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Pubmed Article
Toothpicking and periodontal disease in a neanderthal specimen from cova foradà site (valencia, Spain).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
We present a Neanderthal maxilla (CF-1) from Cova Foradà site (Oliva, Valencia, Spain) with periodontal disease and evidence of attempts to alleviate pain with the use of a toothpick. Two interproximal grooves have been found on the distal surfaces of the upper left Pm(3) and M(1) of CF-1 maxilla. The location, morphology and size of the grooves coincide with other interproximal grooves found on the teeth of other fossil specimens. Heavy dental wear and periodontal disease would have caused the Cova Foradà Neanderthal specimen pain and discomfort, which the individual attempted to mitigate using some kind of dental probe.
Authors: Andrew T. Jang, Jeremy D. Lin, Youngho Seo, Sergey Etchin, Arno Merkle, Kevin Fahey, Sunita P. Ho.
Published: 03-07-2014
ABSTRACT
This study demonstrates a novel biomechanics testing protocol. The advantage of this protocol includes the use of an in situ loading device coupled to a high resolution X-ray microscope, thus enabling visualization of internal structural elements under simulated physiological loads and wet conditions. Experimental specimens will include intact bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth fibrous joints. Results will illustrate three important features of the protocol as they can be applied to organ level biomechanics: 1) reactionary force vs. displacement: tooth displacement within the alveolar socket and its reactionary response to loading, 2) three-dimensional (3D) spatial configuration and morphometrics: geometric relationship of the tooth with the alveolar socket, and 3) changes in readouts 1 and 2 due to a change in loading axis, i.e. from concentric to eccentric loads. Efficacy of the proposed protocol will be evaluated by coupling mechanical testing readouts to 3D morphometrics and overall biomechanics of the joint. In addition, this technique will emphasize on the need to equilibrate experimental conditions, specifically reactionary loads prior to acquiring tomograms of fibrous joints. It should be noted that the proposed protocol is limited to testing specimens under ex vivo conditions, and that use of contrast agents to visualize soft tissue mechanical response could lead to erroneous conclusions about tissue and organ-level biomechanics.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
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Isolation, Processing and Analysis of Murine Gingival Cells
Authors: Gabriel Mizraji, Hadas Segev, Asaf Wilensky, Avi-Hai Hovav.
Institutions: Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical Center, Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical Center.
We have developed a technique to precisely isolate and process murine gingival tissue for flow cytometry and molecular studies. The gingiva is a unique and important tissue to study immune mechanisms because it is involved in host immune response against oral biofilm that might cause periodontal diseases. Furthermore, the close proximity of the gingiva to alveolar bone tissue enables also studying bone remodeling under inflammatory conditions. Our method yields large amount of immune cells that allows analysis of even rare cell populations such as Langerhans cells and T regulatory cells as we demonstrated previously 1. Employing mice to study local immune responses involved in alveolar bone loss during periodontal diseases is advantageous because of the availability of various immunological and experimental tools. Nevertheless, due to their small size and the relatively inconvenient access to the murine gingiva, many studies avoided examination of this critical tissue. The method described in this work could facilitate gingival analysis, which hopefully will increase our understating on the oral immune system and its role during periodontal diseases.
Immunology, Issue 77, Infection, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Periodontology, Gingiva, Periodontitis, Flow cytometry, mice, oral mucosa, gingival cells, animal model
50388
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Accuracy in Dental Medicine, A New Way to Measure Trueness and Precision
Authors: Andreas Ender, Albert Mehl.
Institutions: University of Zürich.
Reference scanners are used in dental medicine to verify a lot of procedures. The main interest is to verify impression methods as they serve as a base for dental restorations. The current limitation of many reference scanners is the lack of accuracy scanning large objects like full dental arches, or the limited possibility to assess detailed tooth surfaces. A new reference scanner, based on focus variation scanning technique, was evaluated with regards to highest local and general accuracy. A specific scanning protocol was tested to scan original tooth surface from dental impressions. Also, different model materials were verified. The results showed a high scanning accuracy of the reference scanner with a mean deviation of 5.3 ± 1.1 µm for trueness and 1.6 ± 0.6 µm for precision in case of full arch scans. Current dental impression methods showed much higher deviations (trueness: 20.4 ± 2.2 µm, precision: 12.5 ± 2.5 µm) than the internal scanning accuracy of the reference scanner. Smaller objects like single tooth surface can be scanned with an even higher accuracy, enabling the system to assess erosive and abrasive tooth surface loss. The reference scanner can be used to measure differences for a lot of dental research fields. The different magnification levels combined with a high local and general accuracy can be used to assess changes of single teeth or restorations up to full arch changes.
Medicine, Issue 86, Laboratories, Dental, Calibration, Technology, Dental impression, Accuracy, Trueness, Precision, Full arch scan, Abrasion
51374
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Preparation of an Awake Mouse for Recording Neural Responses and Injecting Tracers
Authors: Michael A. Muniak, Zachary M. Mayko, David K. Ryugo, Christine V. Portfors.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Washington State University, Johns Hopkins University.
It is well known that anesthesia alters neural response properties in various regions of the brain.13. In the auditory system, fundamental response properties of brainstem neurons including threshold, frequency specificity, and inhibitory sidebands are altered in significant ways under anesthesia1-2. These observations prompted physiologists to seek ways to record from single neurons without the contaminating effects of anesthesia. One result was a decerebrate preparation, where the brainstem was completely transected at the level of the midbrain4. The drawbacks of this preparation are a formidable surgery, the elimination of descending projections from the forebrain, and an inability to use sensory stimulation to examine structures above the midbrain. A different strategy has been to implant electrode arrays chronically to record from single neurons and multiunit clusters while the animal is awake and/or behaving5,6. These techniques however are not compatible with injecting tracer dyes after first electrophysiologically characterizing a brain structure. To avoid altering neural response properties with anesthetics while recording electrophysiological response properties from single neurons, we have adapted a head restraint technique long used in bats7-9 to mouse10-12. Using this method, we are able to conduct electrophysiological recordings over several days in the unanesthetized mouse. At the end of the recording sessions, we can then inject a dye to reconstruct electrode positions and recording sites or inject a tracer so that pathways to and from the recording loci can be determined. This method allows for well isolated single neuron recordings over multiple days without the use anesthetics.
Neuroscience, Issue 64, Physiology, brain, auditory system, mouse, electrophysiology, recordings, dye injections, neuron labeling
3755
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Tissue Triage and Freezing for Models of Skeletal Muscle Disease
Authors: Hui Meng, Paul M.L. Janssen, Robert W. Grange, Lin Yang, Alan H. Beggs, Lindsay C. Swanson, Stacy A. Cossette, Alison Frase, Martin K. Childers, Henk Granzier, Emanuela Gussoni, Michael W. Lawlor.
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, The Ohio State University, Virginia Tech, University of Kentucky, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cure Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, Joshua Frase Foundation, University of Washington, University of Arizona.
Skeletal muscle is a unique tissue because of its structure and function, which requires specific protocols for tissue collection to obtain optimal results from functional, cellular, molecular, and pathological evaluations. Due to the subtlety of some pathological abnormalities seen in congenital muscle disorders and the potential for fixation to interfere with the recognition of these features, pathological evaluation of frozen muscle is preferable to fixed muscle when evaluating skeletal muscle for congenital muscle disease. Additionally, the potential to produce severe freezing artifacts in muscle requires specific precautions when freezing skeletal muscle for histological examination that are not commonly used when freezing other tissues. This manuscript describes a protocol for rapid freezing of skeletal muscle using isopentane (2-methylbutane) cooled with liquid nitrogen to preserve optimal skeletal muscle morphology. This procedure is also effective for freezing tissue intended for genetic or protein expression studies. Furthermore, we have integrated our freezing protocol into a broader procedure that also describes preferred methods for the short term triage of tissue for (1) single fiber functional studies and (2) myoblast cell culture, with a focus on the minimum effort necessary to collect tissue and transport it to specialized research or reference labs to complete these studies. Overall, this manuscript provides an outline of how fresh tissue can be effectively distributed for a variety of phenotypic studies and thereby provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for pathological studies related to congenital muscle disease.
Basic Protocol, Issue 89, Tissue, Freezing, Muscle, Isopentane, Pathology, Functional Testing, Cell Culture
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DNA-affinity-purified Chip (DAP-chip) Method to Determine Gene Targets for Bacterial Two component Regulatory Systems
Authors: Lara Rajeev, Eric G. Luning, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay.
Institutions: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
In vivo methods such as ChIP-chip are well-established techniques used to determine global gene targets for transcription factors. However, they are of limited use in exploring bacterial two component regulatory systems with uncharacterized activation conditions. Such systems regulate transcription only when activated in the presence of unique signals. Since these signals are often unknown, the in vitro microarray based method described in this video article can be used to determine gene targets and binding sites for response regulators. This DNA-affinity-purified-chip method may be used for any purified regulator in any organism with a sequenced genome. The protocol involves allowing the purified tagged protein to bind to sheared genomic DNA and then affinity purifying the protein-bound DNA, followed by fluorescent labeling of the DNA and hybridization to a custom tiling array. Preceding steps that may be used to optimize the assay for specific regulators are also described. The peaks generated by the array data analysis are used to predict binding site motifs, which are then experimentally validated. The motif predictions can be further used to determine gene targets of orthologous response regulators in closely related species. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by determining the gene targets and binding site motifs and thus predicting the function for a sigma54-dependent response regulator DVU3023 in the environmental bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.
Genetics, Issue 89, DNA-Affinity-Purified-chip, response regulator, transcription factor binding site, two component system, signal transduction, Desulfovibrio, lactate utilization regulator, ChIP-chip
51715
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Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Dorsal Skin of Hamsters: a Useful Model for the Screening of Antileishmanial Drugs
Authors: Sara M. Robledo, Lina M. Carrillo, Alejandro Daza, Adriana M. Restrepo, Diana L. Muñoz, Jairo Tobón, Javier D. Murillo, Anderson López, Carolina Ríos, Carol V. Mesa, Yulieth A. Upegui, Alejandro Valencia-Tobón, Karina Mondragón-Shem, Berardo RodrÍguez, Iván D. Vélez.
Institutions: University of Antioquia, University of Antioquia.
Traditionally, hamsters are experimentally inoculated in the snout or the footpad. However in these sites an ulcer not always occurs, measurement of lesion size is a hard procedure and animals show difficulty to eat, breathe and move because of the lesion. In order to optimize the hamster model for cutaneous leishmaniasis, young adult male and female golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were injected intradermally at the dorsal skin with 1 to 1.5 x l07 promastigotes of Leishmania species and progression of subsequent lesions were evaluated for up to 16 weeks post infection. The golden hamster was selected because it is considered the adequate bio-model to evaluate drugs against Leishmania as they are susceptible to infection by different species. Cutaneous infection of hamsters results in chronic but controlled lesions, and a clinical evolution with signs similar to those observed in humans. Therefore, the establishment of the extent of infection by measuring the size of the lesion according to the area of indurations and ulcers is feasible. This approach has proven its versatility and easy management during inoculation, follow up and characterization of typical lesions (ulcers), application of treatments through different ways and obtaining of clinical samples after different treatments. By using this method the quality of animal life regarding locomotion, search for food and water, play and social activities is also preserved.
Immunology, Issue 62, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, hamster, Leishmania, antileishmanial drugs
3533
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Near Infrared Optical Projection Tomography for Assessments of β-cell Mass Distribution in Diabetes Research
Authors: Anna U. Eriksson, Christoffer Svensson, Andreas Hörnblad, Abbas Cheddad, Elena Kostromina, Maria Eriksson, Nils Norlin, Antonello Pileggi, James Sharpe, Fredrik Georgsson, Tomas Alanentalo, Ulf Ahlgren.
Institutions: Umeå University, University of Miami,, Catalan Institute of Research and Advanced Studies, Umeå University.
By adapting OPT to include the capability of imaging in the near infrared (NIR) spectrum, we here illustrate the possibility to image larger bodies of pancreatic tissue, such as the rat pancreas, and to increase the number of channels (cell types) that may be studied in a single specimen. We further describe the implementation of a number of computational tools that provide: 1/ accurate positioning of a specimen's (in our case the pancreas) centre of mass (COM) at the axis of rotation (AR)2; 2/ improved algorithms for post-alignment tuning which prevents geometric distortions during the tomographic reconstruction2 and 3/ a protocol for intensity equalization to increase signal to noise ratios in OPT-based BCM determinations3. In addition, we describe a sample holder that minimizes the risk for unintentional movements of the specimen during image acquisition. Together, these protocols enable assessments of BCM distribution and other features, to be performed throughout the volume of intact pancreata or other organs (e.g. in studies of islet transplantation), with a resolution down to the level of individual islets of Langerhans.
Medicine, Issue 71, Biomedical Engineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Pancreas, Islets of Langerhans, Diabetes Mellitus, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Optical Projection Tomography, Beta-cell Mass, Near Infrared, Computational Processing
50238
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Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Authors: Kristen K. McCampbell, Kristin N. Springer, Rebecca A. Wingert.
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90, zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
51644
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The Slice Culture Method for Following Development of Tooth Germs In Explant Culture
Authors: Sarah A. Alfaqeeh, Abigail S. Tucker.
Institutions: King's College London, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Explant culture allows manipulation of developing organs at specific time points and is therefore an important method for the developmental biologist. For many organs it is difficult to access developing tissue to allow monitoring during ex vivo culture. The slice culture method allows access to tissue so that morphogenetic movements can be followed and specific cell populations can be targeted for manipulation or lineage tracing. In this paper we describe a method of slice culture that has been very successful for culture of tooth germs in a range of species. The method provides excellent access to the tooth germs, which develop at a similar rate to that observed in vivo, surrounded by the other jaw tissues. This allows tissue interactions between the tooth and surrounding tissue to be monitored. Although this paper concentrates on tooth germs, the same protocol can be applied to follow development of a number of other organs, such as salivary glands, Meckel's cartilage, nasal glands, tongue, and ear.
Anatomy, Issue 81, Tooth, Culture Techniques, Embryo Culture Techniques, Organ Culture Techniques, Developmental Biology, animal biology, animal models, Tooth germ, live slice, development, tissue chopper, lineage tracing, molar, incisor, gland
50824
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Methods for the Study of the Zebrafish Maxillary Barbel
Authors: Elizabeth E. LeClair, Jacek Topczewski.
Institutions: DePaul University, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
Barbels are skin sensory appendages found in fishes, reptiles and amphibians. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, develops two pairs of barbels- a short nasal pair and a longer maxillary pair. Barbel tissue contains cells of ectodermal, mesodermal and neural crest origin, including skin cells, glands, taste buds, melanocytes, circulatory vessels and sensory nerves. Unlike most adult tissue, the maxillary barbel is optically clear, allowing us to visualize the development and maintenance of these tissue types throughout the life cycle. This video shows early development of the maxillary barbel (beginning approximately one month post-fertilization) and demonstrates a surgical protocol to induce regeneration in the adult appendage (>3 months post-fertilization). Briefly, the left maxillary barbel of an anesthetized fish is elevated with sterile forceps just distal to the caudal edge of the maxilla. A fine, sterile spring scissors is positioned against the forceps to cut the barbel shaft at this level, establishing an anatomical landmark for the amputation plane. Regenerative growth can be measured with respect to this plane, and in comparison to the contralateral barbel. Barbel tissue regenerates rapidly, reaching maximal regrowth within 2 weeks of injury. Techniques for analyzing the regenerated barbel include dissecting and embedding matched pairs of barbels (regenerate and control) in the wells of a standard DNA electrophoresis gel. Embedded specimens are conveniently photographed under a stereomicroscope for gross morphology and morphometry, and can be stored for weeks prior to downstream applications such as paraffin histology, cryosectioning, and/or whole mount immunohistochemistry. These methods establish the maxillary barbel as a novel in vivo tissue system for studying the regenerative capacity of multiple cell types within the genetic context of zebrafish.
Developmental Biology, Issue 33, zebrafish, regeneration, barbel, surgery, vasculature, circulation, imaging, agar, embedding, microscopy
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An Improved Mechanical Testing Method to Assess Bone-implant Anchorage
Authors: Spencer Bell, Elnaz Ajami, John E. Davies.
Institutions: University of Toronto.
Recent advances in material science have led to a substantial increase in the topographical complexity of implant surfaces, both on a micro- and a nano-scale. As such, traditional methods of describing implant surfaces - namely numerical determinants of surface roughness - are inadequate for predicting in vivo performance. Biomechanical testing provides an accurate and comparative platform to analyze the performance of biomaterial surfaces. An improved mechanical testing method to test the anchorage of bone to candidate implant surfaces is presented. The method is applicable to both early and later stages of healing and can be employed for any range of chemically or mechanically modified surfaces - but not smooth surfaces. Custom rectangular implants are placed bilaterally in the distal femora of male Wistar rats and collected with the surrounding bone. Test specimens are prepared and potted using a novel breakaway mold and the disruption test is conducted using a mechanical testing machine. This method allows for alignment of the disruption force exactly perpendicular, or parallel, to the plane of the implant surface, and provides an accurate and reproducible means for isolating an exact peri-implant region for testing.
Bioengineering, Issue 84, Mechanical test, bone anchorage, disruption test, surface topography, peri-implant bone, bone-implant interface, bone-bonding, microtopography, nanotopography
51221
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Shrinkage of Dental Composite in Simulated Cavity Measured with Digital Image Correlation
Authors: Jianying Li, Preetanjali Thakur, Alex S. L. Fok.
Institutions: University of Minnesota.
Polymerization shrinkage of dental resin composites can lead to restoration debonding or cracked tooth tissues in composite-restored teeth. In order to understand where and how shrinkage strain and stress develop in such restored teeth, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used to provide a comprehensive view of the displacement and strain distributions within model restorations that had undergone polymerization shrinkage. Specimens with model cavities were made of cylindrical glass rods with both diameter and length being 10 mm. The dimensions of the mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity prepared in each specimen measured 3 mm and 2 mm in width and depth, respectively. After filling the cavity with resin composite, the surface under observation was sprayed with first a thin layer of white paint and then fine black charcoal powder to create high-contrast speckles. Pictures of that surface were then taken before curing and 5 min after. Finally, the two pictures were correlated using DIC software to calculate the displacement and strain distributions. The resin composite shrunk vertically towards the bottom of the cavity, with the top center portion of the restoration having the largest downward displacement. At the same time, it shrunk horizontally towards its vertical midline. Shrinkage of the composite stretched the material in the vicinity of the “tooth-restoration” interface, resulting in cuspal deflections and high tensile strains around the restoration. Material close to the cavity walls or floor had direct strains mostly in the directions perpendicular to the interfaces. Summation of the two direct strain components showed a relatively uniform distribution around the restoration and its magnitude equaled approximately to the volumetric shrinkage strain of the material.
Medicine, Issue 89, image processing, computer-assisted, polymer matrix composites, testing of materials (composite materials), dental composite restoration, polymerization shrinkage, digital image correlation, full-field strain measurement, interfacial debonding
51191
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Isolation, Characterization and Comparative Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Derived from Permanent Teeth by Using Two Different Methods
Authors: Razieh Karamzadeh, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Reza Aflatoonian.
Institutions: Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
Developing wisdom teeth are easy-accessible source of stem cells during the adulthood which could be obtained by routine orthodontic treatments. Human pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) possess high proliferation potential with multi-lineage differentiation capacity compare to the ordinary source of adult stem cells1-8; therefore, hDPSCs could be the good candidates for autologous transplantation in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Along with these benefits, possessing the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) features, such as immunolodulatory effect, make hDPSCs more valuable, even in the case of allograft transplantation6,9,10. Therefore, the primary step for using this source of stem cells is to select the best protocol for isolating hDPSCs from pulp tissue. In order to achieve this goal, it is crucial to investigate the effect of various isolation conditions on different cellular behaviors, such as their common surface markers & also their differentiation capacity. Thus, here we separate human pulp tissue from impacted third molar teeth, and then used both existing protocols based on literature, for isolating hDPSCs,11-13 i.e. enzymatic dissociation of pulp tissue (DPSC-ED) or outgrowth from tissue explants (DPSC-OG). In this regards, we tried to facilitate the isolation methods by using dental diamond disk. Then, these cells characterized in terms of stromal-associated Markers (CD73, CD90, CD105 & CD44), hematopoietic/endothelial Markers (CD34, CD45 & CD11b), perivascular marker, like CD146 and also STRO-1. Afterwards, these two protocols were compared based on the differentiation potency into odontoblasts by both quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) & Alizarin Red Staining. QPCR were used for the assessment of the expression of the mineralization-related genes (alkaline phosphatase; ALP, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein; MEPE & dentin sialophosphoprotein; DSPP).14
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 69, Medicine, Developmental Biology, Cellular Biology, Bioengineering, Dental pulp tissue, Human third molar, Human dental pulp stem cells, hDPSC, Odontoblasts, Outgrown stem cells, MSC, differentiation
4372
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A Mouse Model for Pathogen-induced Chronic Inflammation at Local and Systemic Sites
Authors: George Papadopoulos, Carolyn D. Kramer, Connie S. Slocum, Ellen O. Weinberg, Ning Hua, Cynthia V. Gudino, James A. Hamilton, Caroline A. Genco.
Institutions: Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine.
Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccination and pharmacological intervention.
Immunology, Issue 90, Pathogen-Induced Chronic Inflammation; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Oral Bone Loss; Periodontal Disease; Atherosclerosis; Chronic Inflammation; Host-Pathogen Interaction; microCT; MRI
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Preparation of Segmented Microtubules to Study Motions Driven by the Disassembling Microtubule Ends
Authors: Vladimir A. Volkov, Anatoly V. Zaytsev, Ekaterina L. Grishchuk.
Institutions: Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia, University of Pennsylvania.
Microtubule depolymerization can provide force to transport different protein complexes and protein-coated beads in vitro. The underlying mechanisms are thought to play a vital role in the microtubule-dependent chromosome motions during cell division, but the relevant proteins and their exact roles are ill-defined. Thus, there is a growing need to develop assays with which to study such motility in vitro using purified components and defined biochemical milieu. Microtubules, however, are inherently unstable polymers; their switching between growth and shortening is stochastic and difficult to control. The protocols we describe here take advantage of the segmented microtubules that are made with the photoablatable stabilizing caps. Depolymerization of such segmented microtubules can be triggered with high temporal and spatial resolution, thereby assisting studies of motility at the disassembling microtubule ends. This technique can be used to carry out a quantitative analysis of the number of molecules in the fluorescently-labeled protein complexes, which move processively with dynamic microtubule ends. To optimize a signal-to-noise ratio in this and other quantitative fluorescent assays, coverslips should be treated to reduce nonspecific absorption of soluble fluorescently-labeled proteins. Detailed protocols are provided to take into account the unevenness of fluorescent illumination, and determine the intensity of a single fluorophore using equidistant Gaussian fit. Finally, we describe the use of segmented microtubules to study microtubule-dependent motions of the protein-coated microbeads, providing insights into the ability of different motor and nonmotor proteins to couple microtubule depolymerization to processive cargo motion.
Basic Protocol, Issue 85, microscopy flow chamber, single-molecule fluorescence, laser trap, microtubule-binding protein, microtubule-dependent motor, microtubule tip-tracking
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Use of a High-throughput In Vitro Microfluidic System to Develop Oral Multi-species Biofilms
Authors: Derek S. Samarian, Nicholas S. Jakubovics, Ting L. Luo, Alexander H. Rickard.
Institutions: The University of Michigan, Newcastle University.
There are few high-throughput in vitro systems which facilitate the development of multi-species biofilms that contain numerous species commonly detected within in vivo oral biofilms. Furthermore, a system that uses natural human saliva as the nutrient source, instead of artificial media, is particularly desirable in order to support the expression of cellular and biofilm-specific properties that mimic the in vivo communities. We describe a method for the development of multi-species oral biofilms that are comparable, with respect to species composition, to supragingival dental plaque, under conditions similar to the human oral cavity. Specifically, this methods article will describe how a commercially available microfluidic system can be adapted to facilitate the development of multi-species oral biofilms derived from and grown within pooled saliva. Furthermore, a description of how the system can be used in conjunction with a confocal laser scanning microscope to generate 3-D biofilm reconstructions for architectural and viability analyses will be presented. Given the broad diversity of microorganisms that grow within biofilms in the microfluidic system (including Streptococcus, Neisseria, Veillonella, Gemella, and Porphyromonas), a protocol will also be presented describing how to harvest the biofilm cells for further subculture or DNA extraction and analysis. The limits of both the microfluidic biofilm system and the current state-of-the-art data analyses will be addressed. Ultimately, it is envisioned that this article will provide a baseline technique that will improve the study of oral biofilms and aid in the development of additional technologies that can be integrated with the microfluidic platform.
Bioengineering, Issue 94, Dental plaque, biofilm, confocal laser scanning microscopy, three-dimensional structure, pyrosequencing, image analysis, image reconstruction, saliva, modeling, COMSTAT, IMARIS, IMAGEJ, multi-species biofilm communities.
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Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Authors: Eva Wagner, Sören Brandenburg, Tobias Kohl, Stephan E. Lehnart.
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+ release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
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Dried Blood Spot Collection of Health Biomarkers to Maximize Participation in Population Studies
Authors: Michael W. Ostler, James H. Porter, Orfeu M. Buxton.
Institutions: Harvard School of Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Pennsylvania State University.
Biomarkers are directly-measured biological indicators of disease, health, exposures, or other biological information. In population and social sciences, biomarkers need to be easy to obtain, transport, and analyze. Dried Blood Spots meet this need, and can be collected in the field with high response rates. These elements are particularly important in longitudinal study designs including interventions where attrition is critical to avoid, and high response rates improve the interpretation of results. Dried Blood Spot sample collection is simple, quick, relatively painless, less invasive then venipuncture, and requires minimal field storage requirements (i.e. samples do not need to be immediately frozen and can be stored for a long period of time in a stable freezer environment before assay). The samples can be analyzed for a variety of different analytes, including cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, numerous cytokines, and other analytes, as well as provide genetic material. DBS collection is depicted as employed in several recent studies.
Medicine, Issue 83, dried blood spots (DBS), Biomarkers, cardiometabolic risk, Inflammation, standard precautions, blood collection
50973
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Demonstration of Cutaneous Allodynia in Association with Chronic Pelvic Pain
Authors: John Jarrell.
Institutions: University of Calgary.
Pelvic pain is a common condition that is associated with dysmenorrhea and endometriosis. In some women the severe episodes of cyclic pain change and the resultant pain becomes continuous and this condition becomes known as Chronic Pelvic Pain. This state can be present even after the appropriate medical or surgical therapy has been instituted. It can be associated with pain and tenderness in the muscles of the abdomen wall and intra-pelvic muscles leading to severe dyspareunia. Additional symptoms of irritable bowel and interstitial cystitis are common. A common sign of the development of this state is the emergence of cutaneous allodynia which emerges from the so-called viscero-somatic reflex. A simple bedside test for the presence of cutaneous allodynia is presented that does not require excessive time or special equipment. This test builds on previous work associated with changes in sensation related to gall bladder function and the viscera-somatic reflex(1;2). The test is undertaken with the subject s permission after an explanation of how the test will be performed. Allodynia refers to a condition in which a stimulus that is not normally painful is interpreted by the subject as painful. In this instance the light touch associated with a cotton-tipped applicator would not be expected to be painful. A positive test is however noted by the woman as suddenly painful or suddenly sharp. The patterns of this sensation are usually in a discrete pattern of a dermatome of the nerves that innervate the pelvis. The underlying pathology is now interpreted as evidence of neuroplasticity as a consequence of severe and repeating pain with changes in the functions of the dorsal horns of the spinal cord that results in altered function of visceral tissues and resultant somatic symptoms(3). The importance of recognizing the condition lies in an awareness that this process may present coincidentally with the initiating condition or after it has been treated. It also permits the clinician to evaluate the situation from the perspective that alternative explanations for the pain may be present that may not require additional surgery.
Medicine, Issue 28, Chronic pelvic pain, cutaneous allodynia, trigger points, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, dyspareunia
1232
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Survivable Stereotaxic Surgery in Rodents
Authors: Brenda M. Geiger, Lauren E. Frank, Angela D. Caldera-Siu, Emmanuel N. Pothos.
Institutions: Tufts University.
The ability to measure extracellular basal levels of neurotransmitters in the brain of awake animals allows for the determination of effects of different systemic challenges (pharmacological or physiological) to the CNS. For example, one can directly measure how the animal's midbrain dopamine projections respond to dopamine-releasing drugs like d-amphetamine or natural stimuli like food. In this video, we show you how to implant guide cannulas targeting specific sites in the rat brain, how to insert and implant a microdialysis probe and how to use high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC) to measure extracellular levels of oxidizable neurotransmitters and metabolites. Local precise introduction of drugs through the microdialysis probe allows for refined work on site specificity in a compound s mechanism of action. This technique has excellent anatomical and chemical resolution but only modest time resolution as microdialysis samples are usually processed every 20-30 minutes to ensure detectable neurotransmitter levels. Complementary ex vivo tools (i.e., slice and cell culture electrophysiology) can assist with monitoring real-time neurotransmission.
Neuroscience, Issue 20, microdialysis, nucleus accumbens, catecholamines, dopamine, rats. mice, brain
880
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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