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Regulation of CD4(+) T cells by pleural mesothelial cells via adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms in tuberculous pleurisy.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) have been demonstrated to be expressed on pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs), and to mediate leukocyte adhesion and migration; however, little is known about whether adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms are involved in the regulation of CD4(+) T cells by PMCs in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE).
The micropipette adhesion assay was developed in 1998 to measure two-dimensional (2D) receptor-ligand binding kinetics1. The assay uses a human red blood cell (RBC) as adhesion sensor and presenting cell for one of the interacting molecules. It employs micromanipulation to bring the RBC into contact with another cell that expresses the other interacting molecule with precisely controlled area and time to enable bond formation. The adhesion event is detected as RBC elongation upon pulling the two cells apart. By controlling the density of the ligands immobilized on the RBC surface, the probability of adhesion is kept in mid-range between 0 and 1. The adhesion probability is estimated from the frequency of adhesion events in a sequence of repeated contact cycles between the two cells for a given contact time. Varying the contact time generates a binding curve. Fitting a probabilistic model for receptor-ligand reaction kinetics1 to the binding curve returns the 2D affinity and off-rate. The assay has been validated using interactions of Fcγ receptors with IgG Fc1-6, selectins with glycoconjugate ligands6-9, integrins with ligands10-13, homotypical cadherin binding14, T cell receptor and coreceptor with peptide-major histocompatibility complexes15-19. The method has been used to quantify regulations of 2D kinetics by biophysical factors, such as the membrane microtopology5, membrane anchor2, molecular orientation and length6, carrier stiffness9, curvature20, and impingement force20, as well as biochemical factors, such as modulators of the cytoskeleton and membrane microenvironment where the interacting molecules reside and the surface organization of these molecules15,17,19. The method has also been used to study the concurrent binding of dual receptor-ligand species3,4, and trimolecular interactions19 using a modified model21. The major advantage of the method is that it allows study of receptors in their native membrane environment. The results could be very different from those obtained using purified receptors17. It also allows study of the receptor-ligand interactions in a sub-second timescale with temporal resolution well beyond the typical biochemical methods. To illustrate the micropipette adhesion frequency method, we show kinetics measurement of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) functionalized on RBCs binding to integrin αLβ2 on neutrophils with dimeric E-selectin in the solution to activate αLβ2.
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Human T Lymphocyte Isolation, Culture and Analysis of Migration In Vitro
Authors: Craig T. Lefort, Minsoo Kim.
Institutions: University of Rochester.
The migration of T lymphocytes involves the adhesive interaction of cell surface integrins with ligands expressed on other cells or with extracellular matrix proteins. The precise spatiotemporal activation of integrins from a low affinity state to a high affinity state at the cell leading edge is important for T lymphocyte migration 1. Likewise, retraction of the cell trailing edge, or uropod, is a necessary step in maintaining persistent integrin-dependent T lymphocyte motility 2. Many therapeutic approaches to autoimmune or inflammatory diseases target integrins as a means to inhibit the excessive recruitment and migration of leukocytes 3. To study the molecular events that regulate human T lymphocyte migration, we have utilized an in vitro system to analyze cell migration on a two-dimensional substrate that mimics the environment that a T lymphocyte encounters during recruitment from the vasculature. T lymphocytes are first isolated from human donors and are then stimulated and cultured for seven to ten days. During the assay, T lymphocytes are allowed to adhere and migrate on a substrate coated with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a ligand for integrin LFA-1, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). Our data show that T lymphocytes exhibit a migratory velocity of ~15 μm/min. T lymphocyte migration can be inhibited by integrin blockade 1 or by inhibitors of the cellular actomyosin machinery that regulates cell migration 2.
Immunology, Issue 40, T lymphocyte, Migration, Integrin, LFA-1, ICAM-1, Chemokine
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Imaging Leukocyte Adhesion to the Vascular Endothelium at High Intraluminal Pressure
Authors: Danielle L. Michell, Karen L. Andrews, Kevin J. Woollard, Jaye P.F. Chin-Dusting.
Institutions: Monash University.
Worldwide, hypertension is reported to be in approximately a quarter of the population and is the leading biomedical risk factor for mortality worldwide. In the vasculature hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation leading to atherosclerosis and various disease states such as chronic kidney disease2, stroke3 and heart failure4. An initial step in vascular inflammation leading to atherogenesis is the adhesion cascade which involves the rolling, tethering, adherence and subsequent transmigration of leukocytes through the endothelium. Recruitment and accumulation of leukocytes to the endothelium is mediated by an upregulation of adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin as well as increases in cytokine and chemokine release and an upregulation of reactive oxygen species5. In vitro methods such as static adhesion assays help to determine mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell adhesion as well as the analysis of cell adhesion molecules. Methods employed in previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that acute increases in pressure on the endothelium can lead to monocyte adhesion, an upregulation of adhesion molecules and inflammatory markers6 however, similar to many in vitro assays, these findings have not been performed in real time under physiological flow conditions, nor with whole blood. Therefore, in vivo assays are increasingly utilised in animal models to demonstrate vascular inflammation and plaque development. Intravital microscopy is now widely used to assess leukocyte adhesion, rolling, migration and transmigration7-9. When combining the effects of pressure on leukocyte to endothelial adhesion the in vivo studies are less extensive. One such study examines the real time effects of flow and shear on arterial growth and remodelling but inflammatory markers were only assessed via immunohistochemistry10. Here we present a model for recording leukocyte adhesion in real time in intact pressurised blood vessels using whole blood perfusion. The methodology is a modification of an ex vivo vessel chamber perfusion model9 which enables real-time analysis of leukocyte -endothelial adhesive interactions in intact vessels. Our modification enables the manipulation of the intraluminal pressure up to 200 mmHg allowing for study not only under physiological flow conditions but also pressure conditions. While pressure myography systems have been previously demonstrated to observe vessel wall and lumen diameter11 as well as vessel contraction this is the first time demonstrating leukocyte-endothelial interactions in real time. Here we demonstrate the technique using carotid arteries harvested from rats and cannulated to a custom-made flow chamber coupled to a fluorescent microscope. The vessel chamber is equipped with a large bottom coverglass allowing a large diameter objective lens with short working distance to image the vessel. Furthermore, selected agonist and/or antagonists can be utilized to further investigate the mechanisms controlling cell adhesion. Advantages of this method over intravital microscopy include no involvement of invasive surgery and therefore a higher throughput can be obtained. This method also enables the use of localised inhibitor treatment to the desired vessel whereas intravital only enables systemic inhibitor treatment.
Immunology, Issue 54, Leukocyte adhesion, intraluminal pressure, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertension
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Real-time Imaging of Heterotypic Platelet-neutrophil Interactions on the Activated Endothelium During Vascular Inflammation and Thrombus Formation in Live Mice
Authors: Kyung Ho Kim, Andrew Barazia, Jaehyung Cho.
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago , University of Illinois at Chicago .
Interaction of activated platelets and leukocytes (mainly neutrophils) on the activated endothelium mediates thrombosis and vascular inflammation.1,2 During thrombus formation at the site of arteriolar injury, platelets adherent to the activated endothelium and subendothelial matrix proteins support neutrophil rolling and adhesion.3 Conversely, under venular inflammatory conditions, neutrophils adherent to the activated endothelium can support adhesion and accumulation of circulating platelets. Heterotypic platelet-neutrophil aggregation requires sequential processes by the specific receptor-counter receptor interactions between cells.4 It is known that activated endothelial cells release adhesion molecules such as von Willebrand factor, thereby initiating platelet adhesion and accumulation under high shear conditions.5 Also, activated endothelial cells support neutrophil rolling and adhesion by expressing selectins and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), respectively, under low shear conditions.4 Platelet P-selectin interacts with neutrophils through P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), thereby inducing activation of neutrophil β2 integrins and firm adhesion between two cell types. Despite the advances in in vitro experiments in which heterotypic platelet-neutrophil interactions are determined in whole blood or isolated cells,6,7 those studies cannot manipulate oxidant stress conditions during vascular disease. In this report, using fluorescently-labeled, specific antibodies against a mouse platelet and neutrophil marker, we describe a detailed intravital microscopic protocol to monitor heterotypic interactions of platelets and neutrophils on the activated endothelium during TNF-α-induced inflammation or following laser-induced injury in cremaster muscle microvessels of live mice.
Immunology, Issue 74, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Inflammation, Hematology, Neutrophils, Microscopy, Video, Thrombosis, Platelet Activation, Platelet Aggregation, Intravital microscopy, platelet, neutrophil, rolling, adhesion, vascular inflammation, thrombus formation, mice, animal model
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Bead Aggregation Assays for the Characterization of Putative Cell Adhesion Molecules
Authors: Michelle R. Emond, James D. Jontes.
Institutions: Ohio State University.
Cell-cell adhesion is fundamental to multicellular life and is mediated by a diverse array of cell surface proteins. However, the adhesive interactions for many of these proteins are poorly understood. Here we present a simple, rapid method for characterizing the adhesive properties of putative homophilic cell adhesion molecules. Cultured HEK293 cells are transfected with DNA plasmid encoding a secreted, epitope-tagged ectodomain of a cell surface protein. Using functionalized beads specific for the epitope tag, the soluble, secreted fusion protein is captured from the culture medium. The coated beads can then be used directly in bead aggregation assays or in fluorescent bead sorting assays to test for homophilic adhesion. If desired, mutagenesis can then be used to elucidate the specific amino acids or domains required for adhesion. This assay requires only small amounts of expressed protein, does not require the production of stable cell lines, and can be accomplished in 4 days.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, adhesion, aggregation, Fc-fusion, cadherin, protocadherin
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Assessment of Ovarian Cancer Spheroid Attachment and Invasion of Mesothelial Cells in Real Time
Authors: Maree Bilandzic, Kaye L. Stenvers.
Institutions: MIMR-PHI Institute of Medical Research, Monash University.
Ovarian cancers metastasize by shedding into the peritoneal fluid and dispersing to distal sites within the peritoneum. Monolayer cultures do not accurately model the behaviors of cancer cells within a nonadherent environment, as cancer cells inherently aggregate into multicellular structures which contribute to the metastatic process by attaching to and invading the peritoneal lining to form secondary tumors. To model this important stage of ovarian cancer metastasis, multicellular aggregates, or spheroids, can be generated from established ovarian cancer cell lines maintained under nonadherent conditions. To mimic the peritoneal microenvironment encountered by tumor cells in vivo, a spheroid-mesothelial co-culture model was established in which preformed spheroids are plated on top of a human mesothelial cell monolayer, formed over an extracellular matrix barrier. Methods were then developed using a real-time cell analyzer to conduct quantitative real time measurements of the invasive capacity of different ovarian cancer cell lines grown as spheroids. This approach allows for the continuous measurement of invasion over long periods of time, which has several advantages over traditional endpoint assays and more laborious real time microscopy image analyses. In short, this method enables a rapid, determination of factors which regulate the interactions between ovarian cancer spheroid cells invading through mesothelial and matrix barriers over time.
Medicine, Issue 87, Ovarian cancer, metastasis, invasion, mesothelial cells, spheroids, real time analysis
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Isolation of Sensory Neurons of Aplysia californica for Patch Clamp Recordings of Glutamatergic Currents
Authors: Lynne A. Fieber, Stephen L. Carlson, Andrew T. Kempsell, Justin B. Greer, Michael C. Schmale.
Institutions: University of Miami.
The marine gastropod mollusk Aplysia californica has a venerable history as a model of nervous system function, with particular significance in studies of learning and memory. The typical preparations for such studies are ones in which the sensory and motoneurons are left intact in a minimally dissected animal, or a technically elaborate neuronal co-culture of individual sensory and motoneurons. Less common is the isolated neuronal preparation in which small clusters of nominally homogeneous neurons are dissociated into single cells in short term culture. Such isolated cells are useful for the biophysical characterization of ion currents using patch clamp techniques, and targeted modulation of these conductances. A protocol for preparing such cultures is described. The protocol takes advantage of the easily identifiable glutamatergic sensory neurons of the pleural and buccal ganglia, and describes their dissociation and minimal maintenance in culture for several days without serum.
Neuroscience, Issue 77, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Environmental Sciences, Marine Biology, Receptors, Neurophysiology, Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitter Agents, Patch Clamp Recordings, Primary Cell Culture, Electrophysiology, L-Glutamate, NMDA, D-Aspartate, dissection, ganglia, buccal ganglion, neurons, invertebrate, Aplysia californica, california sea slug, mollusk, animal model
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Isolation and Th17 Differentiation of Naïve CD4 T Lymphocytes
Authors: Simone K. Bedoya, Tenisha D. Wilson, Erin L. Collins, Kenneth Lau, Joseph Larkin III.
Institutions: The University of Florida.
Th17 cells are a distinct subset of T cells that have been found to produce interleukin 17 (IL-17), and differ in function from the other T cell subsets including Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cells. Th17 cells have emerged as a central culprit in overzealous inflammatory immune responses associated with many autoimmune disorders. In this method we purify T lymphocytes from the spleen and lymph nodes of C57BL/6 mice, and stimulate purified CD4+ T cells under control and Th17-inducing environments. The Th17-inducing environment includes stimulation in the presence of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, IL-6, and TGF-β. After incubation for at least 72 hours and for up to five days at 37 °C, cells are subsequently analyzed for the capability to produce IL-17 through flow cytometry, qPCR, and ELISAs. Th17 differentiated CD4+CD25- T cells can be utilized to further elucidate the role that Th17 cells play in the onset and progression of autoimmunity and host defense. Moreover, Th17 differentiation of CD4+CD25- lymphocytes from distinct murine knockout/disease models can contribute to our understanding of cell fate plasticity.
Immunology, Issue 79, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Infection, Th17 cells, IL-17, Th17 differentiation, T cells, autoimmunity, cell, isolation, culture
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Transplantation of Tail Skin to Study Allogeneic CD4 T Cell Responses in Mice
Authors: Mathias Schmaler, Maria A. S. Broggi, Simona W. Rossi.
Institutions: University of Basel and University Hospital Basel.
The study of T cell responses and their consequences during allo-antigen recognition requires a model that enables one to distinguish between donor and host T cells, to easily monitor the graft, and to adapt the system in order to answer different immunological questions. Medawar and colleagues established allogeneic tail-skin transplantation in mice in 1955. Since then, the skin transplantation model has been continuously modified and adapted to answer specific questions. The use of tail-skin renders this model easy to score for graft rejection, requires neither extensive preparation nor deep anesthesia, is applicable to animals of all genetic background, discourages ischemic necrosis, and permits chemical and biological intervention. In general, both CD4+ and CD8+ allogeneic T cells are responsible for the rejection of allografts since they recognize mismatched major histocompatibility antigens from different mouse strains. Several models have been described for activating allogeneic T cells in skin-transplanted mice. The identification of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules in different mouse strains including C57BL/6 mice was an important step toward understanding and studying T cell-mediated alloresponses. In the tail-skin transplantation model described here, a three-point mutation (I-Abm12) in the antigen-presenting groove of the MHC-class II (I-Ab) molecule is sufficient to induce strong allogeneic CD4+ T cell activation in C57BL/6 mice. Skin grafts from I-Abm12 mice on C57BL/6 mice are rejected within 12-15 days, while syngeneic grafts are accepted for up to 100 days. The absence of T cells (CD3-/- and Rag2-/- mice) allows skin graft acceptance up to 100 days, which can be overcome by transferring 2 x 104 wild type or transgenic T cells. Adoptively transferred T cells proliferate and produce IFN-γ in I-Abm12-transplanted Rag2-/- mice.
Immunology, Issue 89, Tail-skin transplantation, I-Abm12 mismatch, CD4+ T cell, ABM, Rejection, Tolerance
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A Novel Three-dimensional Flow Chamber Device to Study Chemokine-directed Extravasation of Cells Circulating under Physiological Flow Conditions
Authors: Valentina Goncharova, Sophia K. Khaldoyanidi.
Institutions: Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Cascade LifeSciences Inc..
Extravasation of circulating cells from the bloodstream plays a central role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including stem cell homing and tumor metastasis. The three-dimensional flow chamber device (hereafter the 3D device) is a novel in vitro technology that recreates physiological shear stress and allows each step of the cell extravasation cascade to be quantified. The 3D device consists of an upper compartment in which the cells of interest circulate under shear stress, and a lower compartment of static wells that contain the chemoattractants of interest. The two compartments are separated by porous inserts coated with a monolayer of endothelial cells (EC). An optional second insert with microenvironmental cells of interest can be placed immediately beneath the EC layer. A gas exchange unit allows the optimal CO2 tension to be maintained and provides an access point to add or withdraw cells or compounds during the experiment. The test cells circulate in the upper compartment at the desired shear stress (flow rate) controlled by a peristaltic pump. At the end of the experiment, the circulating and migrated cells are collected for further analyses. The 3D device can be used to examine cell rolling on and adhesion to EC under shear stress, transmigration in response to chemokine gradients, resistance to shear stress, cluster formation, and cell survival. In addition, the optional second insert allows the effects of crosstalk between EC and microenvironmental cells to be examined. The translational applications of the 3D device include testing of drug candidates that target cell migration and predicting the in vivo behavior of cells after intravenous injection. Thus, the novel 3D device is a versatile and inexpensive tool to study the molecular mechanisms that mediate cellular extravasation.
Bioengineering, Issue 77, Cellular Biology, Biophysics, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Immunology, Cells, Biological Factors, Equipment and Supplies, Cell Physiological Phenomena, Natural Science Disciplines, Life Sciences (General), circulating cells, extravasation, physiological shear stress, endothelial cells, microenvironment, chemokine gradient, flow, chamber, cell culture, assay
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Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers
Authors: Rasa Ghaffarian, Silvia Muro.
Institutions: University of Maryland, University of Maryland.
Sub-micrometer carriers (nanocarriers; NCs) enhance efficacy of drugs by improving solubility, stability, circulation time, targeting, and release. Additionally, traversing cellular barriers in the body is crucial for both oral delivery of therapeutic NCs into the circulation and transport from the blood into tissues, where intervention is needed. NC transport across cellular barriers is achieved by: (i) the paracellular route, via transient disruption of the junctions that interlock adjacent cells, or (ii) the transcellular route, where materials are internalized by endocytosis, transported across the cell body, and secreted at the opposite cell surface (transyctosis). Delivery across cellular barriers can be facilitated by coupling therapeutics or their carriers with targeting agents that bind specifically to cell-surface markers involved in transport. Here, we provide methods to measure the extent and mechanism of NC transport across a model cell barrier, which consists of a monolayer of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells grown on a porous membrane located in a transwell insert. Formation of a permeability barrier is confirmed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), transepithelial transport of a control substance, and immunostaining of tight junctions. As an example, ~200 nm polymer NCs are used, which carry a therapeutic cargo and are coated with an antibody that targets a cell-surface determinant. The antibody or therapeutic cargo is labeled with 125I for radioisotope tracing and labeled NCs are added to the upper chamber over the cell monolayer for varying periods of time. NCs associated to the cells and/or transported to the underlying chamber can be detected. Measurement of free 125I allows subtraction of the degraded fraction. The paracellular route is assessed by determining potential changes caused by NC transport to the barrier parameters described above. Transcellular transport is determined by addressing the effect of modulating endocytosis and transcytosis pathways.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Antigens, Enzymes, Biological Therapy, bioengineering (general), Pharmaceutical Preparations, Macromolecular Substances, Therapeutics, Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, drug delivery systems, targeted nanocarriers, transcellular transport, epithelial cells, tight junctions, transepithelial electrical resistance, endocytosis, transcytosis, radioisotope tracing, immunostaining
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Human Neutrophil Flow Chamber Adhesion Assay
Authors: Yebin Zhou, Dennis F. Kucik, Alexander J. Szalai, Jeffrey C. Edberg.
Institutions: University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Neutrophil firm adhesion to endothelial cells plays a critical role in inflammation in both health and disease. The process of neutrophil firm adhesion involves many different adhesion molecules including members of the β2 integrin family and their counter-receptors of the ICAM family. Recently, naturally occurring genetic variants in both β2 integrins and ICAMs are reported to be associated with autoimmune disease. Thus, the quantitative adhesive capacity of neutrophils from individuals with varying allelic forms of these adhesion molecules is important to study in relation to mechanisms underlying development of autoimmunity. Adhesion studies in flow chamber systems can create an environment with fluid shear stress similar to that observed in the blood vessel environment in vivo. Here, we present a method using a flow chamber assay system to study the quantitative adhesive properties of human peripheral blood neutrophils to human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and to purified ligand substrates. With this method, the neutrophil adhesive capacities from donors with different allelic variants in adhesion receptors can be assessed and compared. This method can also be modified to assess adhesion of other primary cell types or cell lines.
Immunology, Issue 89, neutrophil adhesion, flow chamber, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), purified ligand
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Static Adhesion Assay for the Study of Integrin Activation in T Lymphocytes
Authors: Marianne Strazza, Inbar Azoulay-Alfaguter, Ariel Pedoeem, Adam Mor.
Institutions: New York University School of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine.
T lymphocyte adhesion is required for multiple T cell functions, including migration to sites of inflammation and formation of immunological synapses with antigen presenting cells. T cells accomplish regulated adhesion by controlling the adhesive properties of integrins, a class of cell adhesion molecules consisting of heterodimeric pairs of transmembrane proteins that interact with target molecules on partner cells or extracellular matrix. The most prominent T cell integrin is lymphocyte function associated antigen (LFA)-1, composed of subunits αL and β2, whose target is the intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. The ability of a T cell to control adhesion derives from the ability to regulate the affinity states of individual integrins. Inside-out signaling describes the process whereby signals inside a cell cause the external domains of integrins to assume an activated state. Much of our knowledge of these complex phenomena is based on mechanistic studies performed in simplified in vitro model systems. The T lymphocyte adhesion assay described here is an excellent tool that allows T cells to adhere to target molecules, under static conditions, and then utilizes a fluorescent plate reader to quantify adhesiveness. This assay has been useful in defining adhesion-stimulatory or inhibitory substances that act on lymphocytes, as well as characterizing the signaling events involved. Although described here for LFA-1 - ICAM-1 mediated adhesion; this assay can be readily adapted to allow for the study of other adhesive interactions (e.g. VLA-4 - fibronectin).
Immunology, Issue 88, Immune System Phenomena, T cell, adhesion, Rap1, integrins, T lymphocytes, ICAM-1
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A Flow Adhesion Assay to Study Leucocyte Recruitment to Human Hepatic Sinusoidal Endothelium Under Conditions of Shear Stress
Authors: Shishir Shetty, Christopher J. Weston, David H. Adams, Patricia F. Lalor.
Institutions: University of Birmingham.
Leucocyte infiltration into human liver tissue is a common process in all adult inflammatory liver diseases. Chronic infiltration can drive the development of fibrosis and progression to cirrhosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that mediate leucocyte recruitment to the liver could identify important therapeutic targets for liver disease. The key interaction during leucocyte recruitment is that of inflammatory cells with endothelium under conditions of shear stress. Recruitment to the liver occurs within the low shear channels of the hepatic sinusoids which are lined by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC). The conditions within the hepatic sinusoids can be recapitulated by perfusing leucocytes through channels lined by human HSEC monolayers at specific flow rates. In these conditions leucocytes undergo a brief tethering step followed by activation and firm adhesion, followed by a crawling step and subsequent transmigration across the endothelial layer. Using phase contrast microscopy, each step of this 'adhesion cascade' can be visualized and recorded followed by offline analysis. Endothelial cells or leucocytes can be pretreated with inhibitors to determine the role of specific molecules during this process.
Immunology, Issue 85, Leucocyte trafficking, liver, hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, peripheral blood lymphocytes, flow adhesion assay
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In vivo Measurement of the Mouse Pulmonary Endothelial Surface Layer
Authors: Yimu Yang, Gaoqing Yang, Eric P. Schmidt.
Institutions: University of Colorado School of Medicine.
The endothelial glycocalyx is a layer of proteoglycans and associated glycosaminoglycans lining the vascular lumen. In vivo, the glycocalyx is highly hydrated, forming a substantial endothelial surface layer (ESL) that contributes to the maintenance of endothelial function. As the endothelial glycocalyx is often aberrant in vitro and is lost during standard tissue fixation techniques, study of the ESL requires use of intravital microscopy. To best approximate the complex physiology of the alveolar microvasculature, pulmonary intravital imaging is ideally performed on a freely-moving lung. These preparations, however, typically suffer from extensive motion artifact. We demonstrate how closed-chest intravital microscopy of a freely-moving mouse lung can be used to measure glycocalyx integrity via ESL exclusion of fluorescently-labeled high molecular weight dextrans from the endothelial surface. This non-recovery surgical technique, which requires simultaneous brightfield and fluorescent imaging of the mouse lung, allows for longitudinal observation of the subpleural microvasculature without evidence of inducing confounding lung injury.
Medicine, Issue 72, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Surgery, Endothelium, Vascular, Inflammation, Pulmonary Circulation, Intravital Microscopy, endothelial surface layer, endothelial, glycocalyx, pulmonary microvasculature, catheter, tracheostomy, venous, catheterization, lung injury, mouse, animal model
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Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Authors: Yves Molino, Françoise Jabès, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Nicolas Gaudin, Michel Khrestchatisky.
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2 on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3 cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
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Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors
Authors: Laura E. Brown, Celine Fuchs, Martin W. Nicholson, F. Anne Stephenson, Alex M. Thomson, Jasmina N. Jovanovic.
Institutions: University College London.
Inhibitory neurons act in the central nervous system to regulate the dynamics and spatio-temporal co-ordination of neuronal networks. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is released from the presynaptic terminals of inhibitory neurons within highly specialized intercellular junctions known as synapses, where it binds to GABAA receptors (GABAARs) present at the plasma membrane of the synapse-receiving, postsynaptic neurons. Activation of these GABA-gated ion channels leads to influx of chloride resulting in postsynaptic potential changes that decrease the probability that these neurons will generate action potentials. During development, diverse types of inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological, electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics have the ability to recognize their target neurons and form synapses which incorporate specific GABAARs subtypes. This principle of selective innervation of neuronal targets raises the question as to how the appropriate synaptic partners identify each other. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABAAR subtypes. Synapses form rapidly, efficiently and selectively in this system, and are easily accessible for quantification. Our results indicate that various GABAAR subtypes differ in their ability to promote synapse formation, suggesting that this reduced in vitro model system can be used to reproduce, at least in part, the in vivo conditions required for the recognition of the appropriate synaptic partners and formation of specific synapses. Here the protocols for culturing the medium spiny neurons and generating HEK293 cells lines expressing GABAARs are first described, followed by detailed instructions on how to combine these two cell types in co-culture and analyze the formation of synaptic contacts.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
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In vitro Mesothelial Clearance Assay that Models the Early Steps of Ovarian Cancer Metastasis
Authors: Rachel A. Davidowitz, Marcin P. Iwanicki, Joan S. Brugge.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States1. Despite a positive initial response to therapies, 70 to 90 percent of women with ovarian cancer develop new metastases, and the recurrence is often fatal2. It is, therefore, necessary to understand how secondary metastases arise in order to develop better treatments for intermediate and late stage ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer metastasis occurs when malignant cells detach from the primary tumor site and disseminate throughout the peritoneal cavity. The disseminated cells can form multicellular clusters, or spheroids, that will either remain unattached, or implant onto organs within the peritoneal cavity3 (Figure 1, Movie 1). All of the organs within the peritoneal cavity are lined with a single, continuous, layer of mesothelial cells4-6 (Figure 2). However, mesothelial cells are absent from underneath peritoneal tumor masses, as revealed by electron micrograph studies of excised human tumor tissue sections3,5-7 (Figure 2). This suggests that mesothelial cells are excluded from underneath the tumor mass by an unknown process. Previous in vitro experiments demonstrated that primary ovarian cancer cells attach more efficiently to extracellular matrix than to mesothelial cells8, and more recent studies showed that primary peritoneal mesothelial cells actually provide a barrier to ovarian cancer cell adhesion and invasion (as compared to adhesion and invasion on substrates that were not covered with mesothelial cells)9,10. This would suggest that mesothelial cells act as a barrier against ovarian cancer metastasis. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which ovarian cancer cells breach this barrier, and exclude the mesothelium have, until recently, remained unknown. Here we describe the methodology for an in vitro assay that models the interaction between ovarian cancer cell spheroids and mesothelial cells in vivo (Figure 3, Movie 2). Our protocol was adapted from previously described methods for analyzing ovarian tumor cell interactions with mesothelial monolayers8-16, and was first described in a report showing that ovarian tumor cells utilize an integrin –dependent activation of myosin and traction force to promote the exclusion of the mesothelial cells from under a tumor spheroid17. This model takes advantage of time-lapse fluorescence microscopy to monitor the two cell populations in real time, providing spatial and temporal information on the interaction. The ovarian cancer cells express red fluorescent protein (RFP) while the mesothelial cells express green fluorescent protein (GFP). RFP-expressing ovarian cancer cell spheroids attach to the GFP-expressing mesothelial monolayer. The spheroids spread, invade, and force the mesothelial cells aside creating a hole in the monolayer. This hole is visualized as the negative space (black) in the GFP image. The area of the hole can then be measured to quantitatively analyze differences in clearance activity between control and experimental populations of ovarian cancer and/ or mesothelial cells. This assay requires only a small number of ovarian cancer cells (100 cells per spheroid X 20-30 spheroids per condition), so it is feasible to perform this assay using precious primary tumor cell samples. Furthermore, this assay can be easily adapted for high throughput screening.
Medicine, Issue 60, Ovarian Cancer, Metastasis, In vitro Model, Mesothelial, Spheroid
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Quantitative In vitro Assay to Measure Neutrophil Adhesion to Activated Primary Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells under Static Conditions
Authors: Kevin Wilhelmsen, Katherine Farrar, Judith Hellman.
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco.
The vascular endothelium plays an integral part in the inflammatory response. During the acute phase of inflammation, endothelial cells (ECs) are activated by host mediators or directly by conserved microbial components or host-derived danger molecules. Activated ECs express cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules that mobilize, activate and retain leukocytes at the site of infection or injury. Neutrophils are the first leukocytes to arrive, and adhere to the endothelium through a variety of adhesion molecules present on the surfaces of both cells. The main functions of neutrophils are to directly eliminate microbial threats, promote the recruitment of other leukocytes through the release of additional factors, and initiate wound repair. Therefore, their recruitment and attachment to the endothelium is a critical step in the initiation of the inflammatory response. In this report, we describe an in vitro neutrophil adhesion assay using calcein AM-labeled primary human neutrophils to quantitate the extent of microvascular endothelial cell activation under static conditions. This method has the additional advantage that the same samples quantitated by fluorescence spectrophotometry can also be visualized directly using fluorescence microscopy for a more qualitative assessment of neutrophil binding.
Immunology, Issue 78, Cellular Biology, Infection, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Endothelium, Vascular, Neutrophils, Inflammation, Inflammation Mediators, Neutrophil, Leukocyte Adhesion, Endothelial cells, assay
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Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy
Authors: Nikki M. Curthoys, Michael J. Mlodzianoski, Dahan Kim, Samuel T. Hess.
Institutions: University of Maine.
Localization-based super resolution microscopy can be applied to obtain a spatial map (image) of the distribution of individual fluorescently labeled single molecules within a sample with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. Using either photoactivatable (PAFP) or photoswitchable (PSFP) fluorescent proteins fused to proteins of interest, or organic dyes conjugated to antibodies or other molecules of interest, fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) can simultaneously image multiple species of molecules within single cells. By using the following approach, populations of large numbers (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of individual molecules are imaged in single cells and localized with a precision of ~10-30 nm. Data obtained can be applied to understanding the nanoscale spatial distributions of multiple protein types within a cell. One primary advantage of this technique is the dramatic increase in spatial resolution: while diffraction limits resolution to ~200-250 nm in conventional light microscopy, FPALM can image length scales more than an order of magnitude smaller. As many biological hypotheses concern the spatial relationships among different biomolecules, the improved resolution of FPALM can provide insight into questions of cellular organization which have previously been inaccessible to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In addition to detailing the methods for sample preparation and data acquisition, we here describe the optical setup for FPALM. One additional consideration for researchers wishing to do super-resolution microscopy is cost: in-house setups are significantly cheaper than most commercially available imaging machines. Limitations of this technique include the need for optimizing the labeling of molecules of interest within cell samples, and the need for post-processing software to visualize results. We here describe the use of PAFP and PSFP expression to image two protein species in fixed cells. Extension of the technique to living cells is also described.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Microscopy, Super-resolution imaging, Multicolor, single molecule, FPALM, Localization microscopy, fluorescent proteins
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Dissection of Organizer and Animal Pole Explants from Xenopus laevis Embryos and Assembly of a Cell Adhesion Assay
Authors: Souichi Ogata, Ken W.Y. Cho.
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Developmental Biology, Issue 3, embryo, Xenopus, organizer, animal pole, dissection
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