Extravasation of circulating cells from the bloodstream plays a central role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including stem cell homing and tumor metastasis. The three-dimensional flow chamber device (hereafter the 3D device) is a novel in vitro technology that recreates physiological shear stress and allows each step of the cell extravasation cascade to be quantified. The 3D device consists of an upper compartment in which the cells of interest circulate under shear stress, and a lower compartment of static wells that contain the chemoattractants of interest. The two compartments are separated by porous inserts coated with a monolayer of endothelial cells (EC). An optional second insert with microenvironmental cells of interest can be placed immediately beneath the EC layer. A gas exchange unit allows the optimal CO2 tension to be maintained and provides an access point to add or withdraw cells or compounds during the experiment. The test cells circulate in the upper compartment at the desired shear stress (flow rate) controlled by a peristaltic pump. At the end of the experiment, the circulating and migrated cells are collected for further analyses. The 3D device can be used to examine cell rolling on and adhesion to EC under shear stress, transmigration in response to chemokine gradients, resistance to shear stress, cluster formation, and cell survival. In addition, the optional second insert allows the effects of crosstalk between EC and microenvironmental cells to be examined. The translational applications of the 3D device include testing of drug candidates that target cell migration and predicting the in vivo behavior of cells after intravenous injection. Thus, the novel 3D device is a versatile and inexpensive tool to study the molecular mechanisms that mediate cellular extravasation.
18 Related JoVE Articles!
Systematic Analysis of In Vitro Cell Rolling Using a Multi-well Plate Microfluidic System
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard University, Harvard University, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A major challenge for cell-based therapy is the inability to systemically target a large quantity of viable cells with high efficiency to tissues of interest following intravenous or intraarterial infusion. Consequently, increasing cell homing is currently studied as a strategy to improve cell therapy. Cell rolling on the vascular endothelium is an important step in the process of cell homing and can be probed in-vitro
using a parallel plate flow chamber (PPFC). However, this is an extremely tedious, low throughput assay, with poorly controlled flow conditions. Instead, we used a multi-well plate microfluidic system that enables study of cellular rolling properties in a higher throughput under precisely controlled, physiologically relevant shear flow1,2
. In this paper, we show how the rolling properties of HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cells on P- and E-selectin-coated surfaces as well as on cell monolayer-coated surfaces can be readily examined. To better simulate inflammatory conditions, the microfluidic channel surface was coated with endothelial cells (ECs), which were then activated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), significantly increasing interactions with HL-60 cells under dynamic conditions. The enhanced throughput and integrated multi-parameter software analysis platform, that permits rapid analysis of parameters such as rolling velocities and rolling path, are important advantages for assessing cell rolling properties in-vitro
. Allowing rapid and accurate analysis of engineering approaches designed to impact cell rolling and homing, this platform may help advance exogenous cell-based therapy.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Microfluidics, Endothelial Cells, Leukocyte Rolling, HL-60 cells, TNF-α, P-selectin, E-selectin
On-Chip Endothelial Inflammatory Phenotyping
Institutions: University of California, Davis .
Atherogenesis is potentiated by metabolic abnormalities that contribute to a heightened state of systemic inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction. However, early functional changes in endothelium that signify an individual's level of risk are not directly assessed clinically to help guide therapeutic strategy. Moreover, the regulation of inflammation by local hemodynamics contributes to the non-random spatial distribution of atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms are difficult to delineate in vivo
. We describe a lab-on-a-chip
based approach to quantitatively assay metabolic perturbation of inflammatory events in human endothelial cells (EC) and monocytes under precise flow conditions. Standard methods of soft lithography are used to microfabricate vascular mimetic microfluidic chambers (VMMC)
, which are bound directly to cultured EC monolayers.1
These devices have the advantage of using small volumes of reagents while providing a platform for directly imaging the inflammatory events at the membrane of EC exposed to a well-defined shear field. We have successfully applied these devices to investigate cytokine-,2
inflammation in human aortic EC (HAEC). Here we document the use of the VMMC to assay monocytic cell (THP-1) rolling and arrest on HAEC monolayers that are conditioned under differential shear characteristics and activated by the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Studies such as these are providing mechanistic insight into atherosusceptibility under metabolic risk factors.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 65, Bioengineering, Immunology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, endothelial cell, monocyte arrest, microfluidics, shear stress, cytokine, atherosclerosis, inflammation
A Flow Adhesion Assay to Study Leucocyte Recruitment to Human Hepatic Sinusoidal Endothelium Under Conditions of Shear Stress
Institutions: University of Birmingham.
Leucocyte infiltration into human liver tissue is a common process in all adult inflammatory liver diseases. Chronic infiltration can drive the development of fibrosis and progression to cirrhosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that mediate leucocyte recruitment to the liver could identify important therapeutic targets for liver disease. The key interaction during leucocyte recruitment is that of inflammatory cells with endothelium under conditions of shear stress. Recruitment to the liver occurs within the low shear channels of the hepatic sinusoids which are lined by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC). The conditions within the hepatic sinusoids can be recapitulated by perfusing leucocytes through channels lined by human HSEC monolayers at specific flow rates. In these conditions leucocytes undergo a brief tethering step followed by activation and firm adhesion, followed by a crawling step and subsequent transmigration across the endothelial layer. Using phase contrast microscopy, each step of this 'adhesion cascade' can be visualized and recorded followed by offline analysis. Endothelial cells or leucocytes can be pretreated with inhibitors to determine the role of specific molecules during this process.
Immunology, Issue 85, Leucocyte trafficking, liver, hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, peripheral blood lymphocytes, flow adhesion assay
Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers
Institutions: University of Maryland, University of Maryland.
Sub-micrometer carriers (nanocarriers; NCs) enhance efficacy of drugs by improving solubility, stability, circulation time, targeting, and release. Additionally, traversing cellular barriers in the body is crucial for both oral delivery of therapeutic NCs into the circulation and transport from the blood into tissues, where intervention is needed. NC transport across cellular barriers is achieved by: (i) the paracellular route, via transient disruption of the junctions that interlock adjacent cells, or (ii) the transcellular route, where materials are internalized by endocytosis, transported across the cell body, and secreted at the opposite cell surface (transyctosis). Delivery across cellular barriers can be facilitated by coupling therapeutics or their carriers with targeting agents that bind specifically to cell-surface markers involved in transport. Here, we provide methods to measure the extent and mechanism of NC transport across a model cell barrier, which consists of a monolayer of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells grown on a porous membrane located in a transwell insert. Formation of a permeability barrier is confirmed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), transepithelial transport of a control substance, and immunostaining of tight junctions. As an example, ~200 nm polymer NCs are used, which carry a therapeutic cargo and are coated with an antibody that targets a cell-surface determinant. The antibody or therapeutic cargo is labeled with 125
I for radioisotope tracing and labeled NCs are added to the upper chamber over the cell monolayer for varying periods of time. NCs associated to the cells and/or transported to the underlying chamber can be detected. Measurement of free 125
I allows subtraction of the degraded fraction. The paracellular route is assessed by determining potential changes caused by NC transport to the barrier parameters described above. Transcellular transport is determined by addressing the effect of modulating endocytosis and transcytosis pathways.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Antigens, Enzymes, Biological Therapy, bioengineering (general), Pharmaceutical Preparations, Macromolecular Substances, Therapeutics, Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, drug delivery systems, targeted nanocarriers, transcellular transport, epithelial cells, tight junctions, transepithelial electrical resistance, endocytosis, transcytosis, radioisotope tracing, immunostaining
Introducing Shear Stress in the Study of Bacterial Adhesion
Institutions: INSERM U970.
During bacterial infections a sequence of interactions occur between the pathogen and its host. Bacterial adhesion to the host cell surface is often the initial and determining step of the pathogenesis. Although experimentally adhesion is mostly studied in static conditions adhesion actually takes place in the presence of flowing liquid. First encounters between bacteria and their host often occur at the mucosal level, mouth, lung, gut, eye, etc. where mucus flows along the surface of epithelial cells. Later in infection, pathogens occasionally access the blood circulation causing life-threatening illnesses such as septicemia, sepsis and meningitis. A defining feature of these infections is the ability of these pathogens to interact with endothelial cells in presence of circulating blood. The presence of flowing liquid, mucus or blood for instance, determines adhesion because it generates a mechanical force on the pathogen. To characterize the effect of flowing liquid one usually refers to the notion of shear stress, which is the tangential force exerted per unit area by a fluid moving near a stationary wall, expressed in dynes/cm2
. Intensities of shear stress vary widely according to the different vessels type, size, organ, location etc. (0-100 dynes/cm2
). Circulation in capillaries can reach very low shear stress values and even temporarily stop during periods ranging between a few seconds to several minutes 1
. On the other end of the spectrum shear stress in arterioles can reach 100 dynes/cm2 2
. The impact of shear stress on different biological processes has been clearly demonstrated as for instance during the interaction of leukocytes with the endothelium 3
. To take into account this mechanical parameter in the process of bacterial adhesion we took advantage of an experimental procedure based on the use of a disposable flow chamber 4
. Host cells are grown in the flow chamber and fluorescent bacteria are introduced in the flow controlled by a syringe pump. We initially focused our investigations on the bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis
, a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for septicemia and meningitis. The procedure described here allowed us to study the impact of shear stress on the ability of the bacteria to: adhere to cells 1
, to proliferate on the cell surface 5
and to detach to colonize new sites 6
(Figure 1). Complementary technical information can be found in reference 7. Shear stress values presented here were chosen based on our previous experience1
and to represent values found in the literature. The protocol should be applicable to a wide range of pathogens with specific adjustments depending on the objectives of the study.
Immunology, Issue 55, microbiology, blood vessel, shear stress, blood flow, adhesion, infectious disease, meningitis, brain, septicemia, sepsis
Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation Under Flow using Microfluidic Flow Cells
Institutions: Fluxion Biosciences, Inc..
Platelet aggregation occurs in response to vascular injury where the extracellular matrix below the endothelium has been exposed. The platelet adhesion cascade takes place in the presence of shear flow, a factor not accounted for in conventional (static) well-plate assays. This article reports on a platelet-aggregation assay utilizing a microfluidic well-plate format to emulate physiological shear flow conditions. Extracellular proteins, collagen I or von Willebrand factor are deposited within the microfluidic channel using active perfusion with a pneumatic pump. The matrix proteins are then washed with buffer and blocked to prepare the microfluidic channel for platelet interactions. Whole blood labeled with fluorescent dye is perfused through the channel at various flow rates in order to achieve platelet activation and aggregation. Inhibitors of platelet aggregation can be added prior to the flow cell experiment to generate IC50 dose response data.
Medicine, Issue 32, thrombus formation, anti-thrombotic, microfluidic, whole blood assay, IC50, drug screening, platelet, adhesion
Generation of Shear Adhesion Map Using SynVivo Synthetic Microvascular Networks
Institutions: CFD Research Corporation.
Cell/particle adhesion assays are critical to understanding the biochemical interactions involved in disease pathophysiology and have important applications in the quest for the development of novel therapeutics. Assays using static conditions fail to capture the dependence of adhesion on shear, limiting their correlation with in vivo
environment. Parallel plate flow chambers that quantify adhesion under physiological fluid flow need multiple experiments for the generation of a shear adhesion map. In addition, they do not represent the in vivo
scale and morphology and require large volumes (~ml) of reagents for experiments. In this study, we demonstrate the generation of shear adhesion map from a single experiment using a microvascular network based microfluidic device, SynVivo-SMN. This device recreates the complex in vivo
vasculature including geometric scale, morphological elements, flow features and cellular interactions in an in vitro
format, thereby providing a biologically realistic environment for basic and applied research in cellular behavior, drug delivery, and drug discovery. The assay was demonstrated by studying the interaction of the 2 µm biotin-coated particles with avidin-coated surfaces of the microchip. The entire range of shear observed in the microvasculature is obtained in a single assay enabling adhesion vs. shear map for the particles under physiological conditions.
Bioengineering, Issue 87, particle, adhesion, shear, microfluidics, vasculature, networks
Isolation and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxin From Complex Matrices Using the BoTest Matrix Assays
Institutions: BioSentinel Inc., Madison, WI.
Accurate detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in complex matrices is required for pharmaceutical, environmental, and food sample testing. Rapid BoNT testing of foodstuffs is needed during outbreak forensics, patient diagnosis, and food safety testing while accurate potency testing is required for BoNT-based drug product manufacturing and patient safety. The widely used mouse bioassay for BoNT testing is highly sensitive but lacks the precision and throughput needed for rapid and routine BoNT testing. Furthermore, the bioassay's use of animals has resulted in calls by drug product regulatory authorities and animal-rights proponents in the US and abroad to replace the mouse bioassay for BoNT testing. Several in vitro
replacement assays have been developed that work well with purified BoNT in simple buffers, but most have not been shown to be applicable to testing in highly complex matrices. Here, a protocol for the detection of BoNT in complex matrices using the BoTest Matrix assays is presented. The assay consists of three parts: The first part involves preparation of the samples for testing, the second part is an immunoprecipitation step using anti-BoNT antibody-coated paramagnetic beads to purify BoNT from the matrix, and the third part quantifies the isolated BoNT's proteolytic activity using a fluorogenic reporter. The protocol is written for high throughput testing in 96-well plates using both liquid and solid matrices and requires about 2 hr of manual preparation with total assay times of 4-26 hr depending on the sample type, toxin load, and desired sensitivity. Data are presented for BoNT/A testing with phosphate-buffered saline, a drug product, culture supernatant, 2% milk, and fresh tomatoes and includes discussion of critical parameters for assay success.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, Botulinum, food testing, detection, quantification, complex matrices, BoTest Matrix, Clostridium, potency testing
Quantitative In vitro Assay to Measure Neutrophil Adhesion to Activated Primary Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells under Static Conditions
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco.
The vascular endothelium plays an integral part in the inflammatory response. During the acute phase of inflammation, endothelial cells (ECs) are activated by host mediators or directly by conserved microbial components or host-derived danger molecules. Activated ECs express cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules that mobilize, activate and retain leukocytes at the site of infection or injury. Neutrophils are the first leukocytes to arrive, and adhere to the endothelium through a variety of adhesion molecules present on the surfaces of both cells. The main functions of neutrophils are to directly eliminate microbial threats, promote the recruitment of other leukocytes through the release of additional factors, and initiate wound repair. Therefore, their recruitment and attachment to the endothelium is a critical step in the initiation of the inflammatory response. In this report, we describe an in vitro
neutrophil adhesion assay using calcein AM-labeled primary human neutrophils to quantitate the extent of microvascular endothelial cell activation under static conditions. This method has the additional advantage that the same samples quantitated by fluorescence spectrophotometry can also be visualized directly using fluorescence microscopy for a more qualitative assessment of neutrophil binding.
Immunology, Issue 78, Cellular Biology, Infection, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Endothelium, Vascular, Neutrophils, Inflammation, Inflammation Mediators, Neutrophil, Leukocyte Adhesion, Endothelial cells, assay
In vitro Method to Observe E-selectin-mediated Interactions Between Prostate Circulating Tumor Cells Derived From Patients and Human Endothelial Cells
Institutions: Weill Cornell Medical College, Weill Cornell Medical College.
Metastasis is a process in which tumor cells shed from the primary tumor intravasate blood vascular and lymphatic system, thereby, gaining access to extravasate and form a secondary niche. The extravasation of tumor cells from the blood vascular system can be studied using endothelial cells (ECs) and tumor cells obtained from different cell lines. Initial studies were conducted using static conditions but it has been well documented that ECs behave differently under physiological flow conditions. Therefore, different flow chamber assemblies are currently being used to studying cancer cell interactions with ECs. Current flow chamber assemblies offer reproducible results using either different cell lines or fluid at different shear stress conditions. However, to observe and study interactions with rare cells such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), certain changes are required to be made to the conventional flow chamber assembly. CTCs are a rare cell population among millions of blood cells. Consequently, it is difficult to obtain a pure population of CTCs. Contamination of CTCs with different types of cells normally found in the circulation is inevitable using present enrichment or depletion techniques. In the present report, we describe a unique method to fluorescently label circulating prostate cancer cells and study their interactions with ECs in a self-assembled flow chamber system. This technique can be further applied to observe interactions between prostate CTCs and any protein of interest.
Medicine, Issue 87, E-selectin, Metastasis, Microslides, Circulating tumor cells, PSMA, Prostate cancer, rolling velocity, immunostaining, HUVECs, flow chambers
Parallel-plate Flow Chamber and Continuous Flow Circuit to Evaluate Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Laminar Flow Shear Stress
Institutions: Duke University Medical Center, Duke University , University of Pennsylvania , Duke University Medical Center.
The overall goal of this method is to describe a technique to subject adherent cells to laminar flow conditions and evaluate their response to well quantifiable fluid shear stresses1
Our flow chamber design and flow circuit (Fig. 1
) contains a transparent viewing region that enables testing of cell adhesion and imaging of cell morphology immediately before flow (Fig. 11A, B
), at various time points during flow (Fig. 11C
), and after flow (Fig. 11D
). These experiments are illustrated with human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and porcine EPCs2,3
This method is also applicable to other adherent cell types, e.g. smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or fibroblasts.
The chamber and all parts of the circuit are easily sterilized with steam autoclaving. In contrast to other chambers, e.g. microfluidic chambers, large numbers of cells (> 1 million depending on cell size) can be recovered after the flow experiment under sterile conditions for cell culture or other experiments, e.g. DNA or RNA extraction, or immunohistochemistry (Fig. 11E
), or scanning electron microscopy5
. The shear stress can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of the perfusate, the fluid viscosity, or the channel height and width. The latter can reduce fluid volume or cell needs while ensuring that one-dimensional flow is maintained. It is not necessary to measure chamber height between experiments, since the chamber height does not depend on the use of gaskets, which greatly increases the ease of multiple experiments. Furthermore, the circuit design easily enables the collection of perfusate samples for analysis and/or quantification of metabolites secreted by cells under fluid shear stress exposure, e.g. nitric oxide (Fig. 12
Bioengineering, Issue 59, Fluid Shear Stress, Shear Stress, Shear Force, Endothelium, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Flow Chamber, Laminar Flow, Flow Circuit, Continuous Flow, Cell Adhesion
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Ultrasound Assessment of Endothelial-Dependent Flow-Mediated Vasodilation of the Brachial Artery in Clinical Research
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco.
The vascular endothelium is a monolayer of cells that cover the interior of blood vessels and provide both structural and functional roles. The endothelium acts as a barrier, preventing leukocyte adhesion and aggregation, as well as controlling permeability to plasma components. Functionally, the endothelium affects vessel tone.
Endothelial dysfunction is an imbalance between the chemical species which regulate vessel tone, thombroresistance, cellular proliferation and mitosis. It is the first step in atherosclerosis and is associated with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.
The first demonstration of endothelial dysfunction involved direct infusion of acetylcholine and quantitative coronary angiography. Acetylcholine binds to muscarinic receptors on the endothelial cell surface, leading to an increase of intracellular calcium and increased nitric oxide (NO) production. In subjects with an intact endothelium, vasodilation was observed while subjects with endothelial damage experienced paradoxical vasoconstriction.
There exists a non-invasive, in vivo
method for measuring endothelial function in peripheral arteries using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. The endothelial function of peripheral arteries is closely related to coronary artery function. This technique measures the percent diameter change in the brachial artery during a period of reactive hyperemia following limb ischemia.
This technique, known as endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) has value in clinical research settings. However, a number of physiological and technical issues can affect the accuracy of the results and appropriate guidelines for the technique have been published. Despite the guidelines, FMD remains heavily operator dependent and presents a steep learning curve. This article presents a standardized method for measuring FMD in the brachial artery on the upper arm and offers suggestions to reduce intra-operator variability.
Medicine, Issue 92, endothelial function, endothelial dysfunction, brachial artery, peripheral artery disease, ultrasound, vascular, endothelium, cardiovascular disease.
Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing for the Quantification of Endothelial Proliferation, Barrier Function, and Motility
Institutions: Institute for Cardiovascular Research, VU University Medical Center, Institute for Cardiovascular Research, VU University Medical Center.
Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) is an in vitro
impedance measuring system to quantify the behavior of cells within adherent cell layers. To this end, cells are grown in special culture chambers on top of opposing, circular gold electrodes. A constant small alternating current is applied between the electrodes and the potential across is measured. The insulating properties of the cell membrane create a resistance towards the electrical current flow resulting in an increased electrical potential between the electrodes. Measuring cellular impedance in this manner allows the automated study of cell attachment, growth, morphology, function, and motility. Although the ECIS measurement itself is straightforward and easy to learn, the underlying theory is complex and selection of the right settings and correct analysis and interpretation of the data is not self-evident. Yet, a clear protocol describing the individual steps from the experimental design to preparation, realization, and analysis of the experiment is not available. In this article the basic measurement principle as well as possible applications, experimental considerations, advantages and limitations of the ECIS system are discussed. A guide is provided for the study of cell attachment, spreading and proliferation; quantification of cell behavior in a confluent layer, with regard to barrier function, cell motility, quality of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesions; and quantification of wound healing and cellular responses to vasoactive stimuli. Representative results are discussed based on human microvascular (MVEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but are applicable to all adherent growing cells.
Bioengineering, Issue 85, ECIS, Impedance Spectroscopy, Resistance, TEER, Endothelial Barrier, Cell Adhesions, Focal Adhesions, Proliferation, Migration, Motility, Wound Healing
Procedure for the Development of Multi-depth Circular Cross-sectional Endothelialized Microchannels-on-a-chip
Institutions: West Virginia University, University of California at Riverside.
Efforts have been focused on developing in vitro
assays for the study of microvessels because in vivo
animal studies are more time-consuming, expensive, and observation and quantification are very challenging. However, conventional in vitro
microvessel assays have limitations when representing in vivo
microvessels with respect to three-dimensional (3D) geometry and providing continuous fluid flow. Using a combination of photolithographic reflowable photoresist technique, soft lithography, and microfluidics, we have developed a multi-depth circular cross-sectional endothelialized microchannels-on-a-chip, which mimics the 3D geometry of in vivo
microvessels and runs under controlled continuous perfusion flow. A positive reflowable photoresist was used to fabricate a master mold with a semicircular cross-sectional microchannel network. By the alignment and bonding of the two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels replicated from the master mold, a cylindrical microchannel network was created. The diameters of the microchannels can be well controlled. In addition, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) seeded inside the chip showed that the cells lined the inner surface of the microchannels under controlled perfusion lasting for a time period between 4 days to 2 weeks.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Bioengineering, Tissue Engineering, Miniaturization, Microtechnology, Microfluidics, Reflow photoresist, PDMS, Perfusion flow, Primary endothelial cells
Imaging Leukocyte Adhesion to the Vascular Endothelium at High Intraluminal Pressure
Institutions: Monash University.
Worldwide, hypertension is reported to be in approximately a quarter of the population and is the leading biomedical risk factor for mortality worldwide. In the vasculature hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation leading to atherosclerosis and various disease states such as chronic kidney disease2
and heart failure4
. An initial step in vascular inflammation leading to atherogenesis is the adhesion cascade which involves the rolling, tethering, adherence and subsequent transmigration of leukocytes through the endothelium. Recruitment and accumulation of leukocytes to the endothelium is mediated by an upregulation of adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin as well as increases in cytokine and chemokine release and an upregulation of reactive oxygen species5
. In vitro
methods such as static adhesion assays help to determine mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell adhesion as well as the analysis of cell adhesion molecules. Methods employed in previous in vitro
studies have demonstrated that acute increases in pressure on the endothelium can lead to monocyte adhesion, an upregulation of adhesion molecules and inflammatory markers6
however, similar to many in vitro
assays, these findings have not been performed in real time under physiological flow conditions, nor with whole blood. Therefore, in vivo
assays are increasingly utilised in animal models to demonstrate vascular inflammation and plaque development. Intravital microscopy is now widely used to assess leukocyte adhesion, rolling, migration and transmigration7-9
. When combining the effects of pressure on leukocyte to endothelial adhesion the in vivo
studies are less extensive. One such study examines the real time effects of flow and shear on arterial growth and remodelling but inflammatory markers were only assessed via immunohistochemistry10
. Here we present a model for recording leukocyte adhesion in real time in intact pressurised blood vessels using whole blood perfusion. The methodology is a modification of an ex vivo
vessel chamber perfusion model9
which enables real-time analysis of leukocyte -endothelial adhesive interactions in intact vessels. Our modification enables the manipulation of the intraluminal pressure up to 200 mmHg allowing for study not only under physiological flow conditions but also pressure conditions. While pressure myography systems have been previously demonstrated to observe vessel wall and lumen diameter11
as well as vessel contraction this is the first time demonstrating leukocyte-endothelial interactions in real time. Here we demonstrate the technique using carotid arteries harvested from rats and cannulated to a custom-made flow chamber coupled to a fluorescent microscope. The vessel chamber is equipped with a large bottom coverglass allowing a large diameter objective lens with short working distance to image the vessel. Furthermore, selected agonist and/or antagonists can be utilized to further investigate the mechanisms controlling cell adhesion. Advantages of this method over intravital microscopy include no involvement of invasive surgery and therefore a higher throughput can be obtained. This method also enables the use of localised inhibitor treatment to the desired vessel whereas intravital only enables systemic inhibitor treatment.
Immunology, Issue 54, Leukocyte adhesion, intraluminal pressure, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertension
Isolation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC)
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Angiogenesis is a complex multi-step process, where in response to angiogenic stimuli, new vessels are created from the existing vasculature. These steps include: degradation of the basement membrane, proliferation and migration (sprouting) of endothelial cells (EC) into the extracellular matrix, alignment of EC into cords, lumen formation, anastomosis, and formation of a new basement membrane. Many in vitro assays have been developed to study this process, but most only mimic certain stages of angiogenesis, and morphologically the vessels often do not resemble vessels in vivo. Here we demonstrate an optimized in vitro angiogenesis assay that utilizes human umbilical vein EC and fibroblasts. This model recapitulates all of the key early stages of angiogenesis, and importantly the vessels display patent intercellular lumens surrounded by polarized EC. Vessels can be easily observed by phase-contrast and time-lapse microscopy, and recovered in pure form for downstream applications.
Cellular Biology, Issue 3, angiogenesis, endothelial, HUVEC, umbilical
Optimized Fibrin Gel Bead Assay for the Study of Angiogenesis
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Angiogenesis is a complex multi-step process, where, in response to angiogenic stimuli, new vessels are created from the existing vasculature. These steps include: degradation of the basement membrane, proliferation and migration (sprouting) of endothelial cells (EC) into the extracellular matrix, alignment of EC into cords, branching, lumen formation, anastomosis, and formation of a new basement membrane. Many in vitro assays have been developed to study this process, but most only mimic certain stages of angiogenesis, and morphologically the vessels within the assays often do not resemble vessels in vivo. Based on earlier work by Nehls and Drenckhahn, we have optimized an in vitro angiogenesis assay that utilizes human umbilical vein EC and fibroblasts. This model recapitulates all of the key early stages of angiogenesis and, importantly, the vessels display patent intercellular lumens surrounded by polarized EC. EC are coated onto cytodex microcarriers and embedded into a fibrin gel. Fibroblasts are layered on top of the gel where they provide necessary soluble factors that promote EC sprouting from the surface of the beads. After several days, numerous vessels are present that can easily be observed under phase-contrast and time-lapse microscopy. This video demonstrates the key steps in setting up these cultures.
Cellular Biology, Issue 3, angiogenesis, fibrin, endothelial, in vitro, fibroblasts