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Pubmed Article
Quantitative genetic analysis of retinal degeneration in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
The retina is the light-sensitive tissue of the eye that facilitates vision. Mutations within genes affecting eye development and retinal function cause a host of degenerative visual diseases, including retinitis pigmentosa and anophthalmia/microphthalmia. The characin fish Astyanax mexicanus includes both eyed (surface fish) and eyeless (cavefish) morphs that initially develop eyes with normal retina; however, early in development, the eyes of cavefish degenerate. Since both surface and cave morphs are members of the same species, they serve as excellent evolutionary mutant models with which to identify genes causing retinal degeneration. In this study, we crossed the eyed and eyeless forms of A. mexicanus and quantified the thickness of individual retinal layers among 115 F(2) hybrid progeny. We used next generation sequencing (RAD-seq) and microsatellite mapping to construct a dense genetic map of the Astyanax genome, scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting retinal thickness, and identify candidate genes within these QTL regions. The map we constructed for Astyanax includes nearly 700 markers assembled into 25 linkage groups. Based on our scans with this map, we identified four QTL, one each associated with the thickness of the ganglion, inner nuclear, outer plexiform, and outer nuclear layers of the retina. For all but one QTL, cavefish alleles resulted in a clear reduction in the thickness of the affected layer. Comparative mapping of genetic markers within each QTL revealed that each QTL corresponds to an approximately 35 Mb region of the zebrafish genome. Within each region, we identified several candidate genes associated with the function of each affected retinal layer. Our study is the first to examine Astyanax retinal degeneration in the context of QTL mapping. The regions we identify serve as a starting point for future studies on the genetics of retinal degeneration and eye disease using the evolutionary mutant model Astyanax.
Authors: Ellinor Maurer, Markus Tschopp, Christoph Tappeiner, Pauline Sallin, Anna Jazwinska, Volker Enzmann.
Published: 10-20-2014
ABSTRACT
Retinal degenerative diseases, e.g. retinitis pigmentosa, with resulting photoreceptor damage account for the majority of vision loss in the industrial world. Animal models are of pivotal importance to study such diseases. In this regard the photoreceptor-specific toxin N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) has been widely used in rodents to pharmacologically induce retinal degeneration. Previously, we have established a MNU-induced retinal degeneration model in the zebrafish, another popular model system in visual research. A fascinating difference to mammals is the persistent neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish retina and its regeneration after damage. To quantify this observation we have employed visual acuity measurements in the adult zebrafish. Thereby, the optokinetic reflex was used to follow functional changes in non-anesthetized fish. This was supplemented with histology as well as immunohistochemical staining for apoptosis (TUNEL) and proliferation (PCNA) to correlate the developing morphological changes. In summary, apoptosis of photoreceptors occurs three days after MNU treatment, which is followed by a marked reduction of cells in the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Thereafter, proliferation of cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and ONL is observed. Herein, we reveal that not only a complete histological but also a functional regeneration occurs over a time course of 30 days. Now we illustrate the methods to quantify and follow up zebrafish retinal de- and regeneration using MNU in a video-format.
23 Related JoVE Articles!
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The Tomato/GFP-FLP/FRT Method for Live Imaging of Mosaic Adult Drosophila Photoreceptor Cells
Authors: Pierre Dourlen, Clemence Levet, Alexandre Mejat, Alexis Gambis, Bertrand Mollereau.
Institutions: Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université Lille-Nord de France, The Rockefeller University.
The Drosophila eye is widely used as a model for studies of development and neuronal degeneration. With the powerful mitotic recombination technique, elegant genetic screens based on clonal analysis have led to the identification of signaling pathways involved in eye development and photoreceptor (PR) differentiation at larval stages. We describe here the Tomato/GFP-FLP/FRT method, which can be used for rapid clonal analysis in the eye of living adult Drosophila. Fluorescent photoreceptor cells are imaged with the cornea neutralization technique, on retinas with mosaic clones generated by flipase-mediated recombination. This method has several major advantages over classical histological sectioning of the retina: it can be used for high-throughput screening and has proved an effective method for identifying the factors regulating PR survival and function. It can be used for kinetic analyses of PR degeneration in the same living animal over several weeks, to demonstrate the requirement for specific genes for PR survival or function in the adult fly. This method is also useful for addressing cell autonomy issues in developmental mutants, such as those in which the establishment of planar cell polarity is affected.
Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Eye, Photoreceptor Cells, Genes, Developmental, neuron, visualization, degeneration, development, live imaging,Drosophila, photoreceptor, cornea neutralization, mitotic recombination
50610
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Subretinal Transplantation of MACS Purified Photoreceptor Precursor Cells into the Adult Mouse Retina
Authors: Dominic Eberle, Tiago Santos-Ferreira, Sandra Grahl, Marius Ader.
Institutions: Technische Universität Dresden.
Vision impairment and blindness due to the loss of the light-sensing cells of the retina, i.e. photoreceptors, represents the main reason for disability in industrialized countries. Replacement of degenerated photoreceptors by cell transplantation represents a possible treatment option in future clinical applications. Indeed, recent preclinical studies demonstrated that immature photoreceptors, isolated from the neonatal mouse retina at postnatal day 4, have the potential to integrate into the adult mouse retina following subretinal transplantation. Donor cells generated a mature photoreceptor morphology including inner and outer segments, a round cell body located at the outer nuclear layer, and synaptic terminals in close proximity to endogenous bipolar cells. Indeed, recent reports demonstrated that donor photoreceptors functionally integrate into the neural circuitry of host mice. For a future clinical application of such cell replacement approach, purified suspensions of the cells of choice have to be generated and placed at the correct position for proper integration into the eye. For the enrichment of photoreceptor precursors, sorting should be based on specific cell surface antigens to avoid genetic reporter modification of donor cells. Here we show magnetic-associated cell sorting (MACS) - enrichment of transplantable rod photoreceptor precursors isolated from the neonatal retina of photoreceptor-specific reporter mice based on the cell surface marker CD73. Incubation with anti-CD73 antibodies followed by micro-bead conjugated secondary antibodies allowed the enrichment of rod photoreceptor precursors by MACS to approximately 90%. In comparison to flow cytometry, MACS has the advantage that it can be easier applied to GMP standards and that high amounts of cells can be sorted in relative short time periods. Injection of enriched cell suspensions into the subretinal space of adult wild-type mice resulted in a 3-fold higher integration rate compared to unsorted cell suspensions.
Medicine, Issue 84, Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate, Retinal Degeneration, Regeneration, retina, magnetic associated cell sorting (MACS), transplantation, regenerative therapy
50932
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A Novel Light Damage Paradigm for Use in Retinal Regeneration Studies in Adult Zebrafish
Authors: Jennifer L. Thomas, Ryan Thummel.
Institutions: Wayne State University School of Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine.
Light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) is commonly used in both rodents and zebrafish to damage rod and cone photoreceptors. In adult zebrafish, photoreceptor degeneration triggers Müller glial cells to re-enter the cell cycle and produce transient-amplifying progenitors. These progenitors continue to proliferate as they migrate to the damaged area, where they ultimately give rise to new photoreceptors. Currently, there are two widely-used LIRD paradigms, each of which results in varying degrees of photoreceptor loss and corresponding differences in the regeneration response. As more genetic and pharmacological tools are available to test the role of individual genes of interest during regeneration, there is a need to develop a robust LIRD paradigm. Here we describe a LIRD protocol that results in widespread and consistent loss of both rod and cone photoreceptors in which we have combined the use of two previously established LIRD techniques. Furthermore, this protocol can be extended for use in pigmented animals, which eliminates the need to maintain transgenic lines of interest on the albino background for LIRD studies.
Neuroscience, Issue 80, Zebrafish, Retinal Degeneration, Retina, Photoreceptor, Müller glia, Light damage
51017
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Detecting Abnormalities in Choroidal Vasculature in a Mouse Model of Age-related Macular Degeneration by Time-course Indocyanine Green Angiography
Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Zachary Berriochoa, Alex D. Jones, Yingbin Fu.
Institutions: University of Utah Health Sciences Center, University of Utah Health Sciences Center.
Indocyanine Green Angiography (or ICGA) is a technique performed by ophthalmologists to diagnose abnormalities of the choroidal and retinal vasculature of various eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). ICGA is especially useful to image the posterior choroidal vasculature of the eye due to its capability of penetrating through the pigmented layer with its infrared spectrum. ICGA time course can be divided into early, middle, and late phases. The three phases provide valuable information on the pathology of eye problems. Although time-course ICGA by intravenous (IV) injection is widely used in the clinic for the diagnosis and management of choroid problems, ICGA by intraperitoneal injection (IP) is commonly used in animal research. Here we demonstrated the technique to obtain high-resolution ICGA time-course images in mice by tail-vein injection and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. We used this technique to image the choroidal lesions in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration. Although it is much easier to introduce ICG to the mouse vasculature by IP, our data indicate that it is difficult to obtain reproducible ICGA time course images by IP-ICGA. In contrast, ICGA via tail vein injection provides high quality ICGA time-course images comparable to human studies. In addition, we showed that ICGA performed on albino mice gives clearer pictures of choroidal vessels than that performed on pigmented mice. We suggest that time-course IV-ICGA should become a standard practice in AMD research based on animal models.
Medicine, Issue 84, Indocyanine Green Angiography, ICGA, choroid vasculature, age-related macular degeneration, AMD, Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy, PCV, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, IV-ICGA, time-course ICGA, tail-vein injection
51061
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Dynamic Visual Tests to Identify and Quantify Visual Damage and Repair Following Demyelination in Optic Neuritis Patients
Authors: Noa Raz, Michal Hallak, Tamir Ben-Hur, Netta Levin.
Institutions: Hadassah Hebrew-University Medical Center.
In order to follow optic neuritis patients and evaluate the effectiveness of their treatment, a handy, accurate and quantifiable tool is required to assess changes in myelination at the central nervous system (CNS). However, standard measurements, including routine visual tests and MRI scans, are not sensitive enough for this purpose. We present two visual tests addressing dynamic monocular and binocular functions which may closely associate with the extent of myelination along visual pathways. These include Object From Motion (OFM) extraction and Time-constrained stereo protocols. In the OFM test, an array of dots compose an object, by moving the dots within the image rightward while moving the dots outside the image leftward or vice versa. The dot pattern generates a camouflaged object that cannot be detected when the dots are stationary or moving as a whole. Importantly, object recognition is critically dependent on motion perception. In the Time-constrained Stereo protocol, spatially disparate images are presented for a limited length of time, challenging binocular 3-dimensional integration in time. Both tests are appropriate for clinical usage and provide a simple, yet powerful, way to identify and quantify processes of demyelination and remyelination along visual pathways. These protocols may be efficient to diagnose and follow optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis patients. In the diagnostic process, these protocols may reveal visual deficits that cannot be identified via current standard visual measurements. Moreover, these protocols sensitively identify the basis of the currently unexplained continued visual complaints of patients following recovery of visual acuity. In the longitudinal follow up course, the protocols can be used as a sensitive marker of demyelinating and remyelinating processes along time. These protocols may therefore be used to evaluate the efficacy of current and evolving therapeutic strategies, targeting myelination of the CNS.
Medicine, Issue 86, Optic neuritis, visual impairment, dynamic visual functions, motion perception, stereopsis, demyelination, remyelination
51107
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A Standardized Obstacle Course for Assessment of Visual Function in Ultra Low Vision and Artificial Vision
Authors: Amy Catherine Nau, Christine Pintar, Christopher Fisher, Jong-Hyeon Jeong, KwonHo Jeong.
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh.
We describe an indoor, portable, standardized course that can be used to evaluate obstacle avoidance in persons who have ultralow vision. Six sighted controls and 36 completely blind but otherwise healthy adult male (n=29) and female (n=13) subjects (age range 19-85 years), were enrolled in one of three studies involving testing of the BrainPort sensory substitution device. Subjects were asked to navigate the course prior to, and after, BrainPort training. They completed a total of 837 course runs in two different locations. Means and standard deviations were calculated across control types, courses, lights, and visits. We used a linear mixed effects model to compare different categories in the PPWS (percent preferred walking speed) and error percent data to show that the course iterations were properly designed. The course is relatively inexpensive, simple to administer, and has been shown to be a feasible way to test mobility function. Data analysis demonstrates that for the outcome of percent error as well as for percentage preferred walking speed, that each of the three courses is different, and that within each level, each of the three iterations are equal. This allows for randomization of the courses during administration. Abbreviations: preferred walking speed (PWS) course speed (CS) percentage preferred walking speed (PPWS)
Medicine, Issue 84, Obstacle course, navigation assessment, BrainPort, wayfinding, low vision
51205
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In vivo Imaging of Optic Nerve Fiber Integrity by Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Mice
Authors: Stefanie Fischer, Christian Engelmann, Karl-Heinz Herrmann, Jürgen R. Reichenbach, Otto W. Witte, Falk Weih, Alexandra Kretz, Ronny Haenold.
Institutions: Jena University Hospital, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Jena, Jena University Hospital.
The rodent visual system encompasses retinal ganglion cells and their axons that form the optic nerve to enter thalamic and midbrain centers, and postsynaptic projections to the visual cortex. Based on its distinct anatomical structure and convenient accessibility, it has become the favored structure for studies on neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and synaptic plasticity. Recent advancements in MR imaging have enabled the in vivo visualization of the retino-tectal part of this projection using manganese mediated contrast enhancement (MEMRI). Here, we present a MEMRI protocol for illustration of the visual projection in mice, by which resolutions of (200 µm)3 can be achieved using common 3 Tesla scanners. We demonstrate how intravitreal injection of a single dosage of 15 nmol MnCl2 leads to a saturated enhancement of the intact projection within 24 hr. With exception of the retina, changes in signal intensity are independent of coincided visual stimulation or physiological aging. We further apply this technique to longitudinally monitor axonal degeneration in response to acute optic nerve injury, a paradigm by which Mn2+ transport completely arrests at the lesion site. Conversely, active Mn2+ transport is quantitatively proportionate to the viability, number, and electrical activity of axon fibers. For such an analysis, we exemplify Mn2+ transport kinetics along the visual path in a transgenic mouse model (NF-κB p50KO) displaying spontaneous atrophy of sensory, including visual, projections. In these mice, MEMRI indicates reduced but not delayed Mn2+ transport as compared to wild type mice, thus revealing signs of structural and/or functional impairments by NF-κB mutations. In summary, MEMRI conveniently bridges in vivo assays and post mortem histology for the characterization of nerve fiber integrity and activity. It is highly useful for longitudinal studies on axonal degeneration and regeneration, and investigations of mutant mice for genuine or inducible phenotypes.
Neuroscience, Issue 89, manganese-enhanced MRI, mouse retino-tectal projection, visual system, neurodegeneration, optic nerve injury, NF-κB
51274
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Assessment of Vascular Regeneration in the CNS Using the Mouse Retina
Authors: Khalil Miloudi, Agnieszka Dejda, François Binet, Eric Lapalme, Agustin Cerani, Przemyslaw Sapieha.
Institutions: McGill University, University of Montréal, University of Montréal.
The rodent retina is perhaps the most accessible mammalian system in which to investigate neurovascular interplay within the central nervous system (CNS). It is increasingly being recognized that several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis present elements of vascular compromise. In addition, the most prominent causes of blindness in pediatric and working age populations (retinopathy of prematurity and diabetic retinopathy, respectively) are characterized by vascular degeneration and failure of physiological vascular regrowth. The aim of this technical paper is to provide a detailed protocol to study CNS vascular regeneration in the retina. The method can be employed to elucidate molecular mechanisms that lead to failure of vascular growth after ischemic injury. In addition, potential therapeutic modalities to accelerate and restore healthy vascular plexuses can be explored. Findings obtained using the described approach may provide therapeutic avenues for ischemic retinopathies such as that of diabetes or prematurity and possibly benefit other vascular disorders of the CNS.
Neuroscience, Issue 88, vascular regeneration, angiogenesis, vessels, retina, neurons, oxygen-induced retinopathy, neovascularization, CNS
51351
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A Simple Behavioral Assay for Testing Visual Function in Xenopus laevis
Authors: Andrea S. Viczian, Michael E. Zuber.
Institutions: Center for Vision Research, SUNY Eye Institute, Upstate Medical University.
Measurement of the visual function in the tadpoles of the frog, Xenopus laevis, allows screening for blindness in live animals. The optokinetic response is a vision-based, reflexive behavior that has been observed in all vertebrates tested. Tadpole eyes are small so the tail flip response was used as alternative measure, which requires a trained technician to record the subtle response. We developed an alternative behavior assay based on the fact that tadpoles prefer to swim on the white side of a tank when placed in a tank with both black and white sides. The assay presented here is an inexpensive, simple alternative that creates a response that is easily measured. The setup consists of a tripod, webcam and nested testing tanks, readily available in most Xenopus laboratories. This article includes a movie showing the behavior of tadpoles, before and after severing the optic nerve. In order to test the function of one eye, we also include representative results of a tadpole in which each eye underwent retinal axotomy on consecutive days. Future studies could develop an automated version of this assay for testing the vision of many tadpoles at once.
Neuroscience, Issue 88, eye, retina, vision, color preference, Xenopus laevis, behavior, light, guidance, visual assay
51726
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Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies
Authors: Patrick De Boever, Tijs Louwies, Eline Provost, Luc Int Panis, Tim S. Nawrot.
Institutions: Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Hasselt University, Hasselt University, Leuven University.
The microcirculation consists of blood vessels with diameters less than 150 µm. It makes up a large part of the circulatory system and plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular health. The retina is a tissue that lines the interior of the eye and it is the only tissue that allows for a non-invasive analysis of the microvasculature. Nowadays, high-quality fundus images can be acquired using digital cameras. Retinal images can be collected in 5 min or less, even without dilatation of the pupils. This unobtrusive and fast procedure for visualizing the microcirculation is attractive to apply in epidemiological studies and to monitor cardiovascular health from early age up to old age. Systemic diseases that affect the circulation can result in progressive morphological changes in the retinal vasculature. For example, changes in the vessel calibers of retinal arteries and veins have been associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and increased risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. The vessel widths are derived using image analysis software and the width of the six largest arteries and veins are summarized in the Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent (CRAE) and the Central Retinal Venular Equivalent (CRVE). The latter features have been shown useful to study the impact of modifiable lifestyle and environmental cardiovascular disease risk factors. The procedures to acquire fundus images and the analysis steps to obtain CRAE and CRVE are described. Coefficients of variation of repeated measures of CRAE and CRVE are less than 2% and within-rater reliability is very high. Using a panel study, the rapid response of the retinal vessel calibers to short-term changes in particulate air pollution, a known risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, is reported. In conclusion, retinal imaging is proposed as a convenient and instrumental tool for epidemiological studies to study microvascular responses to cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Medicine, Issue 92, retina, microvasculature, image analysis, Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent, Central Retinal Venular Equivalent, air pollution, particulate matter, black carbon
51904
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Trypsin Digest Protocol to Analyze the Retinal Vasculature of a Mouse Model
Authors: Jonathan C. Chou, Stuart D. Rollins, Amani A. Fawzi.
Institutions: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
Trypsin digest is the gold standard method to analyze the retinal vasculature 1-5. It allows visualization of the entire network of complex three-dimensional retinal blood vessels and capillaries by creating a two-dimensional flat-mount of the interconnected vascular channels after digestion of the non-vascular components of the retina. This allows one to study various pathologic vascular changes, such as microaneurysms, capillary degeneration, and abnormal endothelial to pericyte ratios. However, the method is technically challenging, especially in mice, which have become the most widely available animal model to study the retina because of the ease of genetic manipulations 6,7. In the mouse eye, it is particularly difficult to completely remove the non-vascular components while maintaining the overall architecture of the retinal blood vessels. To date, there is a dearth of literature that describes the trypsin digest technique in detail in the mouse. This manuscript provides a detailed step-by-step methodology of the trypsin digest in mouse retina, while also providing tips on troubleshooting difficult steps.
Neurobiology, Issue 76, Neuroscience, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Ophthalmology, Eye, Posterior Eye Segment, Retinal Diseases, Eye Enucleation, trypsin digest, mouse, rat, rodent, retina, vasculature, blood vessel, histology, diabetes, tissue, animal model
50489
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Techniques for Processing Eyes Implanted With a Retinal Prosthesis for Localized Histopathological Analysis
Authors: David A. X. Nayagam, Ceara McGowan, Joel Villalobos, Richard A. Williams, Cesar Salinas-LaRosa, Penny McKelvie, Irene Lo, Meri Basa, Justin Tan, Chris E. Williams.
Institutions: Bionics Institute, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, University of Melbourne, University of Melbourne.
With the recent development of retinal prostheses, it is important to develop reliable techniques for assessing the safety of these devices in preclinical studies. However, the standard fixation, preparation, and automated histology procedures are not ideal. Here we describe new procedures for evaluating the health of the retina directly adjacent to an implant. Retinal prostheses feature electrode arrays in contact with eye tissue. Previous methods have not been able to spatially localize the ocular tissue adjacent to individual electrodes within the array. In addition, standard histological processing often results in gross artifactual detachment of the retinal layers when assessing implanted eyes. Consequently, it has been difficult to assess localized damage, if present, caused by implantation and stimulation of an implanted electrode array. Therefore, we developed a method for identifying and localizing the ocular tissue adjacent to implanted electrodes using a (color-coded) dye marking scheme, and we modified an eye fixation technique to minimize artifactual retinal detachment. This method also rendered the sclera translucent, enabling localization of individual electrodes and specific parts of an implant. Finally, we used a matched control to increase the power of the histopathological assessments. In summary, this method enables reliable and efficient discrimination and assessment of the retinal cytoarchitecture in an implanted eye.
Medicine, Issue 78, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Surgery, Ophthalmology, Pathology, Tissue Engineering, Prosthesis Implantation, Implantable Neurostimulators, Implants, Experimental, Histology, bionics, Retina, Prosthesis, Bionic Eye, Retinal, Implant, Suprachoroidal, Fixation, Localization, Safety, Preclinical, dissection, embedding, staining, tissue, surgical techniques, clinical techniques
50411
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In Vivo Modeling of the Morbid Human Genome using Danio rerio
Authors: Adrienne R. Niederriter, Erica E. Davis, Christelle Golzio, Edwin C. Oh, I-Chun Tsai, Nicholas Katsanis.
Institutions: Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Duke University Medical Center.
Here, we present methods for the development of assays to query potentially clinically significant nonsynonymous changes using in vivo complementation in zebrafish. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a useful animal system due to their experimental tractability; embryos are transparent to enable facile viewing, undergo rapid development ex vivo, and can be genetically manipulated.1 These aspects have allowed for significant advances in the analysis of embryogenesis, molecular processes, and morphogenetic signaling. Taken together, the advantages of this vertebrate model make zebrafish highly amenable to modeling the developmental defects in pediatric disease, and in some cases, adult-onset disorders. Because the zebrafish genome is highly conserved with that of humans (~70% orthologous), it is possible to recapitulate human disease states in zebrafish. This is accomplished either through the injection of mutant human mRNA to induce dominant negative or gain of function alleles, or utilization of morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides to suppress genes to mimic loss of function variants. Through complementation of MO-induced phenotypes with capped human mRNA, our approach enables the interpretation of the deleterious effect of mutations on human protein sequence based on the ability of mutant mRNA to rescue a measurable, physiologically relevant phenotype. Modeling of the human disease alleles occurs through microinjection of zebrafish embryos with MO and/or human mRNA at the 1-4 cell stage, and phenotyping up to seven days post fertilization (dpf). This general strategy can be extended to a wide range of disease phenotypes, as demonstrated in the following protocol. We present our established models for morphogenetic signaling, craniofacial, cardiac, vascular integrity, renal function, and skeletal muscle disorder phenotypes, as well as others.
Molecular Biology, Issue 78, Genetics, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Developmental Biology, Biochemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, Bioengineering, Genomics, Medical, zebrafish, in vivo, morpholino, human disease modeling, transcription, PCR, mRNA, DNA, Danio rerio, animal model
50338
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A Simplified Technique for In situ Excision of Cornea and Evisceration of Retinal Tissue from Human Ocular Globe
Authors: Mohit Parekh, Stefano Ferrari, Enzo Di Iorio, Vanessa Barbaro, Davide Camposampiero, Marianthi Karali, Diego Ponzin, Gianni Salvalaio.
Institutions: Fondazione Banca Degli Occhi del Veneto O.N.L.U.S. , Telethon Institute for Genetics & Medicine (T.I.G.E.M.).
Enucleation is the process of retrieving the ocular globe from a cadaveric donor leaving the rest of the globe undisturbed. Excision refers to the retrieval of ocular tissues, especially cornea, by cutting it separate from the ocular globe. Evisceration is the process of removing the internal organs referred here as retina. The ocular globe consists of the cornea, the sclera, the vitreous body, the lens, the iris, the retina, the choroid, muscles etc (Suppl. Figure 1). When a patient is suffering from corneal damage, the cornea needs to be removed and a healthy one must be transplanted by keratoplastic surgeries. Genetic disorders or defects in retinal function can compromise vision. Human ocular globes can be used for various surgical procedures such as eye banking, transplantation of human cornea or sclera and research on ocular tissues. However, there is little information available on human corneal and retinal excision, probably due to the limited accessibility to human tissues. Most of the studies describing similar procedures are performed on animal models. Research scientists rely on the availability of properly dissected and well-conserved ocular tissues in order to extend the knowledge on human eye development, homeostasis and function. As we receive high amount of ocular globes out of which approximately 40% (Table 1) of them are used for research purposes, we are able to perform huge amount of experiments on these tissues, defining techniques to excise and preserve them regularly. The cornea is an avascular tissue which enables the transmission of light onto the retina and for this purpose should always maintain a good degree of transparency. Within the cornea, the limbus region, which is a reservoir of the stem cells, helps the reconstruction of epithelial cells and restricts the overgrowth of the conjunctiva maintaining corneal transparency and clarity. The size and thickness of the cornea are critical for clear vision, as changes in either of them could lead to distracted, unclear vision. The cornea comprises of 5 layers; a) epithelium, b) Bowman's layer, c) stroma, d) Descemet's membrane and e) endothelium. All layers should function properly to ensure clear vision4,5,6. The choroid is the intermediate tunic between the sclera and retina, bounded on the interior by the Bruch's membrane and is responsible for blood flow in the eye. The choroid also helps to regulate the temperature and supplies nourishment to the outer layers of the retina5,6. The retina is a layer of nervous tissue that covers the back of the ocular globe (Suppl. Figure 1) and consists of two parts: a photoreceptive part and a non-receptive part. The retina helps to receive the light from the cornea and lens and converts it into the chemical energy eventually transmitted to the brain with help of the optic nerve5,6. The aim of this paper is to provide a protocol for the dissection of corneal and retinal tissues from human ocular globes. Avoiding cross-contamination with adjacent tissues and preserving RNA integrity is of fundamental importance as such tissues are indispensable for research purposes aimed at (i) characterizing the transcriptome of the ocular tissues, (ii) isolating stem cells for regenerative medicine projects, and (iii) evaluating histological differences between tissues from normal/affected subjects. In this paper we describe the technique we currently use to remove the cornea, the choroid and retinal tissues from an ocular globe. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the dissection of the human ocular globe and the excision of corneal and retinal tissues. The accompanying video will help researchers to learn an appropriate technique for the retrieval of precious human tissues which are difficult to find regularly.
Medicine, Issue 64, Physiology, Human cadaver ocular globe, in situ excision, corneal tissue, in situ evisceration, retinal tissue
3765
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In vivo Electroporation of Morpholinos into the Adult Zebrafish Retina
Authors: Ryan Thummel, Travis J. Bailey, David R. Hyde.
Institutions: Wayne State University School of Medicine, University of Notre Dame , University of Notre Dame .
Many devastating inherited eye diseases result in progressive and irreversible blindness because humans cannot regenerate dying or diseased retinal neurons. In contrast, the adult zebrafish retina possesses the robust ability to spontaneously regenerate any neuronal class that is lost in a variety of different retinal damage models, including retinal puncture, chemical ablation, concentrated high temperature, and intense light treatment 1-8. Our lab extensively characterized regeneration of photoreceptors following constant intense light treatment and inner retinal neurons after intravitreal ouabain injection 2, 5, 9. In all cases, resident Müller glia re-enter the cell cycle to produce neuronal progenitors, which continue to proliferate and migrate to the proper retinal layer, where they differentiate into the deficient neurons. We characterized five different stages during regeneration of the light-damaged retina that were highlighted by specific cellular responses. We identified several differentially expressed genes at each stage of retinal regeneration by mRNA microarray analysis 10. Many of these genes are also critical for ocular development. To test the role of each candidate gene/protein during retinal regeneration, we needed to develop a method to conditionally limit the expression of a candidate protein only at times during regeneration of the adult retina. Morpholino oligos are widely used to study loss of function of specific proteins during the development of zebrafish, Xenopus, chick, mouse, and tumors in human xenografts 11-14. These modified oligos basepair with complementary RNA sequence to either block the splicing or translation of the target RNA. Morpholinos are stable in the cell and can eliminate or "knockdown" protein expression for three to five days 12. Here, we describe a method to efficiently knockdown target protein expression in the adult zebrafish retina. This method employs lissamine-tagged antisense morpholinos that are injected into the vitreous of the adult zebrafish eye. Using electrode forceps, the morpholino is then electroporated into all the cell types of the dorsal and central retina. Lissamine provides the charge on the morpholino for electroporation and can be visualized to assess the presence of the morpholino in the retinal cells. Conditional knockdown in the retina can be used to examine the role of specific proteins at different times during regeneration. Additionally, this approach can be used to study the role of specific proteins in the undamaged retina, in such processes as visual transduction and visual processing in second order neurons.
Developmental Biology, Issue 58, Electroporation, morpholino, zebrafish, retina, regeneration
3603
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Morphometric Analyses of Retinal Sections
Authors: Tin Fung Chan, Kin Chiu, Carmen Ka Ming Lok, Wing Lau Ho, Kwok-Fai So, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang.
Institutions: The University of Hong Kong, The University of Hong Kong, The University of Hong Kong.
Morphometric analyses of retinal sections have been used in examining retinal diseases. For examples, neuronal cells were significantly lost in the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) in rat models with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)–induced excitotoxicity1, retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury2 and glaucoma3. Reduction of INL and inner plexiform layer (IPL) thicknesses were reversed with citicoline treatment in rats' eyes subjected to kainic acid-mediated glutamate excitotoxicity4. Alteration of RGC density and soma sizes were observed with different drug treatments in eyes with elevated intraocular pressure3,5,6. Therefore, having objective methods of analyzing the retinal morphometries may be of great significance in evaluating retinal pathologies and the effectiveness of therapeutic strategies. The retinal structure is multi-layers and several different kinds of neurons exist in the retina. The morphometric parameters of retina such as cell number, cell size and thickness of different layers are more complex than the cell culture system. Early on, these parameters can be detected using other commercial imaging software. The values are normally of relative value, and changing to the precise value may need further accurate calculation. Also, the tracing of the cell size and morphology may not be accurate and sensitive enough for statistic analysis, especially in the chronic glaucoma model. The measurements used in this protocol provided a more precise and easy way. And the absolute length of the line and size of the cell can be reported directly and easy to be copied to other files. For example, we traced the margin of the inner and outer most nuclei in the INL and formed a line then using the software to draw a 90 degree angle to measure the thickness. While without the help of the software, the line maybe oblique and the changing of retinal thickness may not be repeatable among individual observers. In addition, the number and density of RGCs can also be quantified. This protocol successfully decreases the variability in quantitating features of the retina, increases the sensitivity in detecting minimal changes. This video will demonstrate three types of morphometric analyses of the retinal sections. They include measuring the INL thickness, quantifying the number of RGCs and measuring the sizes of RGCs in absolute value. These three analyses are carried out with Stereo Investigator (MBF Bioscience — MicroBrightField, Inc.). The technique can offer a simple but scientific platform for morphometric analyses.
Neuroscience, Issue 60, morphometric analysis, retina, thickness, cell size, Stereo Investigator, neuroscience
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An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival
Authors: Zhongshu Tang, Shuihua Zhang, Chunsik Lee, Anil Kumar, Pachiappan Arjunan, Yang Li, Fan Zhang, Xuri Li.
Institutions: NIH, The Second Hospital of Harbin Medical University.
Injury to the optic nerve can lead to axonal degeneration, followed by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in irreversible vision loss. Examples of such diseases in human include traumatic optic neuropathy and optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma. It is characterized by typical changes in the optic nerve head, progressive optic nerve degeneration, and loss of retinal ganglion cells, if uncontrolled, leading to vision loss and blindness. The optic nerve crush (ONC) injury mouse model is an important experimental disease model for traumatic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, etc. In this model, the crush injury to the optic nerve leads to gradual retinal ganglion cells apoptosis. This disease model can be used to study the general processes and mechanisms of neuronal death and survival, which is essential for the development of therapeutic measures. In addition, pharmacological and molecular approaches can be used in this model to identify and test potential therapeutic reagents to treat different types of optic neuropathy. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of (I) Baseline retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at day 1, (II) Optic nerve crush injury at day 4, (III) Harvest the retinae and analyze RGC survival at day 11, and (IV) Representative result.
Neuroscience, Issue 50, optic nerve crush injury, retinal ganglion cell, glaucoma, optic neuropathy, retrograde labeling
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The Gateway to the Brain: Dissecting the Primate Eye
Authors: Mark Burke, Shahin Zangenehpour, Joseph Bouskila, Denis Boire, Maurice Ptito.
Institutions: University of Montreal, University of Montreal, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres.
The visual system in humans is considered the gateway to the world and plays a principal role in the plethora of sensory, perceptual and cognitive processes. It is therefore not surprising that quality of vision is tied to quality of life . Despite widespread clinical and basic research surrounding the causes of visual disorders, many forms of visual impairments, such as retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration, lack effective treatments. Non-human primates have the closest general features of eye development to that of humans. Not only do they have a similar vascular anatomy, but amongst other mammals, primates have the unique characteristic of having a region in the temporal retina specialized for high visual acuity, the fovea1. Here we describe a general technique for dissecting the primate retina to provide tissue for retinal histology, immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection, as well as light and electron microscopy. With the extended use of the non-human primate as a translational model, our hope is that improved understanding of the retina will provide insights into effective approaches towards attenuating or reversing the negative impact of visual disorders on the quality of life of affected individuals.
Neuroscience, Issue 27, Non-human primate, eye, retina, dissection, retina ganglion cells, cornea
1261
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Isolation of Retinal Stem Cells from the Mouse Eye
Authors: Brenda L.K. Coles, Derek van der Kooy.
Institutions: University of Toronto.
The adult mouse retinal stem cell (RSC) is a rare quiescent cell found within the ciliary epithelium (CE) of the mammalian eye1,2,3. The CE is made up of non-pigmented inner and pigmented outer cell layers, and the clonal RSC colonies that arise from a single pigmented cell from the CE are made up of both pigmented and non-pigmented cells which can be differentiated to form all the cell types of the neural retina and the RPE. There is some controversy about whether all the cells within the spheres all contain at least some pigment4; however the cells are still capable of forming the different cell types found within the neural retina1-3. In some species, such as amphibians and fish, their eyes are capable of regeneration after injury5, however; the mammalian eye shows no such regenerative properties. We seek to identify the stem cell in vivo and to understand the mechanisms that keep the mammalian retinal stem cells quiescent6-8, even after injury as well as using them as a potential source of cells to help repair physical or genetic models of eye injury through transplantation9-12. Here we describe how to isolate the ciliary epithelial cells from the mouse eye and grow them in culture in order to form the clonal retinal stem cell spheres. Since there are no known markers of the stem cell in vivo, these spheres are the only known way to prospectively identify the stem cell population within the ciliary epithelium of the eye.
Cellular Biology, Issue 43, Stem Cells, Eye, Ciliary Epithelium, Tissue Culture, Mouse
2209
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Organotypic Culture of Full-thickness Adult Porcine Retina
Authors: Jianfeng Wang, Anton M. Kolomeyer, Marco A. Zarbin, Ellen Townes-Anderson.
Institutions: University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - UMDNJ, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - UMDNJ.
There is a recognized demand for in vitro models that can replace or reduce animal experiments. Porcine retina has a similar neuronal structure to human retina and is therefore a valuable species for studying mechanisms of human retinal injury and degenerative disease. Here we describe a cost-effective technique for organotypic culture of adult porcine retina isolated from eyes obtained from an abattoir. After removing the anterior segment, a trephine blade was used to create multiple neural retina-Bruch's membrane-RPE-choroid-sclera explants from the posterior segment of adult porcine eyes. A piece of sterile filter paper was used to lift the neural retina off from each explant. The filter paper-retina complex was cultured (photoreceptor side up) atop an insert, which was held away from the bottom of the culture dish by a custom-made stand. The stand allows for good circulation of the culture medium to both sides of the retina. Overall, this procedure is simple, reproducible, and permits preservation of native retinal structure for at least seven days, making it a useful model for a variety of morphological, pharmacological, and biochemical studies on mammalian retina.
Neuroscience, Issue 49, Retina, in vitro, Porcine, Photoreceptor
2655
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Multifocal Electroretinograms
Authors: Donnell J. Creel.
Institutions: University of Utah.
A limitation of traditional full-field electroretinograms (ERG) for the diagnosis of retinopathy is lack of sensitivity. Generally, ERG results are normal unless more than approximately 20% of the retina is affected. In practical terms, a patient might be legally blind as a result of macular degeneration or other scotomas and still appear normal, according to traditional full field ERG. An important development in ERGs is the multifocal ERG (mfERG). Erich Sutter adapted the mathematical sequences called binary m-sequences enabling the isolation from a single electrical signal an electroretinogram representing less than each square millimeter of retina in response to a visual stimulus1. Results that are generated by mfERG appear similar to those generated by flash ERG. In contrast to flash ERG, which best generates data appropriate for whole-eye disorders. The basic mfERG result is based on the calculated mathematical average of an approximation of the positive deflection component of traditional ERG response, known as the b-wave1. Multifocal ERG programs measure electrical activity from more than a hundred retinal areas per eye, in a few minutes. The enhanced spatial resolution enables scotomas and retinal dysfunction to be mapped and quantified. In the protocol below, we describe the recording of mfERGs using a bipolar speculum contact lens. Components of mfERG systems vary between manufacturers. For the presentation of visible stimulus, some suitable CRT monitors are available but most systems have adopted the use of flat-panel liquid crystal displays (LCD). The visual stimuli depicted here, were produced by a LCD microdisplay subtending 35 - 40 degrees horizontally and 30 - 35 degrees vertically of visual field, and calibrated to produce multifocal flash intensities of 2.7 cd s m-2. Amplification was 50K. Lower and upper bandpass limits were 10 and 300 Hz. The software packages used were VERIS versions 5 and 6.
Medicine, Issue 58, Multifocal electroretinogram, mfERG, electroretinogram, ERG
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Mouse Eye Enucleation for Remote High-throughput Phenotyping
Authors: Vinit B. Mahajan, Jessica M. Skeie, Amir H. Assefnia, MaryAnn Mahajan, Stephen H. Tsang.
Institutions: University of Iowa, University of Iowa, UCLA, Columbia University .
The mouse eye is an important genetic model for the translational study of human ophthalmic disease. Blinding diseases in humans, such as macular degeneration, photoreceptor degeneration, cataract, glaucoma, retinoblastoma, and diabetic retinopathy have been recapitulated in transgenic mice.1-5 Most transgenic and knockout mice have been generated by laboratories to study non-ophthalmic diseases, but genetic conservation between organ systems suggests that many of the same genes may also play a role in ocular development and disease. Hence, these mice represent an important resource for discovering new genotype-phenotype correlations in the eye. Because these mice are scattered across the globe, it is difficult to acquire, maintain, and phenotype them in an efficient, cost-effective manner. Thus, most high-throughput ophthalmic phenotyping screens are restricted to a few locations that require on-site, ophthalmic expertise to examine eyes in live mice. 6-9 An alternative approach developed by our laboratory is a method for remote tissue-acquisition that can be used in large or small-scale surveys of transgenic mouse eyes. Standardized procedures for video-based surgical skill transfer, tissue fixation, and shipping allow any lab to collect whole eyes from mutant animals and send them for molecular and morphological phenotyping. In this video article, we present techniques to enucleate and transfer both unfixed and perfusion fixed mouse eyes for remote phenotyping analyses.
Medicine, Issue 57, mouse, transgenic, phenomics, ophthalmology, retina, high-throughput, phenotyping
3184
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Retrograde Labeling of Retinal Ganglion Cells by Application of Fluoro-Gold on the Surface of Superior Colliculus
Authors: Kin Chiu, Wui-Man Lau, Sze-chun Yeung, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Kwok-Fai So.
Institutions: The University of Hong Kong - HKU.
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) counting is essential to evaluate retinal degeneration especially in glaucoma. Reliable RGC labeling is fundamental for evaluating the effects of any treatment. In rat, about 98% of RGCs is known to project to the contralateral superior colliculus (SC) (Forrester and Peters, 1967). Applying fluoro-gold (FG) on the surface of SC can label almost all the RGCs, so that we can focus on this most vulnerable retinal neuron in glaucoma. FG is taken up by the axon terminals of retinal ganglion cells and bilaterally transported retrogradely to its somas in the retina. Compare with retrograde labeling of RGC by putting FG at stump of transected optic nerve for 2 days, the interference of RGC survival is minimized. Compare with cresyl violet staining that stains RGCs, amacrine cells and endothelium of the blood vessel in the retinal ganglion cell layer, this labeling method is more specific to the RGC. This video describes the method of retrograde labeling of RGC by applying FG on the surface of SC. The surgical procedures include drilling the skull; aspirating the cortex to expose the SC and applying gelatin sponge over entire dorsal surface of SC are shown. Useful tips for avoiding massive intracranial bleeding and aspiration of the SC have been given.
Neuroscience, Issue 16, Retrograde labeling, retinal ganglion cells, ophthalmology research, superior colliculus, experimental glaucoma
819
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