Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine and biopharmaceutical applications. Currently, optimal culture and efficient expansion of large amounts of clinical-grade hPSCs are critical issues in hPSC-based therapies. Conventionally, hPSCs are propagated as colonies on both feeder and feeder-free culture systems. However, these methods have several major limitations, including low cell yields and generation of heterogeneously differentiated cells. To improve current hPSC culture methods, we have recently developed a new method, which is based on non-colony type monolayer (NCM) culture of dissociated single cells. Here, we present detailed NCM protocols based on the Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632. We also provide new information regarding NCM culture with different small molecules such as Y-39983 (ROCK I inhibitor), phenylbenzodioxane (ROCK II inhibitor), and thiazovivin (a novel ROCK inhibitor). We further extend our basic protocol to cultivate hPSCs on defined extracellular proteins such as the laminin isoform 521 (LN-521) without the use of ROCK inhibitors. Moreover, based on NCM, we have demonstrated efficient transfection or transduction of plasmid DNAs, lentiviral particles, and oligonucleotide-based microRNAs into hPSCs in order to genetically modify these cells for molecular analyses and drug discovery. The NCM-based methods overcome the major shortcomings of colony-type culture, and thus may be suitable for producing large amounts of homogeneous hPSCs for future clinical therapies, stem cell research, and drug discovery.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
Rapid and Efficient Generation of Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Multititre Plate Format
Institutions: Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, University of Münster.
Existing protocols for the generation of neurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are often tedious in that they are multistep procedures involving the isolation and expansion of neural precursor cells, prior to terminal differentiation. In comparison to these time-consuming approaches, we have recently found that combined inhibition of three signaling pathways, TGFβ/SMAD2, BMP/SMAD1, and FGF/ERK, promotes rapid induction of neuroectoderm from hPSCs, followed by immediate differentiation into functional neurons. Here, we have adapted our procedure to a novel multititre plate format, to further enhance its reproducibility and to make it compatible with mid-throughput applications. It comprises four days of neuroectoderm formation in floating spheres (embryoid bodies), followed by a further four days of differentiation into neurons under adherent conditions. Most cells obtained with this protocol appear to be bipolar sensory neurons. Moreover, the procedure is highly efficient, does not require particular expert skills, and is based on a simple chemically defined medium with cost-efficient small molecules. Due to these features, the procedure may serve as a useful platform for further functional investigation as well as for cell-based screening approaches requiring human sensory neurons or neurons of any type.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 73, Neuroscience, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Bioengineering, Physiology, Genetics, Molecular Biomedicine, human pluripotent stem cells, hPSC, neuronal differentiation, neuroectoderm, embryoid bodies, chemically defined conditions, stem cells, neurons, signalling pathways, mid-throughput, PCR, multititre, cell culture
Identification of a Murine Erythroblast Subpopulation Enriched in Enucleating Events by Multi-spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry
Institutions: University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, IBM.
Erythropoiesis in mammals concludes with the dramatic process of enucleation that results in reticulocyte formation. The mechanism of enucleation has not yet been fully elucidated. A common problem encountered when studying the localization of key proteins and structures within enucleating erythroblasts by microscopy is the difficulty to observe a sufficient number of cells undergoing enucleation. We have developed a novel analysis protocol using multiparameter high-speed cell imaging in flow (Multi-Spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry), a method that combines immunofluorescent microscopy with flow cytometry, in order to identify efficiently a significant number of enucleating events, that allows to obtain measurements and perform statistical analysis.
We first describe here two in vitro
erythropoiesis culture methods used in order to synchronize murine erythroblasts and increase the probability of capturing enucleation at the time of evaluation. Then, we describe in detail the staining of erythroblasts after fixation and permeabilization in order to study the localization of intracellular proteins or lipid rafts during enucleation by multi-spectral imaging flow cytometry. Along with size and DNA/Ter119 staining which are used to identify the orthochromatic erythroblasts, we utilize the parameters “aspect ratio” of a cell in the bright-field channel that aids in the recognition of elongated cells and “delta centroid XY Ter119/Draq5” that allows the identification of cellular events in which the center of Ter119 staining (nascent reticulocyte) is far apart from the center of Draq5 staining (nucleus undergoing extrusion), thus indicating a cell about to enucleate. The subset of the orthochromatic erythroblast population with high delta centroid and low aspect ratio is highly enriched in enucleating cells.
Basic Protocol, Issue 88, Erythropoiesis, Erythroblast enucleation, Reticulocyte, Multi-Spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry, FACS, Multiparameter high-speed cell imaging in flow, Aspect ratio, Delta centroid XY
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Application of Retinoic Acid to Obtain Osteocytes Cultures from Primary Mouse Osteoblasts
Institutions: Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda
Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Trieste.
The need for osteocyte cultures is well known to the community of bone researchers; isolation of primary osteocytes is difficult and produces low cell numbers. Therefore, the most widely used cellular system is the osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cell line.
The method here described refers to the use of retinoic acid to generate a homogeneous population of ramified cells with morphological and molecular osteocyte features.
After isolation of osteoblasts from mouse calvaria, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is added to cell medium, and cell monitoring is conducted daily under an inverted microscope. First morphological changes are detectable after 2 days of treatment and differentiation is generally complete in 5 days, with progressive development of dendrites, loss of the ability to produce extracellular matrix, down-regulation of osteoblast markers and up-regulation of osteocyte-specific molecules.
Daily cell monitoring is needed because of the inherent variability of primary cells, and the protocol can be adapted with minimal variation to cells obtained from different mouse strains and applied to transgenic models.
The method is easy to perform and does not require special instrumentation, it is highly reproducible, and rapidly generates a mature osteocyte population in complete absence of extracellular matrix, allowing the use of these cells for unlimited biological applications.
Cellular Biology, Issue 87, cell biology, cell culture, bone, retinoic acid, primary osteoblasts, osteocytes, cell differentiation, mouse calvaria, sclerostin, fibroblast growth factor 23, microscopy, immunostaining
Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors
Institutions: University College London.
Inhibitory neurons act in the central nervous system to regulate the dynamics and spatio-temporal co-ordination of neuronal networks. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is released from the presynaptic terminals of inhibitory neurons within highly specialized intercellular junctions known as synapses, where it binds to GABAA
Rs) present at the plasma membrane of the synapse-receiving, postsynaptic neurons. Activation of these GABA-gated ion channels leads to influx of chloride resulting in postsynaptic potential changes that decrease the probability that these neurons will generate action potentials.
During development, diverse types of inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological, electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics have the ability to recognize their target neurons and form synapses which incorporate specific GABAA
Rs subtypes. This principle of selective innervation of neuronal targets raises the question as to how the appropriate synaptic partners identify each other.
To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro
co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABAA
R subtypes. Synapses form rapidly, efficiently and selectively in this system, and are easily accessible for quantification. Our results indicate that various GABAA
R subtypes differ in their ability to promote synapse formation, suggesting that this reduced in vitro
model system can be used to reproduce, at least in part, the in vivo
conditions required for the recognition of the appropriate synaptic partners and formation of specific synapses. Here the protocols for culturing the medium spiny neurons and generating HEK293 cells lines expressing GABAA
Rs are first described, followed by detailed instructions on how to combine these two cell types in co-culture and analyze the formation of synaptic contacts.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
Development of Amelogenin-chitosan Hydrogel for In Vitro Enamel Regrowth with a Dense Interface
Institutions: University of Southern California.
Biomimetic enamel reconstruction is a significant topic in material science and dentistry as a novel approach for the treatment of dental caries or erosion. Amelogenin has been proven to be a critical protein for controlling the organized growth of apatite crystals. In this paper, we present a detailed protocol for superficial enamel reconstruction by using a novel amelogenin-chitosan hydrogel. Compared to other conventional treatments, such as topical fluoride and mouthwash, this method not only has the potential to prevent the development of dental caries but also promotes significant and durable enamel restoration. The organized enamel-like microstructure regulated by amelogenin assemblies can significantly improve the mechanical properties of etched enamel, while the dense enamel-restoration interface formed by an in situ
regrowth of apatite crystals can improve the effectiveness and durability of restorations. Furthermore, chitosan hydrogel is easy to use and can suppress bacterial infection, which is the major risk factor for the occurrence of dental caries. Therefore, this biocompatible and biodegradable amelogenin-chitosan hydrogel shows promise as a biomaterial for the prevention, restoration, and treatment of defective enamel.
Bioengineering, Issue 89, Enamel, Amelogenin, Chitosan hydrogel, Apatite, Biomimetic, Erosion, Superficial enamel reconstruction, Dense interface
A Functional Assay for Gap Junctional Examination; Electroporation of Adherent Cells on Indium-Tin Oxide
Institutions: Queen's University, Ask Science Products Inc..
In this technique, cells are cultured on a glass slide that is partly coated with indium-tin oxide (ITO), a transparent, electrically conductive material. A variety of molecules, such as peptides or oligonucleotides can be introduced into essentially 100% of the cells in a non-traumatic manner. Here, we describe how it can be used to study intercellular, gap junctional communication. Lucifer yellow penetrates into the cells when an electric pulse, applied to the conductive surface on which they are growing, causes pores to form through the cell membrane. This is electroporation. Cells growing on the nonconductive glass surface immediately adjacent to the electroporated region do not take up Lucifer yellow by electroporation but do acquire the fluorescent dye as it is passed to them via gap junctions that link them to the electroporated cells. The results of the transfer of dye from cell to cell can be observed microscopically under fluorescence illumination. This technique allows for precise quantitation of gap junctional communication. In addition, it can be used for the introduction of peptides or other non-permeant molecules, and the transfer of small electroporated peptides via gap junctions to inhibit the signal in the adjacent, non-electroporated cells is a powerful demonstration of signal inhibition.
Molecular Biology, Issue 92, Electroporation, Indium-Tin oxide, signal transduction, gap junctional communication, peptides, Stat3
Stabilizing Hepatocellular Phenotype Using Optimized Synthetic Surfaces
Institutions: University of Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh.
Currently, one of the major limitations in cell biology is maintaining differentiated cell phenotype. Biological matrices are commonly used for culturing and maintaining primary and pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes. While biological matrices are useful, they permit short term culture of hepatocytes, limiting their widespread application. We have attempted to overcome the limitations using a synthetic polymer coating. Polymers represent one of the broadest classes of biomaterials and possess a wide range of mechanical, physical and chemical properties, which can be fine-tuned for purpose. Importantly, such materials can be scaled to quality assured standards and display batch-to-batch consistency. This is essential if cells are to be expanded for high through-put screening in the pharmaceutical testing industry or for cellular based therapy. Polyurethanes (PUs) are one group of materials that have shown promise in cell culture. Our recent progress in optimizing a polyurethane coated surface, for long-term culture of human hepatocytes displaying stable phenotype, is presented and discussed.
Chemistry, Issue 91, Pluripotent stem cell, polyurethane, polymer coating, p450 metabolism, stable phenotype, gamma irradiation, ultraviolet irradiation.
Mouse Fetal Liver Culture System to Dissect Target Gene Functions at the Early and Late Stages of Terminal Erythropoiesis
Institutions: Northwestern University.
Erythropoiesis involves a dynamic process that begins with committed erythroid burst forming units (BFU-Es) followed by rapidly dividing erythroid colony forming units (CFU-Es). After CFU-Es, cells are morphologically recognizable and generally termed terminal erythroblasts. One of the challenges for the study of terminal erythropoiesis is the lack of experimental approaches to dissect gene functions in a chronological manner. In this protocol, we describe a unique strategy to determine gene functions in the early and late stages of terminal erythropoiesis. In this system, mouse fetal liver TER119 (mature erythroid cell marker) negative erythroblasts were purified and transduced with exogenous expression of cDNAs or small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) for the genes of interest. The cells were subsequently cultured in medium containing growth factors other than erythropoietin (Epo) to maintain their progenitor stage for 12 hr while allowing the exogenous cDNAs or shRNAs to express. The cells were changed to Epo medium after 12 hr to induce cell differentiation and proliferation while the exogenous genetic materials were already expressed. This protocol facilitates analysis of gene functions in the early stage of terminal erythropoiesis. To study late stage terminal erythropoiesis, cells were immediately cultured in Epo medium after transduction. In this way, the cells were already differentiated to the late stage of terminal erythropoiesis when the transduced genetic materials were expressed. We recommend a general application of this strategy that would help understand detailed gene functions in different stages of terminal erythropoiesis.
Immunology, Issue 91, erythropoiesis, cell culture, erythroblast, differentiation, erythropoietin, fetal liver, enucleation
High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, Stanford University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Hong Kong University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin.
There is an urgent need to develop approaches for repairing the damaged heart, discovering new therapeutic drugs that do not have toxic effects on the heart, and improving strategies to accurately model heart disease. The potential of exploiting human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology to generate cardiac muscle “in a dish” for these applications continues to generate high enthusiasm. In recent years, the ability to efficiently generate cardiomyogenic cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has greatly improved, offering us new opportunities to model very early stages of human cardiac development not otherwise accessible. In contrast to many previous methods, the cardiomyocyte differentiation protocol described here does not require cell aggregation or the addition of Activin A or BMP4 and robustly generates cultures of cells that are highly positive for cardiac troponin I and T (TNNI3, TNNT2), iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-4 (IRX4), myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC2v) and myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) by day 10 across all human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and hiPSC lines tested to date. Cells can be passaged and maintained for more than 90 days in culture. The strategy is technically simple to implement and cost-effective. Characterization of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent cells often includes the analysis of reference markers, both at the mRNA and protein level. For protein analysis, flow cytometry is a powerful analytical tool for assessing quality of cells in culture and determining subpopulation homogeneity. However, technical variation in sample preparation can significantly affect quality of flow cytometry data. Thus, standardization of staining protocols should facilitate comparisons among various differentiation strategies. Accordingly, optimized staining protocols for the analysis of IRX4, MLC2v, MLC2a, TNNI3, and TNNT2 by flow cytometry are described.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, human induced pluripotent stem cell, flow cytometry, directed differentiation, cardiomyocyte, IRX4, TNNI3, TNNT2, MCL2v, MLC2a
Microwave-assisted Functionalization of Poly(ethylene glycol) and On-resin Peptides for Use in Chain Polymerizations and Hydrogel Formation
Institutions: University of Rochester, University of Rochester, University of Rochester Medical Center.
One of the main benefits to using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) macromers in hydrogel formation is synthetic versatility. The ability to draw from a large variety of PEG molecular weights and configurations (arm number, arm length, and branching pattern) affords researchers tight control over resulting hydrogel structures and properties, including Young’s modulus and mesh size. This video will illustrate a rapid, efficient, solvent-free, microwave-assisted method to methacrylate PEG precursors into poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDM). This synthetic method provides much-needed starting materials for applications in drug delivery and regenerative medicine. The demonstrated method is superior to traditional methacrylation methods as it is significantly faster and simpler, as well as more economical and environmentally friendly, using smaller amounts of reagents and solvents. We will also demonstrate an adaptation of this technique for on-resin methacrylamide functionalization of peptides. This on-resin method allows the N-terminus of peptides to be functionalized with methacrylamide groups prior to deprotection and cleavage from resin. This allows for selective addition of methacrylamide groups to the N-termini of the peptides while amino acids with reactive side groups (e.g.
primary amine of lysine, primary alcohol of serine, secondary alcohols of threonine, and phenol of tyrosine) remain protected, preventing functionalization at multiple sites. This article will detail common analytical methods (proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (;
H-NMR) and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF)) to assess the efficiency of the functionalizations. Common pitfalls and suggested troubleshooting methods will be addressed, as will modifications of the technique which can be used to further tune macromer functionality and resulting hydrogel physical and chemical properties. Use of synthesized products for the formation of hydrogels for drug delivery and cell-material interaction studies will be demonstrated, with particular attention paid to modifying hydrogel composition to affect mesh size, controlling hydrogel stiffness and drug release.
Chemistry, Issue 80, Poly(ethylene glycol), peptides, polymerization, polymers, methacrylation, peptide functionalization, 1H-NMR, MALDI-ToF, hydrogels, macromer synthesis
Covalent Binding of BMP-2 on Surfaces Using a Self-assembled Monolayer Approach
Institutions: University of Heidelberg, Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems at Stuttgart.
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a growth factor embedded in the extracellular matrix of bone tissue. BMP-2 acts as trigger of mesenchymal cell differentiation into osteoblasts, thus stimulating healing and de novo
bone formation. The clinical use of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) in conjunction with scaffolds has raised recent controversies, based on the mode of presentation and the amount to be delivered. The protocol presented here provides a simple and efficient way to deliver BMP-2 for in vitro
studies on cells. We describe how to form a self-assembled monolayer consisting of a heterobifunctional linker, and show the subsequent binding step to obtain covalent immobilization of rhBMP-2. With this approach it is possible to achieve a sustained presentation of BMP-2 while maintaining the biological activity of the protein. In fact, the surface immobilization of BMP-2 allows targeted investigations by preventing unspecific adsorption, while reducing the amount of growth factor and, most notably, hindering uncontrolled release from the surface. Both short- and long-term signaling events triggered by BMP-2 are taking place when cells are exposed to surfaces presenting covalently immobilized rhBMP-2, making this approach suitable for in vitro
studies on cell responses to BMP-2 stimulation.
Chemistry, Issue 78, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Genetics, Chemical Biology, Physical Chemistry, Proteins, life sciences, Biological Factors, Chemistry and Materials (General), Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), self-assembled monolayer (SAM), covalent immobilization, NHS-linker, BMP-2 signaling, protein, assay
Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Reprogramming Human Fibroblasts with the Stemgent Human TF Lentivirus Set
In 2006, Yamanaka and colleagues first demonstrated that retrovirus-mediated delivery and expression of Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4 is capable of inducing the pluripotent state in mouse fibroblasts.1
The same group also reported the successful reprogramming of human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells using human versions of the same transcription factors delivered by retroviral vectors.2
Additionally, James Thomson et al.
reported that the lentivirus-mediated co-expression of another set of factors (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Lin28) was capable of reprogramming human somatic cells into iPS cells.3
iPS cells are similar to ES cells in morphology, proliferation and the ability to differentiate into all tissue types of the body. Human iPS cells have a distinct advantage over ES cells as they exhibit key properties of ES cells without the ethical dilemma of embryo destruction. The generation of patient-specific iPS cells circumvents an important roadblock to personalized regenerative medicine therapies by eliminating the potential for immune rejection of non-autologous transplanted cells.
Here we demonstrate the protocol for reprogramming human fibroblast cells using the Stemgent Human TF Lentivirus Set. We also show that cells reprogrammed with this set begin to show iPS morphology four days post-transduction. Using the Stemolecule Y27632, we selected for iPS cells and observed correct morphology after three sequential rounds of colony picking and passaging. We also demonstrate that after reprogramming cells displayed the pluripotency marker AP, surface markers TRA-1-81, TRA-1-60, SSEA-4, and SSEA-3, and nuclear markers Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog.
Developmental Biology, Issue 34, iPS, reprogramming, lentivirus, stem cell, induced pluripotent cell, pluripotency, fibroblast, embryonic stem cells, ES cells, iPS cells
Parallel-plate Flow Chamber and Continuous Flow Circuit to Evaluate Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Laminar Flow Shear Stress
Institutions: Duke University Medical Center, Duke University , University of Pennsylvania , Duke University Medical Center.
The overall goal of this method is to describe a technique to subject adherent cells to laminar flow conditions and evaluate their response to well quantifiable fluid shear stresses1
Our flow chamber design and flow circuit (Fig. 1
) contains a transparent viewing region that enables testing of cell adhesion and imaging of cell morphology immediately before flow (Fig. 11A, B
), at various time points during flow (Fig. 11C
), and after flow (Fig. 11D
). These experiments are illustrated with human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and porcine EPCs2,3
This method is also applicable to other adherent cell types, e.g. smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or fibroblasts.
The chamber and all parts of the circuit are easily sterilized with steam autoclaving. In contrast to other chambers, e.g. microfluidic chambers, large numbers of cells (> 1 million depending on cell size) can be recovered after the flow experiment under sterile conditions for cell culture or other experiments, e.g. DNA or RNA extraction, or immunohistochemistry (Fig. 11E
), or scanning electron microscopy5
. The shear stress can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of the perfusate, the fluid viscosity, or the channel height and width. The latter can reduce fluid volume or cell needs while ensuring that one-dimensional flow is maintained. It is not necessary to measure chamber height between experiments, since the chamber height does not depend on the use of gaskets, which greatly increases the ease of multiple experiments. Furthermore, the circuit design easily enables the collection of perfusate samples for analysis and/or quantification of metabolites secreted by cells under fluid shear stress exposure, e.g. nitric oxide (Fig. 12
Bioengineering, Issue 59, Fluid Shear Stress, Shear Stress, Shear Force, Endothelium, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Flow Chamber, Laminar Flow, Flow Circuit, Continuous Flow, Cell Adhesion
Utilizing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Human Neuromuscular System
Institutions: Ohio University.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been in use for more than 20 years 1
, and has grown exponentially in popularity over the past decade. While the use of TMS has expanded to the study of many systems and processes during this time, the original application and perhaps one of the most common uses of TMS involves studying the physiology, plasticity and function of the human neuromuscular system. Single pulse TMS applied to the motor cortex excites pyramidal neurons transsynaptically 2
(Figure 1) and results in a measurable electromyographic response that can be used to study and evaluate the integrity and excitability of the corticospinal tract in humans 3
. Additionally, recent advances in magnetic stimulation now allows for partitioning of cortical versus spinal excitability 4,5
. For example, paired-pulse TMS can be used to assess intracortical facilitatory and inhibitory properties by combining a conditioning stimulus and a test stimulus at different interstimulus intervals 3,4,6-8
. In this video article we will demonstrate the methodological and technical aspects of these techniques. Specifically, we will demonstrate single-pulse and paired-pulse TMS techniques as applied to the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle as well as the erector spinae (ES) musculature. Our laboratory studies the FCR muscle as it is of interest to our research on the effects of wrist-hand cast immobilization on reduced muscle performance6,9
, and we study the ES muscles due to these muscles clinical relevance as it relates to low back pain8
. With this stated, we should note that TMS has been used to study many muscles of the hand, arm and legs, and should iterate that our demonstrations in the FCR and ES muscle groups are only selected examples of TMS being used to study the human neuromuscular system.
Medicine, Issue 59, neuroscience, muscle, electromyography, physiology, TMS, strength, motor control. sarcopenia, dynapenia, lumbar
Alginate Microcapsule as a 3D Platform for Propagation and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC) to Different Lineages
Institutions: The University of New South Wales, Mahidol University , Prince of Wales Hospital.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are emerging as an attractive alternative source for cell replacement therapy since they can be expanded in culture indefinitely and differentiated to any cell types in the body. Various types of biomaterials have also been used in stem cell cultures to provide a microenvironment mimicking the stem cell niche1-3
. The latter is important for promoting cell-to-cell interaction, cell proliferation, and differentiation into specific lineages as well as tissue organization by providing a three-dimensional (3D) environment4
such as encapsulation. The principle of cell encapsulation involves entrapment of living cells within the confines of semi-permeable membranes in 3D cultures2
. These membranes allow for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and stimuli across the membranes, whereas antibodies and immune cells from the host that are larger than the capsule pore size are excluded5
. Here, we present an approach to culture and differentiate hESC DA neurons in a 3D microenvironment using alginate microcapsules. We have modified the culture conditions2
to enhance the viability of encapsulated hESC. We have previously shown that the addition of p160-Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y-27632 and human fetal fibroblast-conditioned serum replacement medium (hFF-CM) to the 3D platform significantly enhanced the viability of encapsulated hESC in which the cells expressed definitive endoderm marker genes1
. We have now used this 3D platform for the propagation of hESC and efficient differentiation to DA neurons. Protein and gene expression analyses after the final stage of DA neuronal differentiation showed an increased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker for DA neurons, >100 folds after 2 weeks. We hypothesized that our 3D platform using alginate microcapsules may be useful to study the proliferation and directed differentiation of hESC to various lineages. This 3D system also allows the separation of feeder cells from hESC during the process of differentiation and also has potential for immune-isolation during transplantation in the future.
Bioengineering, Issue 61, Alginate microcapsule, 3D platform, embryonic stem cells, definitive endoderm, dopaminergic neurons
Spatio-Temporal Manipulation of Small GTPase Activity at Subcellular Level and on Timescale of Seconds in Living Cells
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University, University of Tokyo, Johns Hopkins University.
Dynamic regulation of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with great spatiotemporal precision is essential for various cellular functions and events1, 2
. Their spatiotemporally dynamic nature has been revealed by visualization of their activity and localization in real time3
. In order to gain deeper understanding of their roles in diverse cellular functions at the molecular level, the next step should be perturbation of protein activities at a precise subcellular location and timing.
To achieve this goal, we have developed a method for light-induced, spatio-temporally controlled activation of small GTPases by combining two techniques: (1) rapamycin-induced FKBP-FRB heterodimerization and (2) a photo-caging method of rapamycin. With the use of rapamycin-mediated FKBP-FRB heterodimerization, we have developed a method for rapidly inducible activation or inactivation of small GTPases including Rac4
, in which rapamycin induces translocation of FKBP-fused GTPases, or their activators, to the plasma membrane where FRB is anchored. For coupling with this heterodimerization system, we have also developed a photo-caging system of rapamycin analogs. A photo-caged compound is a small molecule whose activity is suppressed with a photocleavable protecting group known as a caging group. To suppress heterodimerization activity completely, we designed a caged rapamycin that is tethered to a macromolecule such that the resulting large complex cannot cross the plasma membrane, leading to virtually no background activity as a chemical dimerizer inside cells6
. Figure 1
illustrates a scheme of our system. With the combination of these two systems, we locally recruited a Rac activator to the plasma membrane on a timescale of seconds and achieved light-induced Rac activation at the subcellular level6
Bioengineering, Issue 61, Small GTPase, rapamycin, caged compound, spatiotemporal control, heterodimerization, FKBP, FRB, light irradiation
Induction of Adhesion-dependent Signals Using Low-intensity Ultrasound
Institutions: University of Bristol, Smith and Nephew.
In multicellular organisms, cell behavior is dictated by interactions with the extracellular matrix. Consequences of matrix-engagement range from regulation of cell migration and proliferation, to secretion and even differentiation. The signals underlying each of these complex processes arise from the molecular interactions of extracellular matrix receptors on the surface of the cell. Integrins are the prototypic receptors and provide a mechanical link between extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton, as well as initiating some of the adhesion-dependent signaling cascades. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that additional transmembrane receptors function alongside the integrins to regulate both the integrin itself and signals downstream. The most elegant of these examples is the transmembrane proteoglycan, syndecan-4, which cooperates with α5
-integrin during adhesion to fibronectin. In vivo
models demonstrate the importance of syndecan-4 signaling, as syndecan-4-knockout mice exhibit healing retardation due to inefficient fibroblast migration1,2
. In wild-type animals, migration of fibroblasts toward a wound is triggered by the appearance of fibronectin that leaks from damaged capillaries and is deposited by macrophages in injured tissue. Therefore there is great interest in discovering strategies that enhance fibronectin-dependent signaling and could accelerate repair processes.
The integrin-mediated and syndecan-4-mediated components of fibronectin-dependent signaling can be separated by stimulating cells with recombinant fibronectin fragments. Although integrin engagement is essential for cell adhesion, certain fibronectin-dependent signals are regulated by syndecan-4. Syndecan-4 activates the Rac1 protrusive signal3
, causes integrin redistribution1
, triggers recruitment of cytoskeletal molecules, such as vinculin, to focal adhesions4
, and thereby induces directional migration3
. We have looked for alternative strategies for activating such signals and found that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) can mimic the effects of syndecan-4 engagement5
. In this protocol we describe the method by which 30 mW/cm2
, 1.5 MHz ultrasound, pulsed at 1 kHz (Fig. 1
) can be applied to fibroblasts in culture (Fig. 2
) to induce Rac1 activation and focal adhesion formation. Ultrasound stimulation is applied for a maximum of 20 minutes, as this combination of parameters has been found to be most efficacious for acceleration of clinical fracture repair6
. The method uses recombinant fibronectin fragments to engage α5
-integrin, without engagement of syndecan-4, and requires inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide to block deposition of additional matrix by the fibroblasts., The positive effect of ultrasound on repair mechanisms is well documented7,8
, and by understanding the molecular effect of ultrasound in culture we should be able to refine the therapeutic technique to improve clinical outcomes.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 63, Ultrasound, LIPUS, Focal Adhesion, Syndecan-4, Wound Healing, Extracellular Matrix, Rac1, bioengineering
Mechanical Stimulation-induced Calcium Wave Propagation in Cell Monolayers: The Example of Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells
Institutions: KU Leuven.
Intercellular communication is essential for the coordination of physiological processes between cells in a variety of organs and tissues, including the brain, liver, retina, cochlea and vasculature. In experimental settings, intercellular Ca2+
-waves can be elicited by applying a mechanical stimulus to a single cell. This leads to the release of the intracellular signaling molecules IP3
that initiate the propagation of the Ca2+
-wave concentrically from the mechanically stimulated cell to the neighboring cells. The main molecular pathways that control intercellular Ca2+
-wave propagation are provided by gap junction channels through the direct transfer of IP3
and by hemichannels through the release of ATP. Identification and characterization of the properties and regulation of different connexin and pannexin isoforms as gap junction channels and hemichannels are allowed by the quantification of the spread of the intercellular Ca2+
-wave, siRNA, and the use of inhibitors of gap junction channels and hemichannels. Here, we describe a method to measure intercellular Ca2+
-wave in monolayers of primary corneal endothelial cells loaded with Fluo4-AM in response to a controlled and localized mechanical stimulus provoked by an acute, short-lasting deformation of the cell as a result of touching the cell membrane with a micromanipulator-controlled glass micropipette with a tip diameter of less than 1 μm. We also describe the isolation of primary bovine corneal endothelial cells and its use as model system to assess Cx43-hemichannel activity as the driven force for intercellular Ca2+
-waves through the release of ATP. Finally, we discuss the use, advantages, limitations and alternatives of this method in the context of gap junction channel and hemichannel research.
Cellular Biology, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Gap Junctions, Connexins, Connexin 43, Calcium Signaling, Ca2+, Cell Communication, Paracrine Communication, Intercellular communication, calcium wave propagation, gap junctions, hemichannels, endothelial cells, cell signaling, cell, isolation, cell culture
Pre-clinical Evaluation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Treatment of Acute Leukemia
Institutions: University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, University Hospital of Essen.
Receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and progression of many cancers, including both leukemia and solid tumors, and are attractive druggable therapeutic targets. Here we describe an efficient four-step strategy for pre-clinical evaluation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of acute leukemia. Initially, western blot analysis is used to confirm target inhibition in cultured leukemia cells. Functional activity is then evaluated using clonogenic assays in methylcellulose or soft agar cultures. Experimental compounds that demonstrate activity in cell culture assays are evaluated in vivo
using NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice transplanted orthotopically with human leukemia cell lines. Initial in vivo
pharmacodynamic studies evaluate target inhibition in leukemic blasts isolated from the bone marrow. This approach is used to determine the dose and schedule of administration required for effective target inhibition. Subsequent studies evaluate the efficacy of the TKIs in vivo
using luciferase expressing leukemia cells, thereby allowing for non-invasive bioluminescent monitoring of leukemia burden and assessment of therapeutic response using an in vivo
bioluminescence imaging system. This strategy has been effective for evaluation of TKIs in vitro
and in vivo
and can be applied for identification of molecularly-targeted agents with therapeutic potential or for direct comparison and prioritization of multiple compounds.
Medicine, Issue 79, Leukemia, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Therapeutics, novel small molecule inhibitor, receptor tyrosine kinase, leukemia
RhoC GTPase Activation Assay
Institutions: University of Delaware.
RhoC GTPase has 91% homology to RhoA GTPase. Because of its prevalence in cells, many reagents and techniques for RhoA GTPase have been developed. However, RhoC GTPase is expressed in metastatic cancer cells at relatively low levels. Therefore, few RhoC-specific reagents have been developed. We have adapted a Rho activation assay to detect RhoC GTPase. This technique utilizes a GST-Rho binding domain fusion protein to pull out active RhoC GTPase. In addition, we can harvest total protein at the beginning of the assay to determine levels of total (GTP and GDP bound) RhoC GTPase. This allows for the determination of active versus total RhoC GTPase in the cell. Several commercial versions of this procedure have been developed however, the commercial kits are optimized for RhoA GTPase and typically do not work well for RhoC GTPase. Parts of the assay have been modified as well as development of a RhoC-specific antibody.
neuroscience, Issue 42, brain, mouse, transplantation, labeling
Ole Isacson: Development of New Therapies for Parkinson's Disease
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
Medicine, Issue 3, Parkinson' disease, Neuroscience, dopamine, neuron, L-DOPA, stem cell, transplantation