Although rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can sleep soon after encoding, there is currently a paucity of literature as to how these two factors may interact to influence consolidation. Here we present a protocol to examine the interactive influence of cortisol and sleep on memory consolidation, by combining three methods: eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing across sleep and wake delays. To assess resting cortisol levels, participants gave a saliva sample before viewing negative and neutral objects within scenes. To measure overt attention, participants’ eye gaze was tracked during encoding. To manipulate whether sleep occurred during the consolidation window, participants either encoded scenes in the evening, slept overnight, and took a recognition test the next morning, or encoded scenes in the morning and remained awake during a comparably long retention interval. Additional control groups were tested after a 20 min delay in the morning or evening, to control for time-of-day effects. Together, results showed that there is a direct relation between resting cortisol at encoding and subsequent memory, only following a period of sleep. Through eye tracking, it was further determined that for negative stimuli, this beneficial effect of cortisol on subsequent memory may be due to cortisol strengthening the relation between where participants look during encoding and what they are later able to remember. Overall, results obtained by a combination of these methods uncovered an interactive effect of sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation.
15 Related JoVE Articles!
Assaying Locomotor Activity to Study Circadian Rhythms and Sleep Parameters in Drosophila
Institutions: Rutgers University, University of California, Davis, Rutgers University.
Most life forms exhibit daily rhythms in cellular, physiological and behavioral phenomena that are driven by endogenous circadian (≡24 hr) pacemakers or clocks. Malfunctions in the human circadian system are associated with numerous diseases or disorders. Much progress towards our understanding of the mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms has emerged from genetic screens whereby an easily measured behavioral rhythm is used as a read-out of clock function. Studies using Drosophila
have made seminal contributions to our understanding of the cellular and biochemical bases underlying circadian rhythms. The standard circadian behavioral read-out measured in Drosophila
is locomotor activity. In general, the monitoring system involves specially designed devices that can measure the locomotor movement of Drosophila
. These devices are housed in environmentally controlled incubators located in a darkroom and are based on using the interruption of a beam of infrared light to record the locomotor activity of individual flies contained inside small tubes. When measured over many days, Drosophila
exhibit daily cycles of activity and inactivity, a behavioral rhythm that is governed by the animal's endogenous circadian system. The overall procedure has been simplified with the advent of commercially available locomotor activity monitoring devices and the development of software programs for data analysis. We use the system from Trikinetics Inc., which is the procedure described here and is currently the most popular system used worldwide. More recently, the same monitoring devices have been used to study sleep behavior in Drosophila
. Because the daily wake-sleep cycles of many flies can be measured simultaneously and only 1 to 2 weeks worth of continuous locomotor activity data is usually sufficient, this system is ideal for large-scale screens to identify Drosophila
manifesting altered circadian or sleep properties.
Neuroscience, Issue 43, circadian rhythm, locomotor activity, Drosophila, period, sleep, Trikinetics
P50 Sensory Gating in Infants
Institutions: University of Colorado School of Medicine, Colorado State University.
Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating.
Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e.
the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits.
Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations.
Behavior, Issue 82, Child Development, Psychophysiology, Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Evoked Potentials, Auditory, auditory evoked potential, sensory gating, infant, attention, electrophysiology, infants, sensory gating, endophenotype, attention, P50
Simultaneous Electroencephalography, Real-time Measurement of Lactate Concentration and Optogenetic Manipulation of Neuronal Activity in the Rodent Cerebral Cortex
Institutions: Washington State University.
Although the brain represents less than 5% of the body by mass, it utilizes approximately one quarter of the glucose used by the body at rest1
. The function of non rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), the largest portion of sleep by time, is uncertain. However, one salient feature of NREMS is a significant reduction in the rate of cerebral glucose utilization relative to wakefulness2-4
. This and other findings have led to the widely held belief that sleep serves a function related to cerebral metabolism. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the reduction in cerebral glucose metabolism during NREMS remain to be elucidated.
One phenomenon associated with NREMS that might impact cerebral metabolic rate is the occurrence of slow waves, oscillations at frequencies less than 4 Hz, in the electroencephalogram5,6
. These slow waves detected at the level of the skull or cerebral cortical surface reflect the oscillations of underlying neurons between a depolarized/up state and a hyperpolarized/down state7
. During the down state, cells do not undergo action potentials for intervals of up to several hundred milliseconds. Restoration of ionic concentration gradients subsequent to action potentials represents a significant metabolic load on the cell8
; absence of action potentials during down states associated with NREMS may contribute to reduced metabolism relative to wake.
Two technical challenges had to be addressed in order for this hypothetical relationship to be tested. First, it was necessary to measure cerebral glycolytic metabolism with a temporal resolution reflective of the dynamics of the cerebral EEG (that is, over seconds rather than minutes). To do so, we measured the concentration of lactate, the product of aerobic glycolysis, and therefore a readout of the rate of glucose metabolism in the brains of mice. Lactate was measured using a lactate oxidase based real time sensor embedded in the frontal cortex. The sensing mechanism consists of a platinum-iridium electrode surrounded by a layer of lactate oxidase molecules. Metabolism of lactate by lactate oxidase produces hydrogen peroxide, which produces a current in the platinum-iridium electrode. So a ramping up of cerebral glycolysis provides an increase in the concentration of substrate for lactate oxidase, which then is reflected in increased current at the sensing electrode. It was additionally necessary to measure these variables while manipulating the excitability of the cerebral cortex, in order to isolate this variable from other facets of NREMS.
We devised an experimental system for simultaneous measurement of neuronal activity via the elecetroencephalogram, measurement of glycolytic flux via a lactate biosensor, and manipulation of cerebral cortical neuronal activity via optogenetic activation of pyramidal neurons. We have utilized this system to document the relationship between sleep-related electroencephalographic waveforms and the moment-to-moment dynamics of lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex. The protocol may be useful for any individual interested in studying, in freely behaving rodents, the relationship between neuronal activity measured at the electroencephalographic level and cellular energetics within the brain.
Neuroscience, Issue 70, Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine, Pharmacology, Surgery, Sleep, rapid eye movement, glucose, glycolysis, pyramidal neurons, channelrhodopsin, optogenetics, optogenetic stimulation, electroencephalogram, EEG, EMG, brain, animal model
Design and Analysis of Temperature Preference Behavior and its Circadian Rhythm in Drosophila
Institutions: Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center, JST.
The circadian clock regulates many aspects of life, including sleep, locomotor activity, and body temperature (BTR) rhythms1,2
. We recently identified a novel Drosophila
circadian output, called the temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which the preferred temperature in flies rises during the day and falls during the night 3
. Surprisingly, the TPR and locomotor activity are controlled through distinct circadian neurons3
locomotor activity is a well known circadian behavioral output and has provided strong contributions to the discovery of many conserved mammalian circadian clock genes and mechanisms4
. Therefore, understanding TPR will lead to the identification of hitherto unknown molecular and cellular circadian mechanisms. Here, we describe how to perform and analyze the TPR assay. This technique not only allows for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms of TPR, but also provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms of the brain functions that integrate different environmental signals and regulate animal behaviors. Furthermore, our recently published data suggest that the fly TPR shares features with the mammalian BTR3
are ectotherms, in which the body temperature is typically behaviorally regulated. Therefore, TPR is a strategy used to generate a rhythmic body temperature in these flies5-8
. We believe that further exploration of Drosophila
TPR will facilitate the characterization of the mechanisms underlying body temperature control in animals.
Basic Protocol, Issue 83, Drosophila, circadian clock, temperature, temperature preference rhythm, locomotor activity, body temperature rhythms
A Novel Technique of Rescuing Capsulorhexis Radial Tear-out using a Cystotome
Institutions: Hairmyres Hospital, NHS Lanarkshire, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, National Institute of Ophthalmology, South Devon Healthcare NHS Trust.
Part 1 : Purpose: To demonstrate a capsulorhexis radial tear out rescue technique using a cystotome on a virtual reality cataract surgery simulator and in a human eye. Part 2 : Method: Steps: When a capsulorhexis begins to veer radially towards the periphery beyond the pupillary margin the following steps should be applied without delay. 2.1) Stop further capsulorhexis manoeuvre and reassess the situation. 2.2) Fill the anterior chamber with ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). We recommend mounting the cystotome to a syringe containing OVD so that the anterior chamber can be reinflated rapidly. 2.3) The capsulorhexis flap is then left unfolded on the lens surface. 2.4) The cystotome tip is tilted horizontally to avoid cutting or puncturing the flap and is engaged on the flap near the leading edge of the tear but not too close to the point of tear. 2.5) Gently push or pull the leading edge of tear opposite to the direction of tear. 2.6) The leading tearing edge will start to do a 'U-Turn'. Maintain the tension on the flap until the tearing edge returns to the desired trajectory. Part 3 : Results: Using our technique, a surgeon can respond instantly to radial tear out without having to change surgical instruments. Changing surgical instruments at this critical stage runs a risk of further radial tear due to sudden shallowing of anterior chamber as a result of forward pressure from the vitreous. Our technique also has the advantage of reducing corneal wound distortion and subsequent anterior chamber collapse. Part 4 : Discussion The EYESI Surgical Simulator is a realistic training platform for surgeons to practice complex capsulorhexis tear-out techniques. Capsulorhexis is the most important and complex part of phacoemulsification and endocapsular intraocular lens implantation procedure. A successful cataract surgery depends on achieving a good capsulorhexis. During capsulorhexis, surgeons may face a challenging situation like a capsulorhexis radial tear-out. A surgeon must learn to tackle the problem promptly without making the situation worse. Some other methods of rescuing the situation have been described using a capsulorhexis forceps. However, we believe our method is quicker, more effective and easier to manipulate as demonstrated on the EYESi surgical simulator and on a human eye. Acknowledgments: List acknowledgements and funding sources. We would like to thank Dr. Wael El Gendy, for video clip. Disclosures: describe potential conflicting interests or state We have nothing to disclose. References: 1. Brian C. Little, Jennifer H. Smith, Mark Packer. J Cataract Refract Surg 2006; 32:1420 1422, Issue-9. 2. Neuhann T. Theorie und Operationstechnik der Kapsulorhexis. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1987; 1990: 542-545. 3. Gimbel HV, Neuhann T. Development, advantages and methods of the continuous circular capsulorhexis technique. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1990; 16: 31-37. 4. Gimbel HV, Neuhann T. Continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis. (letter) J Cataract Refract Sur. 1991; 17: 110-111.
Medicine, Issue 47, Phacoemulsification surgery, cataract surgery, capsulorhexis, capsulotomy, technique, Continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, cystotome, capsulorhexis radial tear, capulorhexis COMPLICATION
Measuring Frailty in HIV-infected Individuals. Identification of Frail Patients is the First Step to Amelioration and Reversal of Frailty
Institutions: University of Arizona, University of Arizona.
A simple, validated protocol consisting of a battery of tests is available to identify elderly patients with frailty syndrome. This syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors increases in incidence with increasing age. In the elderly, frailty may pursue a step-wise loss of function from non-frail to pre-frail to frail. We studied frailty in HIV-infected patients and found that ~20% are frail using the Fried phenotype using stringent criteria developed for the elderly1,2
. In HIV infection the syndrome occurs at a younger age.
HIV patients were checked for 1) unintentional weight loss; 2) slowness as determined by walking speed; 3) weakness as measured by a grip dynamometer; 4) exhaustion by responses to a depression scale; and 5) low physical activity was determined by assessing kilocalories expended in a week's time. Pre-frailty was present with any two of five criteria and frailty was present if any three of the five criteria were abnormal.
The tests take approximately 10-15 min to complete and they can be performed by medical assistants during routine clinic visits. Test results are scored by referring to standard tables. Understanding which of the five components contribute to frailty in an individual patient can allow the clinician to address relevant underlying problems, many of which are not evident in routine HIV clinic visits.
Medicine, Issue 77, Infection, Virology, Infectious Diseases, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Retroviridae Infections, Body Weight Changes, Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Physical Examination, Muscle Strength, Behavior, Virus Diseases, Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis, Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena, HIV, HIV-1, AIDS, Frailty, Depression, Weight Loss, Weakness, Slowness, Exhaustion, Aging, clinical techniques
Cell-based Assay Protocol for the Prognostic Prediction of Idiopathic Scoliosis Using Cellular Dielectric Spectroscopy
Institutions: Sainte-Justine University Hospital Research Center, Université de Montréal.
This protocol details the experimental and analytical procedure for a cell-based assay developed in our laboratory as a functional test to predict the prognosis of idiopathic scoliosis in asymptomatic and affected children. The assay consists of the evaluation of the functional status of Gi and Gs proteins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by cellular dielectric spectroscopy (CDS), using an automated CDS-based instrument, and the classification of children into three functional groups (FG1, FG2, FG3) with respect to the profile of imbalance between the degree of response to Gi and Gs proteins stimulation. The classification is further confirmed by the differential effect of osteopontin (OPN) on response to Gi stimulation among groups and the severe progression of disease is referenced by FG2. Approximately, a volume of 10 ml of blood is required to extract PBMCs by Ficoll-gradient and cells are then stored in liquid nitrogen. The adequate number of PBMCs to perform the assay is obtained after two days of cell culture. Essentially, cells are first incubated with phytohemmaglutinin (PHA). After 24 hr incubation, medium is replaced by a PHA-free culture medium for an additional 24 hr prior to cell seeding and OPN treatment. Cells are then spectroscopically screened for their responses to somatostatin and isoproterenol, which respectively activate Gi and Gs proteins through their cognate receptors. Both somatostatin and isoproterenol are simultaneously injected with an integrated fluidics system and the cells' responses are monitored for 15 min. The assay can be performed with fresh or frozen PBMCs and the procedure is completed within 4 days.
Medicine, Issue 80, Blood Cells, Lymphocytes, Spinal Diseases, Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Clinical Laboratory Techniques, Dielectric Spectroscopy, Musculoskeletal Diseases, Idiopathic scoliosis, classification, prognosis, G proteins, cellular dielectric spectroscopy, PBMCs
Getting to Compliance in Forced Exercise in Rodents: A Critical Standard to Evaluate Exercise Impact in Aging-related Disorders and Disease
Institutions: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.
There is a major increase in the awareness of the positive impact of exercise on improving several disease states with neurobiological basis; these include improving cognitive function and physical performance. As a result, there is an increase in the number of animal studies employing exercise. It is argued that one intrinsic value of forced exercise is that the investigator has control over the factors that can influence the impact of exercise on behavioral outcomes, notably exercise frequency, duration, and intensity of the exercise regimen. However, compliance in forced exercise regimens may be an issue, particularly if potential confounds of employing foot-shock are to be avoided. It is also important to consider that since most cognitive and locomotor impairments strike in the aged individual, determining impact of exercise on these impairments should consider using aged rodents with a highest possible level of compliance to ensure minimal need for test subjects. Here, the pertinent steps and considerations necessary to achieve nearly 100% compliance to treadmill exercise in an aged rodent model will be presented and discussed. Notwithstanding the particular exercise regimen being employed by the investigator, our protocol should be of use to investigators that are particularly interested in the potential impact of forced exercise on aging-related impairments, including aging-related Parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease.
Behavior, Issue 90, Exercise, locomotor, Parkinson’s disease, aging, treadmill, bradykinesia, Parkinsonism
A Novel Capsulorhexis Technique Using Shearing Forces with Cystotome
Institutions: Hairmyres Hospital, NHS Lanarkshire, Department of Ophthalmology, South Devon Healthcare NHS Trust.
To demonstrate a capsulorhexis technique using predominantly shearing forces with a cystotome on a virtual reality simulator and on a human eye.
Our technique involves creating the initial anterior capsular tear with a cystotome to raise a flap. The flap left unfolded on the lens surface. The cystotome tip is tilted horizontally and is engaged on the flap near the leading edge of the tear. The cystotome is moved in a circular fashion to direct the vector forces. The loose flap is constantly swept towards the centre so that it does not obscure the view on the tearing edge.
Our technique has the advantage of reducing corneal wound distortion and subsequent anterior chamber collapse. The capsulorhexis flap is moved away from the tear leading edge allowing better visualisation of the direction of tear. This technique offers superior control of the capsulorhexis by allowing the surgeon to change the direction of the tear to achieve the desired capsulorhexis size.
The EYESI Surgical Simulator is a realistic training platform for surgeons to practice complex capsulorhexis techniques. The shearing forces technique is a suitable alternative and in some cases a far better technique in achieving the desired capsulorhexis.
JoVE Medicine, Issue 39, Phacoemulsification surgery, cataract surgery, capsulorhexis, capsulotomy, technique, Continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, cystotome
Simultaneous EEG Monitoring During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Institutions: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), Harvard Medical School, De Montfort University.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique that delivers weak electric currents through the scalp. This constant electric current induces shifts in neuronal membrane excitability, resulting in secondary changes in cortical activity. Although tDCS has most of its neuromodulatory effects on the underlying cortex, tDCS effects can also be observed in distant neural networks. Therefore, concomitant EEG monitoring of the effects of tDCS can provide valuable information on the mechanisms of tDCS. In addition, EEG findings can be an important surrogate marker for the effects of tDCS and thus can be used to optimize its parameters. This combined EEG-tDCS system can also be used for preventive treatment of neurological conditions characterized by abnormal peaks of cortical excitability, such as seizures. Such a system would be the basis of a non-invasive closed-loop device. In this article, we present a novel device that is capable of utilizing tDCS and EEG simultaneously. For that, we describe in a step-by-step fashion the main procedures of the application of this device using schematic figures, tables and video demonstrations. Additionally, we provide a literature review on clinical uses of tDCS and its cortical effects measured by EEG techniques.
Behavior, Issue 76, Medicine, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Psychology, electroencephalography, electroencephalogram, EEG, transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS, noninvasive brain stimulation, neuromodulation, closed-loop system, brain, imaging, clinical techniques
Quantitative Measurement of the Immune Response and Sleep in Drosophila
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.
A complex interaction between the immune response and host behavior has been described in a wide range of species. Excess sleep, in particular, is known to occur as a response to infection in mammals 1
and has also recently been described in Drosophila melanogaster2
. It is generally accepted that sleep is beneficial to the host during an infection and that it is important for the maintenance of a robust immune system3,4
. However, experimental evidence that supports this hypothesis is limited4
, and the function of excess sleep during an immune response remains unclear. We have used a multidisciplinary approach to address this complex problem, and have conducted studies in the simple genetic model system, the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster
. We use a standard assay for measuring locomotor behavior and sleep in flies, and demonstrate how this assay is used to measure behavior in flies infected with a pathogenic strain of bacteria. This assay is also useful for monitoring the duration of survival in individual flies during an infection. Additional measures of immune function include the ability of flies to clear an infection and the activation of NFκB, a key transcription factor that is central to the innate immune response in Drosophila
. Both survival outcome and bacterial clearance during infection together are indicators of resistance and tolerance to infection. Resistance refers to the ability of flies to clear an infection, while tolerance is defined as the ability of the host to limit damage from an infection and thereby survive despite high levels of pathogen within the system5
. Real-time monitoring of NFκB activity during infection provides insight into a molecular mechanism of survival during infection. The use of Drosophila
in these straightforward assays facilitates the genetic and molecular analyses of sleep and the immune response and how these two complex systems are reciprocally influenced.
Immunology, Issue 70, Neuroscience, Medicine, Physiology, Pathology, Microbiology, immune response, sleep, Drosophila, infection, bacteria, luciferase reporter assay, animal model
Assessment and Evaluation of the High Risk Neonate: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale
Institutions: Brown University, Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts, Boston.
There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used.
Behavior, Issue 90, NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale, NNNS, High risk infant, Assessment, Evaluation, Prediction, Long term outcome
Handwriting Analysis Indicates Spontaneous Dyskinesias in Neuroleptic Naïve Adolescents at High Risk for Psychosis
Institutions: University of Colorado Boulder, NeuroScript LLC, University of California, San Diego.
Growing evidence suggests that movement abnormalities are a core feature of psychosis. One marker of movement abnormality, dyskinesia, is a result of impaired neuromodulation of dopamine in fronto-striatal pathways. The traditional methods for identifying movement abnormalities include observer-based reports and force stability gauges. The drawbacks of these methods are long training times for raters, experimenter bias, large site differences in instrumental apparatus, and suboptimal reliability. Taking these drawbacks into account has guided the development of better standardized and more efficient procedures to examine movement abnormalities through handwriting analysis software and tablet. Individuals at risk for psychosis showed significantly more dysfluent pen movements (a proximal measure for dyskinesia) in a handwriting task. Handwriting kinematics offers a great advance over previous methods of assessing dyskinesia, which could clearly be beneficial for understanding the etiology of psychosis.
Behavior, Issue 81, Schizophrenia, Disorders with Psychotic Features, Psychology, Clinical, Psychopathology, behavioral sciences, Movement abnormalities, Ultra High Risk, psychosis, handwriting, computer tablet, dyskinesia
Measuring Circadian and Acute Light Responses in Mice using Wheel Running Activity
Institutions: John Hopkins University.
Circadian rhythms are physiological functions that cycle over a period of approximately 24 hours (circadian- circa: approximate and diem: day)1, 2
. They are responsible for timing our sleep/wake cycles and hormone secretion. Since this timing is not precisely 24-hours, it is synchronized to the solar day by light input. This is accomplished via photic input from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which serves as the master pacemaker synchronizing peripheral clocks in other regions of the brain and peripheral tissues to the environmental light dark cycle3-7
. The alignment of rhythms to this environmental light dark cycle organizes particular physiological events to the correct temporal niche, which is crucial for survival8
. For example, mice sleep during the day and are active at night. This ability to consolidate activity to either the light or dark portion of the day is referred to as circadian photoentrainment and requires light input to the circadian clock9
. Activity of mice at night is robust particularly in the presence of a running wheel. Measuring this behavior is a minimally invasive method that can be used to evaluate the functionality of the circadian system as well as light input to this system. Methods that will covered here are used to examine the circadian clock, light input to this system, as well as the direct influence of light on wheel running behavior.
Neuroscience, Issue 48, mouse, circadian, behavior, wheel running
Cortical Source Analysis of High-Density EEG Recordings in Children
Institutions: UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London.
EEG is traditionally described as a neuroimaging technique with high temporal and low spatial resolution. Recent advances in biophysical modelling and signal processing make it possible to exploit information from other imaging modalities like structural MRI that provide high spatial resolution to overcome this constraint1
. This is especially useful for investigations that require high resolution in the temporal as well as spatial domain. In addition, due to the easy application and low cost of EEG recordings, EEG is often the method of choice when working with populations, such as young children, that do not tolerate functional MRI scans well. However, in order to investigate which neural substrates are involved, anatomical information from structural MRI is still needed. Most EEG analysis packages work with standard head models that are based on adult anatomy. The accuracy of these models when used for children is limited2
, because the composition and spatial configuration of head tissues changes dramatically over development3
In the present paper, we provide an overview of our recent work in utilizing head models based on individual structural MRI scans or age specific head models to reconstruct the cortical generators of high density EEG. This article describes how EEG recordings are acquired, processed, and analyzed with pediatric populations at the London Baby Lab, including laboratory setup, task design, EEG preprocessing, MRI processing, and EEG channel level and source analysis.
Behavior, Issue 88, EEG, electroencephalogram, development, source analysis, pediatric, minimum-norm estimation, cognitive neuroscience, event-related potentials