assay determines inhibition of growth. The combination of these two methods could direct the choice of a suitable antibiotic therapy on the same day (Figure 1
). In conclusion, molecular analysis of both identification and antibiotic susceptibility offers a faster alternative for pathogen detection and could improve the diagnosis of bloodstream infections.
Immunology, Issue 65, Infection, Medicine, Microbiology, Bacteria, real-time PCR, probes, pathogen detection, blood culture, 16S rDNA gene, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic susceptibility testing
Protocols for Vaginal Inoculation and Sample Collection in the Experimental Mouse Model of Candida vaginitis
Institutions: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida
species, is a fungal infection of the lower female genital tract that affects approximately 75% of otherwise healthy women during their reproductive years18,32-34
. Predisposing factors include antibiotic usage, uncontrolled diabetes and disturbance in reproductive hormone levels due to pregnancy, oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapies33,34
. Recurrent VVC (RVVC), defined as three or more episodes per year, affects a separate 5 to 8% of women with no predisposing factors33
An experimental mouse model of VVC has been established and used to study the pathogenesis and mucosal host response to Candida3,4,11,16,17,19,21,25,37
. This model has also been employed to test potential antifungal therapies in vivo13,24
. The model requires that the animals be maintained in a state of pseudoestrus for optimal Candida
. Under such conditions, inoculated animals will have detectable vaginal fungal burden for weeks to months. Past studies show an extremely high parallel between the animal model and human infection relative to immunological and physiological properties3,16,21
. Differences, however, include a lack of Candida
as normal vaginal flora and a neutral vaginal pH in the mice.
Here, we demonstrate a series of key methods in the mouse vaginitis model that include vaginal inoculation, rapid collection of vaginal specimens, assessment of vaginal fungal burden, and tissue preparations for cellular extraction/isolation. This is followed by representative results for constituents of vaginal lavage fluid, fungal burden, and draining lymph node leukocyte yields. With the use of anesthetics, lavage samples can be collected at multiple time points on the same mice for longitudinal evaluation of infection/colonization. Furthermore, this model requires no immunosuppressive agents to initiate infection, allowing immunological studies under defined host conditions. Finally, the model and each technique introduced here could potentially give rise to use of the methodologies to examine other infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract (bacterial, parasitic, viral) and respective local or systemic host defenses.
Immunology, Issue 58, Candida albicans, vaginitis, mouse, lumbar lymph nodes, vaginal tissues, vaginal lavage
Culturing and Applications of Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor Derived 3D Epithelial Cell Models
Institutions: University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix.
Cells and tissues in the body experience environmental conditions that influence their architecture, intercellular communications, and overall functions. For in vitro
cell culture models to accurately mimic the tissue of interest, the growth environment of the culture is a critical aspect to consider. Commonly used conventional cell culture systems propagate epithelial cells on flat two-dimensional (2-D) impermeable surfaces. Although much has been learned from conventional cell culture systems, many findings are not reproducible in human clinical trials or tissue explants, potentially as a result of the lack of a physiologically relevant microenvironment.
Here, we describe a culture system that overcomes many of the culture condition boundaries of 2-D cell cultures, by using the innovative rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology. We and others have shown that organotypic RWV-derived models can recapitulate structure, function, and authentic human responses to external stimuli similarly to human explant tissues 1-6
. The RWV bioreactor is a suspension culture system that allows for the growth of epithelial cells under low physiological fluid shear conditions. The bioreactors come in two different formats, a high-aspect rotating vessel (HARV) or a slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV), in which they differ by their aeration source. Epithelial cells are added to the bioreactor of choice in combination with porous, collagen-coated microcarrier beads (Figure 1A)
. The cells utilize the beads as a growth scaffold during the constant free fall in the bioreactor (Figure 1B)
. The microenvironment provided by the bioreactor allows the cells to form three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates displaying in vivo-
like characteristics often not observed under standard 2-D culture conditions (Figure 1D)
. These characteristics include tight junctions, mucus production, apical/basal orientation, in vivo
protein localization, and additional epithelial cell-type specific properties.
The progression from a monolayer of epithelial cells to a fully differentiated 3-D aggregate varies based on cell type1, 7-13
. Periodic sampling from the bioreactor allows for monitoring of epithelial aggregate formation, cellular differentiation markers and viability (Figure 1D)
. Once cellular differentiation and aggregate formation is established, the cells are harvested from the bioreactor, and similar assays performed on 2-D cells can be applied to the 3-D aggregates with a few considerations (Figure 1E-G)
. In this work, we describe detailed steps of how to culture 3-D epithelial cell aggregates in the RWV bioreactor system and a variety of potential assays and analyses that can be executed with the 3-D aggregates. These analyses include, but are not limited to, structural/morphological analysis (confocal, scanning and transmission electron microscopy), cytokine/chemokine secretion and cell signaling (cytometric bead array and Western blot analysis), gene expression analysis (real-time PCR), toxicological/drug analysis and host-pathogen interactions. The utilization of these assays set the foundation for more in-depth and expansive studies such as metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and other array-based applications. Our goal is to present a non-conventional means of culturing human epithelial cells to produce organotypic 3-D models that recapitulate the human in vivo
tissue, in a facile and robust system to be used by researchers with diverse scientific interests.
Cellular Biology, Issue 62, Rotating wall vessel bioreactor, female reproductive tract, human epithelial cells, three-dimensional in vitro cell culture, organotypic mucosal models, vaginal epithelial cells, microbicide, herpes simplex virus, toxicology, host-pathogen interactions, hormone receptors
A Novel Method for the Culture and Polarized Stimulation of Human Intestinal Mucosa Explants
Institutions: European Institute of Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Ospedale Policlinico di Milano.
Few models currently exist to realistically simulate the complex human intestine's micro-environment, where a variety of interactions take place. Proper homeostasis directly depends on these interactions, as they shape an entire immunological response inducing tolerance against food antigens while at the same time mounting effective immune responses against pathogenic microbes accidentally ingested with food.
Intestinal homeostasis is preserved also through various complex interactions between the microbiota (including food-associated beneficial bacterial strains) and the host, that regulate the attachment/degradation of mucus, the production of antimicrobial peptides by the epithelial barrier, and the "education" of epithelial cells' that controls the tolerogenic or immunogenic phenotype of unique, gut-resident lymphoid cells' populations. These interactions have been so far very difficult to reproduce with in vitro
assays using either cultured cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, mouse models differ substantially in components of the intestinal mucosa (mucus layer organization, commensal bacteria community) with respect to the human gut. Thus, studies of a variety of treatments to be brought in the clinics for important stress-related or pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer have been difficult to carry out.
To address these issues, we developed a novel system that enables us to stimulate explants of human intestinal mucosa that retain their in situ
conditioning by the host microbiota and immune response, in a polarized fashion. Polarized apical stimulation is of great importance for the outcome of the elicited immune response. It has been repeatedly shown that the same stimuli can produce completely different responses when they bypass the apical face of the intestinal epithelium, stimulating epithelial cells basolaterally or coming into direct contact with lamina propria components, switching the phenotype from tolerogenic to immunogenic and causing unnecessary and excessive inflammation in the area.
We achieved polarized stimulation by gluing a cave cylinder which delimited the area of stimulation on the apical face of the mucosa as will be described in the protocol. We used this model to examine, among others, differential effects of three different Lactobacilli
strains. We show that this model system is very powerful to assess the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in healthy and disease conditions.
Microbiology, Issue 75, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Bacteria, Tissue Engineering, Tissue culture, intestinal mucosa, polarized stimulation, probiotics, explants, Lactobacilli, microbiota, cell culture
Isolation of Lymphocytes from Mouse Genital Tract Mucosa
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles , California NanoSystems.
Mucosal surfaces, including in the gastrointestinal, urogenital, and respiratory tracts, provide portals of entry for pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria 1
. Mucosae are also inductive sites in the host to generate immunity against pathogens, such as the Peyers patches in the intestinal tract and the nasal-associated lymphoreticular tissue in the respiratory tract. This unique feature brings mucosal immunity as a crucial player of the host defense system. Many studies have been focused on gastrointestinal and respiratory mucosal sites. However, there has been little investigation of reproductive mucosal sites. The genital tract mucosa is the primary infection site for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including bacterial and viral infections. STDs are one of the most critical health challenges facing the world today. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there are 19 million new infectious every year in the United States. STDs cost the U.S. health care system $17 billion every year 2
, and cost individuals even more in immediate and life-long health consequences. In order to confront this challenge, a greater understanding of reproductive mucosal immunity is needed and isolating lymphocytes is an essential component of these studies. Here, we present a method to reproducibly isolate lymphocytes from murine female genital tracts for immunological studies that can be modified for adaption to other species. The method described below is based on one mouse.
Immunology, Issue 67, Mucosal immunity, sexually transmitted diseases, genital tract lymphocytes, lymphocyte isolation, flow cytometry, FACS
Transformation of Plasmid DNA into E. coli Using the Heat Shock Method
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Transformation of plasmid DNA into E. coli using the heat shock method is a basic technique of molecular biology. It consists of inserting a foreign plasmid or ligation product into bacteria. This video protocol describes the traditional method of transformation using commercially available chemically competent bacteria from Genlantis. After a short incubation in ice, a mixture of chemically competent bacteria and DNA is placed at 42°C for 45 seconds (heat shock) and then placed back in ice. SOC media is added and the transformed cells are incubated at 37°C for 30 min with agitation. To be assured of isolating colonies irrespective of transformation efficiency, two quantities of transformed bacteria are plated. This traditional protocol can be used successfully to transform most commercially available competent bacteria. The turbocells from Genlantis can also be used in a novel 3-minute transformation protocol, described in the instruction manual.
Issue 6, Basic Protocols, DNA, transformation, plasmid, cloning
Population Replacement Strategies for Controlling Vector Populations and the Use of Wolbachia pipientis for Genetic Drive
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University.
In this video, Jason Rasgon discusses population replacement strategies to control vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue. "Population replacement" is the replacement of wild vector populations (that are competent to transmit pathogens) with those that are not competent to transmit pathogens. There are several theoretical strategies to accomplish this. One is to exploit the maternally-inherited symbiotic bacteria Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a widespread reproductive parasite that spreads in a selfish manner at the extent of its host's fitness. Jason Rasgon discusses, in detail, the basic biology of this bacterial symbiont and various ways to use it for control of vector-borne diseases.
Cellular Biology, Issue 5, mosquito, malaria, genetics, infectious disease, Wolbachia