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FGF /FGFR signal induces trachea extension in the drosophila visual system.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
The Drosophila compound eye is a large sensory organ that places a high demand on oxygen supplied by the tracheal system. Although the development and function of the Drosophila visual system has been extensively studied, the development and contribution of its tracheal system has not been systematically examined. To address this issue, we studied the tracheal patterns and developmental process in the Drosophila visual system. We found that the retinal tracheae are derived from air sacs in the head, and the ingrowth of retinal trachea begin at mid-pupal stage. The tracheal development has three stages. First, the air sacs form near the optic lobe in 42-47% of pupal development (pd). Second, in 47-52% pd, air sacs extend branches along the base of the retina following a posterior-to-anterior direction and further form the tracheal network under the fenestrated membrane (TNUFM). Third, the TNUFM extend fine branches into the retina following a proximal-to-distal direction after 60% pd. Furthermore, we found that the trachea extension in both retina and TNUFM are dependent on the FGF(Bnl)/FGFR(Btl) signaling. Our results also provided strong evidence that the photoreceptors are the source of the Bnl ligand to guide the trachea ingrowth. Our work is the first systematic study of the tracheal development in the visual system, and also the first study demonstrating the interactions of two well-studied systems: the eye and trachea.
Authors: Tiffani A Jones, Mark M. Metzstein.
Published: 07-09-2013
Cell shape is critical for cell function. However, despite the importance of cell morphology, little is known about how individual cells generate specific shapes. Drosophila tracheal terminal cells have become a powerful genetic model to identify and elucidate the roles of genes required for generating cellular morphologies. Terminal cells are a component of a branched tubular network, the tracheal system that functions to supply oxygen to internal tissues. Terminal cells are an excellent model for investigating questions of cell shape as they possess two distinct cellular architectures. First, terminal cells have an elaborate branched morphology, similar to complex neurons; second, terminal cell branches are formed as thin tubes and contain a membrane-bound intracellular lumen. Quantitative analysis of terminal cell branch number, branch organization and individual branch shape, can be used to provide information about the role of specific genetic mechanisms in the making of a branched cell. Analysis of tube formation in these cells can reveal conserved mechanisms of tubulogenesis common to other tubular networks, such as the vertebrate vasculature. Here we describe techniques that can be used to rapidly fix, image, and analyze both branching patterns and tube formation in terminal cells within Drosophila larvae. These techniques can be used to analyze terminal cells in wild-type and mutant animals, or genetic mosaics. Because of the high efficiency of this protocol, it is also well suited for genetic, RNAi-based, or drug screens in the Drosophila tracheal system.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
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Preparation of Developing and Adult Drosophila Brains and Retinae for Live Imaging
Authors: W. Ryan Williamson, P. Robin Hiesinger.
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
The Drosophila brain and visual system are widely utilized model systems to study neuronal development, function and degeneration. Here we show three preparations of the brain and visual system that cover the range from the developing eye disc-brain complex in the developing pupae to individual eye and brain dissection from adult flies. All protocols are optimized for the live culture of the preparations. However, we also present the conditions for fixed tissue immunohistochemistry where applicable. Finally, we show live imaging conditions for these preparations using conventional and resonant 4D confocal live imaging in a perfusion chamber. Together, these protocols provide a basis for live imaging on different time scales ranging from functional intracellular assays on the scale of minutes to developmental or degenerative processes on the scale of many hours.
Neuroscience, Issue 37, dissection technique, eye disc, brain culture, photoreceptor, confocal microscopy
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An Introduction to Parasitic Wasps of Drosophila and the Antiparasite Immune Response
Authors: Chiyedza Small, Indira Paddibhatla, Roma Rajwani, Shubha Govind.
Institutions: The City College of New York, CUNY, The City University of New York.
Most known parasitoid wasp species attack the larval or pupal stages of Drosophila. While Trichopria drosophilae infect the pupal stages of the host (Fig. 1A-C), females of the genus Leptopilina (Fig. 1D, 1F, 1G) and Ganaspis (Fig. 1E) attack the larval stages. We use these parasites to study the molecular basis of a biological arms race. Parasitic wasps have tremendous value as biocontrol agents. Most of them carry virulence and other factors that modify host physiology and immunity. Analysis of Drosophila wasps is providing insights into how species-specific interactions shape the genetic structures of natural communities. These studies also serve as a model for understanding the hosts' immune physiology and how coordinated immune reactions are thwarted by this class of parasites. The larval/pupal cuticle serves as the first line of defense. The wasp ovipositor is a sharp needle-like structure that efficiently delivers eggs into the host hemocoel. Oviposition is followed by a wound healing reaction at the cuticle (Fig. 1C, arrowheads). Some wasps can insert two or more eggs into the same host, although the development of only one egg succeeds. Supernumerary eggs or developing larvae are eliminated by a process that is not yet understood. These wasps are therefore referred to as solitary parasitoids. Depending on the fly strain and the wasp species, the wasp egg has one of two fates. It is either encapsulated, so that its development is blocked (host emerges; Fig. 2 left); or the wasp egg hatches, develops, molts, and grows into an adult (wasp emerges; Fig. 2 right). L. heterotoma is one of the best-studied species of Drosophila parasitic wasps. It is a "generalist," which means that it can utilize most Drosophila species as hosts1. L. heterotoma and L. victoriae are sister species and they produce virus-like particles that actively interfere with the encapsulation response2. Unlike L. heterotoma, L. boulardi is a specialist parasite and the range of Drosophila species it utilizes is relatively limited1. Strains of L. boulardi also produce virus-like particles3 although they differ significantly in their ability to succeed on D. melanogaster1. Some of these L. boulardi strains are difficult to grow on D. melanogaster1 as the fly host frequently succeeds in encapsulating their eggs. Thus, it is important to have the knowledge of both partners in specific experimental protocols. In addition to barrier tissues (cuticle, gut and trachea), Drosophila larvae have systemic cellular and humoral immune responses that arise from functions of blood cells and the fat body, respectively. Oviposition by L. boulardi activates both immune arms1,4. Blood cells are found in circulation, in sessile populations under the segmented cuticle, and in the lymph gland. The lymph gland is a small hematopoietic organ on the dorsal side of the larva. Clusters of hematopoietic cells, called lobes, are arranged segmentally in pairs along the dorsal vessel that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of the animal (Fig. 3A). The fat body is a large multifunctional organ (Fig. 3B). It secretes antimicrobial peptides in response to microbial and metazoan infections. Wasp infection activates immune signaling (Fig. 4)4. At the cellular level, it triggers division and differentiation of blood cells. In self defense, aggregates and capsules develop in the hemocoel of infected animals (Fig. 5)5,6. Activated blood cells migrate toward the wasp egg (or wasp larva) and begin to form a capsule around it (Fig. 5A-F). Some blood cells aggregate to form nodules (Fig. 5G-H). Careful analysis reveals that wasp infection induces the anterior-most lymph gland lobes to disperse at their peripheries (Fig. 6C, D). We present representative data with Toll signal transduction pathway components Dorsal and Spätzle (Figs. 4,5,7), and its target Drosomycin (Fig. 6), to illustrate how specific changes in the lymph gland and hemocoel can be studied after wasp infection. The dissection protocols described here also yield the wasp eggs (or developing stages of wasps) from the host hemolymph (Fig. 8).
Immunology, Issue 63, Parasitoid wasps, innate immunity, encapsulation, hematopoiesis, insect, fat body, Toll-NF-kappaB, molecular biology
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Preparation of Drosophila Central Neurons for in situ Patch Clamping
Authors: Stefanie Ryglewski, Carsten Duch.
Institutions: Arizona State University .
Short generation times and facile genetic techniques make the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster an excellent genetic model in fundamental neuroscience research. Ion channels are the basis of all behavior since they mediate neuronal excitability. The first voltage gated ion channel cloned was the Drosophila voltage gated potassium channel Shaker1,2. Toward understanding the role of ion channels and membrane excitability for nervous system function it is useful to combine powerful genetic tools available in Drosophila with in situ patch clamp recordings. For many years such recordings have been hampered by the small size of the Drosophila CNS. Furthermore, a robust sheath made of glia and collagen constituted obstacles for patch pipette access to central neurons. Removal of this sheath is a necessary precondition for patch clamp recordings from any neuron in the adult Drosophila CNS. In recent years scientists have been able to conduct in situ patch clamp recordings from neurons in the adult brain3,4 and ventral nerve cord of embryonic5,6, larval7,8,9,10, and adult Drosophila11,12,13,14. A stable giga-seal is the main precondition for a good patch and depends on clean contact of the patch pipette with the cell membrane to avoid leak currents. Therefore, for whole cell in situ patch clamp recordings from adult Drosophila neurons must be cleaned thoroughly. In the first step, the ganglionic sheath has to be treated enzymatically and mechanically removed to make the target cells accessible. In the second step, the cell membrane has to be polished so that no layer of glia, collagen or other material may disturb giga-seal formation. This article describes how to prepare an identified central neuron in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord, the flight motoneuron 5 (MN515), for somatic whole cell patch clamp recordings. Identification and visibility of the neuron is achieved by targeted expression of GFP in MN5. We do not aim to explain the patch clamp technique itself.
Neuroscience, Issue 68, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Patch clamp, in situ patch clamp, Drosophila, electrophysiology, motoneuron, neuron, CNS
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Appetitive Associative Olfactory Learning in Drosophila Larvae
Authors: Anthi A. Apostolopoulou, Annekathrin Widmann, Astrid Rohwedder, Johanna E. Pfitzenmaier, Andreas S. Thum.
Institutions: University of Konstanz, University of Fribourg.
In the following we describe the methodological details of appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae. The setup, in combination with genetic interference, provides a handle to analyze the neuronal and molecular fundamentals of specifically associative learning in a simple larval brain. Organisms can use past experience to adjust present behavior. Such acquisition of behavioral potential can be defined as learning, and the physical bases of these potentials as memory traces1-4. Neuroscientists try to understand how these processes are organized in terms of molecular and neuronal changes in the brain by using a variety of methods in model organisms ranging from insects to vertebrates5,6. For such endeavors it is helpful to use model systems that are simple and experimentally accessible. The Drosophila larva has turned out to satisfy these demands based on the availability of robust behavioral assays, the existence of a variety of transgenic techniques and the elementary organization of the nervous system comprising only about 10,000 neurons (albeit with some concessions: cognitive limitations, few behavioral options, and richness of experience questionable)7-10. Drosophila larvae can form associations between odors and appetitive gustatory reinforcement like sugar11-14. In a standard assay, established in the lab of B. Gerber, animals receive a two-odor reciprocal training: A first group of larvae is exposed to an odor A together with a gustatory reinforcer (sugar reward) and is subsequently exposed to an odor B without reinforcement 9. Meanwhile a second group of larvae receives reciprocal training while experiencing odor A without reinforcement and subsequently being exposed to odor B with reinforcement (sugar reward). In the following both groups are tested for their preference between the two odors. Relatively higher preferences for the rewarded odor reflect associative learning - presented as a performance index (PI). The conclusion regarding the associative nature of the performance index is compelling, because apart from the contingency between odors and tastants, other parameters, such as odor and reward exposure, passage of time and handling do not differ between the two groups9.
Neuroscience, Issue 72, Developmental Biology, Neurobiology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Physiology, Behavior, Drosophila, fruit fly, larvae, instar, olfaction, olfactory system, odor, 1-octanol, OCT, learning, reward, sugar, feeding, animal model
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In-vivo Centrifugation of Drosophila Embryos
Authors: Susan L. Tran, Michael A. Welte.
Institutions: University of Rochester.
A major strategy for purifying and isolating different types of intracellular organelles is to separate them from each other based on differences in buoyant density. However, when cells are disrupted prior to centrifugation, proteins and organelles in this non-native environment often inappropriately stick to each other. Here we describe a method to separate organelles by density in intact, living Drosophila embryos. Early embryos before cellularization are harvested from population cages, and their outer egg shells are removed by treatment with 50% bleach. Embryos are then transferred to a small agar plate and inserted, posterior end first, into small vertical holes in the agar. The plates containing embedded embryos are centrifuged for 30 min at 3000g. The agar supports the embryos and keeps them in a defined orientation. Afterwards, the embryos are dug out of the agar with a blunt needle. Centrifugation separates major organelles into distinct layers, a stratification easily visible by bright-field microscopy. A number of fluorescent markers are available to confirm successful stratification in living embryos. Proteins associated with certain organelles will be enriched in a particular layer, demonstrating colocalization. Individual layers can be recovered for biochemical analysis or transplantation into donor eggs. This technique is applicable for organelle separation in other large cells, including the eggs and oocytes of diverse species.
Cellular Biology, Issue 40, Drosophila, embryo, centrifugation, organelle, lipid droplet, yolk, colocalization, transplantation
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A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research
Authors: Brian H. Smith, Christina M. Burden.
Institutions: Arizona State University.
Insects modify their responses to stimuli through experience of associating those stimuli with events important for survival (e.g., food, mates, threats). There are several behavioral mechanisms through which an insect learns salient associations and relates them to these events. It is important to understand this behavioral plasticity for programs aimed toward assisting insects that are beneficial for agriculture. This understanding can also be used for discovering solutions to biomedical and agricultural problems created by insects that act as disease vectors and pests. The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol was developed for honey bees (Apis mellifera) over 50 years ago to study how they perceive and learn about floral odors, which signal the nectar and pollen resources a colony needs for survival. The PER procedure provides a robust and easy-to-employ framework for studying several different ecologically relevant mechanisms of behavioral plasticity. It is easily adaptable for use with several other insect species and other behavioral reflexes. These protocols can be readily employed in conjunction with various means for monitoring neural activity in the CNS via electrophysiology or bioimaging, or for manipulating targeted neuromodulatory pathways. It is a robust assay for rapidly detecting sub-lethal effects on behavior caused by environmental stressors, toxins or pesticides. We show how the PER protocol is straightforward to implement using two procedures. One is suitable as a laboratory exercise for students or for quick assays of the effect of an experimental treatment. The other provides more thorough control of variables, which is important for studies of behavioral conditioning. We show how several measures for the behavioral response ranging from binary yes/no to more continuous variable like latency and duration of proboscis extension can be used to test hypotheses. And, we discuss some pitfalls that researchers commonly encounter when they use the procedure for the first time.
Neuroscience, Issue 91, PER, conditioning, honey bee, olfaction, olfactory processing, learning, memory, toxin assay
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Guidelines for Elective Pediatric Fiberoptic Intubation
Authors: Roland N. Kaddoum, Zulfiqar Ahmed, Alan A. D'Augsutine, Maria M. Zestos.
Institutions: St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Children's Hospital of Michigan.
Fiberoptic intubation in pediatric patients is often required especially in difficult airways of syndromic patients i.e. Pierre Robin Syndrome. Small babies will desaturate very quickly if ventilation is interrupted mainly to high metabolic rate. We describe guidelines to perform a safe fiberoptic intubation while maintaining spontaneous breathing throughout the procedure. Steps requiring the use of propofol pump, fentanyl, glycopyrrolate, red rubber catheter, metal insuflation hook, afrin, lubricant and lidocaine spray are shown.
Medicine, Issue 47, Fiberoptic, Intubation, Pediatric, elective
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Videomorphometric Analysis of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction of Intra-pulmonary Arteries Using Murine Precision Cut Lung Slices
Authors: Renate Paddenberg, Petra Mermer, Anna Goldenberg, Wolfgang Kummer.
Institutions: Justus-Liebig-University.
Acute alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) - also known as von Euler-Liljestrand mechanism - which serves to match lung perfusion to ventilation. Up to now, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The major vascular segment contributing to HPV is the intra-acinar artery. This vessel section is responsible for the blood supply of an individual acinus, which is defined as the portion of lung distal to a terminal bronchiole. Intra-acinar arteries are mostly located in that part of the lung that cannot be selectively reached by a number of commonly used techniques such as measurement of the pulmonary artery pressure in isolated perfused lungs or force recordings from dissected proximal pulmonary artery segments1,2. The analysis of subpleural vessels by real-time confocal laser scanning luminescence microscopy is limited to vessels with up to 50 µm in diameter3. We provide a technique to study HPV of murine intra-pulmonary arteries in the range of 20-100 µm inner diameters. It is based on the videomorphometric analysis of cross-sectioned arteries in precision cut lung slices (PCLS). This method allows the quantitative measurement of vasoreactivity of small intra-acinar arteries with inner diameter between 20-40 µm which are located at gussets of alveolar septa next to alveolar ducts and of larger pre-acinar arteries with inner diameters between 40-100 µm which run adjacent to bronchi and bronchioles. In contrast to real-time imaging of subpleural vessels in anesthetized and ventilated mice, videomorphometric analysis of PCLS occurs under conditions free of shear stress. In our experimental model both arterial segments exhibit a monophasic HPV when exposed to medium gassed with 1% O2 and the response fades after 30-40 min at hypoxia.
Medicine, Issue 83, Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, murine lungs, precision cut lung slices, intra-pulmonary, pre- and intra-acinar arteries, videomorphometry
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Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies
Authors: Patrick De Boever, Tijs Louwies, Eline Provost, Luc Int Panis, Tim S. Nawrot.
Institutions: Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Hasselt University, Hasselt University, Leuven University.
The microcirculation consists of blood vessels with diameters less than 150 µm. It makes up a large part of the circulatory system and plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular health. The retina is a tissue that lines the interior of the eye and it is the only tissue that allows for a non-invasive analysis of the microvasculature. Nowadays, high-quality fundus images can be acquired using digital cameras. Retinal images can be collected in 5 min or less, even without dilatation of the pupils. This unobtrusive and fast procedure for visualizing the microcirculation is attractive to apply in epidemiological studies and to monitor cardiovascular health from early age up to old age. Systemic diseases that affect the circulation can result in progressive morphological changes in the retinal vasculature. For example, changes in the vessel calibers of retinal arteries and veins have been associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and increased risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. The vessel widths are derived using image analysis software and the width of the six largest arteries and veins are summarized in the Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent (CRAE) and the Central Retinal Venular Equivalent (CRVE). The latter features have been shown useful to study the impact of modifiable lifestyle and environmental cardiovascular disease risk factors. The procedures to acquire fundus images and the analysis steps to obtain CRAE and CRVE are described. Coefficients of variation of repeated measures of CRAE and CRVE are less than 2% and within-rater reliability is very high. Using a panel study, the rapid response of the retinal vessel calibers to short-term changes in particulate air pollution, a known risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, is reported. In conclusion, retinal imaging is proposed as a convenient and instrumental tool for epidemiological studies to study microvascular responses to cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Medicine, Issue 92, retina, microvasculature, image analysis, Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent, Central Retinal Venular Equivalent, air pollution, particulate matter, black carbon
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Dissection, Culture, and Analysis of Xenopus laevis Embryonic Retinal Tissue
Authors: Molly J. McDonough, Chelsea E. Allen, Ng-Kwet-Leok A. Ng-Sui-Hing, Brian A. Rabe, Brittany B. Lewis, Margaret S. Saha.
Institutions: College of William and Mary.
The process by which the anterior region of the neural plate gives rise to the vertebrate retina continues to be a major focus of both clinical and basic research. In addition to the obvious medical relevance for understanding and treating retinal disease, the development of the vertebrate retina continues to serve as an important and elegant model system for understanding neuronal cell type determination and differentiation1-16. The neural retina consists of six discrete cell types (ganglion, amacrine, horizontal, photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and Müller glial cells) arranged in stereotypical layers, a pattern that is largely conserved among all vertebrates 12,14-18. While studying the retina in the intact developing embryo is clearly required for understanding how this complex organ develops from a protrusion of the forebrain into a layered structure, there are many questions that benefit from employing approaches using primary cell culture of presumptive retinal cells 7,19-23. For example, analyzing cells from tissues removed and dissociated at different stages allows one to discern the state of specification of individual cells at different developmental stages, that is, the fate of the cells in the absence of interactions with neighboring tissues 8,19-22,24-33. Primary cell culture also allows the investigator to treat the culture with specific reagents and analyze the results on a single cell level 5,8,21,24,27-30,33-39. Xenopus laevis, a classic model system for the study of early neural development 19,27,29,31-32,40-42, serves as a particularly suitable system for retinal primary cell culture 10,38,43-45. Presumptive retinal tissue is accessible from the earliest stages of development, immediately following neural induction 25,38,43. In addition, given that each cell in the embryo contains a supply of yolk, retinal cells can be cultured in a very simple defined media consisting of a buffered salt solution, thus removing the confounding effects of incubation or other sera-based products 10,24,44-45. However, the isolation of the retinal tissue from surrounding tissues and the subsequent processing is challenging. Here, we present a method for the dissection and dissociation of retinal cells in Xenopus laevis that will be used to prepare primary cell cultures that will, in turn, be analyzed for calcium activity and gene expression at the resolution of single cells. While the topic presented in this paper is the analysis of spontaneous calcium transients, the technique is broadly applicable to a wide array of research questions and approaches (Figure 1).
Developmental Biology, Issue 70, Neuroscience, Cellular Biology, Surgery, Anatomy, Physiology, Ophthalmology, retina, primary cell culture, dissection, confocal microscopy, calcium imaging, fluorescent in situ hybridization, FISH, Xenopus laevis, animal model
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Dissection and Immunohistochemistry of Larval, Pupal and Adult Drosophila Retinas
Authors: Hui-Yi Hsiao, Robert J. Johnston Jr., David Jukam, Daniel Vasiliauskas, Claude Desplan, Jens Rister.
Institutions: New York University .
The compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster consists of about 750 ommatidia (unit eyes). Each ommatidium is composed of about 20 cells, including lens-secreting cone cells, pigment cells, a bristle cell and eight photoreceptors (PRs) R1-R8 2. The PRs have specialized microvillar structures, the rhabdomeres, which contain light-sensitive pigments, the Rhodopsins (Rhs). The rhabdomeres of six PRs (R1-R6) form a trapezoid and contain Rh1 3 4. The rhabdomeres of R7 and R8 are positioned in tandem in the center of the trapezoid and share the same path of light. R7 and R8 PRs stochastically express different combinations of Rhs in two main subtypes5: In the 'p' subtype, Rh3 in pR7s is coupled with Rh5 in pR8s, whereas in the 'y' subtype, Rh4 in yR7s is associated with Rh6 in yR8s 6 7 8. Early specification of PRs and development of ommatidia begins in the larval eye-antennal imaginal disc, a monolayer of epithelial cells. A wave of differentiation sweeps across the disc9 and initiates the assembly of undifferentiated cells into ommatidia10-11. The 'founder cell' R8 is specified first and recruits R1-6 and then R7 12-14. Subsequently, during pupal development, PR differentiation leads to extensive morphological changes 15, including rhabdomere formation, synaptogenesis and eventually rh expression. In this protocol, we describe methods for retinal dissections and immunohistochemistry at three defined periods of retina development, which can be applied to address a variety of questions concerning retinal formation and developmental pathways. Here, we use these methods to visualize the stepwise PR differentiation at the single-cell level in whole mount larval, midpupal and adult retinas (Figure 1).
Neuroscience, Issue 69, Anatomy, Physiology, Immunology, Developmental Biology, Drosophila, retina, photoreceptor, imaginal disc, larva, pupa, confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry
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The Tomato/GFP-FLP/FRT Method for Live Imaging of Mosaic Adult Drosophila Photoreceptor Cells
Authors: Pierre Dourlen, Clemence Levet, Alexandre Mejat, Alexis Gambis, Bertrand Mollereau.
Institutions: Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université Lille-Nord de France, The Rockefeller University.
The Drosophila eye is widely used as a model for studies of development and neuronal degeneration. With the powerful mitotic recombination technique, elegant genetic screens based on clonal analysis have led to the identification of signaling pathways involved in eye development and photoreceptor (PR) differentiation at larval stages. We describe here the Tomato/GFP-FLP/FRT method, which can be used for rapid clonal analysis in the eye of living adult Drosophila. Fluorescent photoreceptor cells are imaged with the cornea neutralization technique, on retinas with mosaic clones generated by flipase-mediated recombination. This method has several major advantages over classical histological sectioning of the retina: it can be used for high-throughput screening and has proved an effective method for identifying the factors regulating PR survival and function. It can be used for kinetic analyses of PR degeneration in the same living animal over several weeks, to demonstrate the requirement for specific genes for PR survival or function in the adult fly. This method is also useful for addressing cell autonomy issues in developmental mutants, such as those in which the establishment of planar cell polarity is affected.
Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Eye, Photoreceptor Cells, Genes, Developmental, neuron, visualization, degeneration, development, live imaging,Drosophila, photoreceptor, cornea neutralization, mitotic recombination
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Using Microfluidics Chips for Live Imaging and Study of Injury Responses in Drosophila Larvae
Authors: Bibhudatta Mishra, Mostafa Ghannad-Rezaie, Jiaxing Li, Xin Wang, Yan Hao, Bing Ye, Nikos Chronis, Catherine A. Collins.
Institutions: University of Michigan, University of Michigan, University of Michigan, University of Michigan, University of Michigan.
Live imaging is an important technique for studying cell biological processes, however this can be challenging in live animals. The translucent cuticle of the Drosophila larva makes it an attractive model organism for live imaging studies. However, an important challenge for live imaging techniques is to noninvasively immobilize and position an animal on the microscope. This protocol presents a simple and easy to use method for immobilizing and imaging Drosophila larvae on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device, which we call the 'larva chip'. The larva chip is comprised of a snug-fitting PDMS microchamber that is attached to a thin glass coverslip, which, upon application of a vacuum via a syringe, immobilizes the animal and brings ventral structures such as the nerve cord, segmental nerves, and body wall muscles, within close proximity to the coverslip. This allows for high-resolution imaging, and importantly, avoids the use of anesthetics and chemicals, which facilitates the study of a broad range of physiological processes. Since larvae recover easily from the immobilization, they can be readily subjected to multiple imaging sessions. This allows for longitudinal studies over time courses ranging from hours to days. This protocol describes step-by-step how to prepare the chip and how to utilize the chip for live imaging of neuronal events in 3rd instar larvae. These events include the rapid transport of organelles in axons, calcium responses to injury, and time-lapse studies of the trafficking of photo-convertible proteins over long distances and time scales. Another application of the chip is to study regenerative and degenerative responses to axonal injury, so the second part of this protocol describes a new and simple procedure for injuring axons within peripheral nerves by a segmental nerve crush.
Bioengineering, Issue 84, Drosophila melanogaster, Live Imaging, Microfluidics, axonal injury, axonal degeneration, calcium imaging, photoconversion, laser microsurgery
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Ex vivo Culture of Drosophila Pupal Testis and Single Male Germ-line Cysts: Dissection, Imaging, and Pharmacological Treatment
Authors: Stefanie M. K. Gärtner, Christina Rathke, Renate Renkawitz-Pohl, Stephan Awe.
Institutions: Philipps-Universität Marburg, Philipps-Universität Marburg.
During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. This includes differentiation from a stem cell population, mitotic amplification, and meiosis. In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin—the histone-to-protamine switch. Studying the role of a protein in post-meiotic spermatogenesis using mutagenesis or other genetic tools is often impeded by essential embryonic, pre-meiotic, or meiotic functions of the protein under investigation. The post-meiotic phenotype of a mutant of such a protein could be obscured through an earlier developmental block, or the interpretation of the phenotype could be complicated. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster offers a bypass to this problem: intact testes and even cysts of germ cells dissected from early pupae are able to develop ex vivo in culture medium. Making use of such cultures allows microscopic imaging of living germ cells in testes and of germ-line cysts. Importantly, the cultivated testes and germ cells also become accessible to pharmacological inhibitors, thereby permitting manipulation of enzymatic functions during spermatogenesis, including post-meiotic stages. The protocol presented describes how to dissect and cultivate pupal testes and germ-line cysts. Information on the development of pupal testes and culture conditions are provided alongside microscope imaging data of live testes and germ-line cysts in culture. We also describe a pharmacological assay to study post-meiotic spermatogenesis, exemplified by an assay targeting the histone-to-protamine switch using the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor anacardic acid. In principle, this cultivation method could be adapted to address many other research questions in pre- and post-meiotic spermatogenesis.
Developmental Biology, Issue 91, Ex vivo culture, testis, male germ-line cells, Drosophila, imaging, pharmacological assay
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Nonhuman Primate Lung Decellularization and Recellularization Using a Specialized Large-organ Bioreactor
Authors: Ryan W. Bonvillain, Michelle E. Scarritt, Nicholas C. Pashos, Jacques P. Mayeux, Christopher L. Meshberger, Aline M. Betancourt, Deborah E. Sullivan, Bruce A. Bunnell.
Institutions: Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine.
There are an insufficient number of lungs available to meet current and future organ transplantation needs. Bioartificial tissue regeneration is an attractive alternative to classic organ transplantation. This technology utilizes an organ's natural biological extracellular matrix (ECM) as a scaffold onto which autologous or stem/progenitor cells may be seeded and cultured in such a way that facilitates regeneration of the original tissue. The natural ECM is isolated by a process called decellularization. Decellularization is accomplished by treating tissues with a series of detergents, salts, and enzymes to achieve effective removal of cellular material while leaving the ECM intact. Studies conducted utilizing decellularization and subsequent recellularization of rodent lungs demonstrated marginal success in generating pulmonary-like tissue which is capable of gas exchange in vivo. While offering essential proof-of-concept, rodent models are not directly translatable to human use. Nonhuman primates (NHP) offer a more suitable model in which to investigate the use of bioartificial organ production for eventual clinical use. The protocols for achieving complete decellularization of lungs acquired from the NHP rhesus macaque are presented. The resulting acellular lungs can be seeded with a variety of cells including mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial cells. The manuscript also describes the development of a bioreactor system in which cell-seeded macaque lungs can be cultured under conditions of mechanical stretch and strain provided by negative pressure ventilation as well as pulsatile perfusion through the vasculature; these forces are known to direct differentiation along pulmonary and endothelial lineages, respectively. Representative results of decellularization and cell seeding are provided.
Bioengineering, Issue 82, rhesus macaque, decellularization, recellularization, detergent, matrix, scaffold, large-organ bioreactor, mesenchymal stem cells
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Dissection and Immunostaining of Imaginal Discs from Drosophila melanogaster
Authors: Carrie M. Spratford, Justin P. Kumar.
Institutions: Indiana University.
A significant portion of post-embryonic development in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, takes place within a set of sac-like structures called imaginal discs. These discs give rise to a high percentage of adult structures that are found within the adult fly. Here we describe a protocol that has been optimized to recover these discs and prepare them for analysis with antibodies, transcriptional reporters and protein traps. This procedure is best suited for thin tissues like imaginal discs, but can be easily modified for use with thicker tissues such as the larval brain and adult ovary. The written protocol and accompanying video will guide the reader/viewer through the dissection of third instar larvae, fixation of tissue, and treatment of imaginal discs with antibodies. The protocol can be used to dissect imaginal discs from younger first and second instar larvae as well. The advantage of this protocol is that it is relatively short and it has been optimized for the high quality preservation of the dissected tissue. Another advantage is that the fixation procedure that is employed works well with the overwhelming number of antibodies that recognize Drosophila proteins. In our experience, there is a very small number of sensitive antibodies that do not work well with this procedure. In these situations, the remedy appears to be to use an alternate fixation cocktail while continuing to follow the guidelines that we have set forth for the dissection steps and antibody incubations.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, Drosophila, imaginal discs, eye, retina, dissection, developmental biology
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Heterotopic and Orthotopic Tracheal Transplantation in Mice used as Models to Study the Development of Obliterative Airway Disease
Authors: Xiaoqin Hua, Tobias Deuse, Karis R. Tang-Quan, Robert C. Robbins, Hermann Reichenspurner, Sonja Schrepfer.
Institutions: University Heart Center Hamburg, University Hospital Hamburg, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Obliterative airway disease (OAD) is the major complication after lung transplantations that limits long term survival (1-7). To study the pathophysiology, treatment and prevention of OAD, different animal models of tracheal transplantation in rodents have been developed (1-7). Here, we use two established models of trachea transplantation, the heterotopic and orthotopic model and demonstrate their advantages and limitations. For the heterotopic model, the donor trachea is wrapped into the greater omentum of the recipient, whereas the donor trachea is anastomosed by end-to-end anastomosis in the orthotopic model. In both models, the development of obliterative lesions histological similar to clinical OAD has been demonstrated (1-7). This video shows how to perform both, the heterotopic as well as the orthotopic tracheal transplantation technique in mice, and compares the time course of OAD development in both models using histology.
Immunology, Issue 35, orthotopic tracheal transplantation, heterotopic tracheal transplantation, obliterative airway disease, mice, luminal obliteration, histology
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A Novel RFP Reporter to Aid in the Visualization of the Eye Imaginal Disc in Drosophila
Authors: Aamna K. Kaul, Joseph M. Bateman.
Institutions: King's College London.
The Drosophila eye is a powerful model system for studying areas such as neurogenesis, signal transduction and neurodegeneration. Many of the discoveries made using this system have taken advantage of the spatiotemporal nature of photoreceptor differentiation in the developing eye imaginal disc. To use this system it is first necessary for the researcher to learn to identify and dissect the eye disc. We describe a novel RFP reporter to aid in the identification of the eye disc and the visualization of specific cell types in the developing eye. We detail a methodology for dissection of the eye imaginal disc from third instar larvae and describe how the eye-RFP reporter can aid in this dissection. This eye-RFP reporter is only expressed in the eye and can be visualized using fluorescence microscopy either in live tissue or after fixation without the need for signal amplification. We also show how this reporter can be used to identify specific cells types within the eye disc. This protocol and the use of the eye-RFP reporter will aid researchers using the Drosophila eye to address fundamentally important biological questions.
Cellular Biology, Issue 34, fluorescence microscopy, Drosophila, eye, RFP, dissection, imaginal disc
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Whole Cell Recordings from Brain of Adult Drosophila
Authors: Huaiyu Gu, Diane K. O'Dowd.
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
In this video, we demonstrate the procedure for isolating whole brains from adult Drosophila in preparation for recording from single neurons. We begin by describing the dissecting solution and capture of the adult females used in our studies. The procedure for removing the whole brain intact, including both optic lobes, is illustrated. Dissection of the overlying trachea is also shown. The isolated brain is not only small but needs special care in handling at this stage to prevent damage to the neurons, many of which are close to the outer surface of the tissue. We show how a special holder we developed is used to stabilize the brain in the recording chamber. A standard electrophysiology set up is used for recording from single neurons or pairs of neurons. A fluorescent image, viewed through the recording microscope, from a GAL4 line driving GFP expression (GH146) illustrates how projection neurons (PNs) are identified in the live brain. A high power Nomarski image shows a view of a single neuron that is being targeted for whole cell recording. When the brain is successfully removed without damage, the majority of the neurons are spontaneously active, firing action potentials and/or exhibiting spontaneous synaptic input. This in situ preparation, in which whole cell recording of identified neurons in the whole brain can be combined with genetic and pharmacological manipulations, is a useful model for exploring cellular physiology and plasticity in the adult CNS.
Neuroscience, Issue 6, neuron, electrophysiology, insect CNS, GFP, Drosophila brain, adult fly, whole cell recording
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Single-unit In vivo Recordings from the Optic Chiasm of Rat
Authors: Daniel K. Freeman, Walter F. Heine, Christopher L. Passaglia.
Institutions: Boston University.
Information about the visual world is transmitted to the brain in sequences of action potentials in retinal ganglion cell axons that make up the optic nerve. In vivo recordings of ganglion cell spike trains in several animal models have revealed much of what is known about how the early visual system processes and encodes visual information. However, such recordings have been rare in one of the most common animal models, the rat, possibly owing to difficulty in detecting spikes fired by small diameter axons. The many retinal disease models involving rats motivate a need for characterizing the functional properties of ganglion cells without disturbing the eye, as with intraocular or in vitro recordings. Here, we demonstrate a method for recording ganglion cell spike trains from the optic chiasm of the anesthetized rat. We first show how to fabricate tungsten-in-glass electrodes that can pick up electrical activity from single ganglion cell axons in rat. The electrodes outperform all commercial ones that we have tried. We then illustrate our custom-designed stereotaxic system for in vivo visual neurophysiology experiments and our procedures for animal preparation and reliable and stable electrode placement in the optic chiasm.
JoVE Neuroscience, Issue 38, retina, optic chiasm, tungsten electrodes, spike trains
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Tracheotomy: A Method for Transplantation of Stem Cells to the Lung
Authors: Yakov Peter.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
Lung disease is a leading cause of death and likely to become an epidemic given increases in pollution and smoking worldwide. Advances in stem cell therapy may alleviate many of the symptoms associated with lung disease and induce alveolar repair in adults. Concurrent with the ongoing search for stem cells applicable for human treatment, precise delivery and homing (to the site of disease) must be reassured for successful therapy. Here, I report that stem cells can safely be instilled via the trachea opening a non-stop route to the lung. This method involves a skin incision, caudal insertion of a cannula into and along the tracheal lumen, and injection of a stem cell vehicle mixture into airways of the lung. A broad range of media solutions and stabilizers can be instilled via tracheotomy, resulting in the ability to deliver a wider range of cell types. With alveolar epithelium confining these cells to the lumen, lung expansion and negative pressure during inhalation may also assist in stem cell integration. Tracheal delivery of stem cells, with a quick uptake and the ability to handle a large range of treatments, could accelerate the development of cell-based therapies, opening new avenues for treatment of lung disease.
Cellular Biology, Issue 2, lung, stem cells, transplantation, trachea
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RNAi Interference by dsRNA Injection into Drosophila Embryos
Authors: Ekaterini Iordanou, Rachana R. Chandran, Nicholas Blackstone, Lan Jiang.
Institutions: Oakland University.
Genetic screening is one of the most powerful methods available for gaining insights into complex biological process 1. Over the years many improvements and tools for genetic manipulation have become available in Drosophila 2. Soon after the initial discovery by Frie and Mello 3 that double stranded RNA can be used to knockdown the activity of individual genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to provide a powerful reverse genetic approach to analyze gene functions in Drosophila organ development 4, 5. Many organs, including lung, kidney, liver, and vascular system, are composed of branched tubular networks that transport vital fluids or gases 6, 7. The analysis of Drosophila tracheal formation provides an excellent model system to study the morphogenesis of other tubular organs 8. The Berkeley Drosophila genome project has revealed hundreds of genes that are expressed in the tracheal system. To study the molecular and cellular mechanism of tube formation, the challenge is to understand the roles of these genes in tracheal development. Here, we described a detailed method of dsRNA injection into Drosophila embryo to knockdown individual gene expression. We successfully knocked down endogenous dysfusion(dys) gene expression by dsRNA injection. Dys is a bHLH-PAS protein expressed in tracheal fusion cells, and it is required for tracheal branch fusion 9, 10. dys-RNAi completely eliminated dys expression and resulted in tracheal fusion defect. This relatively simple method provides a tool to identify genes requried for tissure and organ development in Drosophila.
Developmental Biology, Issue 50, RNAi, dsRNA, Injection, Trachea, Development, Drosophila, Tubular
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.