C. elegans egg-laying behavior is affected by environmental cues such as osmolarity1 and vibration2. In the total absence of food C. elegans also cease egg-laying and retain fertilized eggs in their uterus3. However, the effect of different sources of food, especially pathogenic bacteria and particularly Enterococcus faecalis, on egg-laying
behavior is not well characterized. The egg-in-worm (EIW) assay is a useful tool to quantify the effects of different types of bacteria, in this case E. faecalis, on egg- laying behavior.
EIW assays involve counting the number of eggs retained in the uterus of C. elegans4. The EIW assay involves bleaching staged, gravid adult C. elegans to remove the cuticle and separate the retained eggs from the animal. Prior to bleaching, worms are exposed to bacteria (or any type of environmental cue) for a fixed period of time. After bleaching, one is very easily able to count the number of eggs retained inside the uterus of the worms. In this assay, a quantifiable increase in egg retention after E. faecalis exposure can be easily measured. The EIW assay is a behavioral assay that may be used to screen for potentially pathogenic bacteria or the presence of environmental toxins. In addition, the EIW assay may be a tool to screen for drugs that affect neurotransmitter signaling since egg-laying behavior is modulated by neurotransmitters such as serotonin and acetylcholine5-9.
23 Related JoVE Articles!
The In ovo CAM-assay as a Xenograft Model for Sarcoma
Institutions: Ghent University Hospital, Ghent University, Ghent University, Pathlicon.
Sarcoma is a very rare disease that is heterogeneous in nature, all hampering the development of new therapies. Sarcoma patients are ideal candidates for personalized medicine after stratification, explaining the current interest in developing a reproducible and low-cost xenotransplant model for this disease. The chick chorioallantoic membrane is a natural immunodeficient host capable of sustaining grafted tissues and cells without species-specific restrictions. In addition, it is easily accessed, manipulated and imaged using optical and fluorescence stereomicroscopy. Histology further allows detailed analysis of heterotypic cellular interactions.
This protocol describes in detail the in ovo
grafting of the chorioallantoic membrane with fresh sarcoma-derived tumor tissues, their single cell suspensions, and permanent and transient fluorescently labeled established sarcoma cell lines (Saos-2 and SW1353). The chick survival rates are up to 75%. The model is used to study graft- (viability, Ki67 proliferation index, necrosis, infiltration) and host (fibroblast infiltration, vascular ingrowth) behavior. For localized grafting of single cell suspensions, ECM gel provides significant advantages over inert containment materials. The Ki67 proliferation index is related to the distance of the cells from the surface of the CAM and the duration of application on the CAM, the latter determining a time frame for the addition of therapeutic products.
Cancer Biology, Issue 77, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Developmental Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Oncology, Surgery, Adipose Tissue, Connective Tissue, Neoplasm, Muscle Tissue, Sarcoma, Animal Experimentation, Cell Culture Techniques, Neoplasms, Experimental, Neoplasm Transplantation, Biological Assay, Sarcomas, CAM-assay, CAM, assay, xenograft, proliferation, invasion, cancer, tumor, in ovo, animal model
A Method for Culturing Embryonic C. elegans Cells
Institutions: University of Miami .
is a powerful model system, in which genetic and molecular techniques are easily applicable. Until recently though, techniques that require direct access to cells and isolation of specific cell types, could not be applied in C. elegans
. This limitation was due to the fact that tissues are confined within a pressurized cuticle which is not easily digested by treatment with enzymes and/or detergents. Based on early pioneer work by Laird Bloom, Christensen and colleagues 1
developed a robust method for culturing C. elegans
embryonic cells in large scale. Eggs are isolated from gravid adults by treatment with bleach/NaOH and subsequently treated with chitinase to remove the eggshells. Embryonic cells are then dissociated by manual pipetting and plated onto substrate-covered glass in serum-enriched media. Within 24 hr of isolation cells begin to differentiate by changing morphology and by expressing cell specific markers. C. elegans
cells cultured using this method survive for up 2 weeks in vitro
and have been used for electrophysiological, immunochemical, and imaging analyses as well as they have been sorted and used for microarray profiling.
Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Eukaryota, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, C. elegans, cell culture, embryonic cells
Large-scale Gene Knockdown in C. elegans Using dsRNA Feeding Libraries to Generate Robust Loss-of-function Phenotypes
Institutions: University of Massachusetts, Amherst, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
RNA interference by feeding worms bacteria expressing dsRNAs has been a useful tool to assess gene function in C. elegans
. While this strategy works well when a small number of genes are targeted for knockdown, large scale feeding screens show variable knockdown efficiencies, which limits their utility. We have deconstructed previously published RNAi knockdown protocols and found that the primary source of the reduced knockdown can be attributed to the loss of dsRNA-encoding plasmids from the bacteria fed to the animals. Based on these observations, we have developed a dsRNA feeding protocol that greatly reduces or eliminates plasmid loss to achieve efficient, high throughput knockdown. We demonstrate that this protocol will produce robust, reproducible knock down of C. elegans
genes in multiple tissue types, including neurons, and will permit efficient knockdown in large scale screens. This protocol uses a commercially available dsRNA feeding library and describes all steps needed to duplicate the library and perform dsRNA screens. The protocol does not require the use of any sophisticated equipment, and can therefore be performed by any C. elegans
Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), Gene Knockdown Techniques, C. elegans, dsRNA interference, gene knockdown, large scale feeding screen
Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model System to Study Protein Homeostasis in a Multicellular Organism
Institutions: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
The folding and assembly of proteins is essential for protein function, the long-term health of the cell, and longevity of the organism. Historically, the function and regulation of protein folding was studied in vitro
, in isolated tissue culture cells and in unicellular organisms. Recent studies have uncovered links between protein homeostasis (proteostasis), metabolism, development, aging, and temperature-sensing. These findings have led to the development of new tools for monitoring protein folding in the model metazoan organism Caenorhabditis elegans
. In our laboratory, we combine behavioral assays, imaging and biochemical approaches using temperature-sensitive or naturally occurring metastable proteins as sensors of the folding environment to monitor protein misfolding. Behavioral assays that are associated with the misfolding of a specific protein provide a simple and powerful readout for protein folding, allowing for the fast screening of genes and conditions that modulate folding. Likewise, such misfolding can be associated with protein mislocalization in the cell. Monitoring protein localization can, therefore, highlight changes in cellular folding capacity occurring in different tissues, at various stages of development and in the face of changing conditions. Finally, using biochemical tools ex vivo
, we can directly monitor protein stability and conformation. Thus, by combining behavioral assays, imaging and biochemical techniques, we are able to monitor protein misfolding at the resolution of the organism, the cell, and the protein, respectively.
Biochemistry, Issue 82, aging, Caenorhabditis elegans, heat shock response, neurodegenerative diseases, protein folding homeostasis, proteostasis, stress, temperature-sensitive
In vivo and In vitro Rearing of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae)
Institutions: University of Arizona, University of Arizona.
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) (Steinernematidae
) have a mutualistic partnership with Gram-negative Gamma-Proteobacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Xenorhabdus
bacteria are associated with steinernematids nematodes while Photorhabdus
are symbionts of heterorhabditids. Together nematodes and bacteria form a potent insecticidal complex that kills a wide range of insect species in an intimate and specific partnership. Herein, we demonstrate in vivo
and in vitro
techniques commonly used in the rearing of these nematodes under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, these techniques represent key steps for the successful establishment of EPN cultures and also form the basis for other bioassays that utilize these organisms for research. The production of aposymbiotic (symbiont–free) nematodes is often critical for an in-depth and multifaceted approach to the study of symbiosis. This protocol does not require the addition of antibiotics and can be accomplished in a short amount of time with standard laboratory equipment. Nematodes produced in this manner are relatively robust, although their survivorship in storage may vary depending on the species used. The techniques detailed in this presentation correspond to those described by various authors and refined by P. Stock’s Laboratory, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ, USA). These techniques are distinct from the body of techniques that are used in the mass production of these organisms for pest management purposes.
Bioengineering, Issue 91, entomology, nematology, microbiology, entomopathogenic, nematodes, bacteria, rearing, in vivo, in vitro
Reconstitution Of β-catenin Degradation In Xenopus Egg Extract
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
egg extract is a well-characterized, robust system for studying the biochemistry of diverse cellular processes. Xenopus
egg extract has been used to study protein turnover in many cellular contexts, including the cell cycle and signal transduction pathways1-3
. Herein, a method is described for isolating Xenopus
egg extract that has been optimized to promote the degradation of the critical Wnt pathway component, β-catenin. Two different methods are described to assess β-catenin protein degradation in Xenopus
egg extract. One method is visually informative ([35
S]-radiolabeled proteins), while the other is more readily scaled for high-throughput assays (firefly luciferase-tagged fusion proteins). The techniques described can be used to, but are not limited to, assess β-catenin protein turnover and identify molecular components contributing to its turnover. Additionally, the ability to purify large volumes of homogenous Xenopus
egg extract combined with the quantitative and facile readout of luciferase-tagged proteins allows this system to be easily adapted for high-throughput screening for modulators of β-catenin degradation.
Molecular Biology, Issue 88, Xenopus laevis, Xenopus egg extracts, protein degradation, radiolabel, luciferase, autoradiography, high-throughput screening
A Novel Stretching Platform for Applications in Cell and Tissue Mechanobiology
Institutions: University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa, University of Calgary, University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa.
Tools that allow the application of mechanical forces to cells and tissues or that can quantify the mechanical properties of biological tissues have contributed dramatically to the understanding of basic mechanobiology. These techniques have been extensively used to demonstrate how the onset and progression of various diseases are heavily influenced by mechanical cues. This article presents a multi-functional biaxial stretching (BAXS) platform that can either mechanically stimulate single cells or quantify the mechanical stiffness of tissues. The BAXS platform consists of four voice coil motors that can be controlled independently. Single cells can be cultured on a flexible substrate that can be attached to the motors allowing one to expose the cells to complex, dynamic, and spatially varying strain fields. Conversely, by incorporating a force load cell, one can also quantify the mechanical properties of primary tissues as they are exposed to deformation cycles. In both cases, a proper set of clamps must be designed and mounted to the BAXS platform motors in order to firmly hold the flexible substrate or the tissue of interest. The BAXS platform can be mounted on an inverted microscope to perform simultaneous transmitted light and/or fluorescence imaging to examine the structural or biochemical response of the sample during stretching experiments. This article provides experimental details of the design and usage of the BAXS platform and presents results for single cell and whole tissue studies. The BAXS platform was used to measure the deformation of nuclei in single mouse myoblast cells in response to substrate strain and to measure the stiffness of isolated mouse aortas. The BAXS platform is a versatile tool that can be combined with various optical microscopies in order to provide novel mechanobiological insights at the sub-cellular, cellular and whole tissue levels.
Bioengineering, Issue 88, cell stretching, tissue mechanics, nuclear mechanics, uniaxial, biaxial, anisotropic, mechanobiology
Production of Haploid Zebrafish Embryos by In Vitro Fertilization
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish has become a mainstream vertebrate model that is relevant for many disciplines of scientific study. Zebrafish are especially well suited for forward genetic analysis of developmental processes due to their external fertilization, embryonic size, rapid ontogeny, and optical clarity – a constellation of traits that enable the direct observation of events ranging from gastrulation to organogenesis with a basic stereomicroscope. Further, zebrafish embryos can survive for several days in the haploid state. The production of haploid embryos in vitro
is a powerful tool for mutational analysis, as it enables the identification of recessive mutant alleles present in first generation (F1) female carriers following mutagenesis in the parental (P) generation. This approach eliminates the necessity to raise multiple generations (F2, F3, etc.
) which involves breeding of mutant families, thus saving the researcher time along with reducing the needs for zebrafish colony space, labor, and the husbandry costs. Although zebrafish have been used to conduct forward screens for the past several decades, there has been a steady expansion of transgenic and genome editing tools. These tools now offer a plethora of ways to create nuanced assays for next generation screens that can be used to further dissect the gene regulatory networks that drive vertebrate ontogeny. Here, we describe how to prepare haploid zebrafish embryos. This protocol can be implemented for novel future haploid screens, such as in enhancer and suppressor screens, to address the mechanisms of development for a broad number of processes and tissues that form during early embryonic stages.
Developmental Biology, Issue 89, zebrafish, haploid, in vitro fertilization, forward genetic screen, saturation, recessive mutation, mutagenesis
Culturing Caenorhabditis elegans in Axenic Liquid Media and Creation of Transgenic Worms by Microparticle Bombardment
Institutions: University of Maryland, University of Maryland.
In this protocol, we present the required materials, and the procedure for making modified C. elegans
Habituation and Reproduction media (mCeHR). Additionally, the steps for exposing and acclimatizing C. elegans
grown on E. coli
to axenic liquid media are described. Finally, downstream experiments that utilize axenic C. elegans
illustrate the benefits of this procedure. The ability to analyze and determine C. elegans
nutrient requirement was illustrated by growing N2 wild type worms in axenic liquid media with varying heme concentrations. This procedure can be replicated with other nutrients to determine the optimal concentration for worm growth and development or, to determine the toxicological effects of drug treatments. The effects of varied heme concentrations on the growth of wild type worms were determined through qualitative microscopic observation and by quantitating the number of worms that grew in each heme concentration. In addition, the effect of varied nutrient concentrations can be assayed by utilizing worms that express fluorescent sensors that respond to changes in the nutrient of interest. Furthermore, a large number of worms were easily produced for the generation of transgenic C. elegans
using microparticle bombardment.
Molecular Biology, Issue 90, C. elegans, axenic media, transgenics, microparticle bombardment, heme, nutrition
An Experimental and Bioinformatics Protocol for RNA-seq Analyses of Photoperiodic Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus
Institutions: Georgetown University, The Ohio State University.
Photoperiodic diapause is an important adaptation that allows individuals to escape harsh seasonal environments via a series of physiological changes, most notably developmental arrest and reduced metabolism. Global gene expression profiling via RNA-Seq can provide important insights into the transcriptional mechanisms of photoperiodic diapause. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus
, is an outstanding organism for studying the transcriptional bases of diapause due to its ease of rearing, easily induced diapause, and the genomic resources available. This manuscript presents a general experimental workflow for identifying diapause-induced transcriptional differences in A. albopictus.
Rearing techniques, conditions necessary to induce diapause and non-diapause development, methods to estimate percent diapause in a population, and RNA extraction and integrity assessment for mosquitoes are documented. A workflow to process RNA-Seq data from Illumina sequencers culminates in a list of differentially expressed genes. The representative results demonstrate that this protocol can be used to effectively identify genes differentially regulated at the transcriptional level in A. albopictus
due to photoperiodic differences. With modest adjustments, this workflow can be readily adapted to study the transcriptional bases of diapause or other important life history traits in other mosquitoes.
Genetics, Issue 93, Aedes albopictus Asian tiger mosquito, photoperiodic diapause, RNA-Seq de novo transcriptome assembly, mosquito husbandry
Production of Xenopus tropicalis Egg Extracts to Identify Microtubule-associated RNAs
Institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School.
Many organisms localize mRNAs to specific subcellular destinations to spatially and temporally control gene expression. Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of the transcriptome is localized to a nonrandom position in cells and embryos. One approach to identify localized mRNAs is to biochemically purify a cellular structure of interest and to identify all associated transcripts. Using recently developed high-throughput sequencing technologies it is now straightforward to identify all RNAs associated with a subcellular structure. To facilitate transcript identification it is necessary to work with an organism with a fully sequenced genome. One attractive system for the biochemical purification of subcellular structures are egg extracts produced from the frog Xenopus laevis.
However, X. laevis
currently does not have a fully sequenced genome, which hampers transcript identification. In this article we describe a method to produce egg extracts from a related frog, X. tropicalis,
that has a fully sequenced genome. We provide details for microtubule polymerization, purification and transcript isolation. While this article describes a specific method for identification of microtubule-associated transcripts, we believe that it will be easily applied to other subcellular structures and will provide a powerful method for identification of localized RNAs.
Molecular Biology, Issue 76, Genetics, Developmental Biology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, RNA, Messenger, Stored, RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional, Xenopus, microtubules, egg extract, purification, RNA localization, mRNA, Xenopus tropicalis, eggs, animal model
Visualizing Bacteria in Nematodes using Fluorescent Microscopy
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Symbioses, the living together of two or more organisms, are widespread throughout all kingdoms of life. As two of the most ubiquitous organisms on earth, nematodes and bacteria form a wide array of symbiotic associations that range from beneficial to pathogenic 1-3
. One such association is the mutually beneficial relationship between Xenorhabdus
bacteria and Steinernema
nematodes, which has emerged as a model system of symbiosis 4
nematodes are entomopathogenic, using their bacterial symbiont to kill insects 5
. For transmission between insect hosts, the bacteria colonize the intestine of the nematode's infective juvenile stage 6-8
. Recently, several other nematode species have been shown to utilize bacteria to kill insects 9-13
, and investigations have begun examining the interactions between the nematodes and bacteria in these systems 9
We describe a method for visualization of a bacterial symbiont within or on a nematode host, taking advantage of the optical transparency of nematodes when viewed by microscopy. The bacteria are engineered to express a fluorescent protein, allowing their visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Many plasmids are available that carry genes encoding proteins that fluoresce at different wavelengths (i.e.
green or red), and conjugation of plasmids from a donor Escherichia coli
strain into a recipient bacterial symbiont is successful for a broad range of bacteria. The methods described were developed to investigate the association between Steinernema carpocapsae
and Xenorhabdus nematophila 14
. Similar methods have been used to investigate other nematode-bacterium associations 9,15-18
and the approach therefore is generally applicable.
The method allows characterization of bacterial presence and localization within nematodes at different stages of development, providing insights into the nature of the association and the process of colonization 14,16,19
. Microscopic analysis reveals both colonization frequency within a population and localization of bacteria to host tissues 14,16,19-21
. This is an advantage over other methods of monitoring bacteria within nematode populations, such as sonication 22
or grinding 23
, which can provide average levels of colonization, but may not, for example, discriminate populations with a high frequency of low symbiont loads from populations with a low frequency of high symbiont loads. Discriminating the frequency and load of colonizing bacteria can be especially important when screening or characterizing bacterial mutants for colonization phenotypes 21,24
. Indeed, fluorescence microscopy has been used in high throughput screening of bacterial mutants for defects in colonization 17,18
, and is less laborious than other methods, including sonication 22,25-27
and individual nematode dissection 28,29
Microbiology, Issue 68, Molecular Biology, Bacteriology, Developmental Biology, Colonization, Xenorhabdus, Steinernema, symbiosis, nematode, bacteria, fluorescence microscopy
Regular Care and Maintenance of a Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Laboratory: An Introduction
Institutions: Edith Cowan University, Graylands Hospital, University of Western Australia, McCusker Alzheimer's Research foundation, University of Western Australia , University of Adelaide, Curtin University of Technology, University of Western Australia .
This protocol describes regular care and maintenance of a zebrafish laboratory. Zebrafish are now gaining popularity in genetics, pharmacological and behavioural research. As a vertebrate, zebrafish share considerable genetic sequence similarity with humans and are being used as an animal model for various human disease conditions. The advantages of zebrafish in comparison to other common vertebrate models include high fecundity, low maintenance cost, transparent embryos, and rapid development. Due to the spur of interest in zebrafish research, the need to establish and maintain a productive zebrafish housing facility is also increasing. Although literature is available for the maintenance of a zebrafish laboratory, a concise video protocol is lacking. This video illustrates the protocol for regular housing, feeding, breeding and raising of zebrafish larvae. This process will help researchers to understand the natural behaviour and optimal conditions of zebrafish husbandry and hence troubleshoot experimental issues that originate from the fish husbandry conditions. This protocol will be of immense help to researchers planning to establish a zebrafish laboratory, and also to graduate students who are intending to use zebrafish as an animal model.
Basic Protocols, Issue 69, Biology, Marine Biology, Zebrafish, Danio rerio, maintenance, breeding, feeding, raising, larvae, animal model, aquarium
Gene Transfer into Older Chicken Embryos by ex ovo Electroporation
Institutions: School of Medicine University of Rostock, School of Medicine University of Jena.
The chicken embryo provides an excellent model system for studying gene function and regulation during embryonic development. In ovo
electroporation is a powerful method to over-express exogenous genes or down-regulate endogenous genes in vivo
in chicken embryos1
. Different structures such as DNA plasmids encoding genes2-4
, small interfering RNA (siRNA) plasmids5
, small synthetic RNA oligos6
, and morpholino antisense oligonucleotides7
can be easily transfected into chicken embryos by electroporation. However, the application of in ovo
electroporation is limited to embryos at early incubation stages (younger than stage HH20 - according to Hamburg and Hamilton)8
and there are some disadvantages for its application in embryos at later stages (older than stage HH22 - approximately 3.5 days of development). For example, the vitelline membrane at later stages is usually stuck to the shall membrane and opening a window in the shell causes rupture of the vessels, resulting in death of the embryos; older embryos are covered by vitelline and allantoic vessels, where it is difficult to access and manipulate the embryos; older embryos move vigorously and is difficult to control the orientation through a relatively small window in the shell.
In this protocol we demonstrate an ex ovo
electroporation method for gene transfer into chicken embryos at late stages (older than stage HH22). For ex ovo
electroporation, embryos are cultured in Petri dishes9
and the vitelline and allantoic vessels are widely spread. Under these conditions, the older chicken embryos are easily accessed and manipulated. Therefore, this method overcomes the disadvantages of in ovo
electroporation applied to the older chicken embryos. Using this method, plasmids can be easily transfected into different parts of the older chicken embryos10-12
Molecular Biology, Issue 65, Genetics, Developmental Biology, Gene transfer, gene function, electroporation, chicken, development
Mass Production of Genetically Modified Aedes aegypti for Field Releases in Brazil
Institutions: Oxitec Ltd, Universidade de São Paulo, Universidade de São Paulo, Moscamed Brasil, University of Oxford, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular (INCT-EM).
New techniques and methods are being sought to try to win the battle against mosquitoes. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to the development of new and innovative methods of mosquito control based around the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)1-3
. A control method known as RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal)4
, is based around SIT, but uses genetic methods to remove the need for radiation-sterilization5-8
. A RIDL strain of Ae. aegypti
was successfully tested in the field in Grand Cayman9,10
; further field use is planned or in progress in other countries around the world.
Mass rearing of insects has been established in several insect species and to levels of billions a week. However, in mosquitoes, rearing has generally been performed on a much smaller scale, with most large scale rearing being performed in the 1970s and 80s. For a RIDL program it is desirable to release as few females as possible as they bite and transmit disease. In a mass rearing program there are several stages to produce the males to be released: egg production, rearing eggs until pupation, and then sorting males from females before release. These males are then used for a RIDL control program, released as either pupae or adults11,12
To suppress a mosquito population using RIDL a large number of high quality male adults need to be reared13,14
. The following describes the methods for the mass rearing of OX513A, a RIDL strain of Ae. aegypti 8,
for release and covers the techniques required for the production of eggs and mass rearing RIDL males for a control program.
Basic Protocol, Issue 83, Aedes aegypti, mass rearing, population suppression, transgenic, insect, mosquito, dengue
Trichuris muris Infection: A Model of Type 2 Immunity and Inflammation in the Gut
Institutions: University of British Columbia, University of British Columbia.
is a natural pathogen of mice and is biologically and antigenically similar to species of Trichuris
infect humans and livestock1
. Infective eggs are given by oral gavage, hatch in the distal small intestine, invade the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)
that line the crypts of the cecum and proximal colon and upon maturation the worms release eggs into the environment1
. This model is a powerful tool to
examine factors that control CD4+
T helper (Th) cell activation as well as changes in the intestinal epithelium. The immune response that occurs in
resistant inbred strains, such as C57BL/6 and BALB/c, is characterized by Th2 polarized cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) and expulsion of worms while Th1-associated
cytokines (IL-12, IL-18, IFN-γ) promote chronic infections in genetically susceptible AKR/J mice2-6
. Th2 cytokines promote physiological changes in
the intestinal microenvironment including rapid turnover of IECs, goblet cell differentiation, recruitment and changes in epithelial permeability and smooth muscle
contraction, all of which have been implicated in worm expulsion7-15
. Here we detail a protocol for propagating Trichuris muris
eggs which can
be used in subsequent experiments. We also provide a sample experimental harvest with suggestions for post-infection analysis. Overall, this protocol will provide
researchers with the basic tools to perform a Trichuris muris
mouse infection model which can be used to address questions pertaining to Th proclivity in
the gastrointestinal tract as well as immune effector functions of IECs.
Infection, Issue 51, Trichuris muris, mouse, Th2, intestine, inflammation
Making Gynogenetic Diploid Zebrafish by Early Pressure
Institutions: University of Oregon, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center - FHCRC.
Heterozygosity in diploid eukaryotes often makes genetic studies cumbersome. Methods that produce viable homozygous diploid offspring directly from heterozygous females allow F1 mutagenized females to be screened directly for deleterious mutations in an accelerated forward genetic screen. Streisinger et al.1,2
described methods for making gynogenetic (homozygous) diploid zebrafish by activating zebrafish eggs with ultraviolet light-inactivated sperm and preventing either the second meiotic or the first zygotic cell division using physical treatments (heat or pressure) that deploymerize microtubules. The "early pressure" (EP) method blocks the meiosis II, which occurs shortly after fertilization. The EP method produces a high percentage of viable embryos that can develop to fertile adults of either sex. The method generates embryos that are homozygous at all loci except those that were separated from their centromere by recombination during meiosis I. Homozygous mutations are detected in EP clutches at between 50% for centromeric loci and less than 1% for telomeric loci. This method is reproduced verbatim from the Zebrafish Book3
Developmental Biology, Issue 28, Zebrafish, Early Pressure, Homozygous Diploid, Haploid, Gynogenesis
Protocol for Mosquito Rearing (A. gambiae)
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University.
This protocol describes mosquito rearing in the insectary. The insectary rooms are maintained at 28°C and ~80% humidity, with a 12 hr. day/night cycle. For this procedure, you'll need mosquito cages, 10% sterile sucrose solution, paper towels, beaker, whatman filter paper, glass feeders, human blood and serum, water bath, parafilm, distilled water, clean plastic trays, mosquito food (described below), mosquito net to cover the trays, vacuum, and a collection chamber to collect adults.
Cellular Biology, Issue 5, mosquito, malaria, infectious disease
Windowing Chicken Eggs for Developmental Studies
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
The study of development has been greatly aided by the use of the chick embryo as an experimental model. The ease of accessibility of the embryo has allowed for experiments to map cell fates using several approaches, including chick quail chimeras and focal dye labeling. In addition, it allows for molecular perturbations of several types, including placement of protein-coated beads and introduction of plasmid DNA using in ovo electroporation. These experiments have yielded important data on the development of the central and peripheral nervous systems. For many of these studies, it is necessary to open the eggshell and reclose it without perturbing the embryo's growth. The embryo can be examined at successive developmental stages by re-opening the eggshell. While there are several excellent methods for opening chicken eggs, in this article we demonstrate one method that has been optimized for long survival times. In this method, the egg rests on its side and a small window is cut in the shell. After the experimental procedure, the shell is used to cover the egg for the duration of its development. Clear plastic tape overlying the eggshell protects the embryo and helps retain hydration during the remainder of the incubation period. This method has been used beginning at two days of incubation and has allowed survival through mature embryonic ages.
Developmental Biology, Issue 8, Neuroscience, Chicken, Embryos, Electroporation, In ovo
Placing Growth Factor-Coated Beads on Early Stage Chicken Embryos
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
The neural tube expresses many proteins in specific spatiotemporal patterns during development. These proteins have been shown to be critical for cell fate determination, cell migration, and formation of neural circuits. Neuronal induction and patterning involve bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), sonic hedgehog (SHH), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), among others. In particular, the expression pattern of Fgf8 is in close proximity to regions expressing BMP4 and SHH. This expression pattern is consistent with developmental interactions that facilitate patterning in the telencephalon.
Here we provide a visual demonstration of a method in which an in ovo preparation can be used to test the effects of Fgfs in the formation of the forebrain. Beads are coated with protein and placed in the developing neural tube to provide sustained exposure. Because the procedure uses small, carefully placed beads, it is minimally invasive and allows several beads to be placed within a single neural tube. Moreover, the method allows for continued development so that embryos can be analyzed at a more mature stage to detect changes in anatomy and in neural patterning. This simple but useful protocol allows for real time imaging. It provides a means to make spatially and temporally limited changes to endogenous protein levels.
Developmental Biology, Issue 8, Neuroscience, Growth Factor, Heparin-Coated Beads, Chicken, Embryos
In Ovo Electroporations of HH Stage 10 Chicken Embryos
Institutions: University of Chicago, University of Chicago.
Large size and external development of the chicken embryo have long made it a valuable tool in the study of developmental biology. With the advent of molecular biological techniques, the chick has become a useful system in which to study gene regulation and function. By electroporating DNA or RNA constructs into the developing chicken embryo, genes can be expressed or knocked down in order to analyze in vivo gene function. Similarly, reporter constructs can be used for fate mapping or to examine putative gene regulatory elements. Compared to similar experiments in mouse, chick electroporation has the advantages of being quick, easy and inexpensive. This video demonstrates first how to make a window in the eggshell to manipulate the embryo. Next, the embryo is visualized with a dilute solution of India ink injected below the embryo. A glass needle and pipette are used to inject DNA and Fast Green dye into the developing neural tube, then platinum electrodes are placed parallel to the embryo and short electrical pulses are administered with a pulse generator. Finally, the egg is sealed with tape and placed back into an incubator for further development. Additionally, the video shows proper egg storage and handling and discusses possible causes of embryo loss following electroporation.
Neuroscience, issue 9, neuron, development, brain
Obtaining Eggs from Xenopus laevis Females
Institutions: Emory University.
The eggs of Xenopus laevis intact, lysed, and/or fractionated are useful for a wide variety of experiments. This protocol shows how to induce egg laying, collect and dejelly the eggs, and sort the eggs to remove any damaged eggs.
Basic Protocols, Issue 18, Current Protocols Wiley, Eggs, Xenopus laevis
Injection of An. stephensi Embryos to Generate Malaria-resistant Mosquitoes
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI), University of California, Irvine (UCI).
The introduction of exogenous genes into the genomes of mosquitoes requires microinjection techniques tailored to the specific species of interest. This video protocol demonstrates a method used by the James laboratory to microinject DNA constructs into Anopheles stephensi embryos for the generation of transformed mosquitoes. Techniques for preparing microinjection needles, collecting and preparing embryos and performing the microinjection are illustrated.
Cellular Biology, Issue 5, mosquito, malaria, genetics, embryo, injection