Astrocytes form together with neurons tripartite synapses, where they integrate and modulate neuronal activity. Indeed, astrocytes sense neuronal inputs through activation of their ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors, and process information in part through activity-dependent release of gliotransmitters. Furthermore, astrocytes constitute the main uptake system for glutamate, contribute to potassium spatial buffering, as well as to GABA clearance. These cells therefore constantly monitor synaptic activity, and are thereby sensitive indicators for alterations in synaptically-released glutamate, GABA and extracellular potassium levels. Additionally, alterations in astroglial uptake activity or buffering capacity can have severe effects on neuronal functions, and might be overlooked when characterizing physiopathological situations or knockout mice. Dual recording of neuronal and astroglial activities is therefore an important method to study alterations in synaptic strength associated to concomitant changes in astroglial uptake and buffering capacities. Here we describe how to prepare hippocampal slices, how to identify stratum radiatum astrocytes, and how to record simultaneously neuronal and astroglial electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, we describe how to isolate pharmacologically the synaptically-evoked astroglial currents.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
Recapitulation of an Ion Channel IV Curve Using Frequency Components
Institutions: University of Utah.
INTRODUCTION: Presently, there are no established methods to measure multiple ion channel types simultaneously and decompose the measured current into portions attributable to each channel type. This study demonstrates how impedance spectroscopy may be used to identify specific frequencies that highly correlate with the steady state current amplitude measured during voltage clamp experiments. The method involves inserting a noise function containing specific frequencies into the voltage step protocol. In the work presented, a model cell is used to demonstrate that no high correlations are introduced by the voltage clamp circuitry, and also that the noise function itself does not introduce any high correlations when no ion channels are present. This validation is necessary before the technique can be applied to preparations containing ion channels. The purpose of the protocol presented is to demonstrate how to characterize the frequency response of a single ion channel type to a noise function. Once specific frequencies have been identified in an individual channel type, they can be used to reproduce the steady state current voltage (IV) curve. Frequencies that highly correlate with one channel type and minimally correlate with other channel types may then be used to estimate the current contribution of multiple channel types measured simultaneously.
METHODS: Voltage clamp measurements were performed on a model cell using a standard voltage step protocol (-150 to +50 mV, 5mV steps). Noise functions containing equal magnitudes of 1-15 kHz frequencies (zero to peak amplitudes: 50 or 100mV) were inserted into each voltage step. The real component of the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the output signal was calculated with and without noise for each step potential. The magnitude of each frequency as a function of voltage step was correlated with the current amplitude at the corresponding voltages.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of noise (control), magnitudes of all frequencies except the DC component correlated poorly (|R|<0.5) with the IV curve, whereas the DC component had a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999 in all measurements. The quality of correlation between individual frequencies and the IV curve did not change when a noise function was added to the voltage step protocol. Likewise, increasing the amplitude of the noise function also did not increase the correlation. Control measurements demonstrate that the voltage clamp circuitry by itself does not cause any frequencies above 0 Hz to highly correlate with the steady-state IV curve. Likewise, measurements in the presence of the noise function demonstrate that the noise function does not cause any frequencies above 0 Hz to correlate with the steady-state IV curve when no ion channels are present. Based on this verification, the method can now be applied to preparations containing a single ion channel type with the intent of identifying frequencies whose amplitudes correlate specifically with that channel type.
Biophysics, Issue 48, Ion channel, Kir2.1, impedance spectroscopy, frequency response, voltage clamp, electrophysiology
Neurocircuit Assays for Seizures in Epilepsy Mutants of Drosophila
Institutions: University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Berkeley.
is a useful tool for studying seizure like activity. A variety of mutants in which seizures can be induced through either physical shock or electrical stimulation is available for study of various aspects of seizure activity and behavior. All flies, including wild-type, will undergo seizure-like activity if stimulated at a high enough voltage. Seizure like activity is an all-or-nothing response and each genotype has a specific seizure threshold. The seizure threshold of a specific genotype of fly can be altered either by treatment with a drug or by genetic suppression or enhancement. The threshold is easily measured by electrophysiology. Seizure-like activity can be induced via high frequency electrical stimulation delivered directly to the brain and recorded through the dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs) in the thorax. The DLMs are innervated by part of the giant fiber system. Starting with low voltage, high frequency stimulation, and subsequently raising the voltage in small increments, the seizure threshold for a single fly can be measured.
Neuroscience, Issue 26, elecrophysiology, Drosophila, seizures, epilepsy, giant fiber
Nerve Excitability Assessment in Chemotherapy-induced Neurotoxicity
Institutions: University of New South Wales , University of New South Wales , University of New South Wales .
Chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity is a serious consequence of cancer treatment, which occurs with some of the most commonly used chemotherapies1,2
. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy produces symptoms of numbness and paraesthesia in the limbs and may progress to difficulties with fine motor skills and walking, leading to functional impairment. In addition to producing troubling symptoms, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy may limit treatment success leading to dose reduction or early cessation of treatment. Neuropathic symptoms may persist long-term, leaving permanent nerve damage in patients with an otherwise good prognosis3
. As chemotherapy is utilised more often as a preventative measure, and survival rates increase, the importance of long-lasting and significant neurotoxicity will increase.
There are no established neuroprotective or treatment options and a lack of sensitive assessment methods. Appropriate assessment of neurotoxicity will be critical as a prognostic factor and as suitable endpoints for future trials of neuroprotective agents. Current methods to assess the severity of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy utilise clinician-based grading scales which have been demonstrated to lack sensitivity to change and inter-observer objectivity4
. Conventional nerve conduction studies provide information about compound action potential amplitude and conduction velocity, which are relatively non-specific measures and do not provide insight into ion channel function or resting membrane potential. Accordingly, prior studies have demonstrated that conventional nerve conduction studies are not sensitive to early change in chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity4-6
. In comparison, nerve excitability studies utilize threshold tracking techniques which have been developed to enable assessment of ion channels, pumps and exchangers in vivo
in large myelinated human axons7-9
Nerve excitability techniques have been established as a tool to examine the development and severity of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity10-13
. Comprising a number of excitability parameters, nerve excitability studies can be used to assess acute neurotoxicity arising immediately following infusion and the development of chronic, cumulative neurotoxicity. Nerve excitability techniques are feasible in the clinical setting, with each test requiring only 5 -10 minutes to complete. Nerve excitability equipment is readily commercially available, and a portable system has been devised so that patients can be tested in situ
in the infusion centre setting. In addition, these techniques can be adapted for use in multiple chemotherapies.
In patients treated with the chemotherapy oxaliplatin, primarily utilised for colorectal cancer, nerve excitability techniques provide a method to identify patients at-risk for neurotoxicity prior to the onset of chronic neuropathy. Nerve excitability studies have revealed the development of an acute Na+
channelopathy in motor and sensory axons10-13
. Importantly, patients who demonstrated changes in excitability in early treatment were subsequently more likely to develop moderate to severe neurotoxicity11
. However, across treatment, striking longitudinal changes were identified only in sensory axons which were able to predict clinical neurological outcome in 80% of patients10
. These changes demonstrated a different pattern to those seen acutely following oxaliplatin infusion, and most likely reflect the development of significant axonal damage and membrane potential change in sensory nerves which develops longitudinally during oxaliplatin treatment10
. Significant abnormalities developed during early treatment, prior to any reduction in conventional measures of nerve function, suggesting that excitability parameters may provide a sensitive biomarker.
Neuroscience, Issue 62, Chemotherapy, Neurotoxicity, Neuropathy, Nerve excitability, Ion channel function, Oxaliplatin, oncology, medicine
Use of Label-free Optical Biosensors to Detect Modulation of Potassium Channels by G-protein Coupled Receptors
Institutions: Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, X-BODY Biosciences.
Ion channels control the electrical properties of neurons and other excitable cell types by selectively allowing ions to flow through the plasma membrane1
. To regulate neuronal excitability, the biophysical properties of ion channels are modified by signaling proteins and molecules, which often bind to the channels themselves to form a heteromeric channel complex2,3
. Traditional assays examining the interaction between channels and regulatory proteins require exogenous labels that can potentially alter the protein's behavior and decrease the physiological relevance of the target, while providing little information on the time course of interactions in living cells. Optical biosensors, such as the X-BODY Biosciences BIND Scanner system, use a novel label-free technology, resonance wavelength grating (RWG) optical biosensors, to detect changes in resonant reflected light near the biosensor. This assay allows the detection of the relative change in mass within the bottom portion of living cells adherent to the biosensor surface resulting from ligand induced changes in cell adhesion and spreading, toxicity, proliferation, and changes in protein-protein interactions near the plasma membrane. RWG optical biosensors have been used to detect changes in mass near the plasma membrane of cells following activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases, and other cell surface receptors. Ligand-induced changes in ion channel-protein interactions can also be studied using this assay. In this paper, we will describe the experimental procedure used to detect the modulation of Slack-B sodium-activated potassium (KNa
) channels by GPCRs.
Bioengineering, Issue 84, Ion channels, potassium channel, Slack, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), label-free screening, high-throughput screening (HTS), channel-protein interactions, optical biosensors
Implementing Dynamic Clamp with Synaptic and Artificial Conductances in Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells
Institutions: University of Sydney , University of Western Sydney, University of Sydney .
Ganglion cells are the output neurons of the retina and their activity reflects the integration of multiple synaptic inputs arising from specific neural circuits. Patch clamp techniques, in voltage clamp and current clamp configurations, are commonly used to study the physiological properties of neurons and to characterize their synaptic inputs. Although the application of these techniques is highly informative, they pose various limitations. For example, it is difficult to quantify how the precise interactions of excitatory and inhibitory inputs determine response output. To address this issue, we used a modified current clamp technique, dynamic clamp, also called conductance clamp 1, 2, 3
and examined the impact of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs on neuronal excitability. This technique requires the injection of current into the cell and is dependent on the real-time feedback of its membrane potential at that time. The injected current is calculated from predetermined excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances, their reversal potentials and the cell's instantaneous membrane potential. Details on the experimental procedures, patch clamping cells to achieve a whole-cell configuration and employment of the dynamic clamp technique are illustrated in this video article. Here, we show the responses of mouse retinal ganglion cells to various conductance waveforms obtained from physiological experiments in control conditions or in the presence of drugs. Furthermore, we show the use of artificial excitatory and inhibitory conductances generated using alpha functions to investigate the responses of the cells.
Neuroscience, Issue 75, Neurobiology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Neurons, Retinal Neurons, Retinal Ganglion Cells, Eye, Retina, Neurosciences, retina, ganglion cells, synaptic conductance, artificial conductance, tetrodotoxin (TTX), patch clamp, dynamic clamp, conductance clamp, electrophysiology, mouse, animal model
Mechanical Stimulation-induced Calcium Wave Propagation in Cell Monolayers: The Example of Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells
Institutions: KU Leuven.
Intercellular communication is essential for the coordination of physiological processes between cells in a variety of organs and tissues, including the brain, liver, retina, cochlea and vasculature. In experimental settings, intercellular Ca2+
-waves can be elicited by applying a mechanical stimulus to a single cell. This leads to the release of the intracellular signaling molecules IP3
that initiate the propagation of the Ca2+
-wave concentrically from the mechanically stimulated cell to the neighboring cells. The main molecular pathways that control intercellular Ca2+
-wave propagation are provided by gap junction channels through the direct transfer of IP3
and by hemichannels through the release of ATP. Identification and characterization of the properties and regulation of different connexin and pannexin isoforms as gap junction channels and hemichannels are allowed by the quantification of the spread of the intercellular Ca2+
-wave, siRNA, and the use of inhibitors of gap junction channels and hemichannels. Here, we describe a method to measure intercellular Ca2+
-wave in monolayers of primary corneal endothelial cells loaded with Fluo4-AM in response to a controlled and localized mechanical stimulus provoked by an acute, short-lasting deformation of the cell as a result of touching the cell membrane with a micromanipulator-controlled glass micropipette with a tip diameter of less than 1 μm. We also describe the isolation of primary bovine corneal endothelial cells and its use as model system to assess Cx43-hemichannel activity as the driven force for intercellular Ca2+
-waves through the release of ATP. Finally, we discuss the use, advantages, limitations and alternatives of this method in the context of gap junction channel and hemichannel research.
Cellular Biology, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Gap Junctions, Connexins, Connexin 43, Calcium Signaling, Ca2+, Cell Communication, Paracrine Communication, Intercellular communication, calcium wave propagation, gap junctions, hemichannels, endothelial cells, cell signaling, cell, isolation, cell culture
Corticospinal Excitability Modulation During Action Observation
Institutions: Universita degli Studi di Padova.
This study used the transcranial magnetic stimulation/motor evoked potential (TMS/MEP) technique to pinpoint when the automatic tendency to mirror someone else's action becomes anticipatory simulation of a complementary act. TMS was delivered to the left primary motor cortex corresponding to the hand to induce the highest level of MEP activity from the abductor digiti minimi (ADM; the muscle serving little finger abduction) as well as the first dorsal interosseus (FDI; the muscle serving index finger flexion/extension) muscles. A neuronavigation system was used to maintain the position of the TMS coil, and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the right ADM and FDI muscles. Producing original data with regard to motor resonance, the combined TMS/MEP technique has taken research on the perception-action coupling mechanism a step further. Specifically, it has answered the questions of how and when observing another person's actions produces motor facilitation in an onlooker's corresponding muscles and in what way corticospinal excitability is modulated in social contexts.
Behavior, Issue 82, action observation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, motor evoked potentials, corticospinal excitability
Imaging G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR)-mediated Signaling Events that Control Chemotaxis of Dictyostelium Discoideum
Institutions: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
Many eukaryotic cells can detect gradients of chemical signals in their environments and migrate accordingly 1
. This guided cell migration is referred as chemotaxis, which is essential for various cells to carry out their functions such as trafficking of immune cells and patterning of neuronal cells 2, 3
. A large family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) detects variable small peptides, known as chemokines, to direct cell migration in vivo 4
. The final goal of chemotaxis research is to understand how a GPCR machinery senses chemokine gradients and controls signaling events leading to chemotaxis. To this end, we use imaging techniques to monitor, in real time, spatiotemporal concentrations of chemoattractants, cell movement in a gradient of chemoattractant, GPCR mediated activation of heterotrimeric G-protein, and intracellular signaling events involved in chemotaxis of eukaryotic cells 5-8
. The simple eukaryotic organism, Dictyostelium discoideum
, displays chemotaxic behaviors that are similar to those of leukocytes, and D. discoideum
is a key model system for studying eukaryotic chemotaxis. As free-living amoebae, D. discoideum
cells divide in rich medium. Upon starvation, cells enter a developmental program in which they aggregate through cAMP-mediated chemotaxis to form multicullular structures. Many components involved in chemotaxis to cAMP have been identified in D. discoideum
. The binding of cAMP to a GPCR (cAR1) induces dissociation of heterotrimeric G-proteins into Gγ and Gβγ subunits 7, 9, 10
. Gβγ subunits activate Ras, which in turn activates PI3K, converting PIP2
on the cell membrane 11-13
serve as binding sites for proteins with pleckstrin Homology (PH) domains, thus recruiting these proteins to the membrane 14, 15
. Activation of cAR1 receptors also controls the membrane associations of PTEN, which dephosphorylates PIP3
to PIP2 16, 17
. The molecular mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved in chemokine GPCR-mediated chemotaxis of human cells such as neutrophils 18
. We present following methods for studying chemotaxis of D. discoideum cells
. 1. Preparation of chemotactic component cells. 2. Imaging chemotaxis of cells in a cAMP gradient. 3. Monitoring a GPCR induced activation of heterotrimeric G-protein in single live cells. 4. Imaging chemoattractant-triggered dynamic PIP3
responses in single live cells in real time. Our developed imaging methods can be applied to study chemotaxis of human leukocytes.
Molecular Biology, Issue 55, Chemotaxis, directional sensing, GPCR, PCR, G-proteins, signal transduction, Dictyostelium discoideum
Local and Global Methods of Assessing Thermal Nociception in Drosophila Larvae
Institutions: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Houston-Downtown, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.
In this article, we demonstrate assays to study thermal nociception in Drosophila
larvae. One assay involves spatially-restricted (local) stimulation of thermal nociceptors1,2
while the second involves a wholesale (global) activation of most or all such neurons3
. Together, these techniques allow visualization and quantification of the behavioral functions of Drosophila
nociceptive sensory neurons.
larva is an established model system to study thermal nociception, a sensory response to potentially harmful temperatures that is evolutionarily conserved across species1,2
. The advantages of Drosophila
for such studies are the relative simplicity of its nervous system and the sophistication of the genetic techniques that can be used to dissect the molecular basis of the underlying biology4-6
, as in all metazoans, the response to noxious thermal stimuli generally involves a "nocifensive" aversive withdrawal to the presented stimulus7
. Such stimuli are detected through free nerve endings or nociceptors and the amplitude of the organismal response depends on the number of nociceptors receiving the noxious stimulus8
. In Drosophila
, it is the class IV dendritic arborization sensory neurons that detect noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli9
in addition to their recently discovered role as photoreceptors10
. These neurons, which have been very well studied at the developmental level, arborize over the barrier epidermal sheet and make contacts with nearly all epidermal cells11,12
. The single axon of each class IV neuron projects into the ventral nerve cord of the central nervous system11
where they may connect to second-order neurons that project to the brain.
Under baseline conditions, nociceptive sensory neurons will not fire until a relatively high threshold is reached. The assays described here allow the investigator to quantify baseline behavioral responses or, presumably, the sensitization that ensues following tissue damage. Each assay provokes distinct but related locomotory behavioral responses to noxious thermal stimuli and permits the researcher to visualize and quantify various aspects of thermal nociception in Drosophila
larvae. The assays can be applied to larvae of desired genotypes or to larvae raised under different environmental conditions that might impact nociception. Since thermal nociception is conserved across species, the findings gleaned from genetic dissection in Drosophila
will likely inform our understanding of thermal nociception in other species, including vertebrates.
Neuroscience, Issue 63, Drosophila sensory neurons, thermal nociception, nociceptive sensitization, tissue damage, fly behavioral response, dendritic arborization neurons, allodynia, hyperalgesia, behavioral assay
Whole-cell Patch-clamp Recordings from Morphologically- and Neurochemically-identified Hippocampal Interneurons
Institutions: Charité Universitätmedizin.
GABAergic inhibitory interneurons play a central role within neuronal circuits of the brain. Interneurons comprise a small subset of the neuronal population (10-20%), but show a high level of physiological, morphological, and neurochemical heterogeneity, reflecting their diverse functions. Therefore, investigation of interneurons provides important insights into the organization principles and function of neuronal circuits. This, however, requires an integrated physiological and neuroanatomical approach for the selection and identification of individual interneuron types. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording from acute brain slices of transgenic animals, expressing fluorescent proteins under the promoters of interneuron-specific markers, provides an efficient method to target and electrophysiologically characterize intrinsic and synaptic properties of specific interneuron types. Combined with intracellular dye labeling, this approach can be extended with post-hoc morphological and immunocytochemical analysis, enabling systematic identification of recorded neurons. These methods can be tailored to suit a broad range of scientific questions regarding functional properties of diverse types of cortical neurons.
Neuroscience, Issue 91, electrophysiology, acute slice, whole-cell patch-clamp recording, neuronal morphology, immunocytochemistry, parvalbumin, hippocampus, inhibition, GABAergic interneurons, synaptic transmission, IPSC, GABA-B receptor
Whole Cell Patch Clamp for Investigating the Mechanisms of Infrared Neural Stimulation
Institutions: Swinburne University of Technology, The University of Melbourne.
It has been demonstrated in recent years that pulsed, infrared laser light can be used to elicit electrical responses in neural tissue, independent of any further modification of the target tissue. Infrared neural stimulation has been reported in a variety of peripheral and sensory neural tissue in vivo
, with particular interest shown in stimulation of neurons in the auditory nerve. However, while INS has been shown to work in these settings, the mechanism (or mechanisms) by which infrared light causes neural excitation is currently not well understood. The protocol presented here describes a whole cell patch clamp method designed to facilitate the investigation of infrared neural stimulation in cultured primary auditory neurons. By thoroughly characterizing the response of these cells to infrared laser illumination in vitro
under controlled conditions, it may be possible to gain an improved understanding of the fundamental physical and biochemical processes underlying infrared neural stimulation.
Neuroscience, Issue 77, Biomedical Engineering, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Primary Cell Culture, Biophysics, Electrophysiology, fiber optics, infrared neural stimulation, patch clamp, in vitro models, spiral ganglion neurons, neurons, patch clamp recordings, cell culture
Membrane Potentials, Synaptic Responses, Neuronal Circuitry, Neuromodulation and Muscle Histology Using the Crayfish: Student Laboratory Exercises
Institutions: University of Kentucky, University of Toronto.
The purpose of this report is to help develop an understanding of the effects caused by ion gradients across a biological membrane. Two aspects that influence a cell's membrane potential and which we address in these experiments are: (1) Ion concentration of K+
on the outside of the membrane, and (2) the permeability of the membrane to specific ions. The crayfish abdominal extensor muscles are in groupings with some being tonic (slow) and others phasic (fast) in their biochemical and physiological phenotypes, as well as in their structure; the motor neurons that innervate these muscles are correspondingly different in functional characteristics. We use these muscles as well as the superficial, tonic abdominal flexor muscle to demonstrate properties in synaptic transmission. In addition, we introduce a sensory-CNS-motor neuron-muscle circuit to demonstrate the effect of cuticular sensory stimulation as well as the influence of neuromodulators on certain aspects of the circuit. With the techniques obtained in this exercise, one can begin to answer many questions remaining in other experimental preparations as well as in physiological applications related to medicine and health. We have demonstrated the usefulness of model invertebrate preparations to address fundamental questions pertinent to all animals.
Neuroscience, Issue 47, Invertebrate, Crayfish, neurophysiology, muscle, anatomy, electrophysiology
The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism
Institutions: University of Montréal, McGill University, University of Minnesota.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique that has been increasingly used over the past decade in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as stroke and depression. Yet, the mechanisms underlying its ability to modulate brain excitability to improve clinical symptoms remains poorly understood 33
. To help improve this understanding, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1
H-MRS) can be used as it allows the in vivo
quantification of brain metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in a region-specific manner 41
. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that 1
H-MRS is indeed a powerful means to better understand the effects of tDCS on neurotransmitter concentration 34
. This article aims to describe the complete protocol for combining tDCS (NeuroConn MR compatible stimulator) with 1
H-MRS at 3 T using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. We will describe the impact of a protocol that has shown great promise for the treatment of motor dysfunctions after stroke, which consists of bilateral stimulation of primary motor cortices 27,30,31
. Methodological factors to consider and possible modifications to the protocol are also discussed.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, transcranial direct current stimulation, primary motor cortex, GABA, glutamate, stroke
Isolation and Functional Characterization of Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes from Fresh Surgical Samples
Institutions: University of Florence, University of Florence.
Cardiomyocytes from diseased hearts are subjected to complex remodeling processes involving changes in cell structure, excitation contraction coupling and membrane ion currents. Those changes are likely to be responsible for the increased arrhythmogenic risk and the contractile alterations leading to systolic and diastolic dysfunction in cardiac patients. However, most information on the alterations of myocyte function in cardiac diseases has come from animal models.
Here we describe and validate a protocol to isolate viable myocytes from small surgical samples of ventricular myocardium from patients undergoing cardiac surgery operations. The protocol is described in detail. Electrophysiological and intracellular calcium measurements are reported to demonstrate the feasibility of a number of single cell measurements in human ventricular cardiomyocytes obtained with this method.
The protocol reported here can be useful for future investigations of the cellular and molecular basis of functional alterations of the human heart in the presence of different cardiac diseases. Further, this method can be used to identify novel therapeutic targets at cellular level and to test the effectiveness of new compounds on human cardiomyocytes, with direct translational value.
Medicine, Issue 86, cardiology, cardiac cells, electrophysiology, excitation-contraction coupling, action potential, calcium, myocardium, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac patients, cardiac disease
Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)
Institutions: University of Wuerzburg, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich.
Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca2+
indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca2+
indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro
. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca2+
indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+
indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca2+
complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0
Cellular Biology, Issue 75, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Virology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Endoplasmic Reticulum, ER, Calcium Signaling, calcium store, calcium imaging, calcium indicator, metabotropic signaling, Ca2+, neurons, cells, mouse, animal model, cell culture, targeted esterase induced dye loading, imaging
One-channel Cell-attached Patch-clamp Recording
Institutions: University at Buffalo, SUNY, University at Buffalo, SUNY, The Scripps Research Institute, University at Buffalo, SUNY.
Ion channel proteins are universal devices for fast communication across biological membranes. The temporal signature of the ionic flux they generate depends on properties intrinsic to each channel protein as well as the mechanism by which it is generated and controlled and represents an important area of current research. Information about the operational dynamics of ion channel proteins can be obtained by observing long stretches of current produced by a single molecule. Described here is a protocol for obtaining one-channel cell-attached patch-clamp current recordings for a ligand gated ion channel, the NMDA receptor, expressed heterologously in HEK293 cells or natively in cortical neurons. Also provided are instructions on how to adapt the method to other ion channels of interest by presenting the example of the mechano-sensitive channel PIEZO1. This method can provide data regarding the channel’s conductance properties and the temporal sequence of open-closed conformations that make up the channel’s activation mechanism, thus helping to understand their functions in health and disease.
Neuroscience, Issue 88, biophysics, ion channels, single-channel recording, NMDA receptors, gating, electrophysiology, patch-clamp, kinetic analysis
Multi-electrode Array Recordings of Human Epileptic Postoperative Cortical Tissue
Institutions: CNRS UMR 7241, INSERM U1050, Collège de France, Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CEA, Paris Descartes University, Paris Descartes University, La Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Sorbonne and Pierre and Marie Curie University.
Epilepsy, affecting about 1% of the population, comprises a group of neurological disorders characterized by the periodic occurrence of seizures, which disrupt normal brain function. Despite treatment with currently available antiepileptic drugs targeting neuronal functions, one third of patients with epilepsy are pharmacoresistant. In this condition, surgical resection of the brain area generating seizures remains the only alternative treatment. Studying human epileptic tissues has contributed to understand new epileptogenic mechanisms during the last 10 years. Indeed, these tissues generate spontaneous interictal epileptic discharges as well as pharmacologically-induced ictal events which can be recorded with classical electrophysiology techniques. Remarkably, multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), which are microfabricated devices embedding an array of spatially arranged microelectrodes, provide the unique opportunity to simultaneously stimulate and record field potentials, as well as action potentials of multiple neurons from different areas of the tissue. Thus MEAs recordings offer an excellent approach to study the spatio-temporal patterns of spontaneous interictal and evoked seizure-like events and the mechanisms underlying seizure onset and propagation. Here we describe how to prepare human cortical slices from surgically resected tissue and to record with MEAs interictal and ictal-like events ex vivo
Medicine, Issue 92, electrophysiology, multi-electrode array, human tissue, slice, epilepsy, neocortex
Bladder Smooth Muscle Strip Contractility as a Method to Evaluate Lower Urinary Tract Pharmacology
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
We describe an in vitro
method to measure bladder smooth muscle contractility, and its use for investigating physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscle as well as changes induced by pathology. This method provides critical information for understanding bladder function while overcoming major methodological difficulties encountered in in vivo
experiments, such as surgical and pharmacological manipulations that affect stability and survival of the preparations, the use of human tissue, and/or the use of expensive chemicals. It also provides a way to investigate the properties of each bladder component (i.e.
smooth muscle, mucosa, nerves) in healthy and pathological conditions.
The urinary bladder is removed from an anesthetized animal, placed in Krebs solution and cut into strips. Strips are placed into a chamber filled with warm Krebs solution. One end is attached to an isometric tension transducer to measure contraction force, the other end is attached to a fixed rod. Tissue is stimulated by directly adding compounds to the bath or by electric field stimulation electrodes that activate nerves, similar to triggering bladder contractions in vivo
. We demonstrate the use of this method to evaluate spontaneous smooth muscle contractility during development and after an experimental spinal cord injury, the nature of neurotransmission (transmitters and receptors involved), factors involved in modulation of smooth muscle activity, the role of individual bladder components, and species and organ differences in response to pharmacological agents. Additionally, it could be used for investigating intracellular pathways involved in contraction and/or relaxation of the smooth muscle, drug structure-activity relationships and evaluation of transmitter release.
The in vitro
smooth muscle contractility method has been used extensively for over 50 years, and has provided data that significantly contributed to our understanding of bladder function as well as to pharmaceutical development of compounds currently used clinically for bladder management.
Medicine, Issue 90, Krebs, species differences, in vitro, smooth muscle contractility, neural stimulation
Inducing Plasticity of Astrocytic Receptors by Manipulation of Neuronal Firing Rates
Institutions: University of California Riverside, University of California Riverside, University of California Riverside.
Close to two decades of research has established that astrocytes in situ
and in vivo
express numerous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be stimulated by neuronally-released transmitter. However, the ability of astrocytic receptors to exhibit plasticity in response to changes in neuronal activity has received little attention. Here we describe a model system that can be used to globally scale up or down astrocytic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in acute brain slices. Included are methods on how to prepare parasagittal hippocampal slices, construct chambers suitable for long-term slice incubation, bidirectionally manipulate neuronal action potential frequency, load astrocytes and astrocyte processes with fluorescent Ca2+
indicator, and measure changes in astrocytic Gq GPCR activity by recording spontaneous and evoked astrocyte Ca2+
events using confocal microscopy. In essence, a “calcium roadmap” is provided for how to measure plasticity of astrocytic Gq GPCRs. Applications of the technique for study of astrocytes are discussed. Having an understanding of how astrocytic receptor signaling is affected by changes in neuronal activity has important implications for both normal synaptic function as well as processes underlying neurological disorders and neurodegenerative disease.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, astrocyte, plasticity, mGluRs, neuronal Firing, electrophysiology, Gq GPCRs, Bolus-loading, calcium, microdomains, acute slices, Hippocampus, mouse
Monitoring Changes in the Intracellular Calcium Concentration and Synaptic Efficacy in the Mollusc Aplysia
Institutions: Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, Phase Five Communications Inc..
It has been suggested that changes in intracellular calcium mediate the induction of a number of important forms of synaptic plasticity (e.g., homosynaptic facilitation) 1
. These hypotheses can be tested by simultaneously monitoring changes in intracellular calcium and alterations in synaptic efficacy. We demonstrate how this can be accomplished by combining calcium imaging with intracellular recording techniques. Our experiments are conducted in a buccal ganglion of the mollusc Aplysia californica
. This preparation has a number of experimentally advantageous features: Ganglia can be easily removed from Aplysia
and experiments use adult neurons that make normal synaptic connections and have a normal ion channel distribution. Due to the low metabolic rate of the animal and the relatively low temperatures (14-16 °C) that are natural for Aplysia
, preparations are stable for long periods of time.
To detect changes in intracellular free calcium we will use the cell impermeant version of Calcium Orange 2
which is easily 'loaded' into a neuron via iontophoresis. When this long wavelength fluorescent dye binds to calcium, fluorescence intensity increases. Calcium Orange has fast kinetic properties 3
and, unlike ratiometric dyes (e.g., Fura 2), requires no filter wheel for imaging. It is fairly photo stable and less phototoxic than other dyes (e.g., fluo-3) 2,4
. Like all non-ratiometric dyes, Calcium Orange indicates relative changes in calcium concentration. But, because it is not possible to account for changes in dye concentration due to loading and diffusion, it can not be calibrated to provide absolute calcium concentrations.
An upright, fixed stage, compound microscope was used to image neurons with a CCD camera capable of recording around 30 frames per second. In Aplysia
this temporal resolution is more than adequate to detect even a single spike induced alteration in the intracellular calcium concentration. Sharp electrodes are simultaneously used to induce and record synaptic transmission in identified pre- and postsynaptic neurons. At the conclusion of each trial, a custom script combines electrophysiology and imaging data. To ensure proper synchronization we use a light pulse from a LED mounted in the camera port of the microscope. Manipulation of presynaptic calcium levels (e.g. via intracellular EGTA injection) allows us to test specific hypotheses, concerning the role of intracellular calcium in mediating various forms of plasticity.
Neuroscience, Issue 65, Molecular Biology, Marine Biology, calcium imaging, intracellular recording, invertebrate, mollusc, Aplysia, Calcium Orange, facilitation, synaptic plasticity
Preparation of Artificial Bilayers for Electrophysiology Experiments
Institutions: Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University.
Planar lipid bilayers, also called artificial lipid bilayers, allow you to study ion-conducting channels in a well-defined environment. These bilayers can be used for many different studies, such as the characterization of membrane-active peptides, the reconstitution of ion channels or investigations on how changes in lipid bilayer properties alter the function of bilayer-spanning channels. Here, we show how to form a planar bilayer and how to isolate small patches from the bilayer, and in a second video will also demonstrate a procedure for using gramicidin channels to determine changes in lipid bilayer elastic properties. We also demonstrate the individual steps needed to prepare the bilayer chamber, the electrodes and how to test that the bilayer is suitable for single-channel measurements.
Cellular Biology, Issue 20, Springer Protocols, Artificial Bilayers, Bilayer Patch Experiments, Lipid Bilayers, Bilayer Punch Electrodes, Electrophysiology
Application of a NMDA Receptor Conductance in Rat Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons Using the Dynamic Clamp Technique
Institutions: University of Texas San Antonio - UTSA.
Neuroscientists study the function of the brain by investigating how neurons in the brain communicate. Many investigators look at changes in the electrical activity of one or more neurons in response to an experimentally-controlled input. The electrical activity of neurons can be recorded in isolated brain slices using patch clamp techniques with glass micropipettes. Traditionally, experimenters can mimic neuronal input by direct injection of current through the pipette, electrical stimulation of the other cells or remaining axonal connections in the slice, or pharmacological manipulation by receptors located on the neuronal membrane of the recorded cell.
Direct current injection has the advantages of passing a predetermined current waveform with high temporal precision at the site of the recording (usually the soma). However, it does not change the resistance of the neuronal membrane as no ion channels are physically opened. Current injection usually employs rectangular pulses and thus does not model the kinetics of ion channels. Finally, current injection cannot mimic the chemical changes in the cell that occurs with the opening of ion channels.
Receptors can be physically activated by electrical or pharmacological stimulation. The experimenter has good temporal precision of receptor activation with electrical stimulation of the slice. However, there is limited spatial precision of receptor activation and the exact nature of what is activated upon stimulation is unknown. This latter problem can be partially alleviated by specific pharmacological agents. Unfortunately, the time course of activation of pharmacological agents is typically slow and the spatial precision of inputs onto the recorded cell is unknown.
The dynamic clamp technique allows an experimenter to change the current passed directly into the cell based on real-time feedback of the membrane potential of the cell (Robinson and Kawai 1993, Sharp et al.
, 1993a,b; for review, see Prinz et al.
2004). This allows an experimenter to mimic the electrical changes that occur at the site of the recording in response to activation of a receptor. Real-time changes in applied current are determined by a mathematical equation implemented in hardware.
We have recently used the dynamic clamp technique to investigate the generation of bursts of action potentials by phasic activation of NMDA receptors in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (Deister et al.
, 2009; Lobb et al.
, 2010). In this video, we demonstrate the procedures needed to apply a NMDA receptor conductance into a dopaminergic neuron.
Neuroscience, Issue 46, electrophysiology, dynamic clamp, rat, dopamine, burst, RTXI