The physical and chemical properties of biochar vary based on feedstock sources and production conditions, making it possible to engineer biochars with specific functions (e.g. carbon sequestration, soil quality improvements, or contaminant sorption). In 2013, the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) made publically available their Standardized Product Definition and Product Testing Guidelines (Version 1.1) which set standards for physical and chemical characteristics for biochar. Six biochars made from three different feedstocks and at two temperatures were analyzed for characteristics related to their use as a soil amendment. The protocol describes analyses of the feedstocks and biochars and includes: cation exchange capacity (CEC), specific surface area (SSA), organic carbon (OC) and moisture percentage, pH, particle size distribution, and proximate and ultimate analysis. Also described in the protocol are the analyses of the feedstocks and biochars for contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals and mercury as well as nutrients (phosphorous, nitrite and nitrate and ammonium as nitrogen). The protocol also includes the biological testing procedures, earthworm avoidance and germination assays. Based on the quality assurance / quality control (QA/QC) results of blanks, duplicates, standards and reference materials, all methods were determined adequate for use with biochar and feedstock materials. All biochars and feedstocks were well within the criterion set by the IBI and there were little differences among biochars, except in the case of the biochar produced from construction waste materials. This biochar (referred to as Old biochar) was determined to have elevated levels of arsenic, chromium, copper, and lead, and failed the earthworm avoidance and germination assays. Based on these results, Old biochar would not be appropriate for use as a soil amendment for carbon sequestration, substrate quality improvements or remediation.
25 Related JoVE Articles!
Dependence of Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Results on Pulse Energies and Timing Parameters Using Soil Simulants
Institutions: Alvernia University, Applied Research Associates (ARA), Inc..
The dependence of some LIBS detection capabilities on lower pulse energies (<100 mJ) and timing parameters were examined using synthetic silicate samples. These samples were used as simulants for soil and contained minor and trace elements commonly found in soil at a wide range of concentrations. For this study, over 100 calibration curves were prepared using different pulse energies and timing parameters; detection limits and sensitivities were determined from the calibration curves. Plasma temperatures were also measured using Boltzmann plots for the various energies and the timing parameters tested. The electron density of the plasma was calculated using the full-width half maximum (FWHM) of the hydrogen line at 656.5 nm over the energies tested. Overall, the results indicate that the use of lower pulse energies and non-gated detection do not seriously compromise the analytical results. These results are very relevant to the design of field- and person-portable LIBS instruments.
Chemistry, Issue 79, analytical chemistry, laser research, atomic physics, [LIBS, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, gated and non-gated detection, energy study]
Long-term Behavioral Tracking of Freely Swimming Weakly Electric Fish
Institutions: University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa.
Long-term behavioral tracking can capture and quantify natural animal behaviors, including those occurring infrequently. Behaviors such as exploration and social interactions can be best studied by observing unrestrained, freely behaving animals. Weakly electric fish (WEF) display readily observable exploratory and social behaviors by emitting electric organ discharge (EOD). Here, we describe three effective techniques to synchronously measure the EOD, body position, and posture of a free-swimming WEF for an extended period of time. First, we describe the construction of an experimental tank inside of an isolation chamber designed to block external sources of sensory stimuli such as light, sound, and vibration. The aquarium was partitioned to accommodate four test specimens, and automated gates remotely control the animals' access to the central arena. Second, we describe a precise and reliable real-time EOD timing measurement method from freely swimming WEF. Signal distortions caused by the animal's body movements are corrected by spatial averaging and temporal processing stages. Third, we describe an underwater near-infrared imaging setup to observe unperturbed nocturnal animal behaviors. Infrared light pulses were used to synchronize the timing between the video and the physiological signal over a long recording duration. Our automated tracking software measures the animal's body position and posture reliably in an aquatic scene. In combination, these techniques enable long term observation of spontaneous behavior of freely swimming weakly electric fish in a reliable and precise manner. We believe our method can be similarly applied to the study of other aquatic animals by relating their physiological signals with exploratory or social behaviors.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, animal tracking, weakly electric fish, electric organ discharge, underwater infrared imaging, automated image tracking, sensory isolation chamber, exploratory behavior
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions
Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ
characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3
(bpy = bipyridine), onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ
time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ
IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.
Chemistry, Issue 88, soft landing, mass selected ions, electrospray, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, organometallic, catalysis
Simultaneous Long-term Recordings at Two Neuronal Processing Stages in Behaving Honeybees
Institutions: University of Würzburg.
In both mammals and insects neuronal information is processed in different higher and lower order brain centers. These centers are coupled via convergent and divergent anatomical connections including feed forward and feedback wiring. Furthermore, information of the same origin is partially sent via parallel pathways to different and sometimes into the same brain areas. To understand the evolutionary benefits as well as the computational advantages of these wiring strategies and especially their temporal dependencies on each other, it is necessary to have simultaneous access to single neurons of different tracts or neuropiles in the same preparation at high temporal resolution. Here we concentrate on honeybees by demonstrating a unique extracellular long term access to record multi unit activity at two subsequent neuropiles1
, the antennal lobe (AL), the first olfactory processing stage and the mushroom body (MB), a higher order integration center involved in learning and memory formation, or two parallel neuronal tracts2
connecting the AL with the MB. The latter was chosen as an example and will be described in full. In the supporting video the construction and permanent insertion of flexible multi channel wire electrodes is demonstrated. Pairwise differential amplification of the micro wire electrode channels drastically reduces the noise and verifies that the source of the signal is closely related to the position of the electrode tip. The mechanical flexibility of the used wire electrodes allows stable invasive long term recordings over many hours up to days, which is a clear advantage compared to conventional extra and intracellular in vivo
Neuroscience, Issue 89, honeybee brain, olfaction, extracellular long term recordings, double recordings, differential wire electrodes, single unit, multi-unit recordings
A Guide to In vivo Single-unit Recording from Optogenetically Identified Cortical Inhibitory Interneurons
Institutions: University of Oregon.
A major challenge in neurophysiology has been to characterize the response properties and function of the numerous inhibitory cell types in the cerebral cortex.
We here share our strategy for obtaining stable, well-isolated single-unit recordings from identified inhibitory interneurons in the anesthetized mouse cortex using a method developed by Lima and colleagues1
. Recordings are performed in mice expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in specific neuronal subpopulations. Members of the population are identified by their response to a brief flash of blue light. This technique – termed “PINP”, or Photostimulation-assisted Identification of Neuronal Populations – can be implemented with standard extracellular recording equipment. It can serve as an inexpensive and accessible alternative to calcium imaging or visually-guided patching, for the purpose of targeting extracellular recordings to genetically-identified cells. Here we provide a set of guidelines for optimizing the method in everyday practice. We refined our strategy specifically for targeting parvalbumin-positive (PV+) cells, but have found that it works for other interneuron types as well, such as somatostatin-expressing (SOM+) and calretinin-expressing (CR+) interneurons.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, Optogenetics, Channelrhodopsin, ChR2, cortex, in vivo recording, extracellular, Parvalbumin, interneuron, mouse, electrophysiology
Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue
Institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, China Pharmaceutical University, Perkin Elmer.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT), widely known as a “good fat” plays pivotal roles for thermogenesis in mammals. This special tissue is closely related to metabolism and energy expenditure, and its dysfunction is one important contributor for obesity and diabetes. Contrary to previous belief, recent PET/CT imaging studies indicated the BAT depots are still present in human adults. PET imaging clearly shows that BAT has considerably high uptake of 18
F-FDG under certain conditions. In this video report, we demonstrate that Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) with 18
F-FDG can be used to optically image BAT in small animals. BAT activation is observed after intraperitoneal injection of norepinephrine (NE) and cold treatment, and depression of BAT is induced by long anesthesia. Using multiple-filter Cerenkov luminescence imaging, spectral unmixing and 3D imaging reconstruction are demonstrated. Our results suggest that CLI with 18
F-FDG is a practical technique for imaging BAT in small animals, and this technique can be used as a cheap, fast, and alternative imaging tool for BAT research.
Medicine, Issue 92, Cerenkov luminescence imaging, brown adipose tissue, 18F-FDG, optical imaging, in vivo imaging, spectral unmixing
Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+
release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
Universal Hand-held Three-dimensional Optoacoustic Imaging Probe for Deep Tissue Human Angiography and Functional Preclinical Studies in Real Time
Institutions: Helmholtz Zentrum München, Technische Universität München.
The exclusive combination of high optical contrast and excellent spatial resolution makes optoacoustics (photoacoustics) ideal for simultaneously attaining anatomical, functional and molecular contrast in deep optically opaque tissues. While enormous potential has been recently demonstrated in the application of optoacoustics for small animal research, vast efforts have also been undertaken in translating this imaging technology into clinical practice. We present here a newly developed optoacoustic tomography approach capable of delivering high resolution and spectrally enriched volumetric images of tissue morphology and function in real time. A detailed description of the experimental protocol for operating with the imaging system in both hand-held and stationary modes is provided and showcased for different potential scenarios involving functional and molecular studies in murine models and humans. The possibility for real time visualization in three dimensions along with the versatile handheld design of the imaging probe make the newly developed approach unique among the pantheon of imaging modalities used in today’s preclinical research and clinical practice.
Physiology, Issue 93, Optoacoustic tomography, photoacoustic imaging, hand-held probe, volumetric imaging, real-time tomography, five dimensional imaging, clinical imaging, functional imaging, molecular imaging, preclinical research
Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents
Institutions: University of Helsinki, Neurotar LTD, University of Eastern Finland, University of Helsinki.
It is widely acknowledged that the use of general anesthetics can undermine the relevance of electrophysiological or microscopical data obtained from a living animal’s brain. Moreover, the lengthy recovery from anesthesia limits the frequency of repeated recording/imaging episodes in longitudinal studies. Hence, new methods that would allow stable recordings from non-anesthetized behaving mice are expected to advance the fields of cellular and cognitive neurosciences. Existing solutions range from mere physical restraint to more sophisticated approaches, such as linear and spherical treadmills used in combination with computer-generated virtual reality. Here, a novel method is described where a head-fixed mouse can move around an air-lifted mobile homecage and explore its environment under stress-free conditions. This method allows researchers to perform behavioral tests (e.g.
, learning, habituation or novel object recognition) simultaneously with two-photon microscopic imaging and/or patch-clamp recordings, all combined in a single experiment. This video-article describes the use of the awake animal head fixation device (mobile homecage), demonstrates the procedures of animal habituation, and exemplifies a number of possible applications of the method.
Empty Value, Issue 88, awake, in vivo two-photon microscopy, blood vessels, dendrites, dendritic spines, Ca2+ imaging, intrinsic optical imaging, patch-clamp
Acute Dissociation of Lamprey Reticulospinal Axons to Enable Recording from the Release Face Membrane of Individual Functional Presynaptic Terminals
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago.
Synaptic transmission is an extremely rapid process. Action potential driven influx of Ca2+
into the presynaptic terminal, through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) located in the release face membrane, is the trigger for vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release. Crucial to the rapidity of synaptic transmission is the spatial and temporal synchrony between the arrival of the action potential, VGCCs and the neurotransmitter release machinery. The ability to directly record Ca2+
currents from the release face membrane of individual presynaptic terminals is imperative for a precise understanding of the relationship between presynaptic Ca2+
and neurotransmitter release. Access to the presynaptic release face membrane for electrophysiological recording is not available in most preparations and presynaptic Ca2+
entry has been characterized using imaging techniques and macroscopic current measurements – techniques that do not have sufficient temporal resolution to visualize Ca2+
entry. The characterization of VGCCs directly at single presynaptic terminals has not been possible in central synapses and has thus far been successfully achieved only in the calyx-type synapse of the chick ciliary ganglion and in rat calyces. We have successfully addressed this problem in the giant reticulospinal synapse of the lamprey spinal cord by developing an acutely dissociated preparation of the spinal cord that yields isolated reticulospinal axons with functional presynaptic terminals devoid of postsynaptic structures. We can fluorescently label and identify individual presynaptic terminals and target them for recording. Using this preparation, we have characterized VGCCs directly at the release face of individual presynaptic terminals using immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology approaches. Ca2+
currents have been recorded directly at the release face membrane of individual presynaptic terminals, the first such recording to be carried out at central synapses.
Neuroscience, Issue 92, reticulospinal synapse, reticulospinal axons, presynaptic terminal, presynaptic calcium, voltage-gated calcium channels, vesicle fusion, synaptic transmission, neurotransmitter release, spinal cord, lamprey, synaptic vesicles, acute dissociation
Wideband Optical Detector of Ultrasound for Medical Imaging Applications
Institutions: Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Center Munich.
Optical sensors of ultrasound are a promising alternative to piezoelectric techniques, as has been recently demonstrated in the field of optoacoustic imaging. In medical applications, one of the major limitations of optical sensing technology is its susceptibility to environmental conditions, e.g.
changes in pressure and temperature, which may saturate the detection. Additionally, the clinical environment often imposes stringent limits on the size and robustness of the sensor. In this work, the combination of pulse interferometry and fiber-based optical sensing is demonstrated for ultrasound detection. Pulse interferometry enables robust performance of the readout system in the presence of rapid variations in the environmental conditions, whereas the use of all-fiber technology leads to a mechanically flexible sensing element compatible with highly demanding medical applications such as intravascular imaging. In order to achieve a short sensor length, a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating is used, which acts as a resonator trapping light over an effective length of 350 µm. To enable high bandwidth, the sensor is used for sideway detection of ultrasound, which is highly beneficial in circumferential imaging geometries such as intravascular imaging. An optoacoustic imaging setup is used to determine the response of the sensor for acoustic point sources at different positions.
Bioengineering, Issue 87, Ultrasound, optical sensors, interferometry, pulse interferometry, optical fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, optoacoustic imaging, photoacoustic imaging
Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy
Institutions: University of Maine.
Localization-based super resolution microscopy can be applied to obtain a spatial map (image) of the distribution of individual fluorescently labeled single molecules within a sample with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. Using either photoactivatable (PAFP) or photoswitchable (PSFP) fluorescent proteins fused to proteins of interest, or organic dyes conjugated to antibodies or other molecules of interest, fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) can simultaneously image multiple species of molecules within single cells. By using the following approach, populations of large numbers (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of individual molecules are imaged in single cells and localized with a precision of ~10-30 nm. Data obtained can be applied to understanding the nanoscale spatial distributions of multiple protein types within a cell. One primary advantage of this technique is the dramatic increase in spatial resolution: while diffraction limits resolution to ~200-250 nm in conventional light microscopy, FPALM can image length scales more than an order of magnitude smaller. As many biological hypotheses concern the spatial relationships among different biomolecules, the improved resolution of FPALM can provide insight into questions of cellular organization which have previously been inaccessible to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In addition to detailing the methods for sample preparation and data acquisition, we here describe the optical setup for FPALM. One additional consideration for researchers wishing to do super-resolution microscopy is cost: in-house setups are significantly cheaper than most commercially available imaging machines. Limitations of this technique include the need for optimizing the labeling of molecules of interest within cell samples, and the need for post-processing software to visualize results. We here describe the use of PAFP and PSFP expression to image two protein species in fixed cells. Extension of the technique to living cells is also described.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Microscopy, Super-resolution imaging, Multicolor, single molecule, FPALM, Localization microscopy, fluorescent proteins
Modeling Neural Immune Signaling of Episodic and Chronic Migraine Using Spreading Depression In Vitro
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center, The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Migraine and its transformation to chronic migraine are healthcare burdens in need of improved treatment options. We seek to define how neural immune signaling modulates the susceptibility to migraine, modeled in vitro
using spreading depression (SD), as a means to develop novel therapeutic targets for episodic and chronic migraine. SD is the likely cause of migraine aura and migraine pain. It is a paroxysmal loss of neuronal function triggered by initially increased neuronal activity, which slowly propagates within susceptible brain regions. Normal brain function is exquisitely sensitive to, and relies on, coincident low-level immune signaling. Thus, neural immune signaling likely affects electrical activity of SD, and therefore migraine. Pain perception studies of SD in whole animals are fraught with difficulties, but whole animals are well suited to examine systems biology aspects of migraine since SD activates trigeminal nociceptive pathways. However, whole animal studies alone cannot be used to decipher the cellular and neural circuit mechanisms of SD. Instead, in vitro
preparations where environmental conditions can be controlled are necessary. Here, it is important to recognize limitations of acute slices and distinct advantages of hippocampal slice cultures. Acute brain slices cannot reveal subtle changes in immune signaling since preparing the slices alone triggers: pro-inflammatory changes that last days, epileptiform behavior due to high levels of oxygen tension needed to vitalize the slices, and irreversible cell injury at anoxic slice centers.
In contrast, we examine immune signaling in mature hippocampal slice cultures since the cultures closely parallel their in vivo
counterpart with mature trisynaptic function; show quiescent astrocytes, microglia, and cytokine levels; and SD is easily induced in an unanesthetized preparation. Furthermore, the slices are long-lived and SD can be induced on consecutive days without injury, making this preparation the sole means to-date capable of modeling the neuroimmune consequences of chronic SD, and thus perhaps chronic migraine. We use electrophysiological techniques and non-invasive imaging to measure
neuronal cell and circuit functions coincident with SD. Neural immune gene expression variables are measured with qPCR screening, qPCR arrays, and, importantly, use of cDNA preamplification for detection of ultra-low level targets such as interferon-gamma using whole, regional, or specific cell enhanced (via laser dissection microscopy) sampling. Cytokine cascade signaling is further assessed with multiplexed phosphoprotein related targets with gene expression and phosphoprotein changes confirmed via cell-specific immunostaining. Pharmacological and siRNA strategies are used to mimic
SD immune signaling.
Neuroscience, Issue 52, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, T-cells, hippocampus, slice culture, gene expression, laser dissection microscopy, real-time qPCR, interferon-gamma
Mapping Inhibitory Neuronal Circuits by Laser Scanning Photostimulation
Institutions: University of California, Irvine, University of California, Irvine.
Inhibitory neurons are crucial to cortical function. They comprise about 20% of the entire cortical neuronal population and can be further subdivided into diverse subtypes based on their immunochemical, morphological, and physiological properties1-4
. Although previous research has revealed much about intrinsic properties of individual types of inhibitory neurons, knowledge about their local circuit connections is still relatively limited3,5,6
. Given that each individual neuron's function is shaped by its excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input within cortical circuits, we have been using laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) to map local circuit connections to specific inhibitory cell types. Compared to conventional electrical stimulation or glutamate puff stimulation, LSPS has unique advantages allowing for extensive mapping and quantitative analysis of local functional inputs to individually recorded neurons3,7-9
. Laser photostimulation via glutamate uncaging selectively activates neurons perisomatically, without activating axons of passage or distal dendrites, which ensures a sub-laminar mapping resolution. The sensitivity and efficiency of LSPS for mapping inputs from many stimulation sites over a large region are well suited for cortical circuit analysis.
Here we introduce the technique of LSPS combined with whole-cell patch clamping for local inhibitory circuit mapping. Targeted recordings of specific inhibitory cell types are facilitated by use of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent proteins (GFP) in limited inhibitory neuron populations in the cortex3,10
, which enables consistent sampling of the targeted cell types and unambiguous identification of the cell types recorded. As for LSPS mapping, we outline the system instrumentation, describe the experimental procedure and data acquisition, and present examples of circuit mapping in mouse primary somatosensory cortex. As illustrated in our experiments, caged glutamate is activated in a spatially restricted region of the brain slice by UV laser photolysis; simultaneous voltage-clamp recordings allow detection of photostimulation-evoked synaptic responses. Maps of either excitatory or inhibitory synaptic input to the targeted neuron are generated by scanning the laser beam to stimulate hundreds of potential presynaptic sites. Thus, LSPS enables the construction of detailed maps of synaptic inputs impinging onto specific types of inhibitory neurons through repeated experiments. Taken together, the photostimulation-based technique offers neuroscientists a powerful tool for determining the functional organization of local cortical circuits.
Neuroscience, Issue 56, glutamate uncaging, whole cell recording, GFP, transgenic, interneurons
Fiber-optic Implantation for Chronic Optogenetic Stimulation of Brain Tissue
Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Texas Children's Hospital.
Elucidating patterns of neuronal connectivity has been a challenge for both clinical and basic neuroscience. Electrophysiology has been the gold standard for analyzing patterns of synaptic connectivity, but paired electrophysiological recordings can be both cumbersome and experimentally limiting. The development of optogenetics has introduced an elegant method to stimulate neurons and circuits, both in vitro1
and in vivo2,3
. By exploiting cell-type specific promoter activity to drive opsin expression in discrete neuronal populations, one can precisely stimulate genetically defined neuronal subtypes in distinct circuits4-6
. Well described methods to stimulate neurons, including electrical stimulation and/or pharmacological manipulations, are often cell-type indiscriminate, invasive, and can damage surrounding tissues. These limitations could alter normal synaptic function and/or circuit behavior. In addition, due to the nature of the manipulation, the current methods are often acute and terminal. Optogenetics affords the ability to stimulate neurons in a relatively innocuous manner, and in genetically targeted neurons. The majority of studies involving in vivo
optogenetics currently use a optical fiber guided through an implanted cannula6,7
; however, limitations of this method include damaged brain tissue with repeated insertion of an optical fiber, and potential breakage of the fiber inside the cannula. Given the burgeoning field of optogenetics, a more reliable method of chronic stimulation is necessary to facilitate long-term studies with minimal collateral tissue damage. Here we provide our modified protocol as a video article to complement the method effectively and elegantly described in Sparta et al
for the fabrication of a fiber optic implant and its permanent fixation onto the cranium of anesthetized mice, as well as the assembly of the fiber optic coupler connecting the implant to a light source. The implant, connected with optical fibers to a solid-state laser, allows for an efficient method to chronically photostimulate functional neuronal circuitry with less tissue damage9
using small, detachable, tethers. Permanent fixation of the fiber optic implants provides consistent, long-term in vivo
optogenetic studies of neuronal circuits in awake, behaving mice10
with minimal tissue damage.
Neuroscience, Issue 68, optogenetics, fiber optics, implantation, neuronal circuitry, chronic stimulation
Optimized System for Cerebral Perfusion Monitoring in the Rat Stroke Model of Intraluminal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion
Institutions: University of Milano Bicocca.
The translational potential of pre-clinical stroke research depends on the accuracy of experimental modeling. Cerebral perfusion monitoring in animal models of acute ischemic stroke allows to confirm successful arterial occlusion and exclude subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral perfusion monitoring can also be used to study intracranial collateral circulation, which is emerging as a powerful determinant of stroke outcome and a possible therapeutic target. Despite a recognized role of Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring as part of the current guidelines for experimental cerebral ischemia, a number of technical difficulties exist that limit its widespread use. One of the major issues is obtaining a secure and prolonged attachment of a deep-penetration Laser Doppler probe to the animal skull. In this video, we show our optimized system for cerebral perfusion monitoring during transient middle cerebral artery occlusion by intraluminal filament in the rat. We developed in-house a simple method to obtain a custom made holder for twin-fibre (deep-penetration) Laser Doppler probes, which allow multi-site monitoring if needed. A continuous and prolonged monitoring of cerebral perfusion could easily be obtained over the intact skull.
Medicine, Issue 72, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Brain Ischemia, Stroke, Hemodynamics, middle cerebral artery occlusion, cerebral hemodynamics, perfusion monitoring, Laser Doppler, intracranial collaterals, ischemic penumbra, rat, animal model
A Method for High Fidelity Optogenetic Control of Individual Pyramidal Neurons In vivo
Institutions: University of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado Boulder.
Optogenetic methods have emerged as a powerful tool for elucidating neural circuit activity underlying a diverse set of behaviors across a broad range of species. Optogenetic tools of microbial origin consist of light-sensitive membrane proteins that are able to activate (e.g.
, channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2) or silence (e.g.
, halorhodopsin, NpHR) neural activity ingenetically-defined cell types over behaviorally-relevant timescales. We first demonstrate a simple approach for adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of ChR2
transgenes to the dorsal subiculum and prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex in rat. Because ChR2 and NpHR are genetically targetable, we describe the use of this technology to control the electrical activity of specific populations of neurons (i.e.
, pyramidal neurons) embedded in heterogeneous tissue with high temporal precision. We describe herein the hardware, custom software user interface, and procedures that allow for simultaneous light delivery and electrical recording from transduced pyramidal neurons in an anesthetized in vivo
preparation. These light-responsive tools provide the opportunity for identifying the causal contributions of different cell types to information processing and behavior.
Neuroscience, Issue 79, Genetic Techniques, Genetics, Behavioral, Biological Science Disciplines, Neurosciences, genetics (animal and plant), Investigative Techniques, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, Behavioral Disciplines and Activities, Natural Science Disciplines, Optogenetics, prefrontal cortex, subiculum, virus injection, in vivo recording, Neurophysiology, prelimbic, optrode, molecular neurogenetics, Gene targeting
Recording Electrical Activity from Identified Neurons in the Intact Brain of Transgenic Fish
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles .
Understanding the cell physiology of neural circuits that regulate complex behaviors is greatly enhanced by using model systems in which this work can be performed in an intact brain preparation where the neural circuitry of the CNS remains intact. We use transgenic fish in which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are genetically tagged with green fluorescent protein for identification in the intact brain. Fish have multiple populations of GnRH neurons, and their functions are dependent on their location in the brain and the GnRH gene that they express1
. We have focused our demonstration on GnRH3 neurons located in the terminal nerves (TN) associated with the olfactory bulbs using the intact brain of transgenic medaka fish (Figure 1B
). Studies suggest that medaka TN-GnRH3 neurons are neuromodulatory, acting as a transmitter of information from the external environment to the central nervous system; they do not play a direct role in regulating pituitary-gonadal functions, as do the well-known hypothalamic GnRH1 neurons2, 3
.The tonic pattern of spontaneous action potential firing of TN-GnRH3 neurons is an intrinsic property4-6
, the frequency of which is modulated by visual cues from conspecifics2
and the neuropeptide kisspeptin 15
. In this video, we use a stable line of transgenic medaka in which TN-GnRH3 neurons express a transgene containing the promoter region of Gnrh3
linked to enhanced green fluorescent protein7
to show you how to identify neurons and monitor their electrical activity in the whole brain preparation6
Neuroscience, Issue 74, Neurobiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Neuroendocrinology, Neurophysiology, Electrophysiology, Comparative, action potential, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, neuron, brain, teleost, animal model
Quantitative Multispectral Analysis Following Fluorescent Tissue Transplant for Visualization of Cell Origins, Types, and Interactions
Institutions: MD Anderson Cancer Center, Institute for Regenerative Medicine.
With the desire to understand the contributions of multiple cellular elements to the development of a complex tissue; such as the numerous cell types that participate in regenerating tissue, tumor formation, or vasculogenesis, we devised a multi-colored cellular transplant model of tumor development in which cell populations originate from different fluorescently colored reporter gene mice and are transplanted, engrafted or injected in and around a developing tumor. These colored cells are then recruited and incorporated into the tumor stroma. In order to quantitatively assess bone marrow derived tumor stromal cells, we transplanted GFP expressing transgenic whole bone marrow into lethally irradiated RFP expressing mice as approved by IACUC. 0ovarian tumors that were orthotopically injected into the transplanted mice were excised 6-8 weeks post engraftment and analyzed for bone marrow marker of origin (GFP) as well as antibody markers to detect tumor associated stroma using multispectral imaging techniques. We then adapted a methodology we call MIMicc- Multispectral Interrogation of Multiplexed cellular compositions, using multispectral unmixing of fluoroprobes to quantitatively assess which labeled cell came from which starting populations (based on original reporter gene labels), and as our ability to unmix 4, 5, 6 or more spectra per slide increases, we've added additional immunohistochemistry associated with cell lineages or differentiation to increase precision. Utilizing software to detect co-localized multiplexed-fluorescent signals, tumor stromal populations can be traced, enumerated and characterized based on marker staining.1
Medicine, Issue 79, Immunology, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Microscopy, Fluorescence, Regeneration, Cellular Microenvironment, Tumor Microenvironment, Cell Biology, Investigative Techniques, Biological Phenomena, Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), Tumor/Cancer associated fibroblasts (TAF/CAF), transgenic mouse model, regenerative medicine, wound healing, cancer
Reconstitution of a Kv Channel into Lipid Membranes for Structural and Functional Studies
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.
To study the lipid-protein interaction in a reductionistic fashion, it is necessary to incorporate the membrane proteins into membranes of well-defined lipid composition. We are studying the lipid-dependent gating effects in a prototype voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, and have worked out detailed procedures to reconstitute the channels into different membrane systems. Our reconstitution procedures take consideration of both detergent-induced fusion of vesicles and the fusion of protein/detergent micelles with the lipid/detergent mixed micelles as well as the importance of reaching an equilibrium distribution of lipids among the protein/detergent/lipid and the detergent/lipid mixed micelles. Our data suggested that the insertion of the channels in the lipid vesicles is relatively random in orientations, and the reconstitution efficiency is so high that no detectable protein aggregates were seen in fractionation experiments. We have utilized the reconstituted channels to determine the conformational states of the channels in different lipids, record electrical activities of a small number of channels incorporated in planar lipid bilayers, screen for conformation-specific ligands from a phage-displayed peptide library, and support the growth of 2D crystals of the channels in membranes. The reconstitution procedures described here may be adapted for studying other membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, especially for the investigation of the lipid effects on the eukaryotic voltage-gated ion channels.
Molecular Biology, Issue 77, Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Structural Biology, Biophysics, Membrane Lipids, Phospholipids, Carrier Proteins, Membrane Proteins, Micelles, Molecular Motor Proteins, life sciences, biochemistry, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, lipid-protein interaction, channel reconstitution, lipid-dependent gating, voltage-gated ion channel, conformation-specific ligands, lipids
Localization and Relative Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Cells with Multispectral Imaging Flow Cytometry
Institutions: CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire.
Carbon-based nanomaterials, like carbon nanotubes (CNTs), belong to this type of nanoparticles which are very difficult to discriminate from carbon-rich cell structures and de facto
there is still no quantitative method to assess their distribution at cell and tissue levels. What we propose here is an innovative method allowing the detection and quantification of CNTs in cells using a multispectral imaging flow cytometer (ImageStream, Amnis). This newly developed device integrates both a high-throughput of cells and high resolution imaging, providing thus images for each cell directly in flow and therefore statistically relevant image analysis. Each cell image is acquired on bright-field (BF), dark-field (DF), and fluorescent channels, giving access respectively to the level and the distribution of light absorption, light scattered and fluorescence for each cell. The analysis consists then in a pixel-by-pixel comparison of each image, of the 7,000-10,000 cells acquired for each condition of the experiment. Localization and quantification of CNTs is made possible thanks to some particular intrinsic properties of CNTs: strong light absorbance and scattering; indeed CNTs appear as strongly absorbed dark spots on BF and bright spots on DF with a precise colocalization.
This methodology could have a considerable impact on studies about interactions between nanomaterials and cells given that this protocol is applicable for a large range of nanomaterials, insofar as they are capable of absorbing (and/or scattering) strongly enough the light.
Bioengineering, Issue 82, bioengineering, imaging flow cytometry, Carbon Nanotubes, bio-nano-interactions, cellular uptake, cell trafficking
Photoconversion of Purified Fluorescent Proteins and Dual-probe Optical Highlighting in Live Cells
Institutions: Vanderbilt University.
Photoconvertible fluorescent proteins (pc-FPs) are a class of fluorescent proteins with "optical highlighter" capability, meaning that the color of fluorescence can be changed by exposure to light of a specific wavelength. Optical highlighting allows noninvasive marking of a subpopulation of fluorescent molecules, and is therefore ideal for tracking single cells or organelles.
Critical parameters for efficient photoconversion are the intensity and the exposure time of the photoconversion light. If the intensity is too low, photoconversion will be slow or not occur at all. On the other hand, too much intensity or too long exposure can photobleach the protein and thereby reduce the efficiency of photoconversion.
This protocol describes a general approach how to set up a confocal laser scanning microscope for pc-FP photoconversion applications. First, we describe a procedure for preparing purified protein droplet samples. This sample format is very convenient for studying the photophysical behavior of fluorescent proteins under the microscope. Second, we will use the protein droplet sample to show how to configure the microscope for photoconversion. And finally, we will show how to perform optical highlighting in live cells, including dual-probe optical highlighting with mOrange2 and Dronpa.
Cellular Biology, Issue 40, mOrange, Dronpa, photoconversion, photoactivation, octanol, droplet, confocal, imaging
Single-unit In vivo Recordings from the Optic Chiasm of Rat
Institutions: Boston University.
Information about the visual world is transmitted to the brain in sequences of action potentials in retinal ganglion cell axons that make up the optic nerve. In vivo
recordings of ganglion cell spike trains in several animal models have revealed much of what is known about how the early visual system processes and encodes visual information. However, such recordings have been rare in one of the most common animal models, the rat, possibly owing to difficulty in detecting spikes fired by small diameter axons. The many retinal disease models involving rats motivate a need for characterizing the functional properties of ganglion cells without disturbing the eye, as with intraocular or in vitro
recordings. Here, we demonstrate a method for recording ganglion cell spike trains from the optic chiasm of the anesthetized rat. We first show how to fabricate tungsten-in-glass electrodes that can pick up electrical activity from single ganglion cell axons in rat. The electrodes outperform all commercial ones that we have tried. We then illustrate our custom-designed stereotaxic system for in vivo
visual neurophysiology experiments and our procedures for animal preparation and reliable and stable electrode placement in the optic chiasm.
JoVE Neuroscience, Issue 38, retina, optic chiasm, tungsten electrodes, spike trains
In vivo Imaging of Deep Cortical Layers using a Microprism
Institutions: Yale University.
We present a protocol for in vivo imaging of cortical tissue using a deep-brain imaging probe in the shape of a microprism. Microprisms are 1-mm in size and have a reflective coating on the hypotenuse to allow internal reflection of excitation and emission light. The microprism probe simultaneously images multiple cortical layers with a perspective typically seen only in slice preparations. Images are collected with a large field-of-view (~900 μm). In addition, we provide details on the non-survival surgical procedure and microscope setup. Representative results include images of layer V pyramidal neurons from Thy-1 YFP-H mice showing their apical dendrites extending through the superficial cortical layer and extending into tufts. Resolution was sufficient to image dendritic spines near the soma of layer V neurons. A tail-vein injection of fluorescent dye reveals the intricate network of blood vessels in the cortex. Line-scanning of red blood cells (RBCs) flowing through the capillaries reveals RBC velocity and flux rates can be obtained. This novel microprism probe is an elegant, yet powerful new method of visualizing deep cellular structures and cortical function in vivo.
Neuroscience, Issue 30, Cortex, Layer V, Multiphoton Microscopy, Brain, Mouse, Fluorescence, Microprism, Imaging, Neurovasculature, In vivo