An attenuated West Nile virus (WNV), a nonstructural (NS) 4B-P38G mutant, induced higher innate cytokine and T cell responses than the wild-type WNV in mice. Recently, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling was shown to be important for initial T cell priming and memory T cell development during WNV NS4B-P38G mutant infection. In this study, two flow cytometry-based methods – an in vitro T cell priming assay and an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) – were utilized to assess dendritic cells (DCs) and T cell functions. In the T cell priming assay, cell proliferation was analyzed by flow cytometry following co-culture of DCs from both groups of mice with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) - labeled CD4+ T cells of OTII transgenic mice. This approach provided an accurate determination of the percentage of proliferating CD4+ T cells with significantly improved overall sensitivity than the traditional assays with radioactive reagents. A microcentrifuge tube system was used in both cell culture and cytokine staining procedures of the ICS protocol. Compared to the traditional tissue culture plate-based system, this modified procedure was easier to perform at biosafety level (BL) 3 facilities. Moreover, WNV- infected cells were treated with paraformaldehyde in both assays, which enabled further analysis outside BL3 facilities. Overall, these in vitro immunological assays can be used to efficiently assess cell-mediated immune responses during WNV infection.
24 Related JoVE Articles!
In Vitro Assay to Evaluate the Impact of Immunoregulatory Pathways on HIV-specific CD4 T Cell Effector Function
Institutions: The Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM).
T cell exhaustion is a major factor in failed pathogen clearance during chronic viral infections. Immunoregulatory pathways, such as PD-1 and IL-10, are upregulated upon this ongoing antigen exposure and contribute to loss of proliferation, reduced cytolytic function, and impaired cytokine production by CD4 and CD8 T cells. In the murine model of LCMV infection, administration of blocking antibodies against these two pathways augmented T cell responses. However, there is currently no in vitro
assay to measure the impact of such blockade on cytokine secretion in cells from human samples. Our protocol and experimental approach enable us to accurately and efficiently quantify the restoration of cytokine production by HIV-specific CD4 T cells from HIV infected subjects.
Here, we depict an in vitro
experimental design that enables measurements of cytokine secretion by HIV-specific CD4 T cells and their impact on other cell subsets. CD8 T cells were depleted from whole blood and remaining PBMCs were isolated via Ficoll separation method. CD8-depleted PBMCs were then incubated with blocking antibodies against PD-L1 and/or IL-10Rα and, after stimulation with an HIV-1 Gag peptide pool, cells were incubated at 37 °C, 5% CO2
. After 48 hr, supernatant was collected for cytokine analysis by beads arrays and cell pellets were collected for either phenotypic analysis using flow cytometry or transcriptional analysis using qRT-PCR. For more detailed analysis, different cell populations were obtained by selective subset depletion from PBMCs or by sorting using flow cytometry before being assessed in the same assays. These methods provide a highly sensitive and specific approach to determine the modulation of cytokine production by antigen-specific T-helper cells and to determine functional interactions between different populations of immune cells.
Immunology, Issue 80, Virus Diseases, Immune System Diseases, HIV, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, antigen-presenting cell, Cytokines, immunoregulatory networks, PD-1: IL-10, exhaustion, monocytes
Induction of Invasive Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinoma in Immune Intact Human MUC1 Transgenic Mice: A Model for Immunotherapy Development
Institutions: University of California, Davis, University of California, Davis, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.
A preclinical model of invasive bladder cancer was developed in human mucin 1 (MUC1) transgenic (MUC1.Tg) mice for the purpose of evaluating immunotherapy and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy. To induce bladder cancer, C57BL/6 mice (MUC1.Tg and wild type) were treated orally with the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) at 3.0 mg/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. To assess the effects of OH-BBN on serum cytokine profile during tumor development, whole blood was collected via submandibular bleeds prior to treatment and every four weeks. In addition, a MUC1-targeted peptide vaccine and placebo were administered to groups of mice weekly for eight weeks. Multiplex fluorometric microbead immunoanalyses of serum cytokines during tumor development and following vaccination were performed. At termination, interferon gamma (IFN-γ)/interleukin-4 (IL-4) ELISpot analysis for MUC1 specific T-cell immune response and histopathological evaluations of tumor type and grade were performed. The results showed that: (1) the incidence of bladder cancer in both MUC1.Tg and wild type mice was 67%; (2) transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) developed at a 2:1 ratio compared to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); (3) inflammatory cytokines increased with time during tumor development; and (4) administration of the peptide vaccine induces a Th1-polarized serum cytokine profile and a MUC1 specific T-cell response. All tumors in MUC1.Tg mice were positive for MUC1 expression, and half of all tumors in MUC1.Tg and wild type mice were invasive. In conclusion, using a team approach through the coordination of the efforts of pharmacologists, immunologists, pathologists and molecular biologists, we have developed an immune intact transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer that expresses hMUC1.
Medicine, Issue 80, Urinary Bladder, Animals, Genetically Modified, Cancer Vaccines, Immunotherapy, Animal Experimentation, Models, Neoplasms Bladder Cancer, C57BL/6 Mouse, MUC1, Immunotherapy, Preclinical Model
Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice
Institutions: Fujita Health University, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), National Institutes of Natural Sciences.
The contextual and cued fear conditioning test is one of the behavioral tests that assesses the ability of mice to learn and remember an association between environmental cues and aversive experiences. In this test, mice are placed into a conditioning chamber and are given parings of a conditioned stimulus (an auditory cue) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (an electric footshock). After a delay time, the mice are exposed to the same conditioning chamber and a differently shaped chamber with presentation of the auditory cue. Freezing behavior during the test is measured as an index of fear memory. To analyze the behavior automatically, we have developed a video analyzing system using the ImageFZ application software program, which is available as a free download at http://www.mouse-phenotype.org/. Here, to show the details of our protocol, we demonstrate our procedure for the contextual and cued fear conditioning test in C57BL/6J mice using the ImageFZ system. In addition, we validated our protocol and the video analyzing system performance by comparing freezing time measured by the ImageFZ system or a photobeam-based computer measurement system with that scored by a human observer. As shown in our representative results, the data obtained by ImageFZ were similar to those analyzed by a human observer, indicating that the behavioral analysis using the ImageFZ system is highly reliable. The present movie article provides detailed information regarding the test procedures and will promote understanding of the experimental situation.
Behavior, Issue 85, Fear, Learning, Memory, ImageFZ program, Mouse, contextual fear, cued fear
Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color
Institutions: University of Amsterdam.
Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure.
Behavior, Issue 84, synesthesia, training, learning, reading, vision, memory, cognition
A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research
Institutions: Arizona State University.
Insects modify their responses to stimuli through experience of associating those stimuli with events important for survival (e.g.
, food, mates, threats). There are several behavioral mechanisms through which an insect learns salient associations and relates them to these events. It is important to understand this behavioral plasticity for programs aimed toward assisting insects that are beneficial for agriculture. This understanding can also be used for discovering solutions to biomedical and agricultural problems created by insects that act as disease vectors and pests. The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol was developed for honey bees (Apis mellifera
) over 50 years ago to study how they perceive and learn about floral odors, which signal the nectar and pollen resources a colony needs for survival. The PER procedure provides a robust and easy-to-employ framework for studying several different ecologically relevant mechanisms of behavioral plasticity. It is easily adaptable for use with several other insect species and other behavioral reflexes. These protocols can be readily employed in conjunction with various means for monitoring neural activity in the CNS via electrophysiology or bioimaging, or for manipulating targeted neuromodulatory pathways. It is a robust assay for rapidly detecting sub-lethal effects on behavior caused by environmental stressors, toxins or pesticides.
We show how the PER protocol is straightforward to implement using two procedures. One is suitable as a laboratory exercise for students or for quick assays of the effect of an experimental treatment. The other provides more thorough control of variables, which is important for studies of behavioral conditioning. We show how several measures for the behavioral response ranging from binary yes/no to more continuous variable like latency and duration of proboscis extension can be used to test hypotheses. And, we discuss some pitfalls that researchers commonly encounter when they use the procedure for the first time.
Neuroscience, Issue 91, PER, conditioning, honey bee, olfaction, olfactory processing, learning, memory, toxin assay
Cell-based Flow Cytometry Assay to Measure Cytotoxic Activity
Institutions: Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute of Florida.
Cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells is rarely evaluated. We describe here a new cell-based assay to measure the capacity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to kill CD4+ T cells loaded with their cognate peptide. Target CD4+ T cells are divided into two populations, labeled with two different concentrations of CFSE. One population is pulsed with the peptide of interest (CFSE-low) while the other remains un-pulsed (CFSE-high). Pulsed and un-pulsed CD4+ T cells are mixed at an equal ratio and incubated with an increasing number of purified CD8+ T cells. The specific killing of autologous target CD4+ T cells is analyzed by flow cytometry after coculture with CD8+ T cells containing the antigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells detected by peptide/MHCI tetramer staining. The specific lysis of target CD4+ T cells measured at different effector versus target ratios, allows for the calculation of lytic units, LU30
cells. This simple and straightforward assay allows for the accurate measurement of the intrinsic capacity of CD8+ T cells to kill target CD4+ T cells.
Immunology, Issue 82, Cytotoxicity, Effector CD8+ T cells, Tetramers, Target CD4+ T cells, CFSE, Flow cytometry
The Use of Fluorescent Target Arrays for Assessment of T Cell Responses In vivo
Institutions: Australian National University.
The ability to monitor T cell responses in vivo
is important for the development of our understanding of the immune response and the design of immunotherapies. Here we describe the use of fluorescent target array (FTA) technology, which utilizes vital dyes such as carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), violet laser excitable dyes (CellTrace Violet: CTV) and red laser excitable dyes (Cell Proliferation Dye eFluor 670: CPD) to combinatorially label mouse lymphocytes into >250 discernable fluorescent cell clusters. Cell clusters within these FTAs can be pulsed with major histocompatibility (MHC) class-I and MHC class-II binding peptides and thereby act as target cells for CD8+
T cells, respectively. These FTA cells remain viable and fully functional, and can therefore be administered into mice to allow assessment of CD8+
T cell-mediated killing of FTA target cells and CD4+
T cell-meditated help of FTA B cell target cells in real time in vivo
by flow cytometry. Since >250 target cells can be assessed at once, the technique allows the monitoring of T cell responses against several antigen epitopes at several concentrations and in multiple replicates. As such, the technique can measure T cell responses at both a quantitative (e.g.
the cumulative magnitude of the response) and a qualitative (e.g
. functional avidity and epitope-cross reactivity of the response) level. Herein, we describe how these FTAs are constructed and give an example of how they can be applied to assess T cell responses induced by a recombinant pox virus vaccine.
Immunology, Issue 88, Investigative Techniques, T cell response, Flow Cytometry, Multiparameter, CTL assay in vivo, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), CellTrace Violet (CTV), Cell Proliferation Dye eFluor 670 (CPD)
Development of an IFN-γ ELISpot Assay to Assess Varicella-Zoster Virus-specific Cell-mediated Immunity Following Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation
Institutions: Université de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Université de Montréal.
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). For this reason, antiherpetic prophylaxis is administrated systematically to pediatric UCBT recipients to prevent complications associated with VZV infection, but there is no strong, evidence based consensus that defines its optimal duration. Because T cell mediated immunity is responsible for the control of VZV infection, assessing the reconstitution of VZV specific T cell responses following UCBT could provide indications as to whether prophylaxis should be maintained or can be discontinued. To this end, a VZV specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay was developed to characterize IFN-γ production by T lymphocytes in response to in vitro
stimulation with irradiated live attenuated VZV vaccine. This assay provides a rapid, reproducible and sensitive measurement of VZV specific cell mediated immunity suitable for monitoring the reconstitution of VZV specific immunity in a clinical setting and assessing immune responsiveness to VZV antigens.
Immunology, Issue 89, Varicella zoster virus, cell-mediated immunity, T cells, interferon gamma, ELISpot, umbilical cord blood transplantation
Collection, Isolation, and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Human Endocervical Samples
Institutions: University of Manitoba, University of Manitoba.
Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo
flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina.
Medicine, Issue 89, mucosal, immunology, FGT, lavage, cervical, CMC
Sublingual Immunotherapy as an Alternative to Induce Protection Against Acute Respiratory Infections
Institutions: Universidad de la República, Trinity College Dublin.
Sublingual route has been widely used to deliver small molecules into the bloodstream and to modulate the immune response at different sites. It has been shown to effectively induce humoral and cellular responses at systemic and mucosal sites, namely the lungs and urogenital tract. Sublingual vaccination can promote protection against infections at the lower and upper respiratory tract; it can also promote tolerance to allergens and ameliorate asthma symptoms. Modulation of lung’s immune response by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is safer than direct administration of formulations by intranasal route because it does not require delivery of potentially harmful molecules directly into the airways. In contrast to intranasal delivery, side effects involving brain toxicity or facial paralysis are not promoted by SLIT. The immune mechanisms underlying SLIT remain elusive and its use for the treatment of acute lung infections has not yet been explored. Thus, development of appropriate animal models of SLIT is needed to further explore its potential advantages.
This work shows how to perform sublingual administration of therapeutic agents in mice to evaluate their ability to protect against acute pneumococcal pneumonia. Technical aspects of mouse handling during sublingual inoculation, precise identification of sublingual mucosa, draining lymph nodes and isolation of tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs are illustrated. Protocols for single cell suspension preparation for FACS analysis are described in detail. Other downstream applications for the analysis of the immune response are discussed. Technical aspects of the preparation of Streptococcus pneumoniae
inoculum and intranasal challenge of mice are also explained.
SLIT is a simple technique that allows screening of candidate molecules to modulate lungs’ immune response. Parameters affecting the success of SLIT are related to molecular size, susceptibility to degradation and stability of highly concentrated formulations.
Medicine, Issue 90, Sublingual immunotherapy, Pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lungs, Flagellin, TLR5, NLRC4
Isolation and Th17 Differentiation of Naïve CD4 T Lymphocytes
Institutions: The University of Florida.
Th17 cells are a distinct subset of T cells that have been found to produce interleukin 17 (IL-17), and differ in function from the other T cell subsets including Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cells. Th17 cells have emerged as a central culprit in overzealous inflammatory immune responses associated with many autoimmune disorders. In this method we purify T lymphocytes from the spleen and lymph nodes of C57BL/6 mice, and stimulate purified CD4+ T cells under control and Th17-inducing environments. The Th17-inducing environment includes stimulation in the presence of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, IL-6, and TGF-β. After incubation for at least 72 hours and for up to five days at 37 °C, cells are subsequently analyzed for the capability to produce IL-17 through flow cytometry, qPCR, and ELISAs. Th17 differentiated CD4+CD25- T cells can be utilized to further elucidate the role that Th17 cells play in the onset and progression of autoimmunity and host defense. Moreover, Th17 differentiation of CD4+CD25- lymphocytes from distinct murine knockout/disease models can contribute to our understanding of cell fate plasticity.
Immunology, Issue 79, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Infection, Th17 cells, IL-17, Th17 differentiation, T cells, autoimmunity, cell, isolation, culture
Adenoviral Transduction of Naive CD4 T Cells to Study Treg Differentiation
Institutions: Helmholtz Zentrum München.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential to provide immune tolerance to self as well as to certain foreign antigens. Tregs can be generated from naive CD4 T cells in vitro
with TCR- and co-stimulation in the presence of TGFβ and IL-2. This bears enormous potential for future therapies, however, the molecules and signaling pathways that control differentiation are largely unknown.
Primary T cells can be manipulated through ectopic gene expression, but common methods fail to target the most important naive state of the T cell prior to primary antigen recognition. Here, we provide a protocol to express ectopic genes in naive CD4 T cells in vitro
before inducing Treg differentiation. It applies transduction with the replication-deficient adenovirus and explains its generation and production. The adenovirus can take up large inserts (up to 7 kb) and can be equipped with promoters to achieve high and transient overexpression in T cells. It effectively transduces naive mouse T cells if they express a transgenic Coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR). Importantly, after infection the T cells remain naive (CD44low
) and resting (CD25-
) and can be activated and differentiated into Tregs similar to non-infected cells. Thus, this method enables manipulation of CD4 T cell differentiation from its very beginning. It ensures that ectopic gene expression is already in place when early signaling events of the initial TCR stimulation induces cellular changes that eventually lead into Treg differentiation.
Immunology, Issue 78, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Infection, Genetics, Microbiology, Virology, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, Adenoviruses, Human, MicroRNAs, Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte, Gene Transfer Techniques, Transduction, Genetic, Transfection, Adenovirus, gene transfer, microRNA, overexpression, knock down, CD4 T cells, in vitro differentiation, regulatory T cell, virus, cell, flow cytometry
New Tools to Expand Regulatory T Cells from HIV-1-infected Individuals
Institutions: Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital.
CD4+ Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potent immune modulators and serve an important function in human immune homeostasis. Depletion of Tregs has led to measurable increases in antigen-specific T cell responses in vaccine settings for cancer and infectious pathogens. However, their role in HIV-1 immuno-pathogenesis remains controversial, as they could either serve to suppress deleterious HIV-1-associated immune activation and thus slow HIV-1 disease progression or alternatively suppress HIV-1-specific immunity and thereby promote virus spread. Understanding and modulating Treg function in the context of HIV-1 could lead to potential new strategies for immunotherapy or HIV vaccines. However, important open questions remain on their role in the context of HIV-1 infection, which needs to be carefully studied.
Representing roughly 5% of human CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood, studying the Treg population has proven to be difficult, especially in HIV-1 infected individuals where HIV-1-associated CD4 T cell and with that Treg depletion occurs. The characterization of regulatory T cells in individuals with advanced HIV-1 disease or tissue samples, for which only very small biological samples can be obtained, is therefore extremely challenging. We propose a technical solution to overcome these limitations using isolation and expansion of Tregs from HIV-1-positive individuals.
Here we describe an easy and robust method to successfully expand Tregs isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals in vitro
. Flow-sorted CD3+
Tregs were stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 coated beads and cultured in the presence of IL-2. The expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4 and HELIOS compared to conventional T cells and were shown to be highly suppressive. Easier access to large numbers of Tregs will allow researchers to address important questions concerning their role in HIV-1 immunopathogenesis. We believe answering these questions may provide useful insight for the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine.
Infection, Issue 75, Infectious Diseases, Medicine, Immunology, Virology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Lymphocytes, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, HIV, Culture Techniques, flow cytometry, cell culture, Treg expansion, regulatory T cells, CD4+ T cells, Tregs, HIV-1, virus, HIV-1 infection, AIDS, clinical techniques
Multicolor Flow Cytometry Analyses of Cellular Immune Response in Rhesus Macaques
Institutions: MD Anderson Cancer Center - University of Texas, University of Miami.
The rhesus macaque model is currently the best available model for HIV-AIDS with respect to understanding the pathogenesis as well as for the development of vaccines and therapeutics1,2,3
. Here, we describe a method for the detailed phenotypic and functional analyses of cellular immune responses, specifically intracellular cytokine production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as the individual memory subsets. We obtained precise quantitative and qualitative measures for the production of interferon gamma (INF-) and interleukin (IL) -2 in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from the rhesus macaque PBMC stimulated with PMA plus ionomycin (PMA+I). The cytokine profiles were different in the different subsets of memory cells. Furthermore, this protocol provided us the sensitivity to demonstrate even minor fractions of antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets within the PBMC samples from rhesus macaques immunized with an HIV envelope peptide cocktail vaccine developed in our laboratory. The multicolor flow cytometry technique is a powerful tool to precisely identify different populations of T cells 4,5
with cytokine-producing capability6
following non-specific or antigen-specific stimulation 5,7
JoVE Immunology, Issue 38, Immune Response, Cytokine Production, Flow Cytometry, HIV, Rhesus Macaque, T Cells, Intracellular Cytokine Staining, FACS
Ex vivo Expansion of Tumor-reactive T Cells by Means of Bryostatin 1/Ionomycin and the Common Gamma Chain Cytokines Formulation
Institutions: Virginia Commonwealth University- Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University- Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University- Massey Cancer Center.
It was reported that breast cancer patients have pre-existing immune responses against their tumors1,2
. However, such immune responses fail to provide complete protection against the development or recurrence of breast cancer. To overcome this problem by increasing the frequency of tumor-reactive T cells, adoptive immunotherapy has been employed. A variety of protocols have been used for the expansion of tumor-specific T cells. These protocols, however, are restricted to the use of tumor antigens ex vivo
for the activation of antigen-specific T cells. Very recently, common gamma chain cytokines such as IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 have been used alone or in combination for the enhancement of anti-tumor immune responses3
. However, it is not clear what formulation would work best for the expansion of tumor-reactive T cells. Here we present a protocol for the selective activation and expansion of tumor-reactive T cells from the FVBN202 transgenic mouse model of HER-2/neu positive breast carcinoma for use in adoptive T cell therapy of breast cancer. The protocol includes activation of T cells with bryostatin-1/ionomycin (B/I) and IL-2 in the absence of tumor antigens for 16 hours. B/I activation mimics intracellular signals that result in T cell activation by increasing protein kinase C activity and intracellular calcium, respectively4
. This protocol specifically activates tumor-specific T cells while killing irrelevant T cells. The B/I-activated T cells are cultured with IL-7 and IL-15 for 24 hours and then pulsed with IL-2. After 24 hours, T cells are washed, split, and cultured with IL-7 + IL-15 for additional 4 days. Tumor-specificity and anti-tumor efficacy of the ex vivo
expanded T cells is determined.
Immunology, Issue 47, Adoptive T cell therapy, Breast Cancer, HER-2/neu, common gamma chain cytokines, Bryostatin 1, Ionomycin
Expansion of Human Peripheral Blood γδ T Cells using Zoledronate
Institutions: University of Tokyo Hospital, MEDINET Co., Ltd.
Human γδ T cells can recognize and respond to a wide variety of stress-induced antigens, thereby developing innate broad anti-tumor and anti-infective activity.1
The majority of γδ T cells in peripheral blood have the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor. These cells recognize antigen in a major histocompatibility complex-independent manner and develop strong cytolytic and Th1-like effector functions.1
Therefore, γδ T cells are attractive candidate effector cells for cancer immunotherapy. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to phosphoantigens such as (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), which is synthesized in bacteria via isoprenoid biosynthesis;2
and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which is produced in eukaryotic cells through the mevalonate pathway.3
In physiological condition, the generation of IPP in nontransformed cell is not sufficient for the activation of γδ T cells. Dysregulation of mevalonate pathway in tumor cells leads to accumulation of IPP and γδ T cells activation.3
Because aminobisphosphonates (such as pamidronate or zoledronate) inhibit farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), the enzyme acting downstream of IPP in the mevalonate pathway, intracellular levels of IPP and sensitibity to γδ T cells recognition can be therapeutically increased by aminobisphosphonates. IPP accumulation is less efficient in nontransfomred cells than tumor cells with a pharmacologically relevant concentration of aminobisphosphonates, that allow us immunotherapy for cancer by activating γδ T cells with aminobisphosphonates. 4
Interestingly, IPP accumulates in monocytes when PBMC are treated with aminobisphosphonates, because of efficient drug uptake by these cells. 5
Monocytes that accumulate IPP become antigen-presenting cells and stimulate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in the peripheral blood.6
Based on these mechanisms, we developed a technique for large-scale expansion of γδ T cell cultures using zoledronate and interleukin-2 (IL-2).7
Other methods for expansion of γδ T cells utilize the synthetic phosphoantigens bromohydrin pyrophosphate (BrHPP)8
or 2-methyl-3-butenyl-1-pyrophosphate (2M3B1PP).9
All of these methods allow ex vivo expansion, resulting in large numbers of γδ T cells for use in adoptive immunotherapy. However, only zoledronate is an FDA-approved commercially available reagent. Zoledronate-expanded γδ T cells display CD27-
effector memory phenotype and thier function can be evaluated by IFN-γ production assay. 7
Immunology, Issue 55, γδ T Cell, zoledronate, PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells
Murine Superficial Lymph Node Surgery
Institutions: Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center, University of Montreal, University of Montreal.
In the field of immunology, to understand the progression of an immune response against a vaccine, an infection or a tumour, the response is often followed over time. Similarly, the study of lymphocyte homeostasis requires time course experiments. Performing these studies within the same mouse is ideal to reduce the experimental variability as well as the number of mice used. Blood withdrawal allows performance of time course experiments, but it only gives information about circulating lymphocytes and provides a limited number of cells1-4
. Since lymphocytes circulating through the body and residing in the lymph nodes have different properties, it is important to examine both locations. The sequential removal of lymph nodes by surgery provides a unique opportunity to follow an immune response or immune cell expansion in the same mouse over time. Furthermore, this technique yields between 1-2x106
cells per lymph node which is sufficient to perform phenotypic characterization and/or functional assays. Sequential lymph node surgery or lymphadenectomy has been successfully used by us and others5-11
. Here, we describe how the brachial and inguinal lymph nodes can be removed by making a small incision in the skin of an anesthetised mouse. Since the surgery is superficial and done rapidly, the mouse recovers very quickly, heals well and does not experience excessive pain. Every second day, it is possible to harvest one or two lymph nodes allowing for time course experiments. This technique is thus suitable to study the characteristics of lymph node-residing lymphocytes over time. This approach is suitable to various experimental designs and we believe that many laboratories would benefit from performing sequential lymph node surgeries.
Physiology, Issue 63, Immunology, mouse, lymph node, surgery, immune response, lymphocytes
Directed Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells towards T Lymphocytes
Institutions: Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine.
Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of antigen-specific CD8+
cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a promising treatment for a variety of malignancies 1
. CTLs can recognize malignant cells by interacting tumor antigens with the T cell receptors (TCR), and release cytotoxins as well as cytokines to kill malignant cells. It is known that less-differentiated and central-memory-like (termed highly reactive
) CTLs are the optimal population for ACT-based immunotherapy, because these CTLs have a high proliferative potential, are less prone to apoptosis than more differentiated cells and have a higher ability to respond to homeostatic cytokines 2-7
. However, due to difficulties in obtaining a high number of such CTLs from patients, there is an urgent need to find a new approach to generate highly reactive Ag-specific CTLs for successful ACT-based therapies.
TCR transduction of the self-renewable stem cells for immune reconstitution has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases 8-10
. However, the approach to obtain embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from patients is not feasible. Although the use of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for therapeutic purposes has been widely applied in clinic 11-13
, HSCs have reduced differentiation and proliferative capacities, and HSCs are difficult to expand in in vitro
cell culture 14-16
. Recent iPS cell technology and the development of an in vitro
system for gene delivery are capable of generating iPS cells from patients without any surgical approach. In addition, like ESCs, iPS cells possess indefinite proliferative capacity in vitro
, and have been shown to differentiate into hematopoietic cells. Thus, iPS cells have greater potential to be used in ACT-based immunotherapy compared to ESCs or HSCs.
Here, we present methods for the generation of T lymphocytes from iPS cells in vitro
, and in vivo
programming of antigen-specific CTLs from iPS cells for promoting cancer immune surveillance. Stimulation in vitro
with a Notch ligand drives T cell differentiation from iPS cells, and TCR gene transduction results in iPS cells differentiating into antigen-specific T cells in vivo
, which prevents tumor growth. Thus, we demonstrate antigen-specific T cell differentiation from iPS cells. Our studies provide a potentially more efficient approach for generating antigen-specific CTLs for ACT-based therapies and facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for diseases.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 63, Immunology, T cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, differentiation, Notch signaling, T cell receptor, adoptive cell transfer
Artificial Antigen Presenting Cell (aAPC) Mediated Activation and Expansion of Natural Killer T Cells
Institutions: University of Maryland .
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of T cells that display markers characteristic of both natural killer (NK) cells and T cells1
. Unlike classical T cells, NKT cells recognize lipid antigen in the context of CD1 molecules2
. NKT cells express an invariant TCRα chain rearrangement: Vα14Jα18 in mice and Vα24Jα18 in humans, which is associated with Vβ chains of limited diversity3-6
, and are referred to as canonical or invariant NKT (i
NKT) cells. Similar to conventional T cells, NKT cells develop from CD4-CD8- thymic precursor T cells following the appropriate signaling by CD1d 7
. The potential to utilize NKT cells for therapeutic purposes has significantly increased with the ability to stimulate and expand human NKT cells with α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) and a variety of cytokines8
. Importantly, these cells retained their original phenotype, secreted cytokines, and displayed cytotoxic function against tumor cell lines. Thus, ex vivo
expanded NKT cells remain functional and can be used for adoptive immunotherapy. However, NKT cell based-immunotherapy has been limited by the use of autologous antigen presenting cells and the quantity and quality of these stimulator cells can vary substantially. Monocyte-derived DC from cancer patients have been reported to express reduced levels of costimulatory molecules and produce less inflammatory cytokines9,10
. In fact, murine DC rather than autologous APC have been used to test the function of NKT cells from CML patients11
. However, this system can only be used for in vitro
testing since NKT cells cannot be expanded by murine DC and then used for adoptive immunotherapy. Thus, a standardized system that relies on artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC) could produce the stimulating effects of DC without the pitfalls of allo- or xenogeneic cells12, 13
. Herein, we describe a method for generating CD1d-based aAPC. Since the engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) by CD1d-antigen complexes is a fundamental requirement of NKT cell activation, antigen: CD1d-Ig complexes provide a reliable method to isolate, activate, and expand effector NKT cell populations.
Immunology, Issue 70, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Microbiology, Cancer Biology, Natural killer T cells, in vitro expansion, cancer immunology, artificial antigen presenting cells, adoptive transfer
Perceptual and Category Processing of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis' Dimension of Human Likeness: Some Methodological Issues
Institutions: University of Zurich.
Mori's Uncanny Valley Hypothesis1,2
proposes that the perception of humanlike characters such as robots and, by extension, avatars (computer-generated characters) can evoke negative or positive affect (valence) depending on the object's degree of visual and behavioral realism along a dimension of human likeness
) (Figure 1
). But studies of affective valence of subjective responses to variously realistic non-human characters have produced inconsistent findings 3, 4, 5, 6
. One of a number of reasons for this is that human likeness is not perceived as the hypothesis assumes. While the DHL can be defined following Mori's description as a smooth linear change in the degree of physical humanlike similarity, subjective perception of objects along the DHL can be understood in terms of the psychological effects of categorical perception (CP) 7
. Further behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of category processing and CP along the DHL and of the potential influence of the dimension's underlying category structure on affective experience are needed. This protocol therefore focuses on the DHL and allows examination of CP. Based on the protocol presented in the video as an example, issues surrounding the methodology in the protocol and the use in "uncanny" research of stimuli drawn from morph continua to represent the DHL are discussed in the article that accompanies the video. The use of neuroimaging and morph stimuli to represent the DHL in order to disentangle brain regions neurally responsive to physical human-like similarity from those responsive to category change and category processing is briefly illustrated.
Behavior, Issue 76, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Psychology, Neuropsychology, uncanny valley, functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI, categorical perception, virtual reality, avatar, human likeness, Mori, uncanny valley hypothesis, perception, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, imaging, clinical techniques
Isolation of Lymphocytes from Mouse Genital Tract Mucosa
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles , California NanoSystems.
Mucosal surfaces, including in the gastrointestinal, urogenital, and respiratory tracts, provide portals of entry for pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria 1
. Mucosae are also inductive sites in the host to generate immunity against pathogens, such as the Peyers patches in the intestinal tract and the nasal-associated lymphoreticular tissue in the respiratory tract. This unique feature brings mucosal immunity as a crucial player of the host defense system. Many studies have been focused on gastrointestinal and respiratory mucosal sites. However, there has been little investigation of reproductive mucosal sites. The genital tract mucosa is the primary infection site for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including bacterial and viral infections. STDs are one of the most critical health challenges facing the world today. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there are 19 million new infectious every year in the United States. STDs cost the U.S. health care system $17 billion every year 2
, and cost individuals even more in immediate and life-long health consequences. In order to confront this challenge, a greater understanding of reproductive mucosal immunity is needed and isolating lymphocytes is an essential component of these studies. Here, we present a method to reproducibly isolate lymphocytes from murine female genital tracts for immunological studies that can be modified for adaption to other species. The method described below is based on one mouse.
Immunology, Issue 67, Mucosal immunity, sexually transmitted diseases, genital tract lymphocytes, lymphocyte isolation, flow cytometry, FACS
Peptide:MHC Tetramer-based Enrichment of Epitope-specific T cells
Institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School.
A basic necessity for researchers studying adaptive immunity with in vivo
experimental models is an ability to identify T cells based on their T cell antigen receptor (TCR) specificity. Many indirect methods are available in which a bulk population of T cells is stimulated in vitro
with a specific antigen and epitope-specific T cells are identified through the measurement of a functional response such as proliferation, cytokine production, or expression of activation markers1
. However, these methods only identify epitope-specific T cells exhibiting one of many possible functions, and they are not sensitive enough to detect epitope-specific T cells at naive precursor frequencies. A popular alternative is the TCR transgenic adoptive transfer model, in which monoclonal T cells from a TCR transgenic mouse are seeded into histocompatible hosts to create a large precursor population of epitope-specific T cells that can be easily tracked with the use of a congenic marker antibody2,3
. While powerful, this method suffers from experimental artifacts associated with the unphysiological frequency of T cells with specificity for a single epitope4,5
. Moreover, this system cannot be used to investigate the functional heterogeneity of epitope-specific T cell clones within a polyclonal population.
The ideal way to study adaptive immunity should involve the direct detection of epitope-specific T cells from the endogenous T cell repertoire using a method that distinguishes TCR specificity solely by its binding to cognate peptide:MHC (pMHC) complexes. The use of pMHC tetramers and flow cytometry accomplishes this6
, but is limited to the detection of high frequency populations of epitope-specific T cells only found following antigen-induced clonal expansion. In this protocol, we describe a method that coordinates the use of pMHC tetramers and magnetic cell enrichment technology to enable detection of extremely low frequency epitope-specific T cells from mouse lymphoid tissues3,7
. With this technique, one can comprehensively track entire epitope-specific populations of endogenous T cells in mice at all stages of the immune response.
Immunology, Issue 68, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, T cell, T cell receptor, tetramer, flow cytometry, antigen-specific, immunology, immune response, magnetic, enrichment, in vivo
CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Capture Using a Disposable Microfluidic Chip for HIV
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Cellular Biology, Issue 8, microfluidic, blood, diagnostics, bioengineering, HIV, Translational Research
Induction and Monitoring of Active Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) in Rats
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) is an inflammatory reaction mediated by CCR7- effector memory T lymphocytes that infiltrate the site of injection of an antigen against which the immune system has been primed. The inflammatory reaction is characterized by redness and swelling of the site of antigenic challenge. It is a convenient model to determine the in vivo efficacy of immunosuppressants. Cutaneous DTH can be induced either by adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T lymphocytes or by active immunization with an antigen, and subsequent intradermal challenge with the antigen to induce the inflammatory reaction in a given skin area. DTH responses can be induced to various antigens, for example ovalbumin, tuberculin, tetanus toxoid, or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH).
Here we demonstrate how to induce an active DTH reaction in Lewis rats. We will first prepare a water-in-oil emulsion of KLH, our antigen of interest, in complete Freund's adjuvant and inject this emulsion subcutaneously to rats. This will prime the immune system to develop memory T cells directed to KLH. Seven days later we will challenge the rats intradermally on the back with KLH on one side and with ovalbumin, an irrelevant antigen, on the other side. The inflammatory reaction will be visible 16-72 hours later and the red and swollen area will be measured as an indication of DTH severity.
Cell Biology, Issue 6, Immunology, Immune Response, Inflammation, lymphocyte, inflammatory reaction, skin test, video protocol