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A novel application of furazolidone: anti-leukemic activity in acute myeloid leukemia.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common malignant myeloid disorder of progenitor cells in myeloid hematopoiesis and exemplifies a genetically heterogeneous disease. The patients with AML also show a heterogeneous response to therapy. Although all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been successfully introduced to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), it is rather ineffective in non-APL AML. In our present study, 1200 off-patent marketed drugs and natural compounds that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were screened for anti-leukemia activity using the retrovirus transduction/transformation assay (RTTA). Furazolidone (FZD) was shown to inhibit bone marrow transformation mediated by several leukemia fusion proteins, including AML1-ETO. Furazolidone has been used in the treatment of certain bacterial and protozoan infections in human and animals for more than sixty years. We investigated the anti-leukemic activity of FZD in a series of AML cells. FZD displayed potent antiproliferative properties at submicromolar concentrations and induced apoptosis in AML cell lines. Importantly, FZD treatment of certain AML cells induced myeloid cell differentiation by morphology and flow cytometry for CD11b expression. Furthermore, FZD treatment resulted in increased stability of tumor suppressor p53 protein in AML cells. Our in vitro results suggest furazolidone as a novel therapeutic strategy in AML patients.
Authors: Sandra Christoph, Alisa B. Lee-Sherick, Susan Sather, Deborah DeRyckere, Douglas K. Graham.
Published: 09-18-2013
Receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and progression of many cancers, including both leukemia and solid tumors, and are attractive druggable therapeutic targets. Here we describe an efficient four-step strategy for pre-clinical evaluation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of acute leukemia. Initially, western blot analysis is used to confirm target inhibition in cultured leukemia cells. Functional activity is then evaluated using clonogenic assays in methylcellulose or soft agar cultures. Experimental compounds that demonstrate activity in cell culture assays are evaluated in vivo using NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice transplanted orthotopically with human leukemia cell lines. Initial in vivo pharmacodynamic studies evaluate target inhibition in leukemic blasts isolated from the bone marrow. This approach is used to determine the dose and schedule of administration required for effective target inhibition. Subsequent studies evaluate the efficacy of the TKIs in vivo using luciferase expressing leukemia cells, thereby allowing for non-invasive bioluminescent monitoring of leukemia burden and assessment of therapeutic response using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. This strategy has been effective for evaluation of TKIs in vitro and in vivo and can be applied for identification of molecularly-targeted agents with therapeutic potential or for direct comparison and prioritization of multiple compounds.
18 Related JoVE Articles!
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Femoral Bone Marrow Aspiration in Live Mice
Authors: Young Rock Chung, Eunhee Kim, Omar Abdel-Wahab.
Institutions: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Serial sampling of the cellular composition of bone marrow (BM) is a routine procedure critical to clinical hematology. This protocol describes a detailed step-by-step technical procedure for an analogous procedure in live mice which allows for serial characterization of cells present in the BM. This procedure facilitates studies aimed to detect the presence of exogenously administered cells within the BM of mice as would be done in xenograft studies for instance. Moreover, this procedure allows for the retrieval and characterization of cells enriched in the BM such as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) without sacrifice of mice. Given that the cellular composition of peripheral blood is not necessarily reflective of proportions and types of stem and progenitor cells present in the marrow, procedures which provide access to this compartment without requiring termination of the mice are very helpful. The use of femoral bone marrow aspiration is illustrated here for cytological analysis of marrow cells, flow cytometric characterization of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor compartment, and culture of sorted HSPCs obtained by femoral BM aspiration compared with conventional marrow harvest.
Medicine, Issue 89, Bone marrow, Leukemia, Hematopoiesis, Aspiration, Mouse Model, Hematopoietic Stem Cell
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From a 2DE-Gel Spot to Protein Function: Lesson Learned From HS1 in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Authors: Benedetta Apollonio, Maria Teresa Sabrina Bertilaccio, Umberto Restuccia, Pamela Ranghetti, Federica Barbaglio, Paolo Ghia, Federico Caligaris-Cappio, Cristina Scielzo.
Institutions: IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, King's College London, IFOM, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele.
The identification of molecules involved in tumor initiation and progression is fundamental for understanding disease’s biology and, as a consequence, for the clinical management of patients. In the present work we will describe an optimized proteomic approach for the identification of molecules involved in the progression of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). In detail, leukemic cell lysates are resolved by 2-dimensional Electrophoresis (2DE) and visualized as “spots” on the 2DE gels. Comparative analysis of proteomic maps allows the identification of differentially expressed proteins (in terms of abundance and post-translational modifications) that are picked, isolated and identified by Mass Spectrometry (MS). The biological function of the identified candidates can be tested by different assays (i.e. migration, adhesion and F-actin polymerization), that we have optimized for primary leukemic cells.
Medicine, Issue 92, Lymphocytes, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, 2D Electrophoresis, Mass Spectrometry, Cytoskeleton, Migration
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Production of Replication-Defective Retrovirus by Transient Transfection of 293T cells
Authors: L Cristina Gavrilescu, Richard A Van Etten.
Institutions: Tufts University.
Our lab studies human myeloproliferative diseases induced by such oncogenes as Bcr-Abl or growth factor receptor-derived oncogenes (ZNF198-FGFR1, Bcr-PDGFRα, etc.). We are able to model and study a human-like disease in our mouse model, by transplanting bone marrow cells previously infected with a retrovirus expressing the oncogene of interest. Replication-defective retrovirus encoding a human oncogene and a marker (GFP, RFP, antibiotic resistance gene, etc.) is produced by a transient transfection protocol using 293T cells, a human renal epithelial cell line transformed by the adenovirus E1A gene product. 293 cells have the unusual property of being highly transfectable by calcium phosphate (CaPO4), with up to 50-80% transfection efficiency readily attainable. Here, we co-transfect 293 cells with a retroviral vector expressing the oncogene of interest and a plasmid that expresses the gag-pol-env packaging functions, such as the single-genome packaging constructs kat or pCL, in this case the EcoPak plasmid. The initial transfection is further improved by use of chloroquine. Stocks of ecotropic virus, collected as culture supernatant 48 hrs. post-transfection, can be stored at -80°C and used for infection of cell-lines in view of transformation and in vitro studies, or primary cells such as mouse bone marrow cells, that can then be used for transplant in our mouse model.
Cellular Biology, issue 10, retrovirus, transfection, 293T cells
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Measuring Calpain Activity in Fixed and Living Cells by Flow Cytometry
Authors: Christina Farr, Stuart Berger.
Institutions: University of Toronto, University Health Network (UHN).
Calpains are ubiquitous intracellular, calcium-sensitive, neutral cysteine proteases 1. Calpains play crucial roles in many physiological processes, including signaling, cytoskeletal remodeling, regulation of gene expression, apoptosis and cell cycle progression 1. Calpains have been implicated in many pathologies including muscular dystrophies, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis 1. Calpain regulation is complex and incompletely understood. mRNA and protein levels correlate poorly with activity, limiting the use of gene or protein expression techniques to measure calpain activity. This video protocol details a flow cytometric assay developed in our laboratory for measuring calpain activity in fixed and living cells. This method uses the fluorescent substrate BOC-LM-CMAC, which is cleaved specifically by calpain, to measure calpain activity. 2 In this video, calpain activity in fixed and living murine 32Dkit leukemia cells, alone or as part of a splenocyte population is measured using an LSRII (BD Bioscience). 32Dkit cells are shown to have elevated activity compared to normal splenocytes.
JoVE Immunology, Issue 41, calpain, immunology, flow cytometry, acute myeloid leukemia
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Expansion, Purification, and Functional Assessment of Human Peripheral Blood NK Cells
Authors: Srinivas S. Somanchi, Vladimir V. Senyukov, Cecele J. Denman, Dean A. Lee.
Institutions: MD Anderson Cancer Center - University of Texas.
Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in immune surveillance against a variety of infectious microorganisms and tumors. Limited availability of NK cells and ability to expand in vitro has restricted development of NK cell immunotherapy. Here we describe a method to efficiently expand vast quantities of functional NK cells ex vivo using K562 cells expressing membrane-bound IL21, as an artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC). NK cell adoptive therapies to date have utilized a cell product obtained by steady-state leukapheresis of the donor followed by depletion of T cells or positive selection of NK cells. The product is usually activated in IL-2 overnight and then administered the following day 1. Because of the low frequency of NK cells in peripheral blood, relatively small numbers of NK cells have been delivered in clinical trials. The inability to propagate NK cells in vitro has been the limiting factor for generating sufficient cell numbers for optimal clinical outcome. Some expansion of NK cells (5-10 fold over 1-2 weeks) has be achieved through high-dose IL-2 alone 2. Activation of autologous T cells can mediate NK cell expansion, presumably also through release of local cytokine 3. Support with mesenchymal stroma or artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) can support the expansion of NK cells from both peripheral blood and cord blood 4. Combined NKp46 and CD2 activation by antibody-coated beads is currently marketed for NK cell expansion (Miltenyi Biotec, Auburn CA), resulting in approximately 100-fold expansion in 21 days. Clinical trials using aAPC-expanded or -activated NK cells are underway, one using leukemic cell line CTV-1 to prime and activate NK cells5 without significant expansion. A second trial utilizes EBV-LCL for NK cell expansion, achieving a mean 490-fold expansion in 21 days6. The third utilizes a K562-based aAPC transduced with 4-1BBL (CD137L) and membrane-bound IL-15 (mIL-15)7, which achieved a mean NK expansion 277-fold in 21 days. Although, the NK cells expanded using K562-41BBL-mIL15 aAPC are highly cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo compared to unexpanded NK cells, and participate in ADCC, their proliferation is limited by senescence attributed to telomere shortening8. More recently a 350-fold expansion of NK cells was reported using K562 expressing MICA, 4-1BBL and IL159. Our method of NK cell expansion described herein produces rapid proliferation of NK cells without senescence achieving a median 21,000-fold expansion in 21 days.
Immunology, Issue 48, Natural Killer Cells, Tumor Immunology, Antigen Presenting Cells, Cytotoxicity
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The Soft Agar Colony Formation Assay
Authors: Stanley Borowicz, Michelle Van Scoyk, Sreedevi Avasarala, Manoj Kumar Karuppusamy Rathinam, Jordi Tauler, Rama Kamesh Bikkavilli, Robert A. Winn.
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago, University of Illinois at Chicago, Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
Anchorage-independent growth is the ability of transformed cells to grow independently of a solid surface, and is a hallmark of carcinogenesis. The soft agar colony formation assay is a well-established method for characterizing this capability in vitro and is considered to be one of the most stringent tests for malignant transformation in cells. This assay also allows for semi-quantitative evaluation of this capability in response to various treatment conditions. Here, we will demonstrate the soft agar colony formation assay using a murine lung carcinoma cell line, CMT167, to demonstrate the tumor suppressive effects of two members of the Wnt signaling pathway, Wnt7A and Frizzled-9 (Fzd-9). Concurrent overexpression of Wnt7a and Fzd-9 caused an inhibition of colony formation in CMT167 cells. This shows that expression of Wnt7a ligand and its Frizzled-9 receptor is sufficient to suppress tumor growth in a murine lung carcinoma model.
Cellular Biology, Issue 92, Wnt, Frizzled, Soft Agar Assay, Colony Formation Assay, tumor suppressor, lung cancer
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Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Haematological Malignancy Patients by using Lateral-flow Technology
Authors: Christopher Thornton, Gemma Johnson, Samir Agrawal.
Institutions: University of Exeter, Queen Mary University of London, St. Bartholomew's Hospital and The London NHS Trust.
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in haematological malignancy patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients1. Detection of IPA represents a formidable diagnostic challenge and, in the absence of a 'gold standard', relies on a combination of clinical data and microbiology and histopathology where feasible. Diagnosis of IPA must conform to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycology Study Group (EORTC/MSG) consensus defining "proven", "probable", and "possible" invasive fungal diseases2. Currently, no nucleic acid-based tests have been externally validated for IPA detection and so polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not included in current EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria. Identification of Aspergillus in histological sections is problematic because of similarities in hyphal morphologies with other invasive fungal pathogens3, and proven identification requires isolation of the etiologic agent in pure culture. Culture-based approaches rely on the availability of biopsy samples, but these are not always accessible in sick patients, and do not always yield viable propagules for culture when obtained. An important feature in the pathogenesis of Aspergillus is angio-invasion, a trait that provides opportunities to track the fungus immunologically using tests that detect characteristic antigenic signatures molecules in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. This has led to the development of the Platelia enzyme immunoassay (GM-EIA) that detects Aspergillus galactomannan and a 'pan-fungal' assay (Fungitell test) that detects the conserved fungal cell wall component (1 →3)-β-D-glucan, but not in the mucorales that lack this component in their cell walls1,4. Issues surrounding the accuracy of these tests1,4-6 has led to the recent development of next-generation monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based assays that detect surrogate markers of infection1,5. Thornton5 recently described the generation of an Aspergillus-specific MAb (JF5) using hybridoma technology and its use to develop an immuno-chromatographic lateral-flow device (LFD) for the point-of-care (POC) diagnosis of IPA. A major advantage of the LFD is its ability to detect activity since MAb JF5 binds to an extracellular glycoprotein antigen that is secreted during active growth of the fungus only5. This is an important consideration when using fluids such as lung BAL for diagnosing IPA since Aspergillus spores are a common component of inhaled air. The utility of the device in diagnosing IPA has been demonstrated using an animal model of infection, where the LFD displayed improved sensitivity and specificity compared to the Platelia GM and Fungitell (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan assays7. Here, we present a simple LFD procedure to detect Aspergillus antigen in human serum and BAL fluids. Its speed and accuracy provides a novel adjunct point-of-care test for diagnosis of IPA in haematological malignancy patients.
Immunology, Issue 61, Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, acute myeloid leukemia, bone marrow transplant, diagnosis, monoclonal antibody, lateral-flow technology
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A Manual Small Molecule Screen Approaching High-throughput Using Zebrafish Embryos
Authors: Shahram Jevin Poureetezadi, Eric K. Donahue, Rebecca A. Wingert.
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
Zebrafish have become a widely used model organism to investigate the mechanisms that underlie developmental biology and to study human disease pathology due to their considerable degree of genetic conservation with humans. Chemical genetics entails testing the effect that small molecules have on a biological process and is becoming a popular translational research method to identify therapeutic compounds. Zebrafish are specifically appealing to use for chemical genetics because of their ability to produce large clutches of transparent embryos, which are externally fertilized. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos can be easily drug treated by the simple addition of a compound to the embryo media. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), mRNA expression can be clearly visualized within zebrafish embryos. Together, using chemical genetics and WISH, the zebrafish becomes a potent whole organism context in which to determine the cellular and physiological effects of small molecules. Innovative advances have been made in technologies that utilize machine-based screening procedures, however for many labs such options are not accessible or remain cost-prohibitive. The protocol described here explains how to execute a manual high-throughput chemical genetic screen that requires basic resources and can be accomplished by a single individual or small team in an efficient period of time. Thus, this protocol provides a feasible strategy that can be implemented by research groups to perform chemical genetics in zebrafish, which can be useful for gaining fundamental insights into developmental processes, disease mechanisms, and to identify novel compounds and signaling pathways that have medically relevant applications.
Developmental Biology, Issue 93, zebrafish, chemical genetics, chemical screen, in vivo small molecule screen, drug discovery, whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), high-throughput screening (HTS), high-content screening (HCS)
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Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice
Authors: Robert S. McNeill, Ralf S. Schmid, Ryan E. Bash, Mark Vitucci, Kristen K. White, Andrea M. Werneke, Brian H. Constance, Byron Huff, C. Ryan Miller.
Institutions: University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine.
Current astrocytoma models are limited in their ability to define the roles of oncogenic mutations in specific brain cell types during disease pathogenesis and their utility for preclinical drug development. In order to design a better model system for these applications, phenotypically wild-type cortical astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) from conditional, genetically engineered mice (GEM) that harbor various combinations of floxed oncogenic alleles were harvested and grown in culture. Genetic recombination was induced in vitro using adenoviral Cre-mediated recombination, resulting in expression of mutated oncogenes and deletion of tumor suppressor genes. The phenotypic consequences of these mutations were defined by measuring proliferation, transformation, and drug response in vitro. Orthotopic allograft models, whereby transformed cells are stereotactically injected into the brains of immune-competent, syngeneic littermates, were developed to define the role of oncogenic mutations and cell type on tumorigenesis in vivo. Unlike most established human glioblastoma cell line xenografts, injection of transformed GEM-derived cortical astrocytes into the brains of immune-competent littermates produced astrocytomas, including the most aggressive subtype, glioblastoma, that recapitulated the histopathological hallmarks of human astrocytomas, including diffuse invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Bioluminescence imaging of orthotopic allografts from transformed astrocytes engineered to express luciferase was utilized to monitor in vivo tumor growth over time. Thus, astrocytoma models using astrocytes and NSC harvested from GEM with conditional oncogenic alleles provide an integrated system to study the genetics and cell biology of astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo and may be useful in preclinical drug development for these devastating diseases.
Neuroscience, Issue 90, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
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Ex vivo Mimicry of Normal and Abnormal Human Hematopoiesis
Authors: Teresa Mortera-Blanco, Maria Rende, Hugo Macedo, Serene Farah, Alexander Bismarck, Athanasios Mantalaris, Nicki Panoskaltsis.
Institutions: Imperial College London , Imperial College London .
Hematopoietic stem cells require a unique microenvironment in order to sustain blood cell formation1; the bone marrow (BM) is a complex three-dimensional (3D) tissue wherein hematopoiesis is regulated by spatially organized cellular microenvironments termed niches2-4. The organization of the BM niches is critical for the function or dysfunction of normal or malignant BM5. Therefore a better understanding of the in vivo microenvironment using an ex vivo mimicry would help us elucidate the molecular, cellular and microenvironmental determinants of leukemogenesis6. Currently, hematopoietic cells are cultured in vitro in two-dimensional (2D) tissue culture flasks/well-plates7 requiring either co-culture with allogenic or xenogenic stromal cells or addition of exogenous cytokines8. These conditions are artificial and differ from the in vivo microenvironment in that they lack the 3D cellular niches and expose the cells to abnormally high cytokine concentrations which can result in differentiation and loss of pluripotency9,10. Herein, we present a novel 3D bone marrow culture system that simulates the in vivo 3D growth environment and supports multilineage hematopoiesis in the absence of exogenous growth factors. The highly porous scaffold used in this system made of polyurethane (PU), facilitates high-density cell growth across a higher specific surface area than the conventional monolayer culture in 2D11. Our work has indicated that this model supported the growth of human cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells (MNC)12 and primary leukemic cells in the absence of exogenous cytokines. This novel 3D mimicry provides a viable platform for the development of a human experimental model to study hematopoiesis and to explore novel treatments for leukemia.
Bioengineering, Issue 62, three-dimensional culture, hematopoiesis, leukemia, cord blood
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A Parasite Rescue and Transformation Assay for Antileishmanial Screening Against Intracellular Leishmania donovani Amastigotes in THP1 Human Acute Monocytic Leukemia Cell Line
Authors: Surendra K. Jain, Rajnish Sahu, Larry A. Walker, Babu L. Tekwani.
Institutions: University of Mississippi, University of Mississippi.
Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases, largely affecting the poorest of the poor, mainly in developing countries. Over 350 million people are considered at risk of contracting leishmaniasis, and approximately 2 million new cases occur yearly1. Leishmania donovani is the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most fatal form of the disease. The choice of drugs available to treat leishmaniasis is limited 2;current treatments provide limited efficacy and many are toxic at therapeutic doses. In addition, most of the first line treatment drugs have already lost their utility due to increasing multiple drug resistance 3. The current pipeline of anti-leishmanial drugs is also severely depleted. Sustained efforts are needed to enrich a new anti-leishmanial drug discovery pipeline, and this endeavor relies on the availability of suitable in vitro screening models. In vitro promastigotes 4 and axenic amastigotes assays5 are primarily used for anti-leishmanial drug screening however, may not be appropriate due to significant cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular differences in comparison to intracellular amastigotes. Assays with macrophage-amastigotes models are considered closest to the pathophysiological conditions of leishmaniasis, and are therefore the most appropriate for in vitro screening. Differentiated, non-dividing human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP1) (make an attractive) alternative to isolated primary macrophages and can be used for assaying anti-leishmanial activity of different compounds against intracellular amastigotes. Here, we present a parasite-rescue and transformation assay with differentiated THP1 cells infected in vitro with Leishmania donovani for screening pure compounds and natural products extracts and determining the efficacy against the intracellular Leishmania amastigotes. The assay involves the following steps: (1) differentiation of THP1 cells to non-dividing macrophages, (2) infection of macrophages with L. donovani metacyclic promastigotes, (3) treatment of infected cells with test drugs, (4) controlled lysis of infected macrophages, (5) release/rescue of amastigotes and (6) transformation of live amastigotes to promastigotes. The assay was optimized using detergent treatment for controlled lysis of Leishmania-infected THP1 cells to achieve almost complete rescue of viable intracellular amastigotes with minimal effect on their ability to transform to promastigotes. Different macrophage:promastigotes ratios were tested to achieve maximum infection. Quantification of the infection was performed through transformation of live, rescued Leishmania amastigotes to promastigotes and evaluation of their growth by an alamarBlue fluorometric assay in 96-well microplates. This assay is comparable to the currently-used microscopic, transgenic reporter gene and digital-image analysis assays. This assay is robust and measures only the live intracellular amastigotes compared to reporter gene and image analysis assays, which may not differentiate between live and dead amastigotes. Also, the assay has been validated with a current panel of anti-leishmanial drugs and has been successfully applied to large-scale screening of pure compounds and a library of natural products fractions (Tekwani et al. unpublished).
Infection, Issue 70, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Pharmacology, Leishmania donovani, Visceral Leishmaniasis, THP1 cells, Drug Screening, Amastigotes, Antileishmanial drug assay
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Live Imaging of Drug Responses in the Tumor Microenvironment in Mouse Models of Breast Cancer
Authors: Elizabeth S. Nakasone, Hanne A. Askautrud, Mikala Egeblad.
Institutions: Watson School of Biological Sciences, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital.
The tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and the response to anti-cancer therapies. Three-dimensional co-culture systems are frequently used to explicate tumor-stroma interactions, including their role in drug responses. However, many of the interactions that occur in vivo in the intact microenvironment cannot be completely replicated in these in vitro settings. Thus, direct visualization of these processes in real-time has become an important tool in understanding tumor responses to therapies and identifying the interactions between cancer cells and the stroma that can influence these responses. Here we provide a method for using spinning disk confocal microscopy of live, anesthetized mice to directly observe drug distribution, cancer cell responses and changes in tumor-stroma interactions following administration of systemic therapy in breast cancer models. We describe procedures for labeling different tumor components, treatment of animals for observing therapeutic responses, and the surgical procedure for exposing tumor tissues for imaging up to 40 hours. The results obtained from this protocol are time-lapse movies, in which such processes as drug infiltration, cancer cell death and stromal cell migration can be evaluated using image analysis software.
Cancer Biology, Issue 73, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Oncology, Pharmacology, Surgery, Tumor Microenvironment, Intravital imaging, chemotherapy, Breast cancer, time-lapse, mouse models, cancer cell death, stromal cell migration, cancer, imaging, transgenic, animal model
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A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an Organic Solvent
Authors: Lisa M. Weatherly, Rachel H. Kennedy, Juyoung Shim, Julie A. Gosse.
Institutions: University of Maine, Orono, University of Maine, Orono.
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g. by an allergen), they degranulate, a process that results in the exocytosis of allergic mediators. Modulation of mast cell degranulation by drugs and toxicants may have positive or adverse effects on human health. Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells3-5. Mast cell granule component and the allergic mediator β-hexosaminidase, which is released linearly in tandem with histamine from mast cells6, can easily and reliably be measured through reaction with a fluorogenic substrate, yielding measurable fluorescence intensity in a microplate assay that is amenable to high-throughput studies1. Originally published by Naal et al.1, we have adapted this degranulation assay for the screening of drugs and toxicants and demonstrate its use here. Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is present in many consumer products and has been found to be a therapeutic aid in human allergic skin disease7-11, although the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate an assay for the effect of triclosan on mast cell degranulation. We recently showed that triclosan strongly affects mast cell function2. In an effort to avoid use of an organic solvent, triclosan is dissolved directly into aqueous buffer with heat and stirring, and resultant concentration is confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (using ε280 = 4,200 L/M/cm)12. This protocol has the potential to be used with a variety of chemicals to determine their effects on mast cell degranulation, and more broadly, their allergic potential.
Immunology, Issue 81, mast cell, basophil, degranulation, RBL-2H3, triclosan, irgasan, antibacterial, β-hexosaminidase, allergy, Asthma, toxicants, ionophore, antigen, fluorescence, microplate, UV-Vis
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A Method for Screening and Validation of Resistant Mutations Against Kinase Inhibitors
Authors: Meenu Kesarwani, Erika Huber, Zachary Kincaid, Mohammad Azam.
Institutions: Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.
The discovery of BCR/ABL as a driver oncogene in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resulted in the development of Imatinib, which, in fact, demonstrated the potential of targeting the kinase in cancers by effectively treating the CML patients. This observation revolutionized drug development to target the oncogenic kinases implicated in various other malignancies, such as, EGFR, B-RAF, KIT and PDGFRs. However, one major drawback of anti-kinase therapies is the emergence of drug resistance mutations rendering the target to have reduced or lost affinity for the drug. Understanding the mechanisms employed by resistant variants not only helps in developing the next generation inhibitors but also gives impetus to clinical management using personalized medicine. We reported a retroviral vector based screening strategy to identify the spectrum of resistance conferring mutations in BCR/ABL, which has helped in developing the next generation BCR/ABL inhibitors. Using Ruxolitinib and JAK2 as a drug target pair, here we describe in vitro screening methods that utilizes the mouse BAF3 cells expressing the random mutation library of JAK2 kinase.
Genetics, Issue 94, JAK2, BCR/ABL, TKI, random mutagenesis, drug resistance, kinase inhibitors, in-vivo resistance,
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Identifying DNA Mutations in Purified Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells
Authors: Ziming Cheng, Ting Zhou, Azhar Merchant, Thomas J. Prihoda, Brian L. Wickes, Guogang Xu, Christi A. Walter, Vivienne I. Rebel.
Institutions: UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio.
In recent years, it has become apparent that genomic instability is tightly related to many developmental disorders, cancers, and aging. Given that stem cells are responsible for ensuring tissue homeostasis and repair throughout life, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the stem cell population is critical for preserving genomic integrity of tissues. Therefore, significant interest has arisen in assessing the impact of endogenous and environmental factors on genomic integrity in stem cells and their progeny, aiming to understand the etiology of stem-cell based diseases. LacI transgenic mice carry a recoverable λ phage vector encoding the LacI reporter system, in which the LacI gene serves as the mutation reporter. The result of a mutated LacI gene is the production of β-galactosidase that cleaves a chromogenic substrate, turning it blue. The LacI reporter system is carried in all cells, including stem/progenitor cells and can easily be recovered and used to subsequently infect E. coli. After incubating infected E. coli on agarose that contains the correct substrate, plaques can be scored; blue plaques indicate a mutant LacI gene, while clear plaques harbor wild-type. The frequency of blue (among clear) plaques indicates the mutant frequency in the original cell population the DNA was extracted from. Sequencing the mutant LacI gene will show the location of the mutations in the gene and the type of mutation. The LacI transgenic mouse model is well-established as an in vivo mutagenesis assay. Moreover, the mice and the reagents for the assay are commercially available. Here we describe in detail how this model can be adapted to measure the frequency of spontaneously occurring DNA mutants in stem cell-enriched Lin-IL7R-Sca-1+cKit++(LSK) cells and other subpopulations of the hematopoietic system.
Infection, Issue 84, In vivo mutagenesis, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, LacI mouse model, DNA mutations, E. coli
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Colony Forming Cell (CFC) Assay for Human Hematopoietic Cells
Authors: Nayan J. Sarma, Akiko Takeda, Nabeel R. Yaseen.
Institutions: Washington University School of Medicine.
Human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells are usually obtained from bone marrow, cord blood, or peripheral blood and are used to study hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. They have the capacity to differentiate into lymphoid and myeloid lineages. The colony forming cell (CFC) assay is used to study the proliferation and differentiation pattern of hematopoietic progenitors by their ability to form colonies in a semisolid medium. The number and the morphology of the colonies formed by a fixed number of input cells provide preliminary information about the ability of progenitors to differentiate and proliferate. Cells can be harvested from individual colonies or from the whole plate to further assess their numbers and differentiation states using flow cytometry and morphologic evaluation of Giemsa-stained slides. This assay is useful for assessing myeloid but not lymphoid differentiation. The term myeloid in this context is used in its wider sense to encompass granulocytic, monocytic, erythroid, and megakaryocytic lineages. We have used this assay to assess the effects of oncogenes on the differentiation of primary human CD34+ cells derived from peripheral blood. For this purpose cells are transduced with either control retroviral construct or a construct expressing the oncogene of interest, in this case NUP98-HOXA9. We employ a commonly used retroviral vector, MSCV-IRES-GFP, that expresses a bicistronic mRNA that produces the gene of interest and a GFP marker. Cells are pre-activated by growing in the presence of cytokines for two days prior to retroviral transduction. After another two days, GFP+ cells are isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and mixed with a methylcellulose-containing semisolid medium supplemented with cytokines and incubated till colonies appear on the surface, typically 14 days. The number and morphology of the colonies are documented. Cells are then removed from the plates, washed, counted, and subjected to flow cytometry and morphologic examination. Flow cytometry with antibodies specific to the cell surface markers expressed during hematopoiesis provides information about lineage and maturation stage. Morphological studies of individual cells under a microscope after Wright- Giemsa staining provide further information with regard to lineage and maturation. Comparison of cells transduced with control empty vector to those transduced with an oncogene reveals the effects of the oncogene on hematopoietic differentiation.
Medicine, Issue 46, CFC assay, Hematopoietic progenitors, CD34, methylcellulose, flow cytometry, Wright/Giemsa
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Enrichment for Chemoresistant Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells from Human Cell Lines
Authors: Jennifer M. Cole, Stancy Joseph, Christopher G. Sudhahar, Karen D. Cowden Dahl.
Institutions: Indiana University School of Medicine.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as a subset of slow cycling and undifferentiated cells that divide asymmetrically to generate highly proliferative, invasive, and chemoresistant tumor cells. Therefore, CSCs are an attractive population of cells to target therapeutically. CSCs are predicted to contribute to a number of types of malignancies including those in the blood, brain, lung, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, and ovary. Isolating and enriching a tumor cell population for CSCs will enable researchers to study the properties, genetics, and therapeutic response of CSCs. We generated a protocol that reproducibly enriches for ovarian cancer CSCs from ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and OVCA429). Cell lines are treated with 20 µM cisplatin for 3 days. Surviving cells are isolated and cultured in a serum-free stem cell media containing cytokines and growth factors. We demonstrate an enrichment of these purified CSCs by analyzing the isolated cells for known stem cell markers Oct4, Nanog, and Prom1 (CD133) and cell surface expression of CD177 and CD133. The CSCs exhibit increased chemoresistance. This method for isolation of CSCs is a useful tool for studying the role of CSCs in chemoresistance and tumor relapse.
Medicine, Issue 91, cancer stem cells, stem cell markers, ovarian cancer, chemoresistance, cisplatin, cancer progression
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Culture of myeloid dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors
Authors: Jeanette Boudreau, Sandeep Koshy, Derek Cummings, Yonghong Wan.
Institutions: McMaster University, McMaster University, University of Waterloo.
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are frequently used to study the interactions between innate and adaptive immune mechanisms and the early response to infection. Because these are the most potent antigen presenting cells, DCs are being increasingly used as a vaccine vector to study the induction of antigen-specific immune responses. In this video, we demonstrate the procedure for harvesting tibias and femurs from a donor mouse, processing the bone marrow and differentiating DCs in vitro. The properties of DCs change following stimulation: immature dendritic cells are potent phagocytes, whereas mature DCs are capable of antigen presentation and interaction with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This change in functional activity corresponds with the upregulation of cell surface markers and cytokine production. Many agents can be used to mature DCs, including cytokines and toll-like receptor ligands. In this video, we demonstrate flow cytometric comparisons of expression of two co-stimulatory molecules, CD86 and CD40, and the cytokine, IL-12, following overnight stimulation with CpG or mock treatment. After differentiation, DCs can be further manipulated for use as a vaccine vector or to generate antigen-specific immune responses by in vitro pulsing using peptides or proteins, or transduced using recombinant viral vectors.
Immunology, Issue 17, dendritic cells, GM-CSF, culture, bone marrow
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.