Differentiation of human neural progenitors into neuronal and glial cell types offers a model to study and compare molecular regulation of neural cell lineage development. In vitro expansion of neural progenitors from fetal CNS tissue has been well characterized. Despite the identification and isolation of glial progenitors from adult human sub-cortical white matter and development of various culture conditions to direct differentiation of fetal neural progenitors into myelin producing oligodendrocytes, acquiring sufficient human oligodendrocytes for in vitro experimentation remains difficult. Differentiation of galactocerebroside+ (GalC) and O4+ oligodendrocyte precursor or progenitor cells (OPC) from neural precursor cells has been reported using second trimester fetal brain. However, these cells do not proliferate in the absence of support cells including astrocytes and neurons, and are lost quickly over time in culture. The need remains for a culture system to produce cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage suitable for in vitro experimentation.
Culture of primary human oligodendrocytes could, for example, be a useful model to study the pathogenesis of neurotropic infectious agents like the human polyomavirus, JCV, that in vivo infects those cells. These cultured cells could also provide models of other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Primary, human fetal brain-derived, multipotential neural progenitor cells proliferate in vitro while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into neurons (progenitor-derived neurons, PDN) and astrocytes (progenitor-derived astrocytes, PDA) This study shows that neural progenitors can be induced to differentiate through many of the stages of oligodendrocytic lineage development (progenitor-derived oligodendrocytes, PDO). We culture neural progenitor cells in DMEM-F12 serum-free media supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-AA), Sonic hedgehog (Shh), neurotrophic factor 3 (NT-3), N-2 and triiodothyronine (T3). The cultured cells are passaged at 2.5e6 cells per 75cm flasks approximately every seven days. Using these conditions, the majority of the cells in culture maintain a morphology characterized by few processes and express markers of pre-oligodendrocyte cells, such as A2B5 and O-4. When we remove the four growth factors (GF) (bFGF, PDGF-AA, Shh, NT-3) and add conditioned media from PDN, the cells start to acquire more processes and express markers specific of oligodendrocyte differentiation, such as GalC and myelin basic protein (MBP). We performed phenotypic characterization using multicolor flow cytometry to identify unique markers of oligodendrocyte.
27 Related JoVE Articles!
Generation of Neural Stem Cells from Discarded Human Fetal Cortical Tissue
Institutions: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital.
Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside along the ventricular zone neuroepithelium during the development of the cortical plate. These early progenitors ultimately give rise to intermediate progenitors and later, the various neuronal and glial cell subtypes that form the cerebral cortex. The capacity to generate and expand human NSCs (so called neurospheres) from discarded normal fetal tissue provides a means with which to directly study the functional aspects of normal human NSC development 1-5
. This approach can also be directed toward the generation of NSCs from known neurological disorders, thereby affording the opportunity to identify disease processes that alter progenitor proliferation, migration and differentiation 6-9
. We have focused on identifying pathological mechanisms in human Down syndrome NSCs that might contribute to the accelerated Alzheimer's disease phenotype 10,11
. Neither in vivo
nor in vitro
mouse models can replicate the identical repertoire of genes located on human chromosome 21.
Here we use a simple and reliable method to isolate Down syndrome NSCs from aborted human fetal cortices and grow them in culture. The methodology provides specific aspects of harvesting the tissue, dissection with limited anatomical landmarks, cell sorting, plating and passaging of human NSCs. We also provide some basic protocols for inducing differentiation of human NSCs into more selective cell subtypes.
Neuroscience, Issue 51, neural stem cell, human, brain, cortex, fetus, cell culture
Isolation of Retinal Stem Cells from the Mouse Eye
Institutions: University of Toronto.
The adult mouse retinal stem cell (RSC) is a rare quiescent cell found within the ciliary epithelium (CE) of the mammalian eye1,2,3
. The CE is made up of non-pigmented inner and pigmented outer cell layers, and the clonal RSC colonies that arise from a single pigmented cell from the CE are made up of both pigmented and non-pigmented cells which can be differentiated to form all the cell types of the neural retina and the RPE. There is some controversy about whether all the cells within the spheres all contain at least some pigment4
; however the cells are still capable of forming the different cell types found within the neural retina1-3
. In some species, such as amphibians and fish, their eyes are capable of regeneration after injury5
, however; the mammalian eye shows no such regenerative properties. We seek to identify the stem cell in vivo
and to understand the mechanisms that keep the mammalian retinal stem cells quiescent6-8
, even after injury as well as using them as a potential source of cells to help repair physical or genetic models of eye injury through transplantation9-12
. Here we describe how to isolate the ciliary epithelial cells from the mouse eye and grow them in culture in order to form the clonal retinal stem cell spheres. Since there are no known markers of the stem cell in vivo
, these spheres are the only known way to prospectively identify the stem cell population within the ciliary epithelium of the eye.
Cellular Biology, Issue 43, Stem Cells, Eye, Ciliary Epithelium, Tissue Culture, Mouse
Efficient Derivation of Human Neuronal Progenitors and Neurons from Pluripotent Human Embryonic Stem Cells with Small Molecule Induction
Institutions: San Diego Regenerative Medicine Institute, Xcelthera, Harvard Medical School, Division of SCI Research, VA Boston Healthcare System, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla IVF.
There is a large unfulfilled need for a clinically-suitable human neuronal cell source for repair or regeneration of the damaged central nervous system (CNS) structure and circuitry in today's healthcare industry. Cell-based therapies hold great promise to restore the lost nerve tissue and function for CNS disorders. However, cell therapies based on CNS-derived neural stem cells have encountered supply restriction and difficulty to use in the clinical setting due to their limited expansion ability in culture and failing plasticity after extensive passaging1-3
. Despite some beneficial outcomes, the CNS-derived human neural stem cells (hNSCs) appear to exert their therapeutic effects primarily by their non-neuronal progenies through producing trophic and neuroprotective molecules to rescue the endogenous cells1-3
. Alternatively, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) proffer cures for a wide range of neurological disorders by supplying the diversity of human neuronal cell types in the developing CNS for regeneration1,4-7
. However, how to channel the wide differentiation potential of pluripotent hESCs efficiently and predictably to a desired phenotype has been a major challenge for both developmental study and clinical translation. Conventional approaches rely on multi-lineage inclination of pluripotent cells through spontaneous germ layer differentiation, resulting in inefficient and uncontrollable lineage-commitment that is often followed by phenotypic heterogeneity and instability, hence, a high risk of tumorigenicity7-10
. In addition, undefined foreign/animal biological supplements and/or feeders that have typically been used for the isolation, expansion, and differentiation of hESCs may make direct use of such cell-specialized grafts in patients problematic11-13
. To overcome these obstacles, we have resolved the elements of a defined culture system necessary and sufficient for sustaining the epiblast pluripotence of hESCs, serving as a platform for de novo
derivation of clinically-suitable hESCs and effectively directing such hESCs uniformly towards clinically-relevant lineages by small molecules14
(please see a schematic in Fig. 1
). Retinoic acid (RA) does not induce neuronal differentiation of undifferentiated hESCs maintained on feeders1, 14
. And unlike mouse ESCs, treating hESC-differentiated embryoid bodies (EBs) only slightly increases the low yield of neurons1, 14, 15
. However, after screening a variety of small molecules and growth factors, we found that such defined conditions rendered retinoic acid (RA) sufficient to induce the specification of neuroectoderm direct from pluripotent hESCs that further progressed to neuroblasts that generated human neuronal progenitors and neurons in the developing CNS with high efficiency (Fig. 2
). We defined conditions for induction of neuroblasts direct from pluripotent hESCs without an intervening multi-lineage embryoid body stage, enabling well-controlled efficient derivation of a large supply of human neuronal cells across the spectrum of developmental stages for cell-based therapeutics.
Neuroscience, Issue 56, stem cell, human embryonic stem cell, human, neuronal progenitor, neuron, human pluripotent cell, neuronal differentiation, small molecule induction, cell culture, cell therapy
Manual Isolation of Adipose-derived Stem Cells from Human Lipoaspirates
Institutions: Cytori Therapeutics Inc, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.
In 2001, researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, described the isolation of a new population of adult stem cells from liposuctioned adipose tissue that they initially termed Processed Lipoaspirate Cells or PLA cells. Since then, these stem cells have been renamed as Adipose-derived Stem Cells or ASCs and have gone on to become one of the most popular adult stem cells populations in the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Thousands of articles now describe the use of ASCs in a variety of regenerative animal models, including bone regeneration, peripheral nerve repair and cardiovascular engineering. Recent articles have begun to describe the myriad of uses for ASCs in the clinic. The protocol shown in this article outlines the basic procedure for manually and enzymatically isolating ASCs from large amounts of lipoaspirates obtained from cosmetic procedures. This protocol can easily be scaled up or down to accommodate the volume of lipoaspirate and can be adapted to isolate ASCs from fat tissue obtained through abdominoplasties and other similar procedures.
Cellular Biology, Issue 79, Adipose Tissue, Stem Cells, Humans, Cell Biology, biology (general), enzymatic digestion, collagenase, cell isolation, Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF), Adipose-derived Stem Cells, ASCs, lipoaspirate, liposuction
Sequential In vivo Imaging of Osteogenic Stem/Progenitor Cells During Fracture Repair
Institutions: Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard Medical School.
Bone turns over continuously and is highly regenerative following injury. Osteogenic stem/progenitor cells have long been hypothesized to exist, but in vivo
demonstration of such cells has only recently been attained. Here, in vivo
imaging techniques to investigate the role of endogenous osteogenic stem/progenitor cells (OSPCs) and their progeny in bone repair are provided. Using osteo-lineage cell tracing models and intravital imaging of induced microfractures in calvarial bone, OSPCs can be directly observed during the first few days after injury, in which critical events in the early repair process occur. Injury sites can be sequentially imaged revealing that OSPCs relocate to the injury, increase in number and differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts. These methods offer a means of investigating the role of stem cell-intrinsic and extrinsic molecular regulators for bone regeneration and repair.
Medicine, Issue 87, Osteogenic Stem Cells, In vivo Imaging, Lineage tracking, Bone regeneration, Fracture repair, Mx1.
A Novel Three-dimensional Flow Chamber Device to Study Chemokine-directed Extravasation of Cells Circulating under Physiological Flow Conditions
Institutions: Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Cascade LifeSciences Inc..
Extravasation of circulating cells from the bloodstream plays a central role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including stem cell homing and tumor metastasis. The three-dimensional flow chamber device (hereafter the 3D device) is a novel in vitro
technology that recreates physiological shear stress and allows each step of the cell extravasation cascade to be quantified. The 3D device consists of an upper compartment in which the cells of interest circulate under shear stress, and a lower compartment of static wells that contain the chemoattractants of interest. The two compartments are separated by porous inserts coated with a monolayer of endothelial cells (EC). An optional second insert with microenvironmental cells of interest can be placed immediately beneath the EC layer. A gas exchange unit allows the optimal CO2
tension to be maintained and provides an access point to add or withdraw cells or compounds during the experiment. The test cells circulate in the upper compartment at the desired shear stress (flow rate) controlled by a peristaltic pump. At the end of the experiment, the circulating and migrated cells are collected for further analyses. The 3D device can be used to examine cell rolling on and adhesion to EC under shear stress, transmigration in response to chemokine gradients, resistance to shear stress, cluster formation, and cell survival. In addition, the optional second insert allows the effects of crosstalk between EC and microenvironmental cells to be examined. The translational applications of the 3D device include testing of drug candidates that target cell migration and predicting the in vivo
behavior of cells after intravenous injection. Thus, the novel 3D device is a versatile and inexpensive tool to study the molecular mechanisms that mediate cellular extravasation.
Bioengineering, Issue 77, Cellular Biology, Biophysics, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Immunology, Cells, Biological Factors, Equipment and Supplies, Cell Physiological Phenomena, Natural Science Disciplines, Life Sciences (General), circulating cells, extravasation, physiological shear stress, endothelial cells, microenvironment, chemokine gradient, flow, chamber, cell culture, assay
Identifying DNA Mutations in Purified Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells
Institutions: UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio.
In recent years, it has become apparent that genomic instability is tightly related to many developmental disorders, cancers, and aging. Given that stem cells are responsible for ensuring tissue homeostasis and repair throughout life, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the stem cell population is critical for preserving genomic integrity of tissues. Therefore, significant interest has arisen in assessing the impact of endogenous and environmental factors on genomic integrity in stem cells and their progeny, aiming to understand the etiology of stem-cell based diseases.
transgenic mice carry a recoverable λ phage vector encoding the LacI
reporter system, in which the LacI
gene serves as the mutation reporter. The result of a mutated LacI
gene is the production of β-galactosidase that cleaves a chromogenic substrate, turning it blue. The LacI
reporter system is carried in all cells, including stem/progenitor cells and can easily be recovered and used to subsequently infect E. coli
. After incubating infected E. coli
on agarose that contains the correct substrate, plaques can be scored; blue plaques indicate a mutant LacI
gene, while clear plaques harbor wild-type. The frequency of blue (among clear) plaques indicates the mutant frequency in the original cell population the DNA was extracted from. Sequencing the mutant LacI
gene will show the location of the mutations in the gene and the type of mutation.
transgenic mouse model is well-established as an in vivo
mutagenesis assay. Moreover, the mice and the reagents for the assay are commercially available. Here we describe in detail how this model can be adapted to measure the frequency of spontaneously occurring DNA mutants in stem cell-enriched Lin-
(LSK) cells and other subpopulations of the hematopoietic system.
Infection, Issue 84, In vivo mutagenesis, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, LacI mouse model, DNA mutations, E. coli
Isolation of Blood-vessel-derived Multipotent Precursors from Human Skeletal Muscle
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Nazarbayev University, University of California at Los Angeles, Erasmus MC Stem Cell Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Queen's Medical Research Institute and University of Edinburgh, University of California at Los Angeles, University of Pittsburgh.
Since the discovery of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), the native identity and localization of MSCs
have been obscured by their retrospective isolation in culture. Recently, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), we and other researchers prospectively identified and purified three subpopulations of multipotent precursor cells associated with the vasculature of human skeletal muscle. These three cell populations: myogenic endothelial cells (MECs), pericytes (PCs), and adventitial cells (ACs), are localized respectively to the three structural layers of blood vessels: intima, media, and adventitia. All of these human blood-vessel-derived stem cell (hBVSC) populations not only express classic MSC markers but also possess mesodermal developmental potentials similar to typical MSCs. Previously, MECs, PCs, and ACs have been isolated through distinct protocols and subsequently characterized in separate studies. The current isolation protocol, through modifications to the isolation process and adjustments in the selective cell surface markers, allows us to simultaneously purify all three hBVSC subpopulations by FACS from a single human muscle biopsy. This new method will not only streamline the isolation of multiple BVSC subpopulations but also facilitate future clinical applications of hBVSCs for distinct therapeutic purposes.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90, Blood Vessel; Pericyte; Adventitial Cell; Myogenic Endothelial Cell; Multipotent Precursor
Femoral Bone Marrow Aspiration in Live Mice
Institutions: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Serial sampling of the cellular composition of bone marrow (BM) is a routine procedure critical to clinical hematology. This protocol describes a detailed step-by-step technical procedure for an analogous procedure in live mice which allows for serial characterization of cells present in the BM. This procedure facilitates studies aimed to detect the presence of exogenously administered cells within the BM of mice as would be done in xenograft studies for instance. Moreover, this procedure allows for the retrieval and characterization of cells enriched in the BM such as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) without sacrifice of mice. Given that the cellular composition of peripheral blood is not necessarily reflective of proportions and types of stem and progenitor cells present in the marrow, procedures which provide access to this compartment without requiring termination of the mice are very helpful. The use of femoral bone marrow aspiration is illustrated here for cytological analysis of marrow cells, flow cytometric characterization of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor compartment, and culture of sorted HSPCs obtained by femoral BM aspiration compared with conventional marrow harvest.
Medicine, Issue 89, Bone marrow, Leukemia, Hematopoiesis, Aspiration, Mouse Model, Hematopoietic Stem Cell
Isolation, Characterization and Comparative Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Derived from Permanent Teeth by Using Two Different Methods
Institutions: Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
Developing wisdom teeth are easy-accessible source of stem cells during the adulthood which could be obtained by routine orthodontic treatments. Human pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) possess high proliferation potential with multi-lineage differentiation capacity compare to the ordinary source of adult stem cells1-8
; therefore, hDPSCs could be the good candidates for autologous transplantation in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Along with these benefits, possessing the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) features, such as immunolodulatory effect, make hDPSCs more valuable, even in the case of allograft transplantation6,9,10
. Therefore, the primary step for using this source of stem cells is to select the best protocol for isolating hDPSCs from pulp tissue. In order to achieve this goal, it is crucial to investigate the effect of various isolation conditions on different cellular behaviors, such as their common surface markers & also their differentiation capacity.
Thus, here we separate human pulp tissue from impacted third molar teeth, and then used both existing protocols based on literature, for isolating hDPSCs,11-13 i.e.
enzymatic dissociation of pulp tissue (DPSC-ED) or outgrowth from tissue explants (DPSC-OG). In this regards, we tried to facilitate the isolation methods by using dental diamond disk. Then, these cells characterized in terms of stromal-associated Markers (CD73, CD90, CD105 & CD44), hematopoietic/endothelial Markers (CD34, CD45 & CD11b), perivascular marker, like CD146 and also STRO-1. Afterwards, these two protocols were compared based on the differentiation potency into odontoblasts by both quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) & Alizarin Red Staining. QPCR were used for the assessment of the expression of the mineralization-related genes (alkaline phosphatase; ALP, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein; MEPE & dentin sialophosphoprotein; DSPP).14
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 69, Medicine, Developmental Biology, Cellular Biology, Bioengineering, Dental pulp tissue, Human third molar, Human dental pulp stem cells, hDPSC, Odontoblasts, Outgrown stem cells, MSC, differentiation
Assessing the Development of Murine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Peyer's Patches Using Adoptive Transfer of Hematopoietic Progenitors
Institutions: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.
This protocol details a method to analyze the ability of purified hematopoietic progenitors to generate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in intestinal Peyer's patch (PP). Common dendritic cell progenitors (CDPs, lin-
) were purified from the bone marrow of C57BL6 mice by FACS and transferred to recipient mice that lack a significant pDC population in PP; in this case, Ifnar-/-
mice were used as the transfer recipients. In some mice, overexpression of the dendritic cell growth factor Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) was enforced prior to adoptive transfer of CDPs, using hydrodynamic gene transfer (HGT) of Flt3L-encoding plasmid. Flt3L overexpression expands DC populations originating from transferred (or endogenous) hematopoietic progenitors. At 7-10 days after progenitor transfer, pDCs that arise from the adoptively transferred progenitors were distinguished from recipient cells on the basis of CD45 marker expression, with pDCs from transferred CDPs being CD45.1+
and recipients being CD45.2+
. The ability of transferred CDPs to contribute to the pDC population in PP and to respond to Flt3L was evaluated by flow cytometry of PP single cell suspensions from recipient mice. This method may be used to test whether other progenitor populations are capable of generating PP pDCs. In addition, this approach could be used to examine the role of factors that are predicted to affect pDC development in PP, by transferring progenitor subsets with an appropriate knockdown, knockout or overexpression of the putative developmental factor and/or by manipulating circulating cytokines via HGT. This method may also allow analysis of how PP pDCs affect the frequency or function of other immune subsets in PPs. A unique feature of this method is the use of Ifnar-/-
mice, which show severely depleted PP pDCs relative to wild type animals, thus allowing reconstitution of PP pDCs in the absence of confounding effects from lethal irradiation.
Immunology, Issue 85, hematopoiesis, dendritic cells, Peyer's patch, cytokines, adoptive transfer
The Neuroblast Assay: An Assay for the Generation and Enrichment of Neuronal Progenitor Cells from Differentiating Neural Stem Cell Progeny Using Flow Cytometry
Institutions: The University of Florida, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran .
Neural stem cells (NSCs) can be isolated and expanded in large-scale, using the neurosphere assay and differentiated into the three major cell types of the central nervous system (CNS); namely, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. These characteristics make neural stem and progenitor cells an invaluable renewable source of cells for in vitro
studies such as drug screening, neurotoxicology and electrophysiology and also for cell replacement therapy in many neurological diseases. In practice, however, heterogeneity of NSC progeny, low production of neurons and oligodendrocytes, and predominance of astrocytes following differentiation limit their clinical applications. Here, we describe a novel methodology for the generation and subsequent purification of immature neurons from murine NSC progeny using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) technology. Using this methodology, a highly enriched neuronal progenitor cell population can be achieved without any noticeable astrocyte and bona fide NSC contamination. The procedure includes differentiation of NSC progeny isolated and expanded from E14 mouse ganglionic eminences using the neurosphere assay, followed by isolation and enrichment of immature neuronal cells based on their physical (size and internal complexity) and fluorescent properties using flow cytometry technology. Overall, it takes 5-7 days to generate neurospheres and 6-8 days to differentiate NSC progeny and isolate highly purified immature neuronal cells.
Neuroscience, Issue 62, neural Stem Cell, Neuronal Progenitor Cells, Flow Cytometry, Isolation, Enrichment
Intramyocardial Cell Delivery: Observations in Murine Hearts
Institutions: Imperial College London, Imperial College London, Monash University.
Previous studies showed that cell delivery promotes cardiac function amelioration by release of cytokines and factors that increase cardiac tissue revascularization and cell survival. In addition, further observations revealed that specific stem cells, such as cardiac stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and cardiospheres have the ability to integrate within the surrounding myocardium by differentiating into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.
Here, we present the materials and methods to reliably deliver noncontractile cells into the left ventricular wall of immunodepleted mice. The salient steps of this microsurgical procedure involve anesthesia and analgesia injection, intratracheal intubation, incision to open the chest and expose the heart and delivery of cells by a sterile 30-gauge needle and a precision microliter syringe.
Tissue processing consisting of heart harvesting, embedding, sectioning and histological staining showed that intramyocardial cell injection produced a small damage in the epicardial area, as well as in the ventricular wall. Noncontractile cells were retained into the myocardial wall of immunocompromised mice and were surrounded by a layer of fibrotic tissue, likely to protect from cardiac pressure and mechanical load.
Medicine, Issue 83, intramyocardial cell injection, heart, grafting, cell therapy, stem cells, fibrotic tissue
Feeder-free Derivation of Neural Crest Progenitor Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Institutions: Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, The Rockefeller University.
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have great potential for studying human embryonic development, for modeling human diseases in the dish and as a source of transplantable cells for regenerative applications after disease or accidents. Neural crest (NC) cells are the precursors for a large variety of adult somatic cells, such as cells from the peripheral nervous system and glia, melanocytes and mesenchymal cells. They are a valuable source of cells to study aspects of human embryonic development, including cell fate specification and migration. Further differentiation of NC progenitor cells into terminally differentiated cell types offers the possibility to model human diseases in vitro
, investigate disease mechanisms and generate cells for regenerative medicine. This article presents the adaptation of a currently available in vitro
differentiation protocol for the derivation of NC cells from hPSCs. This new protocol requires 18 days of differentiation, is feeder-free, easily scalable and highly reproducible among human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines as well as human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines. Both old and new protocols yield NC cells of equal identity.
Neuroscience, Issue 87, Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs), Pluripotent Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs), Neural Crest, Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), pluripotent stem cells, neural crest cells, in vitro differentiation, disease modeling, differentiation protocol, human embryonic stem cells, human pluripotent stem cells
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice
Institutions: University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine.
Current astrocytoma models are limited in their ability to define the roles of oncogenic mutations in specific brain cell types during disease pathogenesis and their utility for preclinical drug development. In order to design a better model system for these applications, phenotypically wild-type cortical astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) from conditional, genetically engineered mice (GEM) that harbor various combinations of floxed oncogenic alleles were harvested and grown in culture. Genetic recombination was induced in vitro
using adenoviral Cre-mediated recombination, resulting in expression of mutated oncogenes and deletion of tumor suppressor genes. The phenotypic consequences of these mutations were defined by measuring proliferation, transformation, and drug response in vitro
. Orthotopic allograft models, whereby transformed cells are stereotactically injected into the brains of immune-competent, syngeneic littermates, were developed to define the role of oncogenic mutations and cell type on tumorigenesis in vivo
. Unlike most established human glioblastoma cell line xenografts, injection of transformed GEM-derived cortical astrocytes into the brains of immune-competent littermates produced astrocytomas, including the most aggressive subtype, glioblastoma, that recapitulated the histopathological hallmarks of human astrocytomas, including diffuse invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Bioluminescence imaging of orthotopic allografts from transformed astrocytes engineered to express luciferase was utilized to monitor in vivo
tumor growth over time. Thus, astrocytoma models using astrocytes and NSC harvested from GEM with conditional oncogenic alleles provide an integrated system to study the genetics and cell biology of astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro
and in vivo
and may be useful in preclinical drug development for these devastating diseases.
Neuroscience, Issue 90, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
A cGMP-applicable Expansion Method for Aggregates of Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells or Fetal Brain Tissue
Institutions: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
A cell expansion technique to amass large numbers of cells from a single specimen for research experiments and clinical trials would greatly benefit the stem cell community. Many current expansion methods are laborious and costly, and those involving complete dissociation may cause several stem and progenitor cell types to undergo differentiation or early senescence. To overcome these problems, we have developed an automated mechanical passaging method referred to as “chopping” that is simple and inexpensive. This technique avoids chemical or enzymatic dissociation into single cells and instead allows for the large-scale expansion of suspended, spheroid cultures that maintain constant cell/cell contact. The chopping method has primarily been used for fetal brain-derived neural progenitor cells or neurospheres, and has recently been published for use with neural stem cells derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. The procedure involves seeding neurospheres onto a tissue culture Petri dish and subsequently passing a sharp, sterile blade through the cells effectively automating the tedious process of manually mechanically dissociating each sphere. Suspending cells in culture provides a favorable surface area-to-volume ratio; as over 500,000 cells can be grown within a single neurosphere of less than 0.5 mm in diameter. In one T175 flask, over 50 million cells can grow in suspension cultures compared to only 15 million in adherent cultures. Importantly, the chopping procedure has been used under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), permitting mass quantity production of clinical-grade cell products.
Neuroscience, Issue 88, neural progenitor cell, neural precursor cell, neural stem cell, passaging, neurosphere, chopping, stem cell, neuroscience, suspension culture, good manufacturing practice, GMP
One Mouse, Two Cultures: Isolation and Culture of Adult Neural Stem Cells from the Two Neurogenic Zones of Individual Mice
Institutions: Technische Universität Dresden, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Dresden.
The neurosphere assay and the adherent monolayer culture system are valuable tools to determine the potential (proliferation or differentiation) of adult neural stem cells in vitro
. These assays can be used to compare the precursor potential of cells isolated from genetically different or differentially treated animals to determine the effects of exogenous factors on neural precursor cell proliferation and differentiation and to generate neural precursor cell lines that can be assayed over continuous passages. The neurosphere assay is traditionally used for the post-hoc identification of stem cells, primarily due to the lack of definitive markers with which they can be isolated from primary tissue and has the major advantage of giving a quick estimate of precursor cell numbers in brain tissue derived from individual animals. Adherent monolayer cultures, in contrast, are not traditionally used to compare proliferation between individual animals, as each culture is generally initiated from the combined tissue of between 5-8 animals. However, they have the major advantage that, unlike neurospheres, they consist of a mostly homogeneous population of precursor cells and are useful for following the differentiation process in single cells. Here, we describe, in detail, the generation of neurosphere cultures and, for the first time, adherent cultures from individual animals. This has many important implications including paired analysis of proliferation and/or differentiation potential in both the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) of treated or genetically different mouse lines, as well as a significant reduction in animal usage.
Neuroscience, Issue 84, precursor cell, neurosphere, adherent monolayer, subventricular zone, dentate gyrus, adult mouse
Growing Neural Stem Cells from Conventional and Nonconventional Regions of the Adult Rodent Brain
Institutions: University of Dresden, Center for Regerative Therapies Dresden.
Recent work demonstrates that central nervous system (CNS) regeneration and tumorigenesis involves populations of stem cells (SCs) resident within the adult brain. However, the mechanisms these normally quiescent cells employ to ensure proper functioning of neural networks, as well as their role in recovery from injury and mitigation of neurodegenerative processes are little understood. These cells reside in regions referred to as "niches" that provide a sustaining environment involving modulatory signals from both the vascular and immune systems. The isolation, maintenance, and differentiation of CNS SCs under defined culture conditions which exclude unknown factors, makes them accessible to treatment by pharmacological or genetic means, thus providing insight into their in vivo
behavior. Here we offer detailed information on the methods for generating cultures of CNS SCs from distinct regions of the adult brain and approaches to assess their differentiation potential into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in vitro
. This technique yields a homogeneous cell population as a monolayer culture that can be visualized to study individual SCs and their progeny. Furthermore, it can be applied across different animal model systems and clinical samples, being used previously to predict regenerative responses in the damaged adult nervous system.
Neuroscience, Issue 81, adult neural stem cells, proliferation, differentiation, cell culture, growth factors
Nonhuman Primate Lung Decellularization and Recellularization Using a Specialized Large-organ Bioreactor
Institutions: Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine.
There are an insufficient number of lungs available to meet current and future organ transplantation needs. Bioartificial tissue regeneration is an attractive alternative to classic organ transplantation. This technology utilizes an organ's natural biological extracellular matrix (ECM) as a scaffold onto which autologous or stem/progenitor cells may be seeded and cultured in such a way that facilitates regeneration of the original tissue. The natural ECM is isolated by a process called decellularization. Decellularization is accomplished by treating tissues with a series of detergents, salts, and enzymes to achieve effective removal of cellular material while leaving the ECM intact. Studies conducted utilizing decellularization and subsequent recellularization of rodent lungs demonstrated marginal success in generating pulmonary-like tissue which is capable of gas exchange in vivo
. While offering essential proof-of-concept, rodent models are not directly translatable to human use. Nonhuman primates (NHP) offer a more suitable model in which to investigate the use of bioartificial organ production for eventual clinical use.
The protocols for achieving complete decellularization of lungs acquired from the NHP rhesus macaque are presented. The resulting acellular lungs can be seeded with a variety of cells including mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial cells. The manuscript also describes the development of a bioreactor system in which cell-seeded macaque lungs can be cultured under conditions of mechanical stretch and strain provided by negative pressure ventilation as well as pulsatile perfusion through the vasculature; these forces are known to direct differentiation along pulmonary and endothelial lineages, respectively. Representative results of decellularization and cell seeding are provided.
Bioengineering, Issue 82, rhesus macaque, decellularization, recellularization, detergent, matrix, scaffold, large-organ bioreactor, mesenchymal stem cells
Multimodal Imaging of Stem Cell Implantation in the Central Nervous System of Mice
Institutions: University of Antwerp, University of Antwerp.
During the past decade, stem cell transplantation has gained increasing interest as primary or secondary therapeutic modality for a variety of diseases, both in preclinical and clinical studies. However, to date results regarding functional outcome and/or tissue regeneration following stem cell transplantation are quite diverse. Generally, a clinical benefit is observed without profound understanding of the underlying mechanism(s)1
. Therefore, multiple efforts have led to the development of different molecular imaging modalities to monitor stem cell grafting with the ultimate aim to accurately evaluate survival, fate and physiology of grafted stem cells and/or their micro-environment. Changes observed in one or more parameters determined by molecular imaging might be related to the observed clinical effect. In this context, our studies focus on the combined use of bioluminescence imaging (BLI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis to evaluate stem cell grafting.
BLI is commonly used to non-invasively perform cell tracking and monitor cell survival in time following transplantation2-7
, based on a biochemical reaction where cells expressing the Luciferase-reporter gene are able to emit light following interaction with its substrate (e.g. D-luciferin)8, 9
. MRI on the other hand is a non-invasive technique which is clinically applicable10
and can be used to precisely locate cellular grafts with very high resolution11-15
, although its sensitivity highly depends on the contrast generated after cell labeling with an MRI contrast agent. Finally, post-mortem histological analysis is the method of choice to validate research results obtained with non-invasive techniques with highest resolution and sensitivity. Moreover end-point histological analysis allows us to perform detailed phenotypic analysis of grafted cells and/or the surrounding tissue, based on the use of fluorescent reporter proteins and/or direct cell labeling with specific antibodies.
In summary, we here visually demonstrate the complementarities of BLI, MRI and histology to unravel different stem cell- and/or environment-associated characteristics following stem cell grafting in the CNS of mice. As an example, bone marrow-derived stromal cells, genetically engineered to express the enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) and firefly Luciferase (fLuc), and labeled with blue fluorescent micron-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs), will be grafted in the CNS of immune-competent mice and outcome will be monitored by BLI, MRI and histology (Figure 1
Neuroscience, Issue 64, Stem cell biology, Cell labeling, Cell Transplantation, Brain, Bioluminescence Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Histology
Dissection, Culture, and Analysis of Xenopus laevis Embryonic Retinal Tissue
Institutions: College of William and Mary.
The process by which the anterior region of the neural plate gives rise to the vertebrate retina continues to be a major focus of both clinical and basic research. In addition to the obvious medical relevance for understanding and treating retinal disease, the development of the vertebrate retina continues to serve as an important and elegant model system for understanding neuronal cell type determination and differentiation1-16
. The neural retina consists of six discrete cell types (ganglion, amacrine, horizontal, photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and Müller glial cells) arranged in stereotypical layers, a pattern that is largely conserved among all vertebrates 12,14-18
While studying the retina in the intact developing embryo is clearly required for understanding how this complex organ develops from a protrusion of the forebrain into a layered structure, there are many questions that benefit from employing approaches using primary cell culture of presumptive retinal cells 7,19-23
. For example, analyzing cells from tissues removed and dissociated at different stages allows one to discern the state of specification of individual cells at different developmental stages, that is, the fate of the cells in the absence of interactions with neighboring tissues 8,19-22,24-33
. Primary cell culture also allows the investigator to treat the culture with specific reagents and analyze the results on a single cell level 5,8,21,24,27-30,33-39
. Xenopus laevis,
a classic model system for the study of early neural development 19,27,29,31-32,40-42
, serves as a particularly suitable system for retinal primary cell culture 10,38,43-45
Presumptive retinal tissue is accessible from the earliest stages of development, immediately following neural induction 25,38,43
. In addition, given that each cell in the embryo contains a supply of yolk, retinal cells can be cultured in a very simple defined media consisting of a buffered salt solution, thus removing the confounding effects of incubation or other sera-based products 10,24,44-45
However, the isolation of the retinal tissue from surrounding tissues and the subsequent processing is challenging. Here, we present a method for the dissection and dissociation of retinal cells in Xenopus laevis
that will be used to prepare primary cell cultures that will, in turn, be analyzed for calcium activity and gene expression at the resolution of single cells. While the topic presented in this paper is the analysis of spontaneous calcium transients, the technique is broadly applicable to a wide array of research questions and approaches (Figure 1
Developmental Biology, Issue 70, Neuroscience, Cellular Biology, Surgery, Anatomy, Physiology, Ophthalmology, retina, primary cell culture, dissection, confocal microscopy, calcium imaging, fluorescent in situ hybridization, FISH, Xenopus laevis, animal model
Neural-Colony Forming Cell Assay: An Assay To Discriminate Bona Fide Neural Stem Cells from Neural Progenitor Cells
Institutions: University of Florida, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Inc..
The neurosphere assay (NSA) is one of the most frequently used methods to isolate, expand and also calculate the frequency of neural stem cells (NSCs). Furthermore, this serum-free culture system has also been employed to expand stem cells and determine their frequency from a variety of tumors and normal tissues. It has been shown recently that a one-to-one relationship does not exist between neurosphere formation and NSCs. This suggests that the NSA as currently applied, overestimates the frequency of NSCs in a mixed population of neural precursor cells isolated from both the embryonic and adult mammalian brain. This video practically demonstrates a novel collagen based semi- solid assay, the neural-colony forming cell assay (N-CFCA), which has the ability to discriminate stem from progenitor cells based on their long-term proliferative potential, and thus provides a method to enumerate NSC frequency. In the N-CFCA, colonies ≥2 mm in diameter are derived from cells that meet all the functional criteria of a NSC, while colonies < 2mm are derived from progenitors. The N-CFCA procedure can be used for cells prepared from different sources including primary and cultured adult or embryonic mouse CNS cells. Here we use cells prepared from passage one neurospheres generated from embryonic day 14 mice brain to perform N-CFCA. The cultures are replenished with proliferation medium every seven days for three weeks to allow the plated cells to exhibit their full proliferative potential and then the frequency of neural progenitor and bona fide
neural stem cells is calculated respectively by counting the number of colonies that are < 2mm and the ones that are ≥2mm in reference to the number of cells that were initially plated.
Neuroscience, Issue 49, Stem Cells, Neural Colony Forming Cell Assay, Progenitor Cells, enumeration
Retrograde Labeling of Retinal Ganglion Cells by Application of Fluoro-Gold on the Surface of Superior Colliculus
Institutions: The University of Hong Kong - HKU.
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) counting is essential to evaluate retinal degeneration especially in glaucoma. Reliable RGC labeling is fundamental for evaluating the effects of any treatment. In rat, about 98% of RGCs is known to project to the contralateral superior colliculus (SC) (Forrester and Peters, 1967). Applying fluoro-gold (FG) on the surface of SC can label almost all the RGCs, so that we can focus on this most vulnerable retinal neuron in glaucoma. FG is taken up by the axon terminals of retinal ganglion cells and bilaterally transported retrogradely to its somas in the retina. Compare with retrograde labeling of RGC by putting FG at stump of transected optic nerve for 2 days, the interference of RGC survival is minimized. Compare with cresyl violet staining that stains RGCs, amacrine cells and endothelium of the blood vessel in the retinal ganglion cell layer, this labeling method is more specific to the RGC. This video describes the method of retrograde labeling of RGC by applying FG on the surface of SC. The surgical procedures include drilling the skull; aspirating the cortex to expose the SC and applying gelatin sponge over entire dorsal surface of SC are shown. Useful tips for avoiding massive intracranial bleeding and aspiration of the SC have been given.
Neuroscience, Issue 16, Retrograde labeling, retinal ganglion cells, ophthalmology research, superior colliculus, experimental glaucoma
Propagation of Human Embryonic Stem (ES) Cells
Institutions: MGH - Massachusetts General Hospital.
Cellular Biology, Issue 1, ES, embryonic stem cells, tissue culture
ES Cell-derived Neuroepithelial Cell Cultures
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
ES cells have the potential to differentiate into cells from all germ layers, which makes them an attractive tool for the development of new therapies. In general, the differentiation of ES cells follows the concept to first generate immature progenitor cells, which then can be propagated and differentiated into mature cellular phenotypes. This also applies for ES cell-derived neurogenesis, in which the development of neural cells follows two major steps: First, the derivation and expansion of immature neuroepithelial precursors and second, their differentiation into mature neural cells. A common method to produce neural progenitors from ES cells is based on embryoid body (EB) formation, which reveals the differentiation of cells from all germ layers including neuroectoderm. An alternative and more efficient method to induce neuroepithelial cell development uses stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA), which can be achieved by co-culturing ES cells with skull bone marrow-derived stromal cells (1). Both, EB formation and SDIA, reveal the development of rosette-like structures, which are thought to resemble neural tube- and/or neural crest-like progenitors. The neural precursors can be isolated, expanded and further differentiated into specific neurons and glia cells using defined culture conditions. Here, we describe the generation and isolation of such rosettes in co-culture experiments with the stromal cell line MS5 (2-5).
Cellular Biology, issue 1, embryonic stem (ES) cells, rosettes, neuroepithelial precursors, stromal cells, differentiation
From MEFs to Matrigel 2: Splitting hESCs from MEFs onto Matrigel
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles.
This video demonstrates how to grow human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells, how to passage hESCs from MEF plates to feeder cell-free Matrigel plates.
Cellular Biology, Issue 16, human embryonic stem cell (hESC), mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF), matrigel, conditioned-media, feeder cell, pluripotency