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Knowledge of and attitudes to influenza vaccination in healthy primary healthcare workers in Spain, 2011-2012.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for healthcare workers, but many do not follow the recommendation. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with seasonal influenza vaccination in the 2011-2012 season. We carried out an anonymous web survey of Spanish primary healthcare workers in 2012. Information on vaccination, and knowledge and attitudes about the influenza vaccine was collected. Workers with medical conditions that contraindicated vaccination and those with high risk conditions were excluded. Multivariate analysis was performed using unconditional logistic regression. We included 1,749 workers. The overall vaccination coverage was 50.7% and was higher in workers aged ? 55 years (55.7%), males (57.4%) and paediatricians (63.1%). Factors associated with vaccination were concern about infection at work (aOR 4.93; 95% CI 3.72-6.53), considering that vaccination of heathcare workers is important (aOR 2.62; 95%CI 1.83-3.75) and that vaccination is effective in preventing influenza and its complications (aOR 2.40; 95% CI 1.56-3.67). No association was found between vaccination and knowledge of influenza or the vaccine characteristics. Educational programs should aim to remove the misconceptions and attitudes that limit compliance with recommendations about influenza vaccination in primary healthcare workers rather than only increasing knowledge about influenza and the characteristics of the vaccine.
Authors: Pål Johansen, Thomas M. Kündig.
Published: 02-02-2014
Vaccines are typically injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly for stimulation of immune responses. The success of this requires efficient drainage of vaccine to lymph nodes where antigen presenting cells can interact with lymphocytes for generation of the wanted immune responses. The strength and the type of immune responses induced also depend on the density or frequency of interactions as well as the microenvironment, especially the content of cytokines. As only a minute fraction of peripherally injected vaccines reaches the lymph nodes, vaccinations of mice and humans were performed by direct injection of vaccine into inguinal lymph nodes, i.e. intralymphatic injection. In man, the procedure is guided by ultrasound. In mice, a small (5-10 mm) incision is made in the inguinal region of anesthetized animals, the lymph node is localized and immobilized with forceps, and a volume of 10-20 μl of the vaccine is injected under visual control. The incision is closed with a single stitch using surgical sutures. Mice were vaccinated with plasmid DNA, RNA, peptide, protein, particles, and bacteria as well as adjuvants, and strong improvement of immune responses against all type of vaccines was observed. The intralymphatic method of vaccination is especially appropriate in situations where conventional vaccination produces insufficient immunity or where the amount of available vaccine is limited.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
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Expression of Functional Recombinant Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Proteins from the Novel H7N9 Influenza Virus Using the Baculovirus Expression System
Authors: Irina Margine, Peter Palese, Florian Krammer.
Institutions: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.
The baculovirus expression system is a powerful tool for expression of recombinant proteins. Here we use it to produce correctly folded and glycosylated versions of the influenza A virus surface glycoproteins - the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). As an example, we chose the HA and NA proteins expressed by the novel H7N9 virus that recently emerged in China. However the protocol can be easily adapted for HA and NA proteins expressed by any other influenza A and B virus strains. Recombinant HA (rHA) and NA (rNA) proteins are important reagents for immunological assays such as ELISPOT and ELISA, and are also in wide use for vaccine standardization, antibody discovery, isolation and characterization. Furthermore, recombinant NA molecules can be used to screen for small molecule inhibitors and are useful for characterization of the enzymatic function of the NA, as well as its sensitivity to antivirals. Recombinant HA proteins are also being tested as experimental vaccines in animal models, and a vaccine based on recombinant HA was recently licensed by the FDA for use in humans. The method we describe here to produce these molecules is straight forward and can facilitate research in influenza laboratories, since it allows for production of large amounts of proteins fast and at a low cost. Although here we focus on influenza virus surface glycoproteins, this method can also be used to produce other viral and cellular surface proteins.
Infection, Issue 81, Influenza A virus, Orthomyxoviridae Infections, Influenza, Human, Influenza in Birds, Influenza Vaccines, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, H7N9, baculovirus, insect cells, recombinant protein expression
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Purification and Visualization of Influenza A Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complexes
Authors: Winco W.H. Wu, Lindsay L. Weaver, Nelly Panté.
Institutions: University of British Columbia - UBC.
The influenza A viral genome consists of eight negative-sense, single stranded RNA molecules, individually packed with multiple copies of the influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) into viral ribonulceoprotein particles (vRNPs). The influenza vRNPs are enclosed within the viral envelope. During cell entry, however, these vRNP complexes are released into the cytoplasm, where they gain access to the host nuclear transport machinery. In order to study the nuclear import of influenza vRNPs and the replication of the influenza genome, it is useful to work with isolated vRNPs so that other components of the virus do not interfere with these processes. Here, we describe a procedure to purify these vRNPs from the influenza A virus. The procedure starts with the disruption of the influenza A virion with detergents in order to release the vRNP complexes from the enveloped virion. The vRNPs are then separated from the other components of the influenza A virion on a 33-70% discontinuous glycerol gradient by velocity sedimentation. The fractions obtained from the glycerol gradient are then analyzed on via SDS-PAGE after staining with Coomassie blue. The peak fractions containing NP are then pooled together and concentrated by centrifugation. After concentration, the integrity of the vRNPs is verified by visualization of the vRNPs by transmission electron microscopy after negative staining. The glycerol gradient purification is a modification of that from Kemler et al. (1994)1, and the negative staining has been performed by Wu et al. (2007).2
Immunology, Issue 24, influenza A virus, viral ribonucleoprotein, vRNP, glycerol gradient, negative staining, transmission electron microscopy
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Generation of a Novel Dendritic-cell Vaccine Using Melanoma and Squamous Cancer Stem Cells
Authors: Qiao Li, Lin Lu, Huimin Tao, Carolyn Xue, Seagal Teitz-Tennenbaum, John H. Owen, Jeffrey S Moyer, Mark E.P. Prince, Alfred E. Chang, Max S. Wicha.
Institutions: University of Michigan, University of Michigan, University of Michigan.
We identified cancer stem cell (CSC)-enriched populations from murine melanoma D5 syngeneic to C57BL/6 mice and the squamous cancer SCC7 syngeneic to C3H mice using ALDEFLUOR/ALDH as a marker, and tested their immunogenicity using the cell lysate as a source of antigens to pulse dendritic cells (DCs). DCs pulsed with ALDHhigh CSC lysates induced significantly higher protective antitumor immunity than DCs pulsed with the lysates of unsorted whole tumor cell lysates in both models and in a lung metastasis setting and a s.c. tumor growth setting, respectively. This phenomenon was due to CSC vaccine-induced humoral as well as cellular anti-CSC responses. In particular, splenocytes isolated from the host subjected to CSC-DC vaccine produced significantly higher amount of IFNγ and GM-CSF than splenocytes isolated from the host subjected to unsorted tumor cell lysate pulsed-DC vaccine. These results support the efforts to develop an autologous CSC-based therapeutic vaccine for clinical use in an adjuvant setting.
Cancer Biology, Issue 83, Cancer stem cell (CSC), Dendritic cells (DC), Vaccine, Cancer immunotherapy, antitumor immunity, aldehyde dehydrogenase
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Generation of Recombinant Influenza Virus from Plasmid DNA
Authors: Luis Martínez-Sobrido, Adolfo García-Sastre.
Institutions: University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine .
Efforts by a number of influenza research groups have been pivotal in the development and improvement of influenza A virus reverse genetics. Originally established in 1999 1,2 plasmid-based reverse genetic techniques to generate recombinant viruses have revolutionized the influenza research field because specific questions have been answered by genetically engineered, infectious, recombinant influenza viruses. Such studies include virus replication, function of viral proteins, the contribution of specific mutations in viral proteins in viral replication and/or pathogenesis and, also, viral vectors using recombinant influenza viruses expressing foreign proteins 3.
Microbiology, Issue 42, influenza viruses, plasmid transfection, recombinant virus, reverse genetics techniques, HA assay
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ampliPHOX Colorimetric Detection on a DNA Microarray for Influenza
Authors: Kevin R. Moulton, Amber W. Taylor, Kathy L. Rowlen, Erica D. Dawson.
Institutions: Inc..
DNA microarrays have emerged as a powerful tool for pathogen detection.1-5 For instance, many examples of the ability to type and subtype influenza virus have been demonstrated.6-11 The identification and subtyping of influenza on DNA microarrays has applications in both public health and the clinic for early detection, rapid intervention, and minimizing the impact of an influenza pandemic. Traditional fluorescence is currently the most commonly used microarray detection method. However, as microarray technology progresses towards clinical use,1 replacing expensive instrumentation with low cost detection technology exhibiting similar performance characteristics to fluorescence will make microarray assays more attractive and cost-effective. The ampliPHOX colorimetric detection technology is intended for research applications, and has a limit of detection within one order of magnitude of traditional fluorescence11, with a main advantage being an approximate ten-fold lower instrument cost compared to the confocal microarray scanners required for fluorescence microarray detection. Another advantage is the compact size of the instrument which allows for portability and flexibility, unlike traditional fluorescence instruments. Because the polymerization technology is not as inherently linear as fluorescence detection, however, it is best suited for lower density microarray applications in which a yes/no answer for the presence of a certain sequence is desired, such as for pathogen detection arrays. Currently the maximum spot density compatible with ampliPHOX detection is ˜1800 spots/array. Because of the spot density limitations, higher density microarrays are not suitable for ampliPHOX detection. Here, we present ampliPHOX colorimetric detection technology as a method of signal amplification on a low density microarray developed for the detection and characterization of influenza viruses (FluChip). Although this protocol uses the FluChip (a DNA microarray) as one specific application of ampliPHOX detection, any microarray incorporating biotinylated target can be labeled and detected in a similar manner. The microarray design and biotinylation of the target to be captured are the responsibility of the user. Once the biotinylated target has been captured on the array, ampliPHOX detection can be performed by first tagging the array with a streptavidin-label conjugate (ampliTAG). Upon light exposure using the ampliPHOX Reader instrument, polymerization of a monomer solution (ampliPHY) occurs only in regions containing ampliTAG-labeled targets. The polymer formed can be subsequently stained with a non-toxic solution to improve visual contrast, followed by imaging and analysis using a simple software package (ampliVIEW). The entire FluChip assay from un-extracted sample to result can be performed in about 6 hours, and the ampliPHOX detection steps described above can be completed in about 30 min.
Immunology, Issue 52, microarrays, colorimetric detection, ampliPHOX, diagnostic, low-density, pathogen detection, influenza
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Activation and Measurement of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Using IL-1β in Human Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells
Authors: Melissa V. Fernandez, Elizabeth A. Miller, Nina Bhardwaj.
Institutions: New York University School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Mount Sinai Medical Center.
Inflammatory processes resulting from the secretion of Interleukin (IL)-1 family cytokines by immune cells lead to local or systemic inflammation, tissue remodeling and repair, and virologic control1,2 . Interleukin-1β is an essential element of the innate immune response and contributes to eliminate invading pathogens while preventing the establishment of persistent infection1-5. Inflammasomes are the key signaling platform for the activation of interleukin 1 converting enzyme (ICE or Caspase-1). The NLRP3 inflammasome requires at least two signals in DCs to cause IL-1β secretion6. Pro-IL-1β protein expression is limited in resting cells; therefore a priming signal is required for IL-1β transcription and protein expression. A second signal sensed by NLRP3 results in the formation of the multi-protein NLRP3 inflammasome. The ability of dendritic cells to respond to the signals required for IL-1β secretion can be tested using a synthetic purine, R848, which is sensed by TLR8 in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) to prime cells, followed by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the bacterial toxin and potassium ionophore, nigericin. Monocyte derived DCs are easily produced in culture and provide significantly more cells than purified human myeloid DCs. The method presented here differs from other inflammasome assays in that it uses in vitro human, instead of mouse derived, DCs thus allowing for the study of the inflammasome in human disease and infection.
Immunology, Issue 87, NLRP3, inflammasome, IL-1beta, Interleukin-1 beta, dendritic, cell, Nigericin, Toll-Like Receptor 8, TLR8, R848, Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells
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Flow Cytometric Isolation of Primary Murine Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells for Functional and Molecular Studies
Authors: Marcus Gereke, Andrea Autengruber, Lothar Gröbe, Andreas Jeron, Dunja Bruder, Sabine Stegemann-Koniszewski.
Institutions: Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Otto-von-Guericke University , Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research.
Throughout the last years, the contribution of alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) to various aspects of immune regulation in the lung has been increasingly recognized. AECII have been shown to participate in cytokine production in inflamed airways and to even act as antigen-presenting cells in both infection and T-cell mediated autoimmunity 1-8. Therefore, they are especially interesting also in clinical contexts such as airway hyper-reactivity to foreign and self-antigens as well as infections that directly or indirectly target AECII. However, our understanding of the detailed immunologic functions served by alveolar type II epithelial cells in the healthy lung as well as in inflammation remains fragmentary. Many studies regarding AECII function are performed using mouse or human alveolar epithelial cell lines 9-12. Working with cell lines certainly offers a range of benefits, such as the availability of large numbers of cells for extensive analyses. However, we believe the use of primary murine AECII allows a better understanding of the role of this cell type in complex processes like infection or autoimmune inflammation. Primary murine AECII can be isolated directly from animals suffering from such respiratory conditions, meaning they have been subject to all additional extrinsic factors playing a role in the analyzed setting. As an example, viable AECII can be isolated from mice intranasally infected with influenza A virus, which primarily targets these cells for replication 13. Importantly, through ex vivo infection of AECII isolated from healthy mice, studies of the cellular responses mounted upon infection can be further extended. Our protocol for the isolation of primary murine AECII is based on enzymatic digestion of the mouse lung followed by labeling of the resulting cell suspension with antibodies specific for CD11c, CD11b, F4/80, CD19, CD45 and CD16/CD32. Granular AECII are then identified as the unlabeled and sideward scatter high (SSChigh) cell population and are separated by fluorescence activated cell sorting 3. In comparison to alternative methods of isolating primary epithelial cells from mouse lungs, our protocol for flow cytometric isolation of AECII by negative selection yields untouched, highly viable and pure AECII in relatively short time. Additionally, and in contrast to conventional methods of isolation by panning and depletion of lymphocytes via binding of antibody-coupled magnetic beads 14, 15, flow cytometric cell-sorting allows discrimination by means of cell size and granularity. Given that instrumentation for flow cytometric cell sorting is available, the described procedure can be applied at relatively low costs. Next to standard antibodies and enzymes for lung disintegration, no additional reagents such as magnetic beads are required. The isolated cells are suitable for a wide range of functional and molecular studies, which include in vitro culture and T-cell stimulation assays as well as transcriptome, proteome or secretome analyses 3, 4.
Immunology, Issue 70, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Infection, Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, alveolar type II epithelial cells, mouse, respiratory tract, lung, cell sorting, flow cytometry, influenza, autoimmunity
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Multi-target Parallel Processing Approach for Gene-to-structure Determination of the Influenza Polymerase PB2 Subunit
Authors: Brianna L. Armour, Steve R. Barnes, Spencer O. Moen, Eric Smith, Amy C. Raymond, James W. Fairman, Lance J. Stewart, Bart L. Staker, Darren W. Begley, Thomas E. Edwards, Donald D. Lorimer.
Institutions: Emerald Bio, Emerald Bio, Emerald Bio, Emerald Bio, Emerald Bio, Emerald Bio, Emerald Bio, Emerald Bio, Emerald Bio.
Pandemic outbreaks of highly virulent influenza strains can cause widespread morbidity and mortality in human populations worldwide. In the United States alone, an average of 41,400 deaths and 1.86 million hospitalizations are caused by influenza virus infection each year 1. Point mutations in the polymerase basic protein 2 subunit (PB2) have been linked to the adaptation of the viral infection in humans 2. Findings from such studies have revealed the biological significance of PB2 as a virulence factor, thus highlighting its potential as an antiviral drug target. The structural genomics program put forth by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) provides funding to Emerald Bio and three other Pacific Northwest institutions that together make up the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID). The SSGCID is dedicated to providing the scientific community with three-dimensional protein structures of NIAID category A-C pathogens. Making such structural information available to the scientific community serves to accelerate structure-based drug design. Structure-based drug design plays an important role in drug development. Pursuing multiple targets in parallel greatly increases the chance of success for new lead discovery by targeting a pathway or an entire protein family. Emerald Bio has developed a high-throughput, multi-target parallel processing pipeline (MTPP) for gene-to-structure determination to support the consortium. Here we describe the protocols used to determine the structure of the PB2 subunit from four different influenza A strains.
Infection, Issue 76, Structural Biology, Virology, Genetics, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, Genomics, high throughput, multi-targeting, structural genomics, protein crystallization, purification, protein production, X-ray crystallography, Gene Composer, Protein Maker, expression, E. coli, fermentation, influenza, virus, vector, plasmid, cell, cell culture, PCR, sequencing
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Radio Frequency Identification and Motion-sensitive Video Efficiently Automate Recording of Unrewarded Choice Behavior by Bumblebees
Authors: Levente L. Orbán, Catherine M.S. Plowright.
Institutions: University of Ottawa.
We present two methods for observing bumblebee choice behavior in an enclosed testing space. The first method consists of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) readers built into artificial flowers that display various visual cues, and RFID tags (i.e., passive transponders) glued to the thorax of bumblebee workers. The novelty in our implementation is that RFID readers are built directly into artificial flowers that are capable of displaying several distinct visual properties such as color, pattern type, spatial frequency (i.e., “busyness” of the pattern), and symmetry (spatial frequency and symmetry were not manipulated in this experiment). Additionally, these visual displays in conjunction with the automated systems are capable of recording unrewarded and untrained choice behavior. The second method consists of recording choice behavior at artificial flowers using motion-sensitive high-definition camcorders. Bumblebees have number tags glued to their thoraces for unique identification. The advantage in this implementation over RFID is that in addition to observing landing behavior, alternate measures of preference such as hovering and antennation may also be observed. Both automation methods increase experimental control, and internal validity by allowing larger scale studies that take into account individual differences. External validity is also improved because bees can freely enter and exit the testing environment without constraints such as the availability of a research assistant on-site. Compared to human observation in real time, the automated methods are more cost-effective and possibly less error-prone.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, bumblebee, unlearned behaviors, floral choice, visual perception, Bombus spp, information processing, radio-frequency identification, motion-sensitive video
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Protocol for Recombinant RBD-based SARS Vaccines: Protein Preparation, Animal Vaccination and Neutralization Detection
Authors: Lanying Du, Xiujuan Zhang, Jixiang Liu, Shibo Jiang.
Institutions: New York Blood Center.
Based on their safety profile and ability to induce potent immune responses against infections, subunit vaccines have been used as candidates for a wide variety of pathogens 1-3. Since the mammalian cell system is capable of post-translational modification, thus forming properly folded and glycosylated proteins, recombinant proteins expressed in mammalian cells have shown the greatest potential to maintain high antigenicity and immunogenicity 4-6. Although no new cases of SARS have been reported since 2004, future outbreaks are a constant threat; therefore, the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV is a prudent preventive step and should be carried out. The RBD of SARS-CoV S protein plays important roles in receptor binding and induction of specific neutralizing antibodies against virus infection 7-9. Therefore, in this protocol, we describe novel methods for developing a RBD-based subunit vaccine against SARS. Briefly, the recombinant RBD protein (rRBD) was expressed in culture supernatant of mammalian 293T cells to obtain a correctly folded protein with proper conformation and high immunogenicity 6. The transfection of the recombinant plasmid encoding RBD to the cells was then performed using a calcium phosphate transfection method 6,10 with some modifications. Compared with the lipid transfection method 11,12, this modified calcium phosphate transfection method is cheaper, easier to handle, and has the potential to reach high efficacy once a transfection complex with suitable size and shape is formed 13,14. Finally, a SARS pseudovirus neutralization assay was introduced in the protocol and used to detect the neutralizing activity of sera of mice vaccinated with rRBD protein. This assay is relatively safe, does not involve an infectious SARS-CoV, and can be performed without the requirement of a biosafety-3 laboratory 15. The protocol described here can also be used to design and study recombinant subunit vaccines against other viruses with class I fusion proteins, for example, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Ebola virus, influenza virus, as well as Nipah and Handra viruses. In addition, the methods for generating a pseudovirus and subsequently establishing a pseudovirus neutralization assay can be applied to all these viruses.
Immunology, Issue 51, SARS, receptor-binding domain, subunit vaccines, immunization, neutralization detection
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Skin Tattooing As A Novel Approach For DNA Vaccine Delivery
Authors: Yung-Nung Chiu, Jared M. Sampson, Xunqing Jiang, Susan B. Zolla-Pazner, Xiang-Peng Kong.
Institutions: New York University School of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs New York Harbor.
Nucleic acid-based vaccination is a topic of growing interest, especially plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding immunologically important antigens. After the engineered pDNA is administered to the vaccines, it is transcribed and translated into immunogen proteins that can elicit responses from the immune system. Many ways of delivering DNA vaccines have been investigated; however each delivery route has its own advantages and pitfalls. Skin tattooing is a novel technique that is safe, cost-effective, and convenient. In addition, the punctures inflicted by the needle could also serve as a potent adjuvant. Here, we a) demonstrate the intradermal delivery of plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (pCX-EGFP) in a mouse model using a tattooing device and b) confirm the effective expression of EGFP in the skin cells using confocal microscopy.
Bioengineering, Issue 68, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Medicine, DNA, vaccine, immunization method, skin tattooing, intradermal delivery, GFP
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Investigating the Effects of Probiotics on Pneumococcal Colonization Using an In Vitro Adherence Assay
Authors: Eileen M. Dunne, Zheng Q. Toh, Mary John, Jayne Manning, Catherine Satzke, Paul Licciardi.
Institutions: Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, The University of Melbourne.
Adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) to the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx can result in colonization and is considered a prerequisite for pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia and otitis media. In vitro adherence assays can be used to study the attachment of pneumococci to epithelial cell monolayers and to investigate potential interventions, such as the use of probiotics, to inhibit pneumococcal colonization. The protocol described here is used to investigate the effects of the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius on the adherence of pneumococci to the human epithelial cell line CCL-23 (sometimes referred to as HEp-2 cells). The assay involves three main steps: 1) preparation of epithelial and bacterial cells, 2) addition of bacteria to epithelial cell monolayers, and 3) detection of adherent pneumococci by viable counts (serial dilution and plating) or quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This technique is relatively straightforward and does not require specialized equipment other than a tissue culture setup. The assay can be used to test other probiotic species and/or potential inhibitors of pneumococcal colonization and can be easily modified to address other scientific questions regarding pneumococcal adherence and invasion.
Immunology, Issue 86, Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections, Pneumonia, Bacterial, Lung Diseases, Respiratory Tract Infections, Streptococcus pneumoniae, adherence, colonization, probiotics, Streptococcus salivarius, In Vitro assays
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Quantitative Analyses of all Influenza Type A Viral Hemagglutinins and Neuraminidases using Universal Antibodies in Simple Slot Blot Assays
Authors: Caroline Gravel, Changgui Li, Junzhi Wang, Anwar M Hashem, Bozena Jaentschke, Gary Van Domselaar, Runtao He, Xuguang Li.
Institutions: Health canada, The State Food and Drug Administration, Beijing, University of Ottawa, King Abdulaziz University, Public Health Agency of Canada.
Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are two surface proteins of influenza viruses which are known to play important roles in the viral life cycle and the induction of protective immune responses1,2. As the main target for neutralizing antibodies, HA is currently used as the influenza vaccine potency marker and is measured by single radial immunodiffusion (SRID)3. However, the dependence of SRID on the availability of the corresponding subtype-specific antisera causes a minimum of 2-3 months delay for the release of every new vaccine. Moreover, despite evidence that NA also induces protective immunity4, the amount of NA in influenza vaccines is not yet standardized due to a lack of appropriate reagents or analytical method5. Thus, simple alternative methods capable of quantifying HA and NA antigens are desirable for rapid release and better quality control of influenza vaccines. Universally conserved regions in all available influenza A HA and NA sequences were identified by bioinformatics analyses6-7. One sequence (designated as Uni-1) was identified in the only universally conserved epitope of HA, the fusion peptide6, while two conserved sequences were identified in neuraminidases, one close to the enzymatic active site (designated as HCA-2) and the other close to the N-terminus (designated as HCA-3)7. Peptides with these amino acid sequences were synthesized and used to immunize rabbits for the production of antibodies. The antibody against the Uni-1 epitope of HA was able to bind to 13 subtypes of influenza A HA (H1-H13) while the antibodies against the HCA-2 and HCA-3 regions of NA were capable of binding all 9 NA subtypes. All antibodies showed remarkable specificity against the viral sequences as evidenced by the observation that no cross-reactivity to allantoic proteins was detected. These universal antibodies were then used to develop slot blot assays to quantify HA and NA in influenza A vaccines without the need for specific antisera7,8. Vaccine samples were applied onto a PVDF membrane using a slot blot apparatus along with reference standards diluted to various concentrations. For the detection of HA, samples and standard were first diluted in Tris-buffered saline (TBS) containing 4M urea while for the measurement of NA they were diluted in TBS containing 0.01% Zwittergent as these conditions significantly improved the detection sensitivity. Following the detection of the HA and NA antigens by immunoblotting with their respective universal antibodies, signal intensities were quantified by densitometry. Amounts of HA and NA in the vaccines were then calculated using a standard curve established with the signal intensities of the various concentrations of the references used. Given that these antibodies bind to universal epitopes in HA or NA, interested investigators could use them as research tools in immunoassays other than the slot blot only.
Immunology, Issue 50, Virology, influenza, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, quantification, universal antibody
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Sublingual Immunotherapy as an Alternative to Induce Protection Against Acute Respiratory Infections
Authors: Natalia Muñoz-Wolf, Analía Rial, José M. Saavedra, José A. Chabalgoity.
Institutions: Universidad de la República, Trinity College Dublin.
Sublingual route has been widely used to deliver small molecules into the bloodstream and to modulate the immune response at different sites. It has been shown to effectively induce humoral and cellular responses at systemic and mucosal sites, namely the lungs and urogenital tract. Sublingual vaccination can promote protection against infections at the lower and upper respiratory tract; it can also promote tolerance to allergens and ameliorate asthma symptoms. Modulation of lung’s immune response by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is safer than direct administration of formulations by intranasal route because it does not require delivery of potentially harmful molecules directly into the airways. In contrast to intranasal delivery, side effects involving brain toxicity or facial paralysis are not promoted by SLIT. The immune mechanisms underlying SLIT remain elusive and its use for the treatment of acute lung infections has not yet been explored. Thus, development of appropriate animal models of SLIT is needed to further explore its potential advantages. This work shows how to perform sublingual administration of therapeutic agents in mice to evaluate their ability to protect against acute pneumococcal pneumonia. Technical aspects of mouse handling during sublingual inoculation, precise identification of sublingual mucosa, draining lymph nodes and isolation of tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs are illustrated. Protocols for single cell suspension preparation for FACS analysis are described in detail. Other downstream applications for the analysis of the immune response are discussed. Technical aspects of the preparation of Streptococcus pneumoniae inoculum and intranasal challenge of mice are also explained. SLIT is a simple technique that allows screening of candidate molecules to modulate lungs’ immune response. Parameters affecting the success of SLIT are related to molecular size, susceptibility to degradation and stability of highly concentrated formulations.
Medicine, Issue 90, Sublingual immunotherapy, Pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lungs, Flagellin, TLR5, NLRC4
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Collection, Isolation, and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Human Endocervical Samples
Authors: Jennifer A. Juno, Genevieve Boily-Larouche, Julie Lajoie, Keith R. Fowke.
Institutions: University of Manitoba, University of Manitoba.
Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina.
Medicine, Issue 89, mucosal, immunology, FGT, lavage, cervical, CMC
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A Mouse Tumor Model of Surgical Stress to Explore the Mechanisms of Postoperative Immunosuppression and Evaluate Novel Perioperative Immunotherapies
Authors: Lee-Hwa Tai, Christiano Tanese de Souza, Shalini Sahi, Jiqing Zhang, Almohanad A Alkayyal, Abhirami Anu Ananth, Rebecca A.C. Auer.
Institutions: Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, University of Tabuk, Ottawa General Hospital.
Surgical resection is an essential treatment for most cancer patients, but surgery induces dysfunction in the immune system and this has been linked to the development of metastatic disease in animal models and in cancer patients. Preclinical work from our group and others has demonstrated a profound suppression of innate immune function, specifically NK cells in the postoperative period and this plays a major role in the enhanced development of metastases following surgery. Relatively few animal studies and clinical trials have focused on characterizing and reversing the detrimental effects of cancer surgery. Using a rigorous animal model of spontaneously metastasizing tumors and surgical stress, the enhancement of cancer surgery on the development of lung metastases was demonstrated. In this model, 4T1 breast cancer cells are implanted in the mouse mammary fat pad. At day 14 post tumor implantation, a complete resection of the primary mammary tumor is performed in all animals. A subset of animals receives additional surgical stress in the form of an abdominal nephrectomy. At day 28, lung tumor nodules are quantified. When immunotherapy was given immediately preoperatively, a profound activation of immune cells which prevented the development of metastases following surgery was detected. While the 4T1 breast tumor surgery model allows for the simulation of the effects of abdominal surgical stress on tumor metastases, its applicability to other tumor types needs to be tested. The current challenge is to identify safe and promising immunotherapies in preclinical mouse models and to translate them into viable perioperative therapies to be given to cancer surgery patients to prevent the recurrence of metastatic disease.
Medicine, Issue 85, mouse, tumor model, surgical stress, immunosuppression, perioperative immunotherapy, metastases
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Optimization and Utilization of Agrobacterium-mediated Transient Protein Production in Nicotiana
Authors: Moneim Shamloul, Jason Trusa, Vadim Mett, Vidadi Yusibov.
Institutions: Fraunhofer USA Center for Molecular Biotechnology.
Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in plants is a promising approach to produce vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins within a short period of time. However, this technology is only just beginning to be applied to large-scale production as many technological obstacles to scale up are now being overcome. Here, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for industrial-scale transient protein production based on vacuum infiltration of Nicotiana plants with Agrobacteria carrying launch vectors. Optimization of Agrobacterium cultivation in AB medium allows direct dilution of the bacterial culture in Milli-Q water, simplifying the infiltration process. Among three tested species of Nicotiana, N. excelsiana (N. benthamiana × N. excelsior) was selected as the most promising host due to the ease of infiltration, high level of reporter protein production, and about two-fold higher biomass production under controlled environmental conditions. Induction of Agrobacterium harboring pBID4-GFP (Tobacco mosaic virus-based) using chemicals such as acetosyringone and monosaccharide had no effect on the protein production level. Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration with Agrobacterium laboratory strain GV3101 showed the highest protein production compared to Agrobacteria laboratory strains LBA4404 and C58C1 and wild-type Agrobacteria strains at6, at10, at77 and A4. Co-expression of a viral RNA silencing suppressor, p23 or p19, in N. benthamiana resulted in earlier accumulation and increased production (15-25%) of target protein (influenza virus hemagglutinin).
Plant Biology, Issue 86, Agroinfiltration, Nicotiana benthamiana, transient protein production, plant-based expression, viral vector, Agrobacteria
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Rescue of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus from cDNA
Authors: Juan Ayllon, Adolfo García-Sastre, Luis Martínez-Sobrido.
Institutions: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, University of Rochester.
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the prototype member of the Avulavirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae1, is a non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus (Figure 1) with potential applications as a vector for vaccination and treatment of human diseases. In-depth exploration of these applications has only become possible after the establishment of reverse genetics techniques to rescue recombinant viruses from plasmids encoding their complete genomes as cDNA2-5. Viral cDNA can be conveniently modified in vitro by using standard cloning procedures to alter the genotype of the virus and/or to include new transcriptional units. Rescue of such genetically modified viruses provides a valuable tool to understand factors affecting multiple stages of infection, as well as allows for the development and improvement of vectors for the expression and delivery of antigens for vaccination and therapy. Here we describe a protocol for the rescue of recombinant NDVs.
Immunology, Issue 80, Paramyxoviridae, Vaccines, Oncolytic Virotherapy, Immunity, Innate, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), MVA-T7, reverse genetics techniques, plasmid transfection, recombinant virus, HA assay
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Characterization of Complex Systems Using the Design of Experiments Approach: Transient Protein Expression in Tobacco as a Case Study
Authors: Johannes Felix Buyel, Rainer Fischer.
Institutions: RWTH Aachen University, Fraunhofer Gesellschaft.
Plants provide multiple benefits for the production of biopharmaceuticals including low costs, scalability, and safety. Transient expression offers the additional advantage of short development and production times, but expression levels can vary significantly between batches thus giving rise to regulatory concerns in the context of good manufacturing practice. We used a design of experiments (DoE) approach to determine the impact of major factors such as regulatory elements in the expression construct, plant growth and development parameters, and the incubation conditions during expression, on the variability of expression between batches. We tested plants expressing a model anti-HIV monoclonal antibody (2G12) and a fluorescent marker protein (DsRed). We discuss the rationale for selecting certain properties of the model and identify its potential limitations. The general approach can easily be transferred to other problems because the principles of the model are broadly applicable: knowledge-based parameter selection, complexity reduction by splitting the initial problem into smaller modules, software-guided setup of optimal experiment combinations and step-wise design augmentation. Therefore, the methodology is not only useful for characterizing protein expression in plants but also for the investigation of other complex systems lacking a mechanistic description. The predictive equations describing the interconnectivity between parameters can be used to establish mechanistic models for other complex systems.
Bioengineering, Issue 83, design of experiments (DoE), transient protein expression, plant-derived biopharmaceuticals, promoter, 5'UTR, fluorescent reporter protein, model building, incubation conditions, monoclonal antibody
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Development of an IFN-γ ELISpot Assay to Assess Varicella-Zoster Virus-specific Cell-mediated Immunity Following Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation
Authors: Insaf Salem Fourati, Anne-Julie Grenier, Élyse Jolette, Natacha Merindol, Philippe Ovetchkine, Hugo Soudeyns.
Institutions: Université de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Université de Montréal.
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). For this reason, antiherpetic prophylaxis is administrated systematically to pediatric UCBT recipients to prevent complications associated with VZV infection, but there is no strong, evidence based consensus that defines its optimal duration. Because T cell mediated immunity is responsible for the control of VZV infection, assessing the reconstitution of VZV specific T cell responses following UCBT could provide indications as to whether prophylaxis should be maintained or can be discontinued. To this end, a VZV specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay was developed to characterize IFN-γ production by T lymphocytes in response to in vitro stimulation with irradiated live attenuated VZV vaccine. This assay provides a rapid, reproducible and sensitive measurement of VZV specific cell mediated immunity suitable for monitoring the reconstitution of VZV specific immunity in a clinical setting and assessing immune responsiveness to VZV antigens.  
Immunology, Issue 89, Varicella zoster virus, cell-mediated immunity, T cells, interferon gamma, ELISpot, umbilical cord blood transplantation
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A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research
Authors: Brian H. Smith, Christina M. Burden.
Institutions: Arizona State University.
Insects modify their responses to stimuli through experience of associating those stimuli with events important for survival (e.g., food, mates, threats). There are several behavioral mechanisms through which an insect learns salient associations and relates them to these events. It is important to understand this behavioral plasticity for programs aimed toward assisting insects that are beneficial for agriculture. This understanding can also be used for discovering solutions to biomedical and agricultural problems created by insects that act as disease vectors and pests. The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol was developed for honey bees (Apis mellifera) over 50 years ago to study how they perceive and learn about floral odors, which signal the nectar and pollen resources a colony needs for survival. The PER procedure provides a robust and easy-to-employ framework for studying several different ecologically relevant mechanisms of behavioral plasticity. It is easily adaptable for use with several other insect species and other behavioral reflexes. These protocols can be readily employed in conjunction with various means for monitoring neural activity in the CNS via electrophysiology or bioimaging, or for manipulating targeted neuromodulatory pathways. It is a robust assay for rapidly detecting sub-lethal effects on behavior caused by environmental stressors, toxins or pesticides. We show how the PER protocol is straightforward to implement using two procedures. One is suitable as a laboratory exercise for students or for quick assays of the effect of an experimental treatment. The other provides more thorough control of variables, which is important for studies of behavioral conditioning. We show how several measures for the behavioral response ranging from binary yes/no to more continuous variable like latency and duration of proboscis extension can be used to test hypotheses. And, we discuss some pitfalls that researchers commonly encounter when they use the procedure for the first time.
Neuroscience, Issue 91, PER, conditioning, honey bee, olfaction, olfactory processing, learning, memory, toxin assay
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