The role of memory reactivation during wakefulness and sleep in determining which memories endure.
Published in The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
View article on PubMed
Consolidation makes it possible for memories of our daily experiences to be stored in an enduring way. We propose that memory consolidation depends on the covert reactivation of previously learned material both during sleep and wakefulness. Here we tested whether the operation of covert memory reactivation influences the fundamental selectivity of memory storage--of all the events we experience each day, which will be retained and which forgotten? We systematically manipulated the value of information learned by 60 young subjects; they learned 72 object-location associations while hearing characteristic object sounds, and a number on each object indicated the reward value that could potentially be earned during a future memory test. Recall accuracy declined to a greater extent for low-value than for high-value associations after either a 90 min nap or a 90 min wake interval. Yet, via targeted memory reactivation of half of the low-value associations using the corresponding sounds, these memories were rescued from forgetting. Only cued associations were rescued when sounds were applied during wakefulness, whereas the entire set of low-value associations was rescued from forgetting when the manipulation occurred during sleep. The benefits accrued from presenting corresponding sounds show that covert reactivation is a major factor determining the selectivity of memory consolidation in these circumstances. By extension, covert reactivation may determine the ultimate fate of our memories, though wake and sleep reactivation might play distinct roles in this process, the former helping to strengthen individual, salient memories, and the latter strengthening, while also linking, categorically related memories together.
JoVE Applied Physics
1ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Department of Quantum Science, The Australian National University
The gradient echo memory is a protocol for storing optical quantum states of light in atomic ensembles. Quantum memory is a key element of a quantum repeater, which can extend the range of quantum key distribution. We outline the operation of the scheme when implemented in a 3-level atomic ensemble.
Published November 11, 2013. Keywords: Physics, quantum memory, photon echo, rubidium vapor, gas cell, optical memory, gradient echo memory (GEM)
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Dr. William M. Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 2Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science
Metabolic memory is the phenomenon by which diabetic complications persist and progress unimpeded even after euglycemia is achieved pharmaceutically. Here we describe a diabetes mellitus zebrafish model which is unique in that it allows for the examination of the mitotically transmissible epigenetic components of metabolic memory in vivo.
Published February 28, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Genetics, Genomics, Physiology, Anatomy, Biomedical Engineering, Metabolomics, Zebrafish, diabetes, metabolic memory, tissue regeneration, streptozocin, epigenetics, Danio rerio, animal model, diabetes mellitus, diabetes, drug discovery, hyperglycemia
1Experimental Otolaryngology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
A fast and inexpensive method for the behavioral determination of hearing parameters like hearing thresholds, hearing impairments or phantom perceptions (subjective tinnitus) is described. It uses pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response and can be easily implemented in a personal computer using a programmable AD/DA-converter and a piezo sensor.
Published October 16, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine, otolaryngology, behavior, auditory startle response, pre-pulse inhibition, audiogram, tinnitus, hearing loss
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Louis University
Most studies of herpetic corneal disease use a primary infection model. However, primary infection with HSV-1 does not typically lead to human disease. Here we describe a recurrent model of herpetic corneal disease, which more closely mimics human disease.
Published December 18, 2012. Keywords: Infection, Immunology, Virology, Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Ophthalmology, Herpes, herpetic stromal keratitis, HSK, keratitis, pathogenesis, clinical evaluation, virus, eye, mouse, animal model
1Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, New York University, 3Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University
Conditioned fear can be diminished through an inhibitory process called extinction, but can resurface under conditions such as the passage of time or exposure to stress. Our protocol presents a novel way of preventing fear recovery by introducing extinction during the reconsolidation window (the re-storage phase of a reactivated memory).
Published August 24, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Medicine, Psychology, Physiology, Fear conditioning, extinction, reconsolidation, emotional memory, spontaneous recovery, skin conductance response
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 3Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, 4Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 5Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 6Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 7Center for Neural Science, New York University School of Medicine
The protocol describes an efficient and reproducible model system to study herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency and reactivation. The assay employs homogenous sympathetic neuron cultures and allows for the molecular dissection of virus-neuron interactions using a variety of tools including RNA interference and expression of recombinant proteins.
Published April 2, 2012. Keywords: Immunology, neuron cell culture, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), molecular biology, virology
1Department of Psychiatry, Brain Research Center, University of British Columbia
The Morris Water Maze is a behavioral task to test hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. It has been widely used in the study of neurobiology, neuropharmacology and neurocognitive disorders in rodent models.
Published July 20, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Morris Water Maze, spatial memory testing, hippocampal dependent learning, Alzheimer's Disease
1Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 3Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, 4Psychology Department, Neuroscience Program, & Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
We present a protocol that uses functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of the memory-enhancing effect of emotion. This protocol allows identification of brain activity specifically linked to memory-related processing, contrary to more general perceptual processing, and can be used with healthy and clinical populations.
Published May 4, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Affect, Recognition, Recollection, Dm Effect, Neuroimaging
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 2Psychology Department, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 3Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 4Beckman Institute for Advanced Science & Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
We present a protocol that allows investigation of the neural correlates of recollecting emotional autobiographical memories, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. This protocol can be used with both healthy and clinical participants.
Published August 26, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Personal Memories, Retrieval Focus, Cognitive Distraction, Emotion Regulation, Neuroimaging
1Rotman Research Institute, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto
Eye movement monitoring (or eye tracking) reveals where in space the eyes linger, when and for how long. Here, we demonstrate how eye tracking can be used to investigate the integrity of memory in multiple participant populations, without requiring verbal, or otherwise explicit, reports.
Published August 15, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, eye movement monitoring, eye tracking, memory, aging, amnesia, visual processing