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Ceramide synthases expression and role of ceramide synthase-2 in the lung: insight from human lung cells and mouse models.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Increases in ceramide levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both acute or chronic lung injury models. However, the role of individual ceramide species, or of the enzymes that are responsible for their synthesis, in lung health and disease has not been clarified. We now show that C24- and C16-ceramides are the most abundant lung ceramide species, paralleled by high expression of their synthetic enzymes, ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) and CerS5, respectively. Furthermore, the ceramide species synthesis in the lung is homeostatically regulated, since mice lacking very long acyl chain C24-ceramides due to genetic deficiency of CerS2 displayed a ten-fold increase in C16-ceramides and C16-dihydroceramides along with elevation of acid sphingomyelinase and CerS5 activities. Despite relatively preserved total lung ceramide levels, inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis at the level of CerS2 was associated with significant airflow obstruction, airway inflammation, and increased lung volumes. Our results suggest that ceramide species homeostasis is crucial for lung health and that CerS2 dysfunction may predispose to inflammatory airway and airspace diseases.
The analysis of lipid protein interaction is difficult because lipids are embedded in cell membranes and therefore, inaccessible to most purification procedures. As an alternative, lipids can be coated on flat surfaces as used for lipid ELISA and Plasmon resonance spectroscopy. However, surface coating lipids do not form microdomain structures, which may be important for the lipid binding properties. Further, these methods do not allow for the purification of larger amounts of proteins binding to their target lipids. To overcome these limitations of testing lipid protein interaction and to purify lipid binding proteins we developed a novel method termed lipid vesicle-mediated affinity chromatography using magnetic-activated cell sorting (LIMACS). In this method, lipid vesicles are prepared with the target lipid and phosphatidylserine as the anchor lipid for Annexin V MACS. Phosphatidylserine is a ubiquitous cell membrane phospholipid that shows high affinity to the protein Annexin V. Using magnetic beads conjugated to Annexin V the phosphatidylserine-containing lipid vesicles will bind to the magnetic beads. When the lipid vesicles are incubated with a cell lysate the protein binding to the target lipid will also be bound to the beads and can be co-purified using MACS. This method can also be used to test if recombinant proteins reconstitute a protein complex binding to the target lipid. We have used this method to show the interaction of atypical PKC (aPKC) with the sphingolipid ceramide and to co-purify prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR-4), a protein binding to ceramide-associated aPKC. We have also used this method for the reconstitution of a ceramide-associated complex of recombinant aPKC with the cell polarity-related proteins Par6 and Cdc42. Since lipid vesicles can be prepared with a variety of sphingo- or phospholipids, LIMACS offers a versatile test for lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles closely that of the cell membrane. Additional lipid protein complexes can be identified using proteomics analysis of lipid binding protein co-purified with the lipid vesicles.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induced Lung Injury Model
Authors: Varsha Suresh Kumar, Ruxana T. Sadikot, Jeanette E. Purcell, Asrar B. Malik, Yuru Liu.
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago, Emory University, University of Illinois at Chicago.
In order to study human acute lung injury and pneumonia, it is important to develop animal models to mimic various pathological features of this disease. Here we have developed a mouse lung injury model by intra-tracheal injection of bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa or PA). Using this model, we were able to show lung inflammation at the early phase of injury. In addition, alveolar epithelial barrier leakiness was observed by analyzing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); and alveolar cell death was observed by Tunel assay using tissue prepared from injured lungs. At a later phase following injury, we observed cell proliferation required for the repair process. The injury was resolved 7 days from the initiation of P. aeruginosa injection. This model mimics the sequential course of lung inflammation, injury and repair during pneumonia. This clinically relevant animal model is suitable for studying pathology, mechanism of repair, following acute lung injury, and also can be used to test potential therapeutic agents for this disease.
Immunology, Issue 92, Lung, injury, pseudomonas, pneumonia, mouse model, alveoli
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In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration
Authors: Mark E. Kusek, Michael A. Pazos, Waheed Pirzai, Bryan P. Hurley.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, MGH for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Mucosal surfaces serve as protective barriers against pathogenic organisms. Innate immune responses are activated upon sensing pathogen leading to the infiltration of tissues with migrating inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. This process has the potential to be destructive to tissues if excessive or held in an unresolved state.  Cocultured in vitro models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. This type of model provides versatility in experimental design with opportunity for controlled manipulation of the pathogen, epithelial barrier, or neutrophil. Pathogenic infection of the apical surface of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable transwell filters instigates physiologically relevant basolateral to apical trans-epithelial migration of neutrophils applied to the basolateral surface. The in vitro model described herein demonstrates the multiple steps necessary for demonstrating neutrophil migration across a polarized lung epithelial monolayer that has been infected with pathogenic P. aeruginosa (PAO1). Seeding and culturing of permeable transwells with human derived lung epithelial cells is described, along with isolation of neutrophils from whole human blood and culturing of PAO1 and nonpathogenic K12 E. coli (MC1000).  The emigrational process and quantitative analysis of successfully migrated neutrophils that have been mobilized in response to pathogenic infection is shown with representative data, including positive and negative controls. This in vitro model system can be manipulated and applied to other mucosal surfaces. Inflammatory responses that involve excessive neutrophil infiltration can be destructive to host tissues and can occur in the absence of pathogenic infections. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote neutrophil trans-epithelial migration through experimental manipulation of the in vitro coculture assay system described herein has significant potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for a range of mucosal infectious as well as inflammatory diseases.
Infection, Issue 83, Cellular Biology, Epithelium, Neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Neutrophils, epithelial barriers, pathogens, transmigration
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Nonhuman Primate Lung Decellularization and Recellularization Using a Specialized Large-organ Bioreactor
Authors: Ryan W. Bonvillain, Michelle E. Scarritt, Nicholas C. Pashos, Jacques P. Mayeux, Christopher L. Meshberger, Aline M. Betancourt, Deborah E. Sullivan, Bruce A. Bunnell.
Institutions: Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine.
There are an insufficient number of lungs available to meet current and future organ transplantation needs. Bioartificial tissue regeneration is an attractive alternative to classic organ transplantation. This technology utilizes an organ's natural biological extracellular matrix (ECM) as a scaffold onto which autologous or stem/progenitor cells may be seeded and cultured in such a way that facilitates regeneration of the original tissue. The natural ECM is isolated by a process called decellularization. Decellularization is accomplished by treating tissues with a series of detergents, salts, and enzymes to achieve effective removal of cellular material while leaving the ECM intact. Studies conducted utilizing decellularization and subsequent recellularization of rodent lungs demonstrated marginal success in generating pulmonary-like tissue which is capable of gas exchange in vivo. While offering essential proof-of-concept, rodent models are not directly translatable to human use. Nonhuman primates (NHP) offer a more suitable model in which to investigate the use of bioartificial organ production for eventual clinical use. The protocols for achieving complete decellularization of lungs acquired from the NHP rhesus macaque are presented. The resulting acellular lungs can be seeded with a variety of cells including mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial cells. The manuscript also describes the development of a bioreactor system in which cell-seeded macaque lungs can be cultured under conditions of mechanical stretch and strain provided by negative pressure ventilation as well as pulsatile perfusion through the vasculature; these forces are known to direct differentiation along pulmonary and endothelial lineages, respectively. Representative results of decellularization and cell seeding are provided.
Bioengineering, Issue 82, rhesus macaque, decellularization, recellularization, detergent, matrix, scaffold, large-organ bioreactor, mesenchymal stem cells
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Isolation of Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells from Neonatal Mice
Authors: Keng Jin Lee, Lyubov Czech, Gregory B. Waypa, Kathryn N. Farrow.
Institutions: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
Pulmonary hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Historically, there has been significant study of the signaling pathways involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction in PASMC from fetal sheep. While sheep make an excellent model of term pulmonary hypertension, they are very expensive and lack the advantage of genetic manipulation found in mice. Conversely, the inability to isolate PASMC from mice was a significant limitation of that system. Here we described the isolation of primary cultures of mouse PASMC from P7, P14, and P21 mice using a variation of the previously described technique of Marshall et al.26 that was previously used to isolate rat PASMC. These murine PASMC represent a novel tool for the study of signaling pathways in the neonatal period. Briefly, a slurry of 0.5% (w/v) agarose + 0.5% iron particles in M199 media is infused into the pulmonary vascular bed via the right ventricle (RV). The iron particles are 0.2 μM in diameter and cannot pass through the pulmonary capillary bed. Thus, the iron lodges in the small pulmonary arteries (PA). The lungs are inflated with agarose, removed and dissociated. The iron-containing vessels are pulled down with a magnet. After collagenase (80 U/ml) treatment and further dissociation, the vessels are put into a tissue culture dish in M199 media containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and antibiotics (M199 complete media) to allow cell migration onto the culture dish. This initial plate of cells is a 50-50 mixture of fibroblasts and PASMC. Thus, the pull down procedure is repeated multiple times to achieve a more pure PASMC population and remove any residual iron. Smooth muscle cell identity is confirmed by immunostaining for smooth muscle myosin and desmin.
Basic Protocol, Issue 80, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Cardiovascular Abnormalities, Hypertension, Pulmonary, vascular smooth muscle, pulmonary hypertension, development, phosphodiesterases, cGMP, immunostaining
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Videomorphometric Analysis of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction of Intra-pulmonary Arteries Using Murine Precision Cut Lung Slices
Authors: Renate Paddenberg, Petra Mermer, Anna Goldenberg, Wolfgang Kummer.
Institutions: Justus-Liebig-University.
Acute alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) - also known as von Euler-Liljestrand mechanism - which serves to match lung perfusion to ventilation. Up to now, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The major vascular segment contributing to HPV is the intra-acinar artery. This vessel section is responsible for the blood supply of an individual acinus, which is defined as the portion of lung distal to a terminal bronchiole. Intra-acinar arteries are mostly located in that part of the lung that cannot be selectively reached by a number of commonly used techniques such as measurement of the pulmonary artery pressure in isolated perfused lungs or force recordings from dissected proximal pulmonary artery segments1,2. The analysis of subpleural vessels by real-time confocal laser scanning luminescence microscopy is limited to vessels with up to 50 µm in diameter3. We provide a technique to study HPV of murine intra-pulmonary arteries in the range of 20-100 µm inner diameters. It is based on the videomorphometric analysis of cross-sectioned arteries in precision cut lung slices (PCLS). This method allows the quantitative measurement of vasoreactivity of small intra-acinar arteries with inner diameter between 20-40 µm which are located at gussets of alveolar septa next to alveolar ducts and of larger pre-acinar arteries with inner diameters between 40-100 µm which run adjacent to bronchi and bronchioles. In contrast to real-time imaging of subpleural vessels in anesthetized and ventilated mice, videomorphometric analysis of PCLS occurs under conditions free of shear stress. In our experimental model both arterial segments exhibit a monophasic HPV when exposed to medium gassed with 1% O2 and the response fades after 30-40 min at hypoxia.
Medicine, Issue 83, Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, murine lungs, precision cut lung slices, intra-pulmonary, pre- and intra-acinar arteries, videomorphometry
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Long Term Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Airway Infection in Mice
Authors: Marcella Facchini, Ida De Fino, Camilla Riva, Alessandra Bragonzi.
Institutions: San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Italian Cystic Fibrosis Research Foundation.
A mouse model of chronic airway infection is a key asset in cystic fibrosis (CF) research, although there are a number of concerns regarding the model itself. Early phases of inflammation and infection have been widely studied by using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa agar-beads mouse model, while only few reports have focused on the long-term chronic infection in vivo. The main challenge for long term chronic infection remains the low bacterial burden by P. aeruginosa and the low percentage of infected mice weeks after challenge, indicating that bacterial cells are progressively cleared by the host. This paper presents a method for obtaining efficient long-term chronic infection in mice. This method is based on the embedding of the P. aeruginosa clinical strains in the agar-beads in vitro, followed by intratracheal instillation in C57Bl/6NCrl mice. Bilateral lung infection is associated with several measurable read-outs including weight loss, mortality, chronic infection, and inflammatory response. The P. aeruginosa RP73 clinical strain was preferred over the PAO1 reference laboratory strain since it resulted in a comparatively lower mortality, more severe lesions, and higher chronic infection. P. aeruginosa colonization may persist in the lung for over three months. Murine lung pathology resembles that of CF patients with advanced chronic pulmonary disease. This murine model most closely mimics the course of the human disease and can be used both for studies on the pathogenesis and for the evaluation of novel therapies.
Infection, Issue 85, Opportunistic Infections, Respiratory Tract Infections, Inflammation, Lung Diseases, Cystic Fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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The Utilization of Oropharyngeal Intratracheal PAMP Administration and Bronchoalveolar Lavage to Evaluate the Host Immune Response in Mice
Authors: Irving C. Allen.
Institutions: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
The host immune response to pathogens is a complex biological process. The majority of in vivo studies classically employed to characterize host-pathogen interactions take advantage of intraperitoneal injections of select bacteria or pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in mice. While these techniques have yielded tremendous data associated with infectious disease pathobiology, intraperitoneal injection models are not always appropriate for host-pathogen interaction studies in the lung. Utilizing an acute lung inflammation model in mice, it is possible to conduct a high resolution analysis of the host innate immune response utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we describe the methods to administer LPS using nonsurgical oropharyngeal intratracheal administration, monitor clinical parameters associated with disease pathogenesis, and utilize bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to evaluate the host immune response. The techniques that are described are widely applicable for studying the host innate immune response to a diverse range of PAMPs and pathogens. Likewise, with minor modifications, these techniques can also be applied in studies evaluating allergic airway inflammation and in pharmacological applications.
Infection, Issue 86, LPS, Lipopolysaccharide, mouse, pneumonia, gram negative bacteria, inflammation, acute lung inflammation, innate immunity, host pathogen interaction, lung, respiratory disease
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The Bovine Lung in Biomedical Research: Visually Guided Bronchoscopy, Intrabronchial Inoculation and In Vivo Sampling Techniques
Authors: Annette Prohl, Carola Ostermann, Markus Lohr, Petra Reinhold.
Institutions: Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut.
There is an ongoing search for alternative animal models in research of respiratory medicine. Depending on the goal of the research, large animals as models of pulmonary disease often resemble the situation of the human lung much better than mice do. Working with large animals also offers the opportunity to sample the same animal repeatedly over a certain course of time, which allows long-term studies without sacrificing the animals. The aim was to establish in vivo sampling methods for the use in a bovine model of a respiratory Chlamydia psittaci infection. Sampling should be performed at various time points in each animal during the study, and the samples should be suitable to study the host response, as well as the pathogen under experimental conditions. Bronchoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in human and veterinary medicine. It is a safe and minimally invasive procedure. This article describes the intrabronchial inoculation of calves as well as sampling methods for the lower respiratory tract. Videoendoscopic, intrabronchial inoculation leads to very consistent clinical and pathological findings in all inoculated animals and is, therefore, well-suited for use in models of infectious lung disease. The sampling methods described are bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing and transbronchial lung biopsy. All of these are valuable diagnostic tools in human medicine and could be adapted for experimental purposes to calves aged 6-8 weeks. The samples obtained were suitable for both pathogen detection and characterization of the severity of lung inflammation in the host.
Medicine, Issue 89, translational medicine, respiratory models, bovine lung, bronchoscopy, transbronchial lung biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing, cytology brush
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Multi-step Preparation Technique to Recover Multiple Metabolite Compound Classes for In-depth and Informative Metabolomic Analysis
Authors: Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Kevin D. Quinn, Roger Powell, Yanhui Yang, Michael Armstrong, Spencer Mahaffey, Richard Reisdorph, Nichole Reisdorph.
Institutions: National Jewish Health, University of Colorado Denver.
Metabolomics is an emerging field which enables profiling of samples from living organisms in order to obtain insight into biological processes. A vital aspect of metabolomics is sample preparation whereby inconsistent techniques generate unreliable results. This technique encompasses protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, and solid-phase extraction as a means of fractionating metabolites into four distinct classes. Improved enrichment of low abundance molecules with a resulting increase in sensitivity is obtained, and ultimately results in more confident identification of molecules. This technique has been applied to plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid samples with volumes as low as 50 µl.  Samples can be used for multiple downstream applications; for example, the pellet resulting from protein precipitation can be stored for later analysis. The supernatant from that step undergoes liquid-liquid extraction using water and strong organic solvent to separate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. Once fractionated, the hydrophilic layer can be processed for later analysis or discarded if not needed. The hydrophobic fraction is further treated with a series of solvents during three solid-phase extraction steps to separate it into fatty acids, neutral lipids, and phospholipids. This allows the technician the flexibility to choose which class of compounds is preferred for analysis. It also aids in more reliable metabolite identification since some knowledge of chemical class exists.
Bioengineering, Issue 89, plasma, chemistry techniques, analytical, solid phase extraction, mass spectrometry, metabolomics, fluids and secretions, profiling, small molecules, lipids, liquid chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
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Noninvasive Intratracheal Intubation to Study the Pathology and Physiology of Mouse Lung
Authors: Yan Cai, Shioko Kimura.
Institutions: National Institutes of Health.
The use of a model that mimics the condition of lung diseases in humans is critical for studying the pathophysiology and/or etiology of a particular disease and for developing therapeutic intervention. With the increasing availability of knockout and transgenic derivatives, together with a vast amount of genetic information, mice provide one of the best models to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology and physiology of lung diseases. Inhalation, intranasal instillation, intratracheal instillation, and intratracheal intubation are the most widely used techniques by a number of investigators to administer materials of interest to mouse lungs. There are pros and cons for each technique depending on the goals of a study. Here a noninvasive intratracheal intubation method that can directly deliver exogenous materials to mouse lungs is presented. This technique was applied to administer bleomycin to mouse lungs as a model to study pulmonary fibrosis.
Medicine, Issue 81, mouse, rodents, intratracheal intubation, delivery of exogenous substances, lung, study of airway pathology and physiology, pulmonary fibrosis
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Live Imaging Assay for Assessing the Roles of Ca2+ and Sphingomyelinase in the Repair of Pore-forming Toxin Wounds
Authors: Christina Tam, Andrew R. Flannery, Norma Andrews.
Institutions: University of Maryland .
Plasma membrane injury is a frequent event, and wounds have to be rapidly repaired to ensure cellular survival. Influx of Ca2+ is a key signaling event that triggers the repair of mechanical wounds on the plasma membrane within ~30 sec. Recent studies revealed that mammalian cells also reseal their plasma membrane after permeabilization with pore forming toxins in a Ca2+-dependent process that involves exocytosis of the lysosomal enzyme acid sphingomyelinase followed by pore endocytosis. Here, we describe the methodology used to demonstrate that the resealing of cells permeabilized by the toxin streptolysin O is also rapid and dependent on Ca2+ influx. The assay design allows synchronization of the injury event and a precise kinetic measurement of the ability of cells to restore plasma membrane integrity by imaging and quantifying the extent by which the liphophilic dye FM1-43 reaches intracellular membranes. This live assay also allows a sensitive assessment of the ability of exogenously added soluble factors such as sphingomyelinase to inhibit FM1-43 influx, reflecting the ability of cells to repair their plasma membrane. This assay allowed us to show for the first time that sphingomyelinase acts downstream of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis, since extracellular addition of the enzyme promotes resealing of cells permeabilized in the absence of Ca2+.
Cellular Biology, Issue 78, Molecular Biology, Infection, Medicine, Immunology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Biophysics, Genetics, Bacterial Toxins, Microscopy, Video, Endocytosis, Biology, Cell Biology, streptolysin O, plasma membrane repair, ceramide, endocytosis, Ca2+, wounds
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Angiogenesis in the Ischemic Rat Lung
Authors: John Jenkins, Elizabeth Wagner.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University.
The adult lung is perfused by both the systemic bronchial artery and the entire venous return flowing through the pulmonary arteries. In most lung pathologies, it is the smaller systemic vasculature that responds to a need for enhanced lung perfusion and shows robust neovascularization. Pulmonary vascular ischemia induced by pulmonary artery obstruction has been shown to result in rapid systemic arterial angiogenesis in man as well as in several animal models. Although the histologic assessment of the time course of bronchial artery proliferation in rats was carefully described by Weibel 1, mechanisms responsible for this organized growth of new vessels are not clear. We provide surgical details of inducing left pulmonary artery ischemia in the rat that leads to bronchial neovascularization. Quantification of the extent of angiogenesis presents an additional challenge due to the presence of the two vascular beds within the lung. Methods to determine functional angiogenesis based on labeled microsphere injections are provided.
Medicine, Issue 72, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Pathology, Surgery, Lung, Lung Diseases, Lung Injury, Thoracic Surgical Procedures, Physiological Processes, Growth and Development, Respiratory System, Physiological Phenomena, angiogenesis, bronchial artery, blood vessels, arteries, rat, ischemia, intubation, artery ligation, thoracotomy, cannulation, animal model
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Murine Model of Allergen Induced Asthma
Authors: Aravind T. Reddy, Sowmya P. Lakshmi, Raju C. Reddy.
Institutions: Emory University and Atlanta VA Medical Center.
Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting some 300 million people throughout the world.1 More than 8% of the US population has asthma, with the prevalence increasing.2 As with other diseases, animal models of allergic airway disease greatly facilitate understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, help identify potential therapeutic targets, and allow preclinical testing of possible new therapies. Models of allergic airway disease have been developed in several animal species, but murine models are particularly attractive due to the low cost, ready availability, and well-characterized immune systems of these animals.3 Availability of a variety of transgenic strains further increases the attractiveness of these models.4 Here we describe two murine models of allergic airway disease, both employing ovalbumin as the antigen. Following initial sensitization by intraperitoneal injection, one model delivers the antigen challenge by nebulization, the other by intratracheal delivery. These two models offer complementary advantages, with each mimicking the major features of human asthma.5 The major features of acute asthma include an exaggerated airway response to stimuli such as methacholine (airway hyperresponsiveness; AHR) and eosinophil-rich airway inflammation. These are also prominent effects of allergen challenge in our murine models,5,6 and we describe techniques for measuring them and thus evaluating the effects of experimental manipulation. Specifically, we describe both invasive7 and non-invasive8 techniques for measuring airway hyperresponsiveness as well as methods for assessing infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways and the lung. Airway inflammatory cells are collected by bronchoalveolar lavage while lung histopathology is used to assess markers of inflammation throughout the organ. These techniques provide powerful tools for studying asthma in ways that would not be possible in humans.
Immunology, Issue 63, Allergy, airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary function, eosinophil, ovalbumin, methacholine, airway resistance, plethysmography, flexiVent, bronchoalveolar lavage, physiology
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Bioluminescence Imaging of NADPH Oxidase Activity in Different Animal Models
Authors: Wei Han, Hui Li, Brahm H. Segal, Timothy S. Blackwell.
Institutions: Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, University at Buffalo School of Medicine.
NADPH oxidase is a critical enzyme that mediates antibacterial and antifungal host defense. In addition to its role in antimicrobial host defense, NADPH oxidase has critical signaling functions that modulate the inflammatory response 1. Thus, the development of a method to measure in "real-time" the kinetics of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is expected to be a valuable research tool to understand mechanisms relevant to host defense, inflammation, and injury. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the NADPH oxidase characterized by severe infections and excessive inflammation. Activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase requires translocation of its cytosolic subunits (p47phox, p67phox, and p40phox) and Rac to a membrane-bound flavocytochrome (composed of a gp91phox and p22phox heterodimer). Loss of function mutations in any of these NADPH oxidase components result in CGD. Similar to patients with CGD, gp91phox -deficient mice and p47phox-deficient mice have defective phagocyte NADPH oxidase activity and impaired host defense 2, 13. In addition to phagocytes, which contain the NADPH oxidase components described above, a variety of other cell types express different isoforms of NADPH oxidase. Here, we describe a method to quantify ROS production in living mice and to delineate the contribution of NADPH oxidase to ROS generation in models of inflammation and injury. This method is based on ROS reacting with L-012 (an analogue of luminol) to emit luminescence that is recorded by a charge-coupled device (CCD). In the original description of the L-012 probe, L-012-dependent chemiluminescence was completely abolished by superoxide dismutase, indicating that the main ROS detected in this reaction was superoxide anion 14. Subsequent studies have shown that L-012 can detect other free radicals, including reactive nitrogen species 15, 16. Kielland et al. 16 showed that topical application of phorbol myristate acetate, a potent activator of NADPH oxidase, led to NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation that could be detected in mice using the luminescent probe L-012. In this model, they showed that L-012-dependent luminescence was abolished in p47phox-deficient mice. We compared ROS generation in wildtype mice and NADPH oxidase-deficient p47phox-/- mice 2 in the following three models: 1) intratracheal administration of zymosan, a pro-inflammatory fungal cell wall-derived product that can activate NADPH oxidase; 2) cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of intra-abdominal sepsis with secondary acute lung inflammation and injury; and 3) oral carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a model of ROS-dependent hepatic injury. These models were specifically selected to evaluate NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in the context of non-infectious inflammation, polymicrobial sepsis, and toxin-induced organ injury, respectively. Comparing bioluminescence in wildtype mice to p47phox-/- mice enables us to delineate the specific contribution of ROS generated by p47phox-containing NADPH oxidase to the bioluminescent signal in these models. Bioluminescence imaging results that demonstrated increased ROS levels in wildtype mice compared to p47phox-/- mice indicated that NADPH oxidase is the major source of ROS generation in response to inflammatory stimuli. This method provides a minimally invasive approach for "real-time" monitoring of ROS generation during inflammation in vivo.
Immunology, Issue 68, Molecular Biology, NADPH oxidase, reactive oxygen species, bioluminescence imaging
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Development of Obliterative Bronchiolitis in a Murine Model of Orthotopic Lung Transplantation
Authors: Hidemi Suzuki, Lin Fan, David S. Wilkes.
Institutions: Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine.
Orthotopic lung transplantation in rats was first reported by Asimacopoulos and colleagues in 1971 1. Currently, this method is well accepted and standardized not only for the study of allo-rejection but also between syngeneic strains for examining mechanisms of ischemia-reperfusion injury after lung transplantation. Although the application of the rat and other large animal model 2 contributed significantly to the elucidation of these studies, the scope of those investigations is limited by the scarcity of knockout and transgenic rats. Due to no effective therapies for obliterative bronchiolitis, the leading cause of death in lung transplant patients, there has been an intensive search for pre-clinical models that replicate obliterative bronchiolitis. The tracheal allograft model is the most widely used and may reproduce some of the histopathologic features of obliterative bronchiolitis 3. However, the lack of an intact vasculature with no connection to the recipient's conducting airways, and incomplete pathologic features of obliterative bronchiolitis limit the utility of this model 4. Unlike transplantation of other solid organs, vascularized mouse lung transplants have only recently been reported by Okazaki and colleagues for the first time in 2007 5. Applying the basic principles of the rat lung transplant, our lab initiated the obliterative bronchiolitis model using minor histoincompatible antigen murine orthotopic single-left lung transplants which allows the further study of obliterative bronchiolitis immunopathogenesis6.
Medicine, Issue 65, Immunology, Microbiology, Physiology, lung, transplantation, mouse, obliterative bronchiolitis, vascularized lung transplants
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Analysis of Pulmonary Dendritic Cell Maturation and Migration during Allergic Airway Inflammation
Authors: Rahul Kushwah, Jim Hu.
Institutions: McMaster University, Hamilton, University of Toronto.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the key players involved in initiation of adaptive immune response by activating antigen-specific T cells. DCs are present in peripheral tissues in steady state; however in response to antigen stimulation, DCs take up the antigen and rapidly migrate to the draining lymph nodes where they initiate T cell response against the antigen1,2. Additionally, DCs also play a key role in initiating autoimmune as well as allergic immune response3. DCs play an essential role in both initiation of immune response and induction of tolerance in the setting of lung environment4. Lung environment is largely tolerogenic, owing to the exposure to vast array of environmental antigens5. However, in some individuals there is a break in tolerance, which leads to induction of allergy and asthma. In this study, we describe a strategy, which can be used to monitor airway DC maturation and migration in response to the antigen used for sensitization. The measurement of airway DC maturation and migration allows for assessment of the kinetics of immune response during airway allergic inflammation and also assists in understanding the magnitude of the subsequent immune response along with the underlying mechanisms. Our strategy is based on the use of ovalbumin as a sensitizing agent. Ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma is a widely used model to reproduce the airway eosinophilia, pulmonary inflammation and elevated IgE levels found during asthma6,7. After sensitization, mice are challenged by intranasal delivery of FITC labeled ovalbumin, which allows for specific labeling of airway DCs which uptake ovalbumin. Next, using several DC specific markers, we can assess the maturation of these DCs and can also assess their migration to the draining lymph nodes by employing flow cytometry.
Immunology, Issue 65, Medicine, Physiology, Dendritic Cells, allergic airway inflammation, ovalbumin, lymph nodes, lungs, dendritic cell maturation, dendritic cell migration, mediastinal lymph nodes
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Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice
Authors: Wen-Chi Chen, Sung-Hyun Park, Carol Hoffman, Cecil Philip, Linda Robinson, James West, Gabriele Grunig.
Institutions: New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, New York University School of Medicine.
The function of the right heart is to pump blood through the lungs, thus linking right heart physiology and pulmonary vascular physiology. Inflammation is a common modifier of heart and lung function, by elaborating cellular infiltration, production of cytokines and growth factors, and by initiating remodeling processes 1. Compared to the left ventricle, the right ventricle is a low-pressure pump that operates in a relatively narrow zone of pressure changes. Increased pulmonary artery pressures are associated with increased pressure in the lung vascular bed and pulmonary hypertension 2. Pulmonary hypertension is often associated with inflammatory lung diseases, for example chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or autoimmune diseases 3. Because pulmonary hypertension confers a bad prognosis for quality of life and life expectancy, much research is directed towards understanding the mechanisms that might be targets for pharmaceutical intervention 4. The main challenge for the development of effective management tools for pulmonary hypertension remains the complexity of the simultaneous understanding of molecular and cellular changes in the right heart, the lungs and the immune system. Here, we present a procedural workflow for the rapid and precise measurement of pressure changes in the right heart of mice and the simultaneous harvest of samples from heart, lungs and immune tissues. The method is based on the direct catheterization of the right ventricle via the jugular vein in close-chested mice, first developed in the late 1990s as surrogate measure of pressures in the pulmonary artery5-13. The organized team-approach facilitates a very rapid right heart catheterization technique. This makes it possible to perform the measurements in mice that spontaneously breathe room air. The organization of the work-flow in distinct work-areas reduces time delay and opens the possibility to simultaneously perform physiology experiments and harvest immune, heart and lung tissues. The procedural workflow outlined here can be adapted for a wide variety of laboratory settings and study designs, from small, targeted experiments, to large drug screening assays. The simultaneous acquisition of cardiac physiology data that can be expanded to include echocardiography5,14-17 and harvest of heart, lung and immune tissues reduces the number of animals needed to obtain data that move the scientific knowledge basis forward. The procedural workflow presented here also provides an ideal basis for gaining knowledge of the networks that link immune, lung and heart function. The same principles outlined here can be adapted to study other or additional organs as needed.
Immunology, Issue 71, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cardiology, Surgery, Cardiovascular Abnormalities, Inflammation, Respiration Disorders, Immune System Diseases, Cardiac physiology, mouse, pulmonary hypertension, right heart function, lung immune response, lung inflammation, lung remodeling, catheterization, mice, tissue, animal model
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Protein Transfection of Mouse Lung
Authors: Patrick Geraghty, Robert Foronjy.
Institutions: St. Luke's Roosevelt Medical Center.
Increasing protein expression enables researchers to better understand the functional role of that protein in regulating key biological processes1. In the lung, this has been achieved typically through genetic approaches that utilize transgenic mice2,3 or viral or non-viral vectors that elevate protein levels via increased gene expression4. Transgenic mice are costly and time-consuming to generate and the random insertion of a transgene or chronic gene expression can alter normal lung development and thus limit the utility of the model5. While conditional transgenics avert problems associated with chronic gene expression6, the reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA) mice, which are used to generate conditional expression, develop spontaneous air space enlargement7. As with transgenics, the use of viral and non-viral vectors is expensive8 and can provoke dose-dependent inflammatory responses that confound results9 and hinder expression10. Moreover, the efficacy of repeated doses are limited by enhanced immune responses to the vector11,12. Researchers are developing adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors that provoke less inflammation and have longer expression within the lung13. Using β-galactosidase, we present a method for rapidly and effectively increasing protein expression within the lung using a direct protein transfection technique. This protocol mixes a fixed amount of purified protein with 20 μl of a lipid-based transfection reagent (Pro-Ject, Pierce Bio) to allow penetration into the lung tissue itself. The liposomal protein mixture is then injected into the lungs of the mice via the trachea using a microsprayer (Penn Century, Philadelphia, PA). The microsprayer generates a fine plume of liquid aerosol throughout the lungs. Using the technique we have demonstrated uniform deposition of the injected protein throughout the airways and the alveoli of mice14. The lipid transfection technique allows the use of a small amount of protein to achieve effect. This limits the inflammatory response that otherwise would be provoked by high protein administration. Indeed, using this technique we published that we were able to significantly increase PP2A activity in the lung without affecting lung lavage cellularity15. Lung lavage cellularity taken 24 hr after challenge was comparable to controls (27±4 control vs. 31±5 albumin transfected; N=6 per group). Moreover, it increases protein levels without inducing lung developmental changes or architectural changes that can occur in transgenic models. However, the need for repeated administrations may make this technique less favorable for studies examining the effects of long-term increases in protein expression. This would be particularly true for proteins with short half-lives.
Molecular Biology, Issue 75, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Proteins, Torso, Tissues, Cells, Animal Structures, Respiratory System, Eukaryota, Immune System Diseases, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Natural Science Disciplines, Life Sciences (General), transfection, lung, protein, mice, inflammation, animal model
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Evaluation of Respiratory System Mechanics in Mice using the Forced Oscillation Technique
Authors: Toby K. McGovern, Annette Robichaud, Liah Fereydoonzad, Thomas F. Schuessler, James G. Martin.
Institutions: McGill University , SCIREQ Scientific Respiratory Equipment Inc..
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a powerful, integrative and translational tool permitting the experimental assessment of lung function in mice in a comprehensive, detailed, precise and reproducible manner. It provides measurements of respiratory system mechanics through the analysis of pressure and volume signals acquired in reaction to predefined, small amplitude, oscillatory airflow waveforms, which are typically applied at the subject's airway opening. The present protocol details the steps required to adequately execute forced oscillation measurements in mice using a computer-controlled piston ventilator (flexiVent; SCIREQ Inc, Montreal, Qc, Canada). The description is divided into four parts: preparatory steps, mechanical ventilation, lung function measurements, and data analysis. It also includes details of how to assess airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine in anesthetized mice, a common application of this technique which also extends to other outcomes and various lung pathologies. Measurements obtained in naïve mice as well as from an oxidative-stress driven model of airway damage are presented to illustrate how this tool can contribute to a better characterization and understanding of studied physiological changes or disease models as well as to applications in new research areas.
Medicine, Issue 75, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Biophysics, Pathology, lung diseases, asthma, respiratory function tests, respiratory system, forced oscillation technique, respiratory system mechanics, airway hyperresponsiveness, flexiVent, lung physiology, lung, oxidative stress, ventilator, cannula, mice, animal model, clinical techniques
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Mouse Embryonic Lung Culture, A System to Evaluate the Molecular Mechanisms of Branching
Authors: Gianni Carraro, Pierre-Marie del Moral, David Warburton.
Institutions: Childrens Hospital Los Angeles.
Lung primordial specification as well as branching morphogenesis, and the formation of various pulmonary cell lineages requires a specific interaction of the lung endoderm with its surrounding mesenchyme and mesothelium. Lung mesenchyme has been shown to be the source of inductive signals for lung branching morphogenesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal-mesothelial interactions are also critical to embryonic lung morphogenesis. Early embryonic lung organ culture is a very useful system to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Both epithelial and mesenchymal morphogenesis proceeds under specific conditions that can be readily manipulated in this system (in the absence of maternal influence and blood flow). More importantly this technique can be readily done in a serumless, chemically defined culture media. Gain and loss of function can be achieved using expressed proteins, recombinant viral vectors and/or analysis of transgenic mouse strains, antisense RNA, as well as RNA interference gene knockdown.
Developmental Biology, Issue 40, lung, mice, culture
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Tracheotomy: A Method for Transplantation of Stem Cells to the Lung
Authors: Yakov Peter.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
Lung disease is a leading cause of death and likely to become an epidemic given increases in pollution and smoking worldwide. Advances in stem cell therapy may alleviate many of the symptoms associated with lung disease and induce alveolar repair in adults. Concurrent with the ongoing search for stem cells applicable for human treatment, precise delivery and homing (to the site of disease) must be reassured for successful therapy. Here, I report that stem cells can safely be instilled via the trachea opening a non-stop route to the lung. This method involves a skin incision, caudal insertion of a cannula into and along the tracheal lumen, and injection of a stem cell vehicle mixture into airways of the lung. A broad range of media solutions and stabilizers can be instilled via tracheotomy, resulting in the ability to deliver a wider range of cell types. With alveolar epithelium confining these cells to the lumen, lung expansion and negative pressure during inhalation may also assist in stem cell integration. Tracheal delivery of stem cells, with a quick uptake and the ability to handle a large range of treatments, could accelerate the development of cell-based therapies, opening new avenues for treatment of lung disease.
Cellular Biology, Issue 2, lung, stem cells, transplantation, trachea
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