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?-arrestin2 in infiltrated macrophages inhibits excessive inflammation after myocardial infarction.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Beta-arrestins (?-arrestin1 and ?-arrestin2) are known as cytosolic proteins that mediate desensitization and internalization of activated G protein-coupled receptors. In addition to these functions, ?-arrestins have been found to work as adaptor proteins for intracellular signaling pathways. ?-arrestin1 and ?-arrestin2 are expressed in the heart and are reported to participate in normal cardiac function. However, the physiological and pathological roles of ?-arrestin1/2 in myocardial infarction (MI) have not been examined. Here, we demonstrate that ?-arrestin2 negatively regulates inflammatory responses of macrophages recruited to the infarct area. ?-arrestin2 knockout (KO) mice have higher mortality than wild-type (WT) mice after MI. In infarcted hearts, ?-arrestin2 was strongly expressed in infiltrated macrophages. The production of inflammatory cytokines was enhanced in ?-arrestin2 KO mice. In addition, p65 phosphorylation in the macrophages from the infarcted hearts of ?-arrestin2 KO mice was increased in comparison to that of WT mice. These results suggest that the infiltrated macrophages of ?-arrestin2 KO mice induce excessive inflammation at the infarct area. Furthermore, the inflammation in WT mice transplanted with bone marrow cells of ?-arrestin2 KO mice is enhanced by MI, which is similar to that in ?-arrestin2 KO mice. In contrast, the inflammation after MI in ?-arrestin2 KO mice transplanted with bone marrow cells of WT mice is comparable to that in WT mice transplanted with bone marrow cells of WT mice. In summary, our present study demonstrates that ?-arrestin2 of infiltrated macrophages negatively regulates inflammation in infarcted hearts, thereby enhancing inflammation when the ?-arrestin2 gene is knocked out. ?-arrestin2 plays a protective role in MI-induced inflammation.
Authors: Shelley B. Weisser, Nico van Rooijen, Laura M. Sly.
Published: 08-01-2012
Macrophages are critical players in the innate immune response to infectious challenge or injury, initiating the innate immune response and directing the acquired immune response. Macrophage dysfunction can lead to an inability to mount an appropriate immune response and as such, has been implicated in many disease processes, including inflammatory bowel diseases. Macrophages display polarized phenotypes that are broadly divided into two categories. Classically activated macrophages, activated by stimulation with IFNγ or LPS, play an essential role in response to bacterial challenge whereas alternatively activated macrophages, activated by IL-4 or IL-13, participate in debris scavenging and tissue remodeling and have been implicated in the resolution phase of inflammation. During an inflammatory response in vivo, macrophages are found amid a complex mixture of infiltrating immune cells and may participate by exacerbating or resolving inflammation. To define the role of macrophages in situ in a whole animal model, it is necessary to examine the effect of depleting macrophages from the complex environment. To ask questions about the role of macrophage phenotype in situ, phenotypically defined polarized macrophages can be derived ex vivo, from bone marrow aspirates and added back to mice, with or without prior depletion of macrophages. In the protocol presented here clodronate-containing liposomes, versus PBS injected controls, were used to deplete colonic macrophages during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In addition, polarized macrophages were derived ex vivo and transferred to mice by intravenous injection. A caveat to this approach is that clodronate-containing liposomes deplete all professional phagocytes, including both dendritic cells and macrophages so to ensure the effect observed by depletion is macrophage-specific, reconstitution of phenotype by adoptive transfer of macrophages is necessary. Systemic macrophage depletion in mice can also be achieved by backcrossing mice onto a CD11b-DTR background, which is an excellent complementary approach. The advantage of clodronate-containing liposome-mediated depletion is that it does not require the time and expense involved in backcrossing mice and it can be used in mice regardless of the background of the mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c, or mixed background).
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Induction of Graft-versus-host Disease and In Vivo T Cell Monitoring Using an MHC-matched Murine Model
Authors: Bryan A. Anthony, Gregg A. Hadley.
Institutions: The Ohio State University Medical Center.
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the limiting barrier to the broad use of bone marrow transplant as a curative therapy for a variety of hematological deficiencies. GVHD is caused by mature alloreactive T cells present in the bone marrow graft that are infused into the recipient and cause damage to host organs. However, in mice, T cells must be added to the bone marrow inoculum to cause GVHD. Although extensive work has been done to characterize T cell responses post transplant, bioluminescent imaging technology is a non-invasive method to monitor T cell trafficking patterns in vivo. Following lethal irradiation, recipient mice are transplanted with bone marrow cells and splenocytes from donor mice. T cell subsets from L2G85.B6 (transgenic mice that constitutively express luciferase) are included in the transplant. By only transplanting certain T cell subsets, one is able to track specific T cell subsets in vivo, and based on their location, develop hypotheses regarding the role of specific T cell subsets in promoting GVHD at various time points. At predetermined intervals post transplant, recipient mice are imaged using a Xenogen IVIS CCD camera. Light intensity can be quantified using Living Image software to generate a pseudo-color image based on photon intensity (red = high intensity, violet = low intensity). Between 4-7 days post transplant, recipient mice begin to show clinical signs of GVHD. Cooke et al.1 developed a scoring system to quantitate disease progression based on the recipient mice fur texture, skin integrity, activity, weight loss, and posture. Mice are scored daily, and euthanized when they become moribund. Recipient mice generally become moribund 20-30 days post transplant. Murine models are valuable tools for studying the immunology of GVHD. Selectively transplanting particular T cell subsets allows for careful identification of the roles each subset plays. Non-invasively tracking T cell responses in vivo adds another layer of value to murine GVHD models.
Immunology, Issue 66, Infection, Anatomy, T cells, bone marrow transplant, immunology, cell purification, x-ray irradiation, tail vein injection, bioluminescent imaging
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Real-time Imaging of Leukotriene B4 Mediated Cell Migration and BLT1 Interactions with β-arrestin
Authors: Venkatakrishna R. Jala, Bodduluri Haribabu.
Institutions: University of Louisville.
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) belong to the seven transmembrane protein family and mediate the transduction of extracellular signals to intracellular responses. GPCRs control diverse biological functions such as chemotaxis, intracellular calcium release, gene regulation in a ligand dependent manner via heterotrimeric G-proteins1-2. Ligand binding induces a series of conformational changes leading to activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins that modulate levels of second messengers such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacyl glycerol (DG). Concomitant with activation of the receptor ligand binding also initiates a series of events to attenuate the receptor signaling via desensitization, sequestration and/or internalization. The desensitization process of GPCRs occurs via receptor phosphorylation by G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) and subsequent binding of β-arrestins3. β-arrestins are cytosolic proteins and translocate to membrane upon GPCR activation, binding to phosphorylated receptors (most cases) there by facilitating receptor internalization 4-6. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a pro-inflammatory lipid molecule derived from arachidonic acid pathway and mediates its actions via GPCRs, LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1; a high affinity receptor) and LTB4 receptor 2 (BLT2; a low affinity receptor)7-9. The LTB4-BLT1 pathway has been shown to be critical in several inflammatory diseases including, asthma, arthritis and atherosclerosis10-17. The current paper describes the methodologies developed to monitor LTB4-induced leukocyte migration and the interactions of BLT1 with β-arrestin and , receptor translocation in live cells using microscopy imaging techniques18-19. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells from C57BL/6 mice were isolated and cultured as previously described 20-21. These cells were tested in live cell imaging methods to demonstrate LTB4 induced cell migration. The human BLT1 was tagged with red fluorescent protein (BLT1-RFP) at C-terminus and β-arrestin1 tagged with green fluorescent protein (β-arr-GFP) and transfected the both plasmids into Rat Basophilic Leukomia (RBL-2H3) cell lines18-19. The kinetics of interaction between these proteins and localization were monitored using live cell video microscopy. The methodologies in the current paper describe the use of microscopic techniques to investigate the functional responses of G-protein coupled receptors in live cells. The current paper also describes the use of Metamorph software to quantify the fluorescence intensities to determine the kinetics of receptor and cytosolic protein interactions.
Immunology, Issue 46, Live cell imaging, Chemotaxis, G-protein coupled receptor, receptor internalization, leukotriene B4, leukotriene B4 receptor 1
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Using Quantitative Real-time PCR to Determine Donor Cell Engraftment in a Competitive Murine Bone Marrow Transplantation Model
Authors: Ningfei An, Yubin Kang.
Institutions: Medical University of South Carolina.
Murine bone marrow transplantation models provide an important tool in measuring hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions and determining genes/molecules that regulate HSCs. In these transplant model systems, the function of HSCs is determined by the ability of these cells to engraft and reconstitute lethally irradiated recipient mice. Commonly, the donor cell contribution/engraftment is measured by antibodies to donor- specific cell surface proteins using flow cytometry. However, this method heavily depends on the specificity and the ability of the cell surface marker to differentiate donor-derived cells from recipient-originated cells, which may not be available for all mouse strains. Considering the various backgrounds of genetically modified mouse strains in the market, this cell surface/ flow cytometry-based method has significant limitations especially in mouse strains that lack well-defined surface markers to separate donor cells from congenic recipient cells. Here, we reported a PCR-based technique to determine donor cell engraftment/contribution in transplant recipient mice. We transplanted male donor bone marrow HSCs to lethally irradiated congenic female mice. Peripheral blood samples were collected at different time points post transplantation. Bone marrow samples were obtained at the end of the experiments. Genomic DNA was isolated and the Y chromosome specific gene, Zfy1, was amplified using quantitative Real time PCR. The engraftment of male donor-derived cells in the female recipient mice was calculated against standard curve with known percentage of male vs. female DNAs. Bcl2 was used as a reference gene to normalize the total DNA amount. Our data suggested that this approach reliably determines donor cell engraftment and provides a useful, yet simple method in measuring hematopoietic cell reconstitution in murine bone marrow transplantation models. Our method can be routinely performed in most laboratories because no costly equipment such as flow cytometry is required.
Medicine, Issue 73, Biomedical Engineering, Stem Cell Biology, Genetics, Immunology, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Surgery, Y Chromosome, Hematopoietic Stem Cells, HSC, stem cells, Bone Marrow Transplantation, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, rtPCR, PCR, Chimerism, Y chromosome specific gene, graft, engraftment, isolation, transplantation, cell culture, murine model, animal model
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Parabiosis in Mice: A Detailed Protocol
Authors: Paniz Kamran, Konstantina-Ioanna Sereti, Peng Zhao, Shah R. Ali, Irving L. Weissman, Reza Ardehali.
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles, University of California, Los Angeles, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Parabiosis is a surgical union of two organisms allowing sharing of the blood circulation. Attaching the skin of two animals promotes formation of microvasculature at the site of inflammation. Parabiotic partners share their circulating antigens and thus are free of adverse immune reaction. First described by Paul Bert in 18641, the parabiosis surgery was refined by Bunster and Meyer in 1933 to improve animal survival2. In the current protocol, two mice are surgically joined following a modification of the Bunster and Meyer technique. Animals are connected through the elbow and knee joints followed by attachment of the skin allowing firm support that prevents strain on the sutured skin. Herein, we describe in detail the parabiotic joining of a ubiquitous GFP expressing mouse to a wild type (WT) mouse. Two weeks after the procedure, the pair is separated and GFP positive cells can be detected by flow cytometric analysis in the blood circulation of the WT mouse. The blood chimerism allows one to examine the contribution of the circulating cells from one animal in the other.
Medicine, Issue 80, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Blood Cells, Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC), Blood, Blood Vessels, Cell Biology, Parabiosis, mouse, inflammation, microvasculature, immune reaction, animal model
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Permanent Ligation of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery in Mice: A Model of Post-myocardial Infarction Remodelling and Heart Failure
Authors: Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Marleen Lox, Frank Jacobs, Bart De Geest.
Institutions: Catholic University of Leuven.
Heart failure is a syndrome in which the heart fails to pump blood at a rate commensurate with cellular oxygen requirements at rest or during stress. It is characterized by fluid retention, shortness of breath, and fatigue, in particular on exertion. Heart failure is a growing public health problem, the leading cause of hospitalization, and a major cause of mortality. Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of heart failure. Ventricular remodelling refers to changes in structure, size, and shape of the left ventricle. This architectural remodelling of the left ventricle is induced by injury (e.g., myocardial infarction), by pressure overload (e.g., systemic arterial hypertension or aortic stenosis), or by volume overload. Since ventricular remodelling affects wall stress, it has a profound impact on cardiac function and on the development of heart failure. A model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice is used to investigate ventricular remodelling and cardiac function post-myocardial infarction. This model is fundamentally different in terms of objectives and pathophysiological relevance compared to the model of transient ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In this latter model of ischemia/reperfusion injury, the initial extent of the infarct may be modulated by factors that affect myocardial salvage following reperfusion. In contrast, the infarct area at 24 hr after permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery is fixed. Cardiac function in this model will be affected by 1) the process of infarct expansion, infarct healing, and scar formation; and 2) the concomitant development of left ventricular dilatation, cardiac hypertrophy, and ventricular remodelling. Besides the model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the technique of invasive hemodynamic measurements in mice is presented in detail.
Medicine, Issue 94, Myocardial infarction, cardiac remodelling, infarct expansion, heart failure, cardiac function, invasive hemodynamic measurements
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Optimization and Utilization of Agrobacterium-mediated Transient Protein Production in Nicotiana
Authors: Moneim Shamloul, Jason Trusa, Vadim Mett, Vidadi Yusibov.
Institutions: Fraunhofer USA Center for Molecular Biotechnology.
Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in plants is a promising approach to produce vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins within a short period of time. However, this technology is only just beginning to be applied to large-scale production as many technological obstacles to scale up are now being overcome. Here, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for industrial-scale transient protein production based on vacuum infiltration of Nicotiana plants with Agrobacteria carrying launch vectors. Optimization of Agrobacterium cultivation in AB medium allows direct dilution of the bacterial culture in Milli-Q water, simplifying the infiltration process. Among three tested species of Nicotiana, N. excelsiana (N. benthamiana × N. excelsior) was selected as the most promising host due to the ease of infiltration, high level of reporter protein production, and about two-fold higher biomass production under controlled environmental conditions. Induction of Agrobacterium harboring pBID4-GFP (Tobacco mosaic virus-based) using chemicals such as acetosyringone and monosaccharide had no effect on the protein production level. Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration with Agrobacterium laboratory strain GV3101 showed the highest protein production compared to Agrobacteria laboratory strains LBA4404 and C58C1 and wild-type Agrobacteria strains at6, at10, at77 and A4. Co-expression of a viral RNA silencing suppressor, p23 or p19, in N. benthamiana resulted in earlier accumulation and increased production (15-25%) of target protein (influenza virus hemagglutinin).
Plant Biology, Issue 86, Agroinfiltration, Nicotiana benthamiana, transient protein production, plant-based expression, viral vector, Agrobacteria
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MRI and PET in Mouse Models of Myocardial Infarction
Authors: Guido Buonincontri, Carmen Methner, T. Adrian Carpenter, Robert C. Hawkes, Stephen J. Sawiak, Thomas Krieg.
Institutions: Unversity of Cambridge, University of Cambridge, University of Cambridge.
Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the Western world. The similarity of the mouse heart to the human heart has made it an ideal model for testing novel therapeutic strategies. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent views of the heart noninvasively with clear anatomical detail, which can be used for accurate functional assessment. Contrast agents can provide basic measures of tissue viability but these are nonspecific. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a complementary technique that is highly specific for molecular imaging, but lacks the anatomical detail of MRI. Used together, these techniques offer a sensitive, specific and quantitative tool for the assessment of the heart in disease and recovery following treatment. In this paper we explain how these methods are carried out in mouse models of acute myocardial infarction. The procedures described here were designed for the assessment of putative protective drug treatments. We used MRI to measure systolic function and infarct size with late gadolinium enhancement, and PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to assess metabolic function in the infarcted region. The paper focuses on practical aspects such as slice planning, accurate gating, drug delivery, segmentation of images, and multimodal coregistration. The methods presented here achieve good repeatability and accuracy maintaining a high throughput.
Medicine, Issue 82, anatomy, Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE), MRI, FDG PET, MRI/PET imaging, myocardial infarction, mouse model, contrast agents, coregistration
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Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Authors: Eva Wagner, Sören Brandenburg, Tobias Kohl, Stephan E. Lehnart.
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+ release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
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Use of a Hanging Weight System for Coronary Artery Occlusion in Mice
Authors: Tobias Eckle, Michael Koeppen, Holger Eltzschig.
Institutions: University of Colorado Denver.
Murine studies of acute injury are an area of intense investigation, as knockout mice for different genes are becoming increasingly available 1-38. Cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning (IP) remains an area of intense investigation. To further elucidate its molecular basis, the use of knockout mouse studies is particularly important 7, 14, 30, 39. Despite the fact that previous studies have already successfully performed cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in mice, this model is technically very challenging. Particularly, visual identification of the coronary artery, placement of the suture around the vessel and coronary occlusion by tying off the vessel with a supported knot is technically difficult. In addition, re-opening the knot for intermittent reperfusion of the coronary artery during IP without causing surgical trauma adds additional challenge. Moreover, if the knot is not tied down strong enough, inadvertent reperfusion due to imperfect occlusion of the coronary may affect the results. In fact, this can easily occur due to the movement of the beating heart. Based on potential problems associated with using a knotted coronary occlusion system, we adopted a previously published model of chronic cardiomyopathy based on a hanging weight system for intermittent coronary artery occlusion during IP 39. In fact, coronary artery occlusion can thus be achieved without having to occlude the coronary by a knot. Moreover, reperfusion of the vessel can be easily achieved by supporting the hanging weights which are in a remote localization from cardiac tissues. We tested this system systematically, including variation of ischemia and reperfusion times, preconditioning regiments, body temperature and genetic backgrounds39. In addition to infarct staining, we tested cardiac troponin I (cTnI) as a marker of myocardial infarction in this model. In fact, plasma levels of cTnI correlated with infarct sizes (R2=0.8). Finally, we could show in several studies that this technique yields highly reproducible infarct sizes during murine IP and myocardial infarction6, 8, 30, 40, 41. Therefore, this technique may be helpful for researchers who pursue molecular mechanisms involved in cardioprotection by IP using a genetic approach in mice with targeted gene deletion. Further studies on cardiac IP using transgenic mice may consider this technique.
Medicine, Issue 50, Cardioprotection, preconditioning, targeted gene deletion, murine, model, ischemia, reperfusion, heart
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Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats
Authors: Yewen Wu, Xing Yin, Cori Wijaya, Ming-He Huang, Bradley K. McConnell.
Institutions: University of Texas Medical Branch, University of Houston (UH), Texas Medical Center.
With heart failure leading the cause of death in the USA (Hunt), biomedical research is fundamental to advance medical treatments for cardiovascular diseases. Animal models that mimic human cardiac disease, such as myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia-reperfusion (IR) that induces heart failure as well as pressure-overload (transverse aortic constriction) that induces cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (Goldman and Tarnavski), are useful models to study cardiovascular disease. In particular, myocardial ischemia (MI) is a leading cause for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality despite controlling certain risk factors such as arteriosclerosis and treatments via surgical intervention (Thygesen). Furthermore, an acute loss of the myocardium following myocardial ischemia (MI) results in increased loading conditions that induces ventricular remodeling of the infarcted border zone and the remote non-infarcted myocardium. Myocyte apoptosis, necrosis and the resultant increased hemodynamic load activate multiple biochemical intracellular signaling that initiates LV dilatation, hypertrophy, ventricular shape distortion, and collagen scar formation. This pathological remodeling and failure to normalize the increased wall stresses results in progressive dilatation, recruitment of the border zone myocardium into the scar, and eventually deterioration in myocardial contractile function (i.e. heart failure). The progression of LV dysfunction and heart failure in rats is similar to that observed in patients who sustain a large myocardial infarction, survive and subsequently develops heart failure (Goldman). The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in rats has been used to mimic human cardiovascular disease; specifically used to study cardiac signaling mechanisms associated with heart failure as well as to assess the contribution of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of heart failure. The method described in this report is the rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This model is also referred to as an acute ischemic cardiomyopathy or ischemia followed by reperfusion (IR); which is induced by an acute 30-minute period of ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) followed by reperfusion of the tissue by releasing the LAD ligation (Vasilyev and McConnell). This protocol will focus on assessment of the infarct size and the area-at-risk (AAR) by Evan's blue dye and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) following 4-hours of reperfusion; additional comments toward the evaluation of cardiac function and remodeling by modifying the duration of reperfusion, is also presented. Overall, this AMI rat animal model is useful for studying the consequence of a myocardial infarction on cardiac pathophysiological and physiological function.
Medicine, Issue 48, Cardiovascular (CV), Heart Failure (HF), Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), Ischemia-Reperfusion (IR), Left Anterior Descending Artery (LAD)
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Assessing Anti-fungal Activity of Isolated Alveolar Macrophages by Confocal Microscopy
Authors: Melissa J. Grimm, Anthony C. D'Auria, Brahm H. Segal.
Institutions: Roswell Park Cancer Institute, University of Buffalo.
The lung is an interface where host cells are routinely exposed to microbes and microbial products. Alveolar macrophages are the first-line phagocytic cells that encounter inhaled fungi and other microbes. Macrophages and other immune cells recognize Aspergillus motifs by pathogen recognition receptors and initiate downstream inflammatory responses. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase generates reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and is critical for host defense. Although NADPH oxidase is critical for neutrophil-mediated host defense1-3, the importance of NADPH oxidase in macrophages is not well defined. The goal of this study was to delineate the specific role of NADPH oxidase in macrophages in mediating host defense against A. fumigatus. We found that NADPH oxidase in alveolar macrophages controls the growth of phagocytosed A. fumigatus spores4. Here, we describe a method for assessing the ability of mouse alveolar macrophages (AMs) to control the growth of phagocytosed Aspergillus spores (conidia). Alveolar macrophages are stained in vivo and ten days later isolated from mice by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Macrophages are plated onto glass coverslips, then seeded with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing A. fumigatus spores. At specified times, cells are fixed and the number of intact macrophages with phagocytosed spores is assessed by confocal microscopy.
Immunology, Issue 89, macrophage, bronchoalveolar lavage, Aspergillus, confocal microscopy, phagocytosis, anti-fungal activity, NADPH oxidase
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Investigation of Macrophage Polarization Using Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages
Authors: Wei Ying, Patali S. Cheruku, Fuller W. Bazer, Stephen H. Safe, Beiyan Zhou.
Institutions: Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University.
The article describes a readily easy adaptive in vitro model to investigate macrophage polarization. In the presence of GM-CSF/M-CSF, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from the bone marrow are directed into monocytic differentiation, followed by M1 or M2 stimulation. The activation status can be tracked by changes in cell surface antigens, gene expression and cell signaling pathways.
Immunology, Issue 76, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Genetics, Biomedical Engineering, biology (general), genetics (animal and plant), immunology, life sciences, Life Sciences (General), macrophage polarization, bone marrow derived macrophage, flow cytometry, PCR, animal model
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Differentiating Functional Roles of Gene Expression from Immune and Non-immune Cells in Mouse Colitis by Bone Marrow Transplantation
Authors: Hon Wai Koon, Samantha Ho, Michelle Cheng, Ryan Ichikawa, Charalabos Pothoulakis.
Institutions: The University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles.
To understand the role of a gene in the development of colitis, we compared the responses of wild-type mice and gene-of-interest deficient knockout mice to colitis. If the gene-of-interest is expressed in both bone marrow derived cells and non-bone marrow derived cells of the host; however, it is possible to differentiate the role of a gene of interest in bone marrow derived cells and non- bone marrow derived cells by bone marrow transplantation technique. To change the bone marrow derived cell genotype of mice, the original bone marrow of recipient mice were destroyed by irradiation and then replaced by new donor bone marrow of different genotype. When wild-type mice donor bone marrow was transplanted to knockout mice, we could generate knockout mice with wild-type gene expression in bone marrow derived cells. Alternatively, when knockout mice donor bone marrow was transplanted to wild-type recipient mice, wild-type mice without gene-of-interest expressing from bone marrow derived cells were produced. However, bone marrow transplantation may not be 100% complete. Therefore, we utilized cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules (CD45.1 and CD45.2) as markers of donor and recipient cells to track the proportion of donor bone marrow derived cells in recipient mice and success of bone marrow transplantation. Wild-type mice with CD45.1 genotype and knockout mice with CD45.2 genotype were used. After irradiation of recipient mice, the donor bone marrow cells of different genotypes were infused into the recipient mice. When the new bone marrow regenerated to take over its immunity, the mice were challenged by chemical agent (dextran sodium sulfate, DSS 5%) to induce colitis. Here we also showed the method to induce colitis in mice and evaluate the role of the gene of interest expressed from bone-marrow derived cells. If the gene-of-interest from the bone derived cells plays an important role in the development of the disease (such as colitis), the phenotype of the recipient mice with bone marrow transplantation can be significantly altered. At the end of colitis experiments, the bone marrow derived cells in blood and bone marrow were labeled with antibodies against CD45.1 and CD45.2 and their quantitative ratio of existence could be used to evaluate the success of bone marrow transplantation by flow cytometry. Successful bone marrow transplantation should show a vast majority of donor genotype (in term of CD molecule marker) over recipient genotype in both the bone marrow and blood of recipient mice.
Immunology, Issue 68, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Bone marrow transplantation, colitis, mice, irradiation
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Mouse Models for Graft Arteriosclerosis
Authors: Lingfeng Qin, Luyang Yu, Wang Min.
Institutions: Yale University School of Medicine , Yale University School of Medicine .
Graft arteriosclerois (GA), also called allograft vasculopathy, is a pathologic lesion that develops over months to years in transplanted organs characterized by diffuse, circumferential stenosis of the entire graft vascular tree. The most critical component of GA pathogenesis is the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells within the intima. When a human coronary artery segment is interposed into the infra-renal aortae of immunodeficient mice, the intimas could be expand in response to adoptively transferred human T cells allogeneic to the artery donor or exogenous human IFN-γ in the absence of human T cells. Interposition of a mouse aorta from one strain into another mouse strain recipient is limited as a model for chronic rejection in humans because the acute cell-mediated rejection response in this mouse model completely eliminates all donor-derived vascular cells from the graft within two-three weeks. We have recently developed two new mouse models to circumvent these problems. The first model involves interposition of a vessel segment from a male mouse into a female recipient of the same inbred strain (C57BL/6J). Graft rejection in this case is directed only against minor histocompatibility antigens encoded by the Y chromosome (present in the male but not the female) and the rejection response that ensues is sufficiently indolent to preserve donor-derived smooth muscle cells for several weeks. The second model involves interposing an artery segment from a wild type C57BL/6J mouse donor into a host mouse of the same strain and gender that lacks the receptor for IFN-γ followed by administration of mouse IFN-γ (delivered via infection of the mouse liver with an adenoviral vector. There is no rejection in this case as both donor and recipient mice are of the same strain and gender but donor smooth muscle cells proliferate in response to the cytokine while host-derived cells, lacking receptor for this cytokine, are unresponsive. By backcrossing additional genetic changes into the vessel donor, both models can be used to assess the effect of specific genes on GA progression. Here, we describe detailed protocols for our mouse GA models.
Medicine, Issue 75, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cardiology, Pathology, Surgery, Tissue Engineering, Cardiovascular Diseases, vascular biology, graft arteriosclerosis, GA, mouse models, transplantation, graft, vessels, arteries, mouse, animal model, surgical techniques
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Intramyocardial Cell Delivery: Observations in Murine Hearts
Authors: Tommaso Poggioli, Padmini Sarathchandra, Nadia Rosenthal, Maria P. Santini.
Institutions: Imperial College London, Imperial College London, Monash University.
Previous studies showed that cell delivery promotes cardiac function amelioration by release of cytokines and factors that increase cardiac tissue revascularization and cell survival. In addition, further observations revealed that specific stem cells, such as cardiac stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and cardiospheres have the ability to integrate within the surrounding myocardium by differentiating into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Here, we present the materials and methods to reliably deliver noncontractile cells into the left ventricular wall of immunodepleted mice. The salient steps of this microsurgical procedure involve anesthesia and analgesia injection, intratracheal intubation, incision to open the chest and expose the heart and delivery of cells by a sterile 30-gauge needle and a precision microliter syringe. Tissue processing consisting of heart harvesting, embedding, sectioning and histological staining showed that intramyocardial cell injection produced a small damage in the epicardial area, as well as in the ventricular wall. Noncontractile cells were retained into the myocardial wall of immunocompromised mice and were surrounded by a layer of fibrotic tissue, likely to protect from cardiac pressure and mechanical load.
Medicine, Issue 83, intramyocardial cell injection, heart, grafting, cell therapy, stem cells, fibrotic tissue
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A Murine Model of Myocardial Ischemia-reperfusion Injury through Ligation of the Left Anterior Descending Artery
Authors: Zhaobin Xu, Jenna Alloush, Eric Beck, Noah Weisleder.
Institutions: The Ohio State University.
Acute or chronic myocardial infarction (MI) are cardiovascular events resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Establishing the pathological mechanisms at work during MI and developing effective therapeutic approaches requires methodology to reproducibly simulate the clinical incidence and reflect the pathophysiological changes associated with MI. Here, we describe a surgical method to induce MI in mouse models that can be used for short-term ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury as well as permanent ligation. The major advantage of this method is to facilitate location of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) to allow for accurate ligation of this artery to induce ischemia in the left ventricle of the mouse heart. Accurate positioning of the ligature on the LAD increases reproducibility of infarct size and thus produces more reliable results. Greater precision in placement of the ligature will improve the standard surgical approaches to simulate MI in mice, thus reducing the number of experimental animals necessary for statistically relevant studies and improving our understanding of the mechanisms producing cardiac dysfunction following MI. This mouse model of MI is also useful for the preclinical testing of treatments targeting myocardial damage following MI.
Medicine, Issue 86, Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion, permanent ligation, left anterior descending artery, myocardial infarction, LAD, ligation, Cardiac troponin I
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Intravital Imaging of Axonal Interactions with Microglia and Macrophages in a Mouse Dorsal Column Crush Injury
Authors: Teresa A. Evans, Deborah S. Barkauskas, Jay T. Myers, Alex Y. Huang.
Institutions: Case Western Reserve University, Case Western Reserve University, Case Western Reserve University.
Traumatic spinal cord injury causes an inflammatory reaction involving blood-derived macrophages and central nervous system (CNS)-resident microglia. Intra-vital two-photon microscopy enables the study of macrophages and microglia in the spinal cord lesion in the living animal. This can be performed in adult animals with a traumatic injury to the dorsal column. Here, we describe methods for distinguishing macrophages from microglia in the CNS using an irradiation bone marrow chimera to obtain animals in which only macrophages or microglia are labeled with a genetically encoded green fluorescent protein. We also describe a injury model that crushes the dorsal column of the spinal cord, thereby producing a simple, easily accessible, rectangular lesion that is easily visualized in an animal through a laminectomy. Furthermore, we will outline procedures to sequentially image the animals at the anatomical site of injury for the study of cellular interactions during the first few days to weeks after injury.
Cellular Biology, Issue 93, Intravital, spinal cord crush injury, chimera, microglia, macrophages, dorsal column crush, axonal dieback
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A Mouse Model for Pathogen-induced Chronic Inflammation at Local and Systemic Sites
Authors: George Papadopoulos, Carolyn D. Kramer, Connie S. Slocum, Ellen O. Weinberg, Ning Hua, Cynthia V. Gudino, James A. Hamilton, Caroline A. Genco.
Institutions: Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine.
Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccination and pharmacological intervention.
Immunology, Issue 90, Pathogen-Induced Chronic Inflammation; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Oral Bone Loss; Periodontal Disease; Atherosclerosis; Chronic Inflammation; Host-Pathogen Interaction; microCT; MRI
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Gene-environment Interaction Models to Unmask Susceptibility Mechanisms in Parkinson's Disease
Authors: Vivian P. Chou, Novie Ko, Theodore R. Holman, Amy B. Manning-Boğ.
Institutions: SRI International, University of California-Santa Cruz.
Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, but its effects in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis are less understood. Gene-environment interaction models have utility in unmasking the impact of specific cellular pathways in toxicity that may not be observed using a solely genetic or toxicant disease model alone. To evaluate if distinct LOX isozymes selectively contribute to PD-related neurodegeneration, transgenic (i.e. 5-LOX and 12/15-LOX deficient) mice can be challenged with a toxin that mimics cell injury and death in the disorder. Here we describe the use of a neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which produces a nigrostriatal lesion to elucidate the distinct contributions of LOX isozymes to neurodegeneration related to PD. The use of MPTP in mouse, and nonhuman primate, is well-established to recapitulate the nigrostriatal damage in PD. The extent of MPTP-induced lesioning is measured by HPLC analysis of dopamine and its metabolites and semi-quantitative Western blot analysis of striatum for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of dopamine. To assess inflammatory markers, which may demonstrate LOX isozyme-selective sensitivity, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1 immunohistochemistry are performed on brain sections containing substantia nigra, and GFAP Western blot analysis is performed on striatal homogenates. This experimental approach can provide novel insights into gene-environment interactions underlying nigrostriatal degeneration and PD.
Medicine, Issue 83, MPTP, dopamine, Iba1, TH, GFAP, lipoxygenase, transgenic, gene-environment interactions, mouse, Parkinson's disease, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation
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Isolation, Purification and Labeling of Mouse Bone Marrow Neutrophils for Functional Studies and Adoptive Transfer Experiments
Authors: Muthulekha Swamydas, Michail S. Lionakis.
Institutions: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH.
Neutrophils are critical effector cells of the innate immune system. They are rapidly recruited at sites of acute inflammation and exert protective or pathogenic effects depending on the inflammatory milieu. Nonetheless, despite the indispensable role of neutrophils in immunity, detailed understanding of the molecular factors that mediate neutrophils' effector and immunopathogenic effects in different infectious diseases and inflammatory conditions is still lacking, partly because of their short half life, the difficulties with handling of these cells and the lack of reliable experimental protocols for obtaining sufficient numbers of neutrophils for downstream functional studies and adoptive transfer experiments. Therefore, simple, fast, economical and reliable methods are highly desirable for harvesting sufficient numbers of mouse neutrophils for assessing functions such as phagocytosis, killing, cytokine production, degranulation and trafficking. To that end, we present a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol, which can be adapted in any laboratory to isolate large numbers of neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice with high purity and viability. Moreover, we present a simple protocol that uses CellTracker dyes to label the isolated neutrophils, which can then be adoptively transferred into recipient mice and tracked in several tissues for at least 4 hr post-transfer using flow cytometry. Using this approach, differential labeling of neutrophils from wild-type and gene-deficient mice with different CellTracker dyes can be successfully employed to perform competitive repopulation studies for evaluating the direct role of specific genes in trafficking of neutrophils from the blood into target tissues in vivo.
Immunology, Issue 77, Cellular Biology, Infection, Infectious Diseases, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Neutrophils, Adoptive Transfer, immunology, Neutrophils, mouse, bone marrow, adoptive transfer, density gradient, labeling, CellTracker, cell, isolation, flow cytometry, animal model
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Marble Burying and Nestlet Shredding as Tests of Repetitive, Compulsive-like Behaviors in Mice
Authors: Mariana Angoa-Pérez, Michael J. Kane, Denise I. Briggs, Dina M. Francescutti, Donald M. Kuhn.
Institutions: Wayne State University School of Medicine.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious and debilitating psychiatric conditions and each constitutes a significant public health concern, particularly in children. Both of these conditions are highlighted by the repeated expression of meaningless behaviors. Individuals with OCD often show checking, frequent hand washing, and counting. Children with ASDs also engage in repetitive tapping, arm or hand flapping, and rocking. These behaviors can vary widely in intensity and frequency of expression. More intense forms of repetitive behaviors can even result in injury (e.g. excessive grooming, hand washing, and self-stimulation). These behaviors are therefore very disruptive and make normal social discourse difficult. Treatment options for repetitive behaviors in OCD and ASDs are somewhat limited and there is great interest in developing more effective therapies for each condition. Numerous animal models for evaluating compulsive-like behaviors have been developed over the past three decades. Perhaps the animal models with the greatest validity and ease of use are the marble burying test and the nestlet shredding test. Both tests take advantage of the fact that the target behaviors occur spontaneously in mice. In the marble burying test, 20 marbles are arrayed on the surface of clean bedding. The number of marbles buried in a 30 min session is scored by investigators blind to the treatment or status of the subjects. In the nestlet shredding test, a nestlet comprised of pulped cotton fiber is preweighed and placed on top of cage bedding and the amount of the nestlet remaining intact after a 30 min test session is determined. Presently, we describe protocols for and show movie documentation of marble burying and nestlet shredding. Both tests are easily and accurately scored and each is sensitive to small changes in the expression of compulsive-like behaviors that result from genetic manipulations, disease, or head injury.
Behavior, Issue 82, compulsive-like behaviors, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), marble burying, nestlet shredding, TPH2 KO mice
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Homing of Hematopoietic Cells to the Bone Marrow
Authors: Rushdia Z. Yusuf, David T. Scadden.
Institutions: MGH - Massachusetts General Hospital.
Homing is the phenomenon whereby transplanted hematopoietic cells are able to travel to and engraft or establish residence in the bone marrow. Various chemomkines and receptors are involved in the homing of hematopoietic stem cells. [1, 2] This paper outlines the classic homing protocol used in hematopoietic stem cell studies. In general this involves isolating the cell population whose homing needs to be investigated, staining this population with a dye of interest and injecting these cells into the blood stream of a recipient animal. The recipient animal is then sacrificed at a pre-determined time after injection and the bone marrow evaluated for the percentage or absolute number of cells which are positive for the dye of interest. In one of the most common experimental schemes, the homing efficiency of hematopoietic cells from two genetically distinct animals (a wild type animal and the corresponding knock-out) is compared. This article describes the hematopoietic cell homing protocol in the framework of such as experiment.
Immunology, Issue 25, HSC, homing, engraftment, transplantation
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Modified Technique for Coronary Artery Ligation in Mice
Authors: Yangzhen Shao, Björn Redfors, Elmir Omerovic.
Institutions: Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most important causes of mortality in humans1-3. In order to improve morbidity and mortality in patients with MI we need better knowledge about pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia. This knowledge may be valuable to define new therapeutic targets for innovative cardiovascular therapies4. Experimental MI model in mice is an increasingly popular small-animal model in preclinical research in which MI is induced by means of permanent or temporary ligation of left coronary artery (LCA)5. In this video, we describe the step-by-step method of how to induce experimental MI in mice. The animal is first anesthetized with 2% isoflurane. The unconscious mouse is then intubated and connected to a ventilator for artificial ventilation. The left chest is shaved and 1.5 cm incision along mid-axillary line is made in the skin. The left pectoralis major muscle is bluntly dissociated until the ribs are exposed. The muscle layers are pulled aside and fixed with an eyelid-retractor. After these preparations, left thoracotomy is performed between the third and fourth ribs in order to visualize the anterior surface of the heart and left lung. The proximal segment of LCA artery is then ligated with a 7-0 ethilon suture which typically induces an infarct size ~40% of left ventricle. At the end, the chest is closed and the animals receive postoperative analgesia (Temgesic, 0.3 mg/50 ml, ip). The animals are kept in a warm cage until spontaneous recovery.
Medicine, Issue 73, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Surgery, Cardiology, Hematology, myocardial infarction, coronary artery, ligation, ischemia, ECG, electrocardiology, mice, animal model
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