Surface potential is a commonly overlooked physical characteristic that plays a dominant role in the adhesion of microorganisms to substrate surfaces. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a module of atomic force microscopy (AFM) that measures the contact potential difference between surfaces at the nano-scale. The combination of KPFM with AFM allows for the simultaneous generation of surface potential and topographical maps of biological samples such as bacterial cells. Here, we employ KPFM to examine the effects of surface potential on microbial adhesion to medically relevant surfaces such as stainless steel and gold. Surface potential maps revealed differences in surface potential for microbial membranes on different material substrates. A step-height graph was generated to show the difference in surface potential at a boundary area between the substrate surface and microorganisms. Changes in cellular membrane surface potential have been linked with changes in cellular metabolism and motility. Therefore, KPFM represents a powerful tool that can be utilized to examine the changes of microbial membrane surface potential upon adhesion to various substrate surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate the procedure to characterize the surface potential of individual methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA100 cells on stainless steel and gold using KPFM.
29 Related JoVE Articles!
Optimized Negative Staining: a High-throughput Protocol for Examining Small and Asymmetric Protein Structure by Electron Microscopy
Institutions: The Molecular Foundry.
Structural determination of proteins is rather challenging for proteins with molecular masses between 40 - 200 kDa. Considering that more than half of natural proteins have a molecular mass between 40 - 200 kDa1,2
, a robust and high-throughput method with a nanometer resolution capability is needed. Negative staining (NS) electron microscopy (EM) is an easy, rapid, and qualitative approach which has frequently been used in research laboratories to examine protein structure and protein-protein interactions. Unfortunately, conventional NS protocols often generate structural artifacts on proteins, especially with lipoproteins that usually form presenting rouleaux artifacts. By using images of lipoproteins from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) as a standard, the key parameters in NS specimen preparation conditions were recently screened and reported as the optimized NS protocol (OpNS), a modified conventional NS protocol 3
. Artifacts like rouleaux can be greatly limited by OpNS, additionally providing high contrast along with reasonably high‐resolution (near 1 nm) images of small and asymmetric proteins. These high-resolution and high contrast images are even favorable for an individual protein (a single object, no average) 3D reconstruction, such as a 160 kDa antibody, through the method of electron tomography4,5
. Moreover, OpNS can be a high‐throughput tool to examine hundreds of samples of small proteins. For example, the previously published mechanism of 53 kDa cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) involved the screening and imaging of hundreds of samples 6
. Considering cryo-EM rarely successfully images proteins less than 200 kDa has yet to publish any study involving screening over one hundred sample conditions, it is fair to call OpNS a high-throughput method for studying small proteins. Hopefully the OpNS protocol presented here can be a useful tool to push the boundaries of EM and accelerate EM studies into small protein structure, dynamics and mechanisms.
Environmental Sciences, Issue 90, small and asymmetric protein structure, electron microscopy, optimized negative staining
Clinical Examination Protocol to Detect Atypical and Classical Scrapie in Sheep
Institutions: Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge.
The diagnosis of scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSEs) of sheep and goats, is currently based on the detection of disease-associated prion protein by post mortem
tests. Unless a random sample of the sheep or goat population is actively monitored for scrapie, identification of scrapie cases relies on the reporting of clinical suspects, which is dependent on the individual's familiarization with the disease and ability to recognize clinical signs associated with scrapie. Scrapie may not be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological diseases in small ruminants, particularly in countries with low scrapie prevalence, or not recognized if it presents as nonpruritic form like atypical scrapie. To aid in the identification of clinical suspects, a short examination protocol is presented to assess the display of specific clinical signs associated with pruritic and nonpruritic forms of TSEs in sheep, which could also be applied to goats. This includes assessment of behavior, vision (by testing of the menace response), pruritus (by testing the response to scratching), and movement (with and without blindfolding). This may lead to a more detailed neurologic examination of reporting animals as scrapie suspects. It could also be used in experimental TSE studies of sheep or goats to evaluate disease progression or to identify clinical end-point.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 83, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, sheep, atypical scrapie, classical scrapie, neurologic examination, scratch test, menace response, blindfolding
Monitoring Intraspecies Competition in a Bacterial Cell Population by Cocultivation of Fluorescently Labelled Strains
Institutions: Georg-August University.
Many microorganisms such as bacteria proliferate extremely fast and the populations may reach high cell densities. Small fractions of cells in a population always have accumulated mutations that are either detrimental or beneficial for the cell. If the fitness effect of a mutation provides the subpopulation with a strong selective growth advantage, the individuals of this subpopulation may rapidly outcompete and even completely eliminate their immediate fellows. Thus, small genetic changes and selection-driven accumulation of cells that have acquired beneficial mutations may lead to a complete shift of the genotype of a cell population. Here we present a procedure to monitor the rapid clonal expansion and elimination of beneficial and detrimental mutations, respectively, in a bacterial cell population over time by cocultivation of fluorescently labeled individuals of the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis
. The method is easy to perform and very illustrative to display intraspecies competition among the individuals in a bacterial cell population.
Cellular Biology, Issue 83, Bacillus subtilis, evolution, adaptation, selective pressure, beneficial mutation, intraspecies competition, fluorophore-labelling, Fluorescence Microscopy
Automated Visual Cognitive Tasks for Recording Neural Activity Using a Floor Projection Maze
Institutions: Brown University, Brown University.
Neuropsychological tasks used in primates to investigate mechanisms of learning and memory are typically visually guided cognitive tasks. We have developed visual cognitive tasks for rats using the Floor Projection Maze1,2
that are optimized for visual abilities of rats permitting stronger comparisons of experimental findings with other species.
In order to investigate neural correlates of learning and memory, we have integrated electrophysiological recordings into fully automated cognitive tasks on the Floor Projection Maze1,2
. Behavioral software interfaced with an animal tracking system allows monitoring of the animal's behavior with precise control of image presentation and reward contingencies for better trained animals. Integration with an in vivo
electrophysiological recording system enables examination of behavioral correlates of neural activity at selected epochs of a given cognitive task.
We describe protocols for a model system that combines automated visual presentation of information to rodents and intracranial reward with electrophysiological approaches. Our model system offers a sophisticated set of tools as a framework for other cognitive tasks to better isolate and identify specific mechanisms contributing to particular cognitive processes.
Neurobiology, Issue 84, Rat behavioral tasks, visual discrimination, chronic electrophysiological recordings, Floor Projection Maze, neuropsychology, learning, memory
A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro
. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro
replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag
gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag
gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro
replication of chronically derived gag-pro
sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 90, HIV-1, Gag, viral replication, replication capacity, viral fitness, MJ4, CEM, GXR25
The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism
Institutions: University of Montréal, McGill University, University of Minnesota.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique that has been increasingly used over the past decade in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as stroke and depression. Yet, the mechanisms underlying its ability to modulate brain excitability to improve clinical symptoms remains poorly understood 33
. To help improve this understanding, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1
H-MRS) can be used as it allows the in vivo
quantification of brain metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in a region-specific manner 41
. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that 1
H-MRS is indeed a powerful means to better understand the effects of tDCS on neurotransmitter concentration 34
. This article aims to describe the complete protocol for combining tDCS (NeuroConn MR compatible stimulator) with 1
H-MRS at 3 T using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. We will describe the impact of a protocol that has shown great promise for the treatment of motor dysfunctions after stroke, which consists of bilateral stimulation of primary motor cortices 27,30,31
. Methodological factors to consider and possible modifications to the protocol are also discussed.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, transcranial direct current stimulation, primary motor cortex, GABA, glutamate, stroke
Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90,
zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
Analysis of the Epithelial Damage Produced by Entamoeba histolytica Infection
Institutions: Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute.
is the causative agent of human amoebiasis, a major cause of diarrhea and hepatic abscess in tropical countries. Infection is initiated by interaction of the pathogen with intestinal epithelial cells. This interaction leads to disruption of intercellular structures such as tight junctions (TJ). TJ ensure sealing of the epithelial layer to separate host tissue from gut lumen. Recent studies provide evidence that disruption of TJ by the parasitic protein EhCPADH112 is a prerequisite for E. histolytica
invasion that is accompanied by epithelial barrier dysfunction. Thus, the analysis of molecular mechanisms involved in TJ disassembly during E. histolytica
invasion is of paramount importance to improve our understanding of amoebiasis pathogenesis. This article presents an easy model that allows the assessment of initial host-pathogen interactions and the parasite invasion potential. Parameters to be analyzed include transepithelial electrical resistance, interaction of EhCPADH112 with epithelial surface receptors, changes in expression and localization of epithelial junctional markers and localization of parasite molecules within epithelial cells.
Immunology, Issue 88, Entamoeba histolytica, EhCPADH112, cell adhesion, MDCK, Caco-2, tight junction disruption, amoebiasis, host-pathogen interaction, infection model, actin cytoskeleton
From Voxels to Knowledge: A Practical Guide to the Segmentation of Complex Electron Microscopy 3D-Data
Institutions: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Modern 3D electron microscopy approaches have recently allowed unprecedented insight into the 3D ultrastructural organization of cells and tissues, enabling the visualization of large macromolecular machines, such as adhesion complexes, as well as higher-order structures, such as the cytoskeleton and cellular organelles in their respective cell and tissue context. Given the inherent complexity of cellular volumes, it is essential to first extract the features of interest in order to allow visualization, quantification, and therefore comprehension of their 3D organization. Each data set is defined by distinct characteristics, e.g.
, signal-to-noise ratio, crispness (sharpness) of the data, heterogeneity of its features, crowdedness of features, presence or absence of characteristic shapes that allow for easy identification, and the percentage of the entire volume that a specific region of interest occupies. All these characteristics need to be considered when deciding on which approach to take for segmentation.
The six different 3D ultrastructural data sets presented were obtained by three different imaging approaches: resin embedded stained electron tomography, focused ion beam- and serial block face- scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM, SBF-SEM) of mildly stained and heavily stained samples, respectively. For these data sets, four different segmentation approaches have been applied: (1) fully manual model building followed solely by visualization of the model, (2) manual tracing segmentation of the data followed by surface rendering, (3) semi-automated approaches followed by surface rendering, or (4) automated custom-designed segmentation algorithms followed by surface rendering and quantitative analysis. Depending on the combination of data set characteristics, it was found that typically one of these four categorical approaches outperforms the others, but depending on the exact sequence of criteria, more than one approach may be successful. Based on these data, we propose a triage scheme that categorizes both objective data set characteristics and subjective personal criteria for the analysis of the different data sets.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, 3D electron microscopy, feature extraction, segmentation, image analysis, reconstruction, manual tracing, thresholding
Cortical Source Analysis of High-Density EEG Recordings in Children
Institutions: UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London.
EEG is traditionally described as a neuroimaging technique with high temporal and low spatial resolution. Recent advances in biophysical modelling and signal processing make it possible to exploit information from other imaging modalities like structural MRI that provide high spatial resolution to overcome this constraint1
. This is especially useful for investigations that require high resolution in the temporal as well as spatial domain. In addition, due to the easy application and low cost of EEG recordings, EEG is often the method of choice when working with populations, such as young children, that do not tolerate functional MRI scans well. However, in order to investigate which neural substrates are involved, anatomical information from structural MRI is still needed. Most EEG analysis packages work with standard head models that are based on adult anatomy. The accuracy of these models when used for children is limited2
, because the composition and spatial configuration of head tissues changes dramatically over development3
In the present paper, we provide an overview of our recent work in utilizing head models based on individual structural MRI scans or age specific head models to reconstruct the cortical generators of high density EEG. This article describes how EEG recordings are acquired, processed, and analyzed with pediatric populations at the London Baby Lab, including laboratory setup, task design, EEG preprocessing, MRI processing, and EEG channel level and source analysis.
Behavior, Issue 88, EEG, electroencephalogram, development, source analysis, pediatric, minimum-norm estimation, cognitive neuroscience, event-related potentials
Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+
release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
Generation of Enterobacter sp. YSU Auxotrophs Using Transposon Mutagenesis
Institutions: Youngstown State University.
Prototrophic bacteria grow on M-9 minimal salts medium supplemented with glucose (M-9 medium), which is used as a carbon and energy source. Auxotrophs can be generated using a transposome. The commercially available, Tn5
-derived transposome used in this protocol consists of a linear segment of DNA containing an R6Kγ
replication origin, a gene for kanamycin resistance and two mosaic sequence ends, which serve as transposase binding sites. The transposome, provided as a DNA/transposase protein complex, is introduced by electroporation into the prototrophic strain, Enterobacter
sp. YSU, and randomly incorporates itself into this host’s genome. Transformants are replica plated onto Luria-Bertani agar plates containing kanamycin, (LB-kan) and onto M-9 medium agar plates containing kanamycin (M-9-kan). The transformants that grow on LB-kan plates but not on M-9-kan plates are considered to be auxotrophs. Purified genomic DNA from an auxotroph is partially digested, ligated and transformed into a pir+ Escherichia coli
) strain. The R6Kγ
replication origin allows the plasmid to replicate in pir+ E. coli
strains, and the kanamycin resistance marker allows for plasmid selection. Each transformant possesses a new plasmid containing the transposon flanked by the interrupted chromosomal region. Sanger sequencing and the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) suggest a putative identity of the interrupted gene. There are three advantages to using this transposome mutagenesis strategy. First, it does not rely on the expression of a transposase gene by the host. Second, the transposome is introduced into the target host by electroporation, rather than by conjugation or by transduction and therefore is more efficient. Third, the R6Kγ
replication origin makes it easy to identify the mutated gene which is partially recovered in a recombinant plasmid. This technique can be used to investigate the genes involved in other characteristics of Enterobacter
sp. YSU or of a wider variety of bacterial strains.
Microbiology, Issue 92, Auxotroph, transposome, transposon, mutagenesis, replica plating, glucose minimal medium, complex medium, Enterobacter
Derivation of T Cells In Vitro from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
Institutions: City University of New York, University of Toronto.
The OP9/OP9-DL1 co-culture system has become a well-established method for deriving differentiated blood cell types from embryonic and hematopoietic progenitors of both mouse and human origin. It is now used to address a growing variety of complex genetic, cellular and molecular questions related to hematopoiesis, and is at the cutting edge of efforts to translate these basic findings to therapeutic applications. The procedures are straightforward and routinely yield robust results. However, achieving successful hematopoietic differentiation in vitro
requires special attention to the details of reagent and cell culture maintenance. Furthermore, the protocol features technique sensitive steps that, while not difficult, take care and practice to master. Here we focus on the procedures for differentiation of T lymphocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). We provide a detailed protocol with discussions of the critical steps and parameters that enable reproducibly robust cellular differentiation in vitro
. It is in the interest of the field to consider wider adoption of this technology, as it has the potential to reduce animal use, lower the cost and shorten the timelines of both basic and translational experimentation.
Immunology, Issue 92, mouse, embryonic stem cells, in vitro differentiation, OP9 cells, Delta-like 1 (Dll-1) ligand, Notch, hematopoiesis, lymphocytes, T cells
Functional Interrogation of Adult Hypothalamic Neurogenesis with Focal Radiological Inhibition
Institutions: California Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, University Of Washington Medical Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
The functional characterization of adult-born neurons remains a significant challenge. Approaches to inhibit adult neurogenesis via invasive viral delivery or transgenic animals have potential confounds that make interpretation of results from these studies difficult. New radiological tools are emerging, however, that allow one to noninvasively investigate the function of select groups of adult-born neurons through accurate and precise anatomical targeting in small animals. Focal ionizing radiation inhibits the birth and differentiation of new neurons, and allows targeting of specific neural progenitor regions. In order to illuminate the potential functional role that adult hypothalamic neurogenesis plays in the regulation of physiological processes, we developed a noninvasive focal irradiation technique to selectively inhibit the birth of adult-born neurons in the hypothalamic median eminence. We describe a method for C
omputer tomography-guided f
radiation (CFIR) delivery to enable precise and accurate anatomical targeting in small animals. CFIR uses three-dimensional volumetric image guidance for localization and targeting of the radiation dose, minimizes radiation exposure to nontargeted brain regions, and allows for conformal dose distribution with sharp beam boundaries. This protocol allows one to ask questions regarding the function of adult-born neurons, but also opens areas to questions in areas of radiobiology, tumor biology, and immunology. These radiological tools will facilitate the translation of discoveries at the bench to the bedside.
Neuroscience, Issue 81, Neural Stem Cells (NSCs), Body Weight, Radiotherapy, Image-Guided, Metabolism, Energy Metabolism, Neurogenesis, Cell Proliferation, Neurosciences, Irradiation, Radiological treatment, Computer-tomography (CT) imaging, Hypothalamus, Hypothalamic Proliferative Zone (HPZ), Median Eminence (ME), Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)
Micron-scale Resolution Optical Tomography of Entire Mouse Brains with Confocal Light Sheet Microscopy
Institutions: European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University Campus Bio-medico of Rome, University of Cassino, National Institute of Optics (CNR-INO), Allen Institute for Brain Science, University of Florence, ICON Foundation, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
Understanding the architecture of mammalian brain at single-cell resolution is one of the key issues of neuroscience. However, mapping neuronal soma and projections throughout the whole brain is still challenging for imaging and data management technologies. Indeed, macroscopic volumes need to be reconstructed with high resolution and contrast in a reasonable time, producing datasets in the TeraByte range. We recently demonstrated an optical method (confocal light sheet microscopy, CLSM) capable of obtaining micron-scale reconstruction of entire mouse brains labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Combining light sheet illumination and confocal detection, CLSM allows deep imaging inside macroscopic cleared specimens with high contrast and speed. Here we describe the complete experimental pipeline to obtain comprehensive and human-readable images of entire mouse brains labeled with fluorescent proteins. The clearing and the mounting procedures are described, together with the steps to perform an optical tomography on its whole volume by acquiring many parallel adjacent stacks. We showed the usage of open-source custom-made software tools enabling stitching of the multiple stacks and multi-resolution data navigation. Finally, we illustrated some example of brain maps: the cerebellum from an L7-GFP transgenic mouse, in which all Purkinje cells are selectively labeled, and the whole brain from a thy1-GFP-M mouse, characterized by a random sparse neuronal labeling.
Neuroscience, Issue 80, Microscopy, Neuroanatomy, Connectomics, Light sheet microscopy, Whole-brain imaging
Assessing Signaling Properties of Ectodermal Epithelia During Craniofacial Development
Institutions: University of California San Francisco.
The accessibility of avian embryos has helped experimental embryologists understand the fates of cells during development and the role of tissue interactions that regulate patterning and morphogenesis of vertebrates (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4
). Here, we illustrate a method that exploits this accessibility to test the signaling and patterning properties of ectodermal tissues during facial development. In these experiments, we create quail-chick 5
or mouse-chick 6
chimeras by transplanting the surface cephalic ectoderm that covers the upper jaw from quail or mouse onto either the same region or an ectopic region of chick embryos. The use of quail as donor tissue for transplantation into chicks was developed to take advantage of a nucleolar marker present in quail but not chick cells, thus allowing investigators to distinguish host and donor tissues 7
. Similarly, a repetitive element is present in the mouse genome and is expressed ubiquitously, which allows us to distinguish host and donor tissues in mouse-chick chimeras 8
. The use of mouse ectoderm as donor tissue will greatly extend our understanding of these tissue interactions, because this will allow us to test the signaling properties of ectoderm derived from various mutant embryos.
Developmental Biology, Issue 49, Quail-chick chimera, Ectoderm transplant, FEZ, Mouse-chick chimera
Microvascular Decompression: Salient Surgical Principles and Technical Nuances
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
Trigeminal neuralgia is a disorder associated with severe episodes of lancinating pain in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Previous reports indicate that 80-90% of cases are related to compression of the trigeminal nerve by an adjacent vessel. The majority of patients with trigeminal neuralgia eventually require surgical management in order to achieve remission of symptoms. Surgical options for management include ablative procedures (e.g., radiosurgery, percutaneous radiofrequency lesioning, balloon compression, glycerol rhizolysis, etc.) and microvascular decompression. Ablative procedures fail to address the root cause of the disorder and are less effective at preventing recurrence of symptoms over the long term than microvascular decompression. However, microvascular decompression is inherently more invasive than ablative procedures and is associated with increased surgical risks. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between surgeon experience and patient outcome in microvascular decompression. In this series of 59 patients operated on by two neurosurgeons (JSN and PEK) since 2006, 93% of patients demonstrated substantial improvement in their trigeminal neuralgia following the procedure—with follow-up ranging from 6 weeks to 2 years. Moreover, 41 of 66 patients (approximately 64%) have been entirely pain-free following the operation.
In this publication, video format is utilized to review the microsurgical pathology of this disorder. Steps of the operative procedure are reviewed and salient principles and technical nuances useful in minimizing complications and maximizing efficacy are discussed.
Medicine, Issue 53, microvascular, decompression, trigeminal, neuralgia, operation, video
A Simplified Technique for Producing an Ischemic Wound Model
Institutions: University of Louisville.
One major obstacle in current diabetic wound research is a lack of an ischemic wound model that can be safely used in diabetic animals. Drugs that work well in non-ischemic wounds may not work in human diabetic wounds because vasculopathy is one major factor that hinders healing of these wounds. We published an article in 2007 describing a rabbit ear ischemic wound model created by a minimally invasive surgical technique. Since then, we have further simplified the procedure for easier operation. On one ear, three small skin incisions were made on the vascular pedicles, 1-2 cm from the ear base. The central artery was ligated and cut along with the nerve. The whole cranial bundle was cut and ligated, leaving only the caudal branch intact. A circumferential subcutaneous tunnel was made through the incisions, to cut subcutaneous tissues, muscles, nerves, and small vessels. The other ear was used as a non-ischemic control. Four wounds were made on the ventral side of each ear. This technique produces 4 ischemic wounds and 4 non-ischemic wounds in one animal for paired comparisons. After surgery, the ischemic ear was cool and cyanotic, and showed reduced movement and a lack of pulse in the ear artery. Skin temperature of the ischemic ear was 1-10 °C lower than that on the normal ear and this difference was maintained for more than one month. Ear tissue high-energy phosphate contents were lower in the ischemic ear than the control ear. Wound healing times were longer in the ischemic ear than in the non-ischemic ear when the same treatment was used. The technique has now been used on more than 80 rabbits in which 23 were diabetic (diabetes time ranging from 2 weeks to 2 years). No single rabbit has developed any surgical complications such as bleeding, infection, or rupture in the skin incisions. The model has many advantages, such as little skin disruption, longer ischemic time, and higher success rate, when compared to many other models. It can be safely used in animals with reduced resistance, and can also be modified to meet different testing requirements.
Medicine, Issue 63, Wound, ischemia, rabbit, minimally invasive, model, diabetes, physiology
An Introduction to Parasitic Wasps of Drosophila and the Antiparasite Immune Response
Institutions: The City College of New York, CUNY, The City University of New York.
Most known parasitoid wasp species attack the larval or pupal stages of Drosophila
. While Trichopria drosophilae
infect the pupal stages of the host (Fig. 1A-C
), females of the genus Leptopilina
(Fig. 1D, 1F, 1G
) and Ganaspis
) attack the larval stages. We use these parasites to study the molecular basis of a biological arms race. Parasitic wasps have tremendous value as biocontrol agents. Most of them carry virulence and other factors that modify host physiology and immunity. Analysis of Drosophila
wasps is providing insights into how species-specific interactions shape the genetic structures of natural communities. These studies also serve as a model for understanding the hosts' immune physiology and how coordinated immune reactions are thwarted by this class of parasites.
The larval/pupal cuticle serves as the first line of defense. The wasp ovipositor is a sharp needle-like structure that efficiently delivers eggs into the host hemocoel. Oviposition is followed by a wound healing reaction at the cuticle (Fig. 1C
, arrowheads). Some wasps can insert two or more eggs into the same host, although the development of only one egg succeeds. Supernumerary eggs or developing larvae are eliminated by a process that is not yet understood. These wasps are therefore referred to as solitary parasitoids.
Depending on the fly strain and the wasp species, the wasp egg has one of two fates. It is either encapsulated, so that its development is blocked (host emerges; Fig. 2
left); or the wasp egg hatches, develops, molts, and grows into an adult (wasp emerges; Fig. 2
right). L. heterotoma
is one of the best-studied species of Drosophila
parasitic wasps. It is a "generalist," which means that it can utilize most Drosophila
species as hosts1
. L. heterotoma
and L. victoriae
are sister species and they produce virus-like particles that actively interfere with the encapsulation response2
. Unlike L. heterotoma
, L. boulardi
is a specialist parasite and the range of Drosophila
species it utilizes is relatively limited1
. Strains of L. boulardi
also produce virus-like particles3
although they differ significantly in their ability to succeed on D. melanogaster1
. Some of these L. boulardi
strains are difficult to grow on D. melanogaster1
as the fly host frequently succeeds in encapsulating their eggs. Thus, it is important to have the knowledge of both partners in specific experimental protocols.
In addition to barrier tissues (cuticle, gut and trachea), Drosophila
larvae have systemic cellular and humoral immune responses that arise from functions of blood cells and the fat body, respectively. Oviposition by L. boulardi
activates both immune arms1,4
. Blood cells are found in circulation, in sessile populations under the segmented cuticle, and in the lymph gland. The lymph gland is a small hematopoietic organ on the dorsal side of the larva. Clusters of hematopoietic cells, called lobes, are arranged segmentally in pairs along the dorsal vessel that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of the animal (Fig. 3A
). The fat body is a large multifunctional organ (Fig. 3B
). It secretes antimicrobial peptides in response to microbial and metazoan infections.
Wasp infection activates immune signaling (Fig. 4
. At the cellular level, it triggers division and differentiation of blood cells. In self defense, aggregates and capsules develop in the hemocoel of infected animals (Fig. 5
. Activated blood cells migrate toward the wasp egg (or wasp larva) and begin to form a capsule around it (Fig. 5A-F
). Some blood cells aggregate to form nodules (Fig. 5G-H
). Careful analysis reveals that wasp infection induces the anterior-most lymph gland lobes to disperse at their peripheries (Fig. 6C, D
We present representative data with Toll signal transduction pathway components Dorsal and Spätzle (Figs. 4,5,7
), and its target Drosomycin
), to illustrate how specific changes in the lymph gland and hemocoel can be studied after wasp infection. The dissection protocols described here also yield the wasp eggs (or developing stages of wasps) from the host hemolymph (Fig. 8
Immunology, Issue 63, Parasitoid wasps, innate immunity, encapsulation, hematopoiesis, insect, fat body, Toll-NF-kappaB, molecular biology
A Toolkit to Enable Hydrocarbon Conversion in Aqueous Environments
Institutions: Delft University of Technology, Delft University of Technology.
This work puts forward a toolkit that enables the conversion of alkanes by Escherichia coli
and presents a proof of principle of its applicability. The toolkit consists of multiple standard interchangeable parts (BioBricks)9
addressing the conversion of alkanes, regulation of gene expression and survival in toxic hydrocarbon-rich environments.
A three-step pathway for alkane degradation was implemented in E. coli
to enable the conversion of medium- and long-chain alkanes to their respective alkanols, alkanals and ultimately alkanoic-acids. The latter were metabolized via the native β-oxidation pathway. To facilitate the oxidation of medium-chain alkanes (C5-C13) and cycloalkanes (C5-C8), four genes (alkB2
) of the alkane hydroxylase system from Gordonia
were transformed into E. coli
. For the conversion of long-chain alkanes (C15-C36), theladA
gene from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans
was implemented. For the required further steps of the degradation process, ADH
and ALDH (
originating from G. thermodenitrificans
) were introduced10,11
. The activity was measured by resting cell assays. For each oxidative step, enzyme activity was observed.
To optimize the process efficiency, the expression was only induced under low glucose conditions: a substrate-regulated promoter, pCaiF, was used. pCaiF is present in E. coli
K12 and regulates the expression of the genes involved in the degradation of non-glucose carbon sources.
The last part of the toolkit - targeting survival - was implemented using solvent tolerance genes, PhPFDα and β, both from Pyrococcus horikoshii
OT3. Organic solvents can induce cell stress and decreased survivability by negatively affecting protein folding. As chaperones, PhPFDα and β improve the protein folding process e.g.
under the presence of alkanes. The expression of these genes led to an improved hydrocarbon tolerance shown by an increased growth rate (up to 50%) in the presences of 10% n
-hexane in the culture medium were observed.
Summarizing, the results indicate that the toolkit enables E. coli
to convert and tolerate hydrocarbons in aqueous environments. As such, it represents an initial step towards a sustainable solution for oil-remediation using a synthetic biology approach.
Bioengineering, Issue 68, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Oil remediation, alkane metabolism, alkane hydroxylase system, resting cell assay, prefoldin, Escherichia coli, synthetic biology, homologous interaction mapping, mathematical model, BioBrick, iGEM
Examination of Thymic Positive and Negative Selection by Flow Cytometry
Institutions: University of Alberta.
A healthy immune system requires that T cells respond to foreign antigens while remaining tolerant to self-antigens. Random rearrangement of the T cell receptor (TCR) α and β loci generates a T cell repertoire with vast diversity in antigen specificity, both to self and foreign. Selection of the repertoire during development in the thymus is critical for generating safe and useful T cells. Defects in thymic selection contribute to the development of autoimmune and immunodeficiency disorders1-4
T cell progenitors enter the thymus as double negative (DN) thymocytes that do not express CD4 or CD8 co-receptors. Expression of the αβTCR and both co-receptors occurs at the double positive (DP) stage. Interaction of the αβTCR with self-peptide-MHC (pMHC) presented by thymic cells determines the fate of the DP thymocyte. High affinity interactions lead to negative selection and elimination of self-reactive thymocytes. Low affinity interactions result in positive selection and development of CD4 or CD8 single positive (SP) T cells capable of recognizing foreign antigens presented by self-MHC5
Positive selection can be studied in mice with a polyclonal (wildtype) TCR repertoire by observing the generation of mature T cells. However, they are not ideal for the study of negative selection, which involves deletion of small antigen-specific populations. Many model systems have been used to study negative selection but vary in their ability to recapitulate physiological events6
. For example, in vitro
stimulation of thymocytes lacks the thymic environment that is intimately involved in selection, while administration of exogenous antigen can lead to non-specific deletion of thymocytes7-9
. Currently, the best tools for studying in vivo
negative selection are mice that express a transgenic TCR specific for endogenous self-antigen. However, many classical TCR transgenic models are characterized by premature expression of the transgenic TCRα chain at the DN stage, resulting in premature negative selection. Our lab has developed the HYcd4
model, in which the transgenic HY TCRα is conditionally expressed at the DP stage, allowing negative selection to occur during the DP to SP transition as occurs in wildtype mice10
Here, we describe a flow cytometry-based protocol to examine thymic positive and negative selection in the HYcd4
mouse model. While negative selection in HYcd4
mice is highly physiological, these methods can also be applied to other TCR transgenic models. We will also present general strategies for analyzing positive selection in a polyclonal repertoire applicable to any genetically manipulated mice.
Immunology, Issue 68, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Thymus, T cell, negative selection, positive selection, autoimmunity, flow cytometry
Perceptual and Category Processing of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis' Dimension of Human Likeness: Some Methodological Issues
Institutions: University of Zurich.
Mori's Uncanny Valley Hypothesis1,2
proposes that the perception of humanlike characters such as robots and, by extension, avatars (computer-generated characters) can evoke negative or positive affect (valence) depending on the object's degree of visual and behavioral realism along a dimension of human likeness
) (Figure 1
). But studies of affective valence of subjective responses to variously realistic non-human characters have produced inconsistent findings 3, 4, 5, 6
. One of a number of reasons for this is that human likeness is not perceived as the hypothesis assumes. While the DHL can be defined following Mori's description as a smooth linear change in the degree of physical humanlike similarity, subjective perception of objects along the DHL can be understood in terms of the psychological effects of categorical perception (CP) 7
. Further behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of category processing and CP along the DHL and of the potential influence of the dimension's underlying category structure on affective experience are needed. This protocol therefore focuses on the DHL and allows examination of CP. Based on the protocol presented in the video as an example, issues surrounding the methodology in the protocol and the use in "uncanny" research of stimuli drawn from morph continua to represent the DHL are discussed in the article that accompanies the video. The use of neuroimaging and morph stimuli to represent the DHL in order to disentangle brain regions neurally responsive to physical human-like similarity from those responsive to category change and category processing is briefly illustrated.
Behavior, Issue 76, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Psychology, Neuropsychology, uncanny valley, functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI, categorical perception, virtual reality, avatar, human likeness, Mori, uncanny valley hypothesis, perception, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, imaging, clinical techniques
Detection of Architectural Distortion in Prior Mammograms via Analysis of Oriented Patterns
Institutions: University of Calgary , University of Calgary .
We demonstrate methods for the detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms of interval-cancer cases based on analysis of the orientation of breast tissue patterns in mammograms. We hypothesize that architectural distortion modifies the normal orientation of breast tissue patterns in mammographic images before the formation of masses or tumors. In the initial steps of our methods, the oriented structures in a given mammogram are analyzed using Gabor filters and phase portraits to detect node-like sites of radiating or intersecting tissue patterns. Each detected site is then characterized using the node value, fractal dimension, and a measure of angular dispersion specifically designed to represent spiculating patterns associated with architectural distortion.
Our methods were tested with a database of 106 prior mammograms of 56 interval-cancer cases and 52 mammograms of 13 normal cases using the features developed for the characterization of architectural distortion, pattern classification via
quadratic discriminant analysis, and validation with the leave-one-patient out procedure. According to the results of free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis, our methods have demonstrated the capability to detect architectural distortion in prior mammograms, taken 15 months (on the average) before clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, with a sensitivity of 80% at about five false positives per patient.
Medicine, Issue 78, Anatomy, Physiology, Cancer Biology, angular spread, architectural distortion, breast cancer, Computer-Assisted Diagnosis, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), entropy, fractional Brownian motion, fractal dimension, Gabor filters, Image Processing, Medical Informatics, node map, oriented texture, Pattern Recognition, phase portraits, prior mammograms, spectral analysis
An Explant Assay for Assessing Cellular Behavior of the Cranial Mesenchyme
Institutions: Children's National Medical Center.
The central nervous system is derived from the neural plate that undergoes a series of complex morphogenetic movements resulting in formation of the neural tube in a process known as neurulation. During neurulation, morphogenesis of the mesenchyme that underlies the neural plate is believed to drive neural fold elevation. The cranial mesenchyme is comprised of the paraxial mesoderm and neural crest cells. The cells of the cranial mesenchyme form a pourous meshwork composed of stellate shaped cells and intermingling extracellular matrix (ECM) strands that support the neural folds. During neurulation, the cranial mesenchyme undergoes stereotypical rearrangements resulting in its expansion and these movements are believed to provide a driving force for neural fold elevation. However, the pathways and cellular behaviors that drive cranial mesenchyme morphogenesis remain poorly studied. Interactions between the ECM and the cells of the cranial mesenchyme underly these cell behaviors. Here we describe a simple ex vivo
explant assay devised to characterize the behaviors of these cells. This assay is amendable to pharmacological manipulations to dissect the signaling pathways involved and live imaging analyses to further characterize the behavior of these cells. We present a representative experiment demonstrating the utility of this assay in characterizing the migratory properties of the cranial mesenchyme on a variety of ECM components.
Neurobiology, Issue 71, Cellular Biology, Neuroscience, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Pharmacology, exencephaly, cranial mesenchyme, migration, neural tube closure, cell rearrangement, extracellular matrix, pharmacological treatment
Anatomical Reconstructions of the Human Cardiac Venous System using Contrast-computed Tomography of Perfusion-fixed Specimens
Institutions: University of Minnesota , University of Minnesota , University of Minnesota , University of Minnesota , University of Minnesota .
A detailed understanding of the complexity and relative variability within the human cardiac venous system is crucial for the development of cardiac devices that require access to these vessels. For example, cardiac venous anatomy is known to be one of the key limitations for the proper delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)1
Therefore, the development of a database of anatomical parameters for human cardiac venous systems can aid in the design of CRT delivery devices to overcome such a limitation. In this research project, the anatomical parameters were obtained from 3D reconstructions of the venous system using contrast-computed tomography (CT) imaging and modeling software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The following parameters were assessed for each vein: arc length, tortuousity, branching angle, distance to the coronary sinus ostium, and vessel diameter.
CRT is a potential treatment for patients with electromechanical dyssynchrony. Approximately 10-20% of heart failure patients may benefit from CRT2
. Electromechanical dyssynchrony implies that parts of the myocardium activate and contract earlier or later than the normal conduction pathway of the heart. In CRT, dyssynchronous areas of the myocardium are treated with electrical stimulation. CRT pacing typically involves pacing leads that stimulate the right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and left ventricle (LV) to produce more resynchronized rhythms. The LV lead is typically implanted within a cardiac vein, with the aim to overlay it within the site of latest myocardial activation.
We believe that the models obtained and the analyses thereof will promote the anatomical education for patients, students, clinicians, and medical device designers. The methodologies employed here can also be utilized to study other anatomical features of our human heart specimens, such as the coronary arteries. To further encourage the educational value of this research, we have shared the venous models on our free access website: www.vhlab.umn.edu/atlas.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 74, Medicine, Bioengineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Cardiology, Coronary Vessels, Heart, Heart Conduction System, Heart Ventricles, Myocardium, cardiac veins, coronary veins, perfusion-fixed human hearts, Computed Tomography, CT, CT scan, contrast injections, 3D modeling, Device Development, vessel parameters, imaging, clinical techniques
Surgical Induction of Endolymphatic Hydrops by Obliteration of the Endolymphatic Duct
Institutions: Case Western Reserve University.
Surgical induction of endolymphatic hydrops (ELH) in the guinea pig by obliteration and obstruction of the endolymphatic duct is a well-accepted animal model of the condition and an important correlate for human Meniere's disease. In 1965, Robert Kimura and Harold Schuknecht first described an intradural approach for obstruction of the endolymphatic duct (Kimura 1965). Although effective, this technique, which requires penetration of the brain's protective covering, incurred an undesirable level of morbidity and mortality in the animal subjects. Consequently, Andrews and Bohmer developed an extradural approach, which predictably produces fewer of the complications associated with central nervous system (CNS) penetration.(Andrews and Bohmer 1989)
The extradural approach described here first requires a midline incision in the region of the occiput to expose the underlying muscular layer. We operate only on the right side. After appropriate retraction of the overlying tissue, a horizontal incision is made into the musculature of the right occiput to expose the right temporo-occipital suture line. The bone immediately inferio-lateral the suture line (Fig 1) is then drilled with an otologic drill until the sigmoid sinus becomes visible. Medial retraction of the sigmoid sinus reveals the operculum of the endolymphatic duct, which houses the endolymphatic sac. Drilling medial to the operculum into the area of the endolymphatic sac reveals the endolymphatic duct, which is then packed with bone wax to produce obstruction and ultimately ELH.
In the following weeks, the animal will demonstrate the progressive, fluctuating hearing loss and histologic evidence of ELH.
Medicine, Issue 35, Guinea Pig, Endolymphatic hydrops, Meniere's disease, surgical induction, endolymphatic duct
Phase Contrast and Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) Microscopy
Institutions: University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA).
Phase-contrast microscopy is often used to produce contrast for transparent, non light-absorbing, biological specimens. The technique was discovered by Zernike, in 1942, who received the Nobel prize for his achievement. DIC microscopy, introduced in the late 1960s, has been popular in biomedical research because it highlights edges of specimen structural detail, provides high-resolution optical sections of thick specimens including tissue cells, eggs, and embryos and does not suffer from the phase halos typical of phase-contrast images. This protocol highlights the principles and practical applications of these microscopy techniques.
Basic protocols, Issue 18, Current Protocols Wiley, Microscopy, Phase Contrast, Difference Interference Contrast
Non-invasive 3D-Visualization with Sub-micron Resolution Using Synchrotron-X-ray-tomography
Institutions: University of Tubingen, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility.
Little is known about the internal organization of many micro-arthropods with body sizes below 1 mm. The reasons for that are the small size and the hard cuticle which makes it difficult to use protocols of classical histology. In addition, histological sectioning destroys the sample and can therefore not be used for unique material. Hence, a non-destructive method is desirable which allows to view inside small samples without the need of sectioning.
We used synchrotron X-ray tomography at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble (France) to non-invasively produce 3D tomographic datasets with a pixel-resolution of 0.7µm. Using volume rendering software, this allows us to reconstruct the internal organization in its natural state without the artefacts produced by histological sectioning. These date can be used for quantitative morphology, landmarks, or for the visualization of animated movies to understand the structure of hidden body parts and to follow complete organ systems or tissues through the samples.
Developmental Biology, Issue 15, Synchrotron X-ray tomography, Acari, Oribatida, micro-arthropods, non-invasive investigation
A Method for 2-Photon Imaging of Blood Flow in the Neocortex through a Cranial Window
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles.
The ability to image the cerebral vasculature (from large vessels to capillaries) and record blood flow dynamics in the intact brain of living rodents is a powerful technique. Using in vivo 2-photon microscopy through a cranial window it is possible to image fluorescent dyes injected intravenously. This permits one to image the cortical vasculature and also to obtain measurements of blood flow. This technique was originally developed by David Kleinfeld and Winfried Denk. The method can be used to study blood flow dynamics during or after cerebral ischemia, in neurodegenerative disorders, in brain tumors, or in normal brain physiology. For example, it has been used to study how stroke causes shifts in blood flow direction and changes in red blood cell velocity or flux in and around the infarct. Here we demonstrate how to use 2-photon microscopy to image blood flow dynamics in the neocortex of living mice using fluorescent dyes injected into the tail vein.
Neuroscience, Issue 12, red blood cell, cortex, fluorescein, rhodamine, dextran, two-photon, 2-photon, capillary