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Efficacy of the enamel matrix derivative in direct pulp capping procedures: a systematic review.
Aust Endod J
The aim was to review the efficacy of the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in direct pulp capping (DPC) procedures. Databases were explored using the following keywords: dental, dentine, enamel matrix derivative, pulp capping and treatment. The inclusion criteria were: (i) original studies; (ii) human and animal studies; (iii) reference list of potentially relevant original and review articles; (iv) intervention: effect of EMD on pulp-capping procedures; and (v) articles published only in English. Eight studies (four human and four animal) were included. Among the human studies, two studies reported that EMD is a more efficient DPC procedure compared with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ). One study reported Ca(OH)2 to be more efficient for DPC than EMD. One study reported no difference in the efficacies between EMD and Ca(OH)2 for DPC. All animal studies reported EMD to be more effective in reparative dentine formation in comparison with Ca(OH)2 . EMD can provide favourable results in DPC procedures.
Biomimetic enamel reconstruction is a significant topic in material science and dentistry as a novel approach for the treatment of dental caries or erosion. Amelogenin has been proven to be a critical protein for controlling the organized growth of apatite crystals. In this paper, we present a detailed protocol for superficial enamel reconstruction by using a novel amelogenin-chitosan hydrogel. Compared to other conventional treatments, such as topical fluoride and mouthwash, this method not only has the potential to prevent the development of dental caries but also promotes significant and durable enamel restoration. The organized enamel-like microstructure regulated by amelogenin assemblies can significantly improve the mechanical properties of etched enamel, while the dense enamel-restoration interface formed by an in situ regrowth of apatite crystals can improve the effectiveness and durability of restorations. Furthermore, chitosan hydrogel is easy to use and can suppress bacterial infection, which is the major risk factor for the occurrence of dental caries. Therefore, this biocompatible and biodegradable amelogenin-chitosan hydrogel shows promise as a biomaterial for the prevention, restoration, and treatment of defective enamel.
23 Related JoVE Articles!
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Isolation, Characterization and Comparative Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Derived from Permanent Teeth by Using Two Different Methods
Authors: Razieh Karamzadeh, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Reza Aflatoonian.
Institutions: Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
Developing wisdom teeth are easy-accessible source of stem cells during the adulthood which could be obtained by routine orthodontic treatments. Human pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) possess high proliferation potential with multi-lineage differentiation capacity compare to the ordinary source of adult stem cells1-8; therefore, hDPSCs could be the good candidates for autologous transplantation in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Along with these benefits, possessing the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) features, such as immunolodulatory effect, make hDPSCs more valuable, even in the case of allograft transplantation6,9,10. Therefore, the primary step for using this source of stem cells is to select the best protocol for isolating hDPSCs from pulp tissue. In order to achieve this goal, it is crucial to investigate the effect of various isolation conditions on different cellular behaviors, such as their common surface markers & also their differentiation capacity. Thus, here we separate human pulp tissue from impacted third molar teeth, and then used both existing protocols based on literature, for isolating hDPSCs,11-13 i.e. enzymatic dissociation of pulp tissue (DPSC-ED) or outgrowth from tissue explants (DPSC-OG). In this regards, we tried to facilitate the isolation methods by using dental diamond disk. Then, these cells characterized in terms of stromal-associated Markers (CD73, CD90, CD105 & CD44), hematopoietic/endothelial Markers (CD34, CD45 & CD11b), perivascular marker, like CD146 and also STRO-1. Afterwards, these two protocols were compared based on the differentiation potency into odontoblasts by both quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) & Alizarin Red Staining. QPCR were used for the assessment of the expression of the mineralization-related genes (alkaline phosphatase; ALP, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein; MEPE & dentin sialophosphoprotein; DSPP).14
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 69, Medicine, Developmental Biology, Cellular Biology, Bioengineering, Dental pulp tissue, Human third molar, Human dental pulp stem cells, hDPSC, Odontoblasts, Outgrown stem cells, MSC, differentiation
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Determining Cell Number During Cell Culture using the Scepter Cell Counter
Authors: Kathleen Ongena, Chandreyee Das, Janet L. Smith, Sónia Gil, Grace Johnston.
Institutions: Millipore Inc.
Counting cells is often a necessary but tedious step for in vitro cell culture. Consistent cell concentrations ensure experimental reproducibility and accuracy. Cell counts are important for monitoring cell health and proliferation rate, assessing immortalization or transformation, seeding cells for subsequent experiments, transfection or infection, and preparing for cell-based assays. It is important that cell counts be accurate, consistent, and fast, particularly for quantitative measurements of cellular responses. Despite this need for speed and accuracy in cell counting, 71% of 400 researchers surveyed1 who count cells using a hemocytometer. While hemocytometry is inexpensive, it is laborious and subject to user bias and misuse, which results in inaccurate counts. Hemocytometers are made of special optical glass on which cell suspensions are loaded in specified volumes and counted under a microscope. Sources of errors in hemocytometry include: uneven cell distribution in the sample, too many or too few cells in the sample, subjective decisions as to whether a given cell falls within the defined counting area, contamination of the hemocytometer, user-to-user variation, and variation of hemocytometer filling rate2. To alleviate the tedium associated with manual counting, 29% of researchers count cells using automated cell counting devices; these include vision-based counters, systems that detect cells using the Coulter principle, or flow cytometry1. For most researchers, the main barrier to using an automated system is the price associated with these large benchtop instruments1. The Scepter cell counter is an automated handheld device that offers the automation and accuracy of Coulter counting at a relatively low cost. The system employs the Coulter principle of impedance-based particle detection3 in a miniaturized format using a combination of analog and digital hardware for sensing, signal processing, data storage, and graphical display. The disposable tip is engineered with a microfabricated, cell- sensing zone that enables discrimination by cell size and cell volume at sub-micron and sub-picoliter resolution. Enhanced with precision liquid-handling channels and electronics, the Scepter cell counter reports cell population statistics graphically displayed as a histogram.
Cellular Biology, Issue 45, Scepter, cell counting, cell culture, hemocytometer, Coulter, Impedance-based particle detection
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Isolation of Primary Mouse Trophoblast Cells and Trophoblast Invasion Assay
Authors: Kathleen A. Pennington, Jessica M. Schlitt, Laura C. Schulz.
Institutions: University of Missouri.
The placenta is responsible for the transport of nutrients, gasses and growth factors to the fetus, as well as the elimination of wastes. Thus, defects in placental development have important consequences for the fetus and mother, and are a major cause of embryonic lethality. The major cell type of the fetal portion of the placenta is the trophoblast. Primary mouse placental trophoblast cells are a useful tool for studying normal and abnormal placental development, and unlike cell lines, may be isolated and used to study trophoblast at specific stages of pregnancy. In addition, primary cultures of trophoblast from transgenic mice may be used to study the role of particular genes in placental cells. The protocol presented here is based on the description by Thordarson et al.1, in which a percoll gradient is used to obtain a relatively pure trophoblast cell population from isolated mouse placentas. It is similar to the more widely used methods for human trophoblast cell isolation2-3. Purity may be assessed by immunocytochemical staining of the isolated cells for cytokeratin 74. Here, the isolated cells are then analyzed using a matrigel invasion assay to assess trophoblast invasiveness in vitro5-6. The invaded cells are analyzed by immunocytochemistry and stained for counting.
Developmental Biology, Issue 59, placenta, primary trophoblast cells, mouse, invasion assay, matrigel
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An Optimized Procedure for Fluorescence-activated Cell Sorting (FACS) Isolation of Autonomic Neural Progenitors from Visceral Organs of Fetal Mice
Authors: Dennis P. Buehler, Carrie B. Wiese, S. B. Skelton, E. Michelle Southard-Smith.
Institutions: Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
During development neural crest (NC)-derived neuronal progenitors migrate away from the neural tube to form autonomic ganglia in visceral organs like the intestine and lower urinary tract. Both during development and in mature tissues these cells are often widely dispersed throughout tissues so that isolation of discrete populations using methods like laser capture micro-dissection is difficult. They can however be directly visualized by expression of fluorescent reporters driven from regulatory regions of neuron-specific genes like Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). We describe a method optimized for high yields of viable TH+ neuronal progenitors from fetal mouse visceral tissues, including intestine and lower urogenital tract (LUT), based on dissociation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The Th gene encodes the rate-limiting enzyme for production of catecholamines. Enteric neuronal progenitors begin to express TH during their migration in the fetal intestine1 and TH is also present in a subset of adult pelvic ganglia neurons2-4 . The first appearance of this lineage and the distribution of these neurons in other aspects of the LUT, and their isolation has not been described. Neuronal progenitors expressing TH can be readily visualized by expression of EGFP in mice carrying the transgene construct Tg(Th-EGFP)DJ76Gsat/Mmnc1. We imaged expression of this transgene in fetal mice to document the distribution of TH+ cells in the developing LUT at 15.5 days post coitus (dpc), designating the morning of plug detection as 0.5 dpc, and observed that a subset of neuronal progenitors in the coalescing pelvic ganglia express EGFP. To isolate LUT TH+ neuronal progenitors, we optimized methods that were initially used to purify neural crest stem cells from fetal mouse intestine2-6. Prior efforts to isolate NC-derived populations relied upon digestion with a cocktail of collagenase and trypsin to obtain cell suspensions for flow cytometry. In our hands these methods produced cell suspensions from the LUT with relatively low viability. Given the already low incidence of neuronal progenitors in fetal LUT tissues, we set out to optimize dissociation methods such that cell survival in the final dissociates would be increased. We determined that gentle dissociation in Accumax (Innovative Cell Technologies, Inc), manual filtering, and flow sorting at low pressures allowed us to achieve consistently greater survival (>70% of total cells) with subsequent yields of neuronal progenitors sufficient for downstream analysis. The method we describe can be broadly applied to isolate a variety of neuronal populations from either fetal or adult murine tissues.
Neuroscience, Issue 66, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting, Neuronal Progenitors, Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Mouse, Dissection, Dissociation, Autonomic Innervation, Neural Crest
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Reverse Genetics Mediated Recovery of Infectious Murine Norovirus
Authors: Armando Arias, Luis Ureña, Lucy Thorne, Muhammad A. Yunus, Ian Goodfellow.
Institutions: Imperial College London .
Human noroviruses are responsible for most cases of human gastroenteritis (GE) worldwide and are recurrent problem in environments where close person-to-person contact cannot be avoided 1, 2. During the last few years an increase in the incidence of outbreaks in hospitals has been reported, causing significant disruptions to their operational capacity as well as large economic losses. The identification of new antiviral approaches has been limited due to the inability of human noroviruses to complete a productive infection in cell culture 3. The recent isolation of a murine norovirus (MNV), closely related to human norovirus 4 but which can be propagated in cells 5 has opened new avenues for the investigation of these pathogens 6, 7. MNV replication results in the synthesis of new positive sense genomic and subgenomic RNA molecules, the latter of which corresponds to the last third of the viral genome (Figure 1). MNV contains four different open reading frames (ORFs), of which ORF1 occupies most of the genome and encodes seven non-structural proteins (NS1-7) released from a polyprotein precursor. ORF2 and ORF3 are contained within the subgenomic RNA region and encode the capsid proteins (VP1 and VP2, respectively) (Figure 1). Recently, we have identified that additional ORF4 overlapping ORF2 but in a different reading frame is functional and encodes for a mitochondrial localised virulence factor (VF1) 8. Replication for positive sense RNA viruses, including noroviruses, takes place in the cytoplasm resulting in the synthesis of new uncapped RNA genomes. To promote viral translation, viruses exploit different strategies aimed at recruiting the cellular protein synthesis machinery 9-11. Interestingly, norovirus translation is driven by the multifunctional viral protein-primer VPg covalently linked to the 5' end of both genomic and subgenomic RNAs 12-14. This sophisticated mechanism of translation is likely to be a major factor in the limited efficiency of viral recovery by conventional reverse genetics approaches. Here we report two different strategies based on the generation of murine norovirus-1 (referred to as MNV herewith) transcripts capped at the 5' end. One of the methods involves both in vitro synthesis and capping of viral RNA, whereas the second approach entails the transcription of MNV cDNA in cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase. The availability of these reverse genetics systems for the study of MNV and a small animal model has provided an unprecedented ability to dissect the role of viral sequences in replication and pathogenesis 15-17.
Virology, Issue 64, Immunology, Genetics, Infection, RNA virus, VPg, RNA capping, T7 RNA polymerase, calicivirus, norovirus
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In vitro Transcription and Capping of Gaussia Luciferase mRNA Followed by HeLa Cell Transfection
Authors: Bhairavi Jani, Ryan Fuchs.
Institutions: New England Biolabs.
In vitro transcription is the synthesis of RNA transcripts by RNA polymerase from a linear DNA template containing the corresponding promoter sequence (T7, T3, SP6) and the gene to be transcribed (Figure 1A). A typical transcription reaction consists of the template DNA, RNA polymerase, ribonucleotide triphosphates, RNase inhibitor and buffer containing Mg2+ ions. Large amounts of high quality RNA are often required for a variety of applications. Use of in vitro transcription has been reported for RNA structure and function studies such as splicing1, RNAi experiments in mammalian cells2, antisense RNA amplification by the "Eberwine method"3, microarray analysis4 and for RNA vaccine studies5. The technique can also be used for producing radiolabeled and dye labeled probes6. Warren, et al. recently reported reprogramming of human cells by transfection with in vitro transcribed capped RNA7. The T7 High Yield RNA Synthesis Kit from New England Biolabs has been designed to synthesize up to 180 μg RNA per 20 μl reaction. RNA of length up to 10kb has been successfully transcribed using this kit. Linearized plasmid DNA, PCR products and synthetic DNA oligonucleotides can be used as templates for transcription as long as they have the T7 promoter sequence upstream of the gene to be transcribed. Addition of a 5' end cap structure to the RNA is an important process in eukaryotes. It is essential for RNA stability8, efficient translation9, nuclear transport10 and splicing11. The process involves addition of a 7-methylguanosine cap at the 5' triphosphate end of the RNA. RNA capping can be carried out post-transcriptionally using capping enzymes or co-transcriptionally using cap analogs. In the enzymatic method, the mRNA is capped using the Vaccinia virus capping enzyme12,13. The enzyme adds on a 7-methylguanosine cap at the 5' end of the RNA using GTP and S-adenosyl methionine as donors (cap 0 structure). Both methods yield functionally active capped RNA suitable for transfection or other applications14 such as generating viral genomic RNA for reverse-genetic systems15 and crystallographic studies of cap binding proteins such as eIF4E16. In the method described below, the T7 High Yield RNA Synthesis Kit from NEB is used to synthesize capped and uncapped RNA transcripts of Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) and Cypridina luciferase (CLuc). A portion of the uncapped GLuc RNA is capped using the Vaccinia Capping System (NEB). A linearized plasmid containing the GLuc or CLuc gene and T7 promoter is used as the template DNA. The transcribed RNA is transfected into HeLa cells and cell culture supernatants are assayed for luciferase activity. Capped CLuc RNA is used as the internal control to normalize GLuc expression.
Genetics, Issue 61, In vitro transcription, Vaccinia capping enzyme, transfection, T7 RNA Polymerase, RNA synthesis
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Isolation and Culture of Dental Epithelial Stem Cells from the Adult Mouse Incisor
Authors: Miquella G. Chavez, Jimmy Hu, Kerstin Seidel, Chunying Li, Andrew Jheon, Adrien Naveau, Orapin Horst, Ophir D. Klein.
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR S872, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR S872, INSERM U872, University of California, San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco.
Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie tooth regeneration and renewal has become a topic of great interest1-4, and the mouse incisor provides a model for these processes. This remarkable organ grows continuously throughout the animal's life and generates all the necessary cell types from active pools of adult stem cells housed in the labial (toward the lip) and lingual (toward the tongue) cervical loop (CL) regions. Only the dental stem cells from the labial CL give rise to ameloblasts that generate enamel, the outer covering of teeth, on the labial surface. This asymmetric enamel formation allows abrasion at the incisor tip, and progenitors and stem cells in the proximal incisor ensure that the dental tissues are constantly replenished. The ability to isolate and grow these progenitor or stem cells in vitro allows their expansion and opens doors to numerous experiments not achievable in vivo, such as high throughput testing of potential stem cell regulatory factors. Here, we describe and demonstrate a reliable and consistent method to culture cells from the labial CL of the mouse incisor.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 87, Epithelial Stem Cells, Adult Stem Cells, Incisor, Cervical Loop, Cell Culture
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Isolation and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxin From Complex Matrices Using the BoTest Matrix Assays
Authors: F. Mark Dunning, Timothy M. Piazza, Füsûn N. Zeytin, Ward C. Tucker.
Institutions: BioSentinel Inc., Madison, WI.
Accurate detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in complex matrices is required for pharmaceutical, environmental, and food sample testing. Rapid BoNT testing of foodstuffs is needed during outbreak forensics, patient diagnosis, and food safety testing while accurate potency testing is required for BoNT-based drug product manufacturing and patient safety. The widely used mouse bioassay for BoNT testing is highly sensitive but lacks the precision and throughput needed for rapid and routine BoNT testing. Furthermore, the bioassay's use of animals has resulted in calls by drug product regulatory authorities and animal-rights proponents in the US and abroad to replace the mouse bioassay for BoNT testing. Several in vitro replacement assays have been developed that work well with purified BoNT in simple buffers, but most have not been shown to be applicable to testing in highly complex matrices. Here, a protocol for the detection of BoNT in complex matrices using the BoTest Matrix assays is presented. The assay consists of three parts: The first part involves preparation of the samples for testing, the second part is an immunoprecipitation step using anti-BoNT antibody-coated paramagnetic beads to purify BoNT from the matrix, and the third part quantifies the isolated BoNT's proteolytic activity using a fluorogenic reporter. The protocol is written for high throughput testing in 96-well plates using both liquid and solid matrices and requires about 2 hr of manual preparation with total assay times of 4-26 hr depending on the sample type, toxin load, and desired sensitivity. Data are presented for BoNT/A testing with phosphate-buffered saline, a drug product, culture supernatant, 2% milk, and fresh tomatoes and includes discussion of critical parameters for assay success.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, Botulinum, food testing, detection, quantification, complex matrices, BoTest Matrix, Clostridium, potency testing
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The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism
Authors: Sara Tremblay, Vincent Beaulé, Sébastien Proulx, Louis-Philippe Lafleur, Julien Doyon, Małgorzata Marjańska, Hugo Théoret.
Institutions: University of Montréal, McGill University, University of Minnesota.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique that has been increasingly used over the past decade in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as stroke and depression. Yet, the mechanisms underlying its ability to modulate brain excitability to improve clinical symptoms remains poorly understood 33. To help improve this understanding, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can be used as it allows the in vivo quantification of brain metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in a region-specific manner 41. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that 1H-MRS is indeed a powerful means to better understand the effects of tDCS on neurotransmitter concentration 34. This article aims to describe the complete protocol for combining tDCS (NeuroConn MR compatible stimulator) with 1H-MRS at 3 T using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. We will describe the impact of a protocol that has shown great promise for the treatment of motor dysfunctions after stroke, which consists of bilateral stimulation of primary motor cortices 27,30,31. Methodological factors to consider and possible modifications to the protocol are also discussed.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, transcranial direct current stimulation, primary motor cortex, GABA, glutamate, stroke
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Confocal Time Lapse Imaging as an Efficient Method for the Cytocompatibility Evaluation of Dental Composites
Authors: Ghania Nina Attik, Kerstin Gritsch, Pierre Colon, Brigitte Grosgogeat.
Institutions: UMR CNRS 5615, Université Lyon1, Hospices Civils de Lyon, APHP, Hôpital Rothschild.
It is generally accepted that in vitro cell material interaction is a useful criterion in the evaluation of dental material biocompatibility. The objective of this study was to use 3D CLSM time lapse confocal imaging to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of dental composites. This method provides an accurate and sensitive indication of viable cell rate in contact with dental composite extracts. The ELS extra low shrinkage, a dental composite used for direct restoration, has been taken as example. In vitro assessment was performed on cultured primary human gingival fibroblast cells using Live/Dead staining. Images were obtained with the FV10i confocal biological inverted system and analyzed with the FV10-ASW 3.1 Software. Image analysis showed a very slight cytotoxicity in the presence of the tested composite after 5 hours of time lapse. A slight decrease of cell viability was shown in contact with the tested composite extracts compared to control cells. The findings highlighted the use of 3D CLSM time lapse imaging as a sensitive method to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the biocompatibility behavior of dental composites.
Medicine, Issue 93, In vitro biocompatibility, dental composites, Live/Deadstaining, 3D imaging, Confocal Microscopy, Time lapse imaging
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Isolation and Derivation of Mouse Embryonic Germinal Cells
Authors: Harold Moreno-Ortiz, Clara Esteban-Perez, Wael Badran, Marijo Kent-First.
Institutions: Mississippi State University.
The ability of embryonic germinal cells (EG) to differentiate into primordial germinal cells (PGCs) and later into gametes during early developmental stages is a perfect model to address our hypothesis about cancer and infertility. This protocol shows how to isolate primordial germinal cells from developing gonads in 10.5-11.5 days post coitum (dpc) mouse embryos. Developing gonadal ridges from mouse embryos (C57BL6J) were dissociated by mechanical disruption with collagenase, then plated in a mouse embryo fibroblast feeder layer (MEF-CF1) that was previously mitotically inactivated with mitomycin C in the presence of knockout media and supplemented with Leukemia Inhibitor Factor (LIF), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), and Stem Cell Factor (SCF). Using these optimized methods for PCG identification, isolation, and establishment of culture conditions permits long term cultures of EG cells for more than 40 days. The embryonic germinal cell lines showed embryonic phenotype and expression of common used markers of the pluripotent state. Isolation and derivation of germinal cells in culture provide a tool to understand their development in vitro and offer the opportunity to monitor cumulative damage at genetic and epigenetic levels after exposure to oxidative stress.
Developmental Biology, Issue 32, Primordial Germinal Cell, Embryonic Germinal Cells, infertility, gonad formation, embryonic development
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Western Blotting: Sample Preparation to Detection
Authors: Anna Eslami, Jesse Lujan.
Institutions: EMD Chemicals Inc..
Western blotting is an analytical technique used to detect specific proteins in a given sample of tissue homogenate or extract. It uses gel electrophoresis to separate native or denatured proteins by the length of the polypeptide (denaturing conditions) or by the 3-D structure of the protein (native/ non-denaturing conditions). The proteins are then transferred to a membrane (typically nitrocellulose or PVDF), where they are probed (detected) using antibodies specific to the target protein.
Basic Protocols, Issue 44, western blot, SDS-PAGE, electrophoresis, protein transfer, immunoblot, protein separation, PVDF, nitrocellulose, ECL
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Methods for Facilitating Microbial Growth on Pulp Mill Waste Streams and Characterization of the Biodegradation Potential of Cultured Microbes
Authors: Stephanie L. Mathews, Ali S. Ayoub, Joel Pawlak, Amy M. Grunden.
Institutions: North Carolina State University, North Carolina State University.
The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor.
Environmental Sciences, Issue 82, biodegradation (bacterial degradation), pulp mill waste, black liquor, kraft process, lignocellulose extraction, microorganisms, fermentation products, GC-MS
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Towards Biomimicking Wood: Fabricated Free-standing Films of Nanocellulose, Lignin, and a Synthetic Polycation
Authors: Karthik Pillai, Fernando Navarro Arzate, Wei Zhang, Scott Renneckar.
Institutions: Virginia Tech, Virginia Tech, Illinois Institute of Technology- Moffett Campus, University of Guadalajara, Virginia Tech, Virginia Tech.
Woody materials are comprised of plant cell walls that contain a layered secondary cell wall composed of structural polymers of polysaccharides and lignin. Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly process which relies on the assembly of oppositely charged molecules from aqueous solutions was used to build a freestanding composite film of isolated wood polymers of lignin and oxidized nanofibril cellulose (NFC). To facilitate the assembly of these negatively charged polymers, a positively charged polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethylammomium chloride) (PDDA), was used as a linking layer to create this simplified model cell wall. The layered adsorption process was studied quantitatively using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and ellipsometry. The results showed that layer mass/thickness per adsorbed layer increased as a function of total number of layers. The surface coverage of the adsorbed layers was studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Complete coverage of the surface with lignin in all the deposition cycles was found for the system, however, surface coverage by NFC increased with the number of layers. The adsorption process was carried out for 250 cycles (500 bilayers) on a cellulose acetate (CA) substrate. Transparent free-standing LBL assembled nanocomposite films were obtained when the CA substrate was later dissolved in acetone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured cross-sections showed a lamellar structure, and the thickness per adsorption cycle (PDDA-Lignin-PDDA-NC) was estimated to be 17 nm for two different lignin types used in the study. The data indicates a film with highly controlled architecture where nanocellulose and lignin are spatially deposited on the nanoscale (a polymer-polymer nanocomposites), similar to what is observed in the native cell wall.
Plant Biology, Issue 88, nanocellulose, thin films, quartz crystal microbalance, layer-by-layer, LbL
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Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Authors: Eva Wagner, Sören Brandenburg, Tobias Kohl, Stephan E. Lehnart.
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+ release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
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A Guided Materials Screening Approach for Developing Quantitative Sol-gel Derived Protein Microarrays
Authors: Blake-Joseph Helka, John D. Brennan.
Institutions: McMaster University .
Microarrays have found use in the development of high-throughput assays for new materials and discovery of small-molecule drug leads. Herein we describe a guided material screening approach to identify sol-gel based materials that are suitable for producing three-dimensional protein microarrays. The approach first identifies materials that can be printed as microarrays, narrows down the number of materials by identifying those that are compatible with a given enzyme assay, and then hones in on optimal materials based on retention of maximum enzyme activity. This approach is applied to develop microarrays suitable for two different enzyme assays, one using acetylcholinesterase and the other using a set of four key kinases involved in cancer. In each case, it was possible to produce microarrays that could be used for quantitative small-molecule screening assays and production of dose-dependent inhibitor response curves. Importantly, the ability to screen many materials produced information on the types of materials that best suited both microarray production and retention of enzyme activity. The materials data provide insight into basic material requirements necessary for tailoring optimal, high-density sol-gel derived microarrays.
Chemistry, Issue 78, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Biology, Biocompatible Materials, Siloxanes, Enzymes, Immobilized, chemical analysis techniques, chemistry (general), materials (general), spectroscopic analysis (chemistry), polymer matrix composites, testing of materials (composite materials), Sol-gel, microarray, high-throughput screening, acetylcholinesterase, kinase, drug discovery, assay
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Utero-tubal Embryo Transfer and Vasectomy in the Mouse Model
Authors: Pablo Bermejo-Alvarez, Ki-Eun Park, Bhanu P. Telugu.
Institutions: United States Department of Agriculture, University of Maryland.
The transfer of preimplantation embryos to a surrogate female is a required step for the production of genetically modified mice or to study the effects of epigenetic alterations originated during preimplantation development on subsequent fetal development and adult health. The use of an effective and consistent embryo transfer technique is crucial to enhance the generation of genetically modified animals and to determine the effect of different treatments on implantation rates and survival to term. Embryos at the blastocyst stage are usually transferred by uterine transfer, performing a puncture in the uterine wall to introduce the embryo manipulation pipette. The orifice performed in the uterus does not close after the pipette has been withdrawn, and the embryos can outflow to the abdominal cavity due to the positive pressure of the uterus. The puncture can also produce a hemorrhage that impairs implantation, blocks the transfer pipette and may affect embryo development, especially when embryos without zona are transferred. Consequently, this technique often results in very variable and overall low embryo survival rates. Avoiding these negative effects, utero-tubal embryo transfer take advantage of the utero-tubal junction as a natural barrier that impedes embryo outflow and avoid the puncture of the uterine wall. Vasectomized males are required for obtaining pseudopregnant recipients. A technique to perform vasectomy is described as a complement to the utero-tubal embryo transfer.
Basic Protocols, Issue 84, blastocyst, chimera, lentivirus, uterine transfer, oviductal transfer, utero-tubal transfer
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Mouse Embryonic Development in a Serum-free Whole Embryo Culture System
Authors: Vijay K. Kalaskar, James D. Lauderdale.
Institutions: University of Georgia, University of Georgia.
Mid-gestation stage mouse embryos were cultured utilizing a serum-free culture medium prepared from commercially available stem cell media supplements in an oxygenated rolling bottle culture system. Mouse embryos at E10.5 were carefully isolated from the uterus with intact yolk sac and in a process involving precise surgical maneuver the embryos were gently exteriorized from the yolk sac while maintaining the vascular continuity of the embryo with the yolk sac. Compared to embryos prepared with intact yolk sac or with the yolk sac removed, these embryos exhibited superior survival rate and developmental progression when cultured under similar conditions. We show that these mouse embryos, when cultured in a defined medium in an atmosphere of 95% O2 / 5% CO2 in a rolling bottle culture apparatus at 37 °​C for 16-40 hr, exhibit morphological growth and development comparable to the embryos developing in utero. We believe this method will be useful for investigators needing to utilize whole embryo culture to study signaling interactions important in embryonic organogenesis.
Developmental Biology, Issue 85, mouse embryo, mid-gestation, serum-free, defined media, roller culture, organogenesis, development
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Expression, Isolation, and Purification of Soluble and Insoluble Biotinylated Proteins for Nerve Tissue Regeneration
Authors: Aleesha M. McCormick, Natalie A. Jarmusik, Elizabeth J. Endrizzi, Nic D. Leipzig.
Institutions: University of Akron.
Recombinant protein engineering has utilized Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression systems for nearly 4 decades, and today E. coli is still the most widely used host organism. The flexibility of the system allows for the addition of moieties such as a biotin tag (for streptavidin interactions) and larger functional proteins like green fluorescent protein or cherry red protein. Also, the integration of unnatural amino acids like metal ion chelators, uniquely reactive functional groups, spectroscopic probes, and molecules imparting post-translational modifications has enabled better manipulation of protein properties and functionalities. As a result this technique creates customizable fusion proteins that offer significant utility for various fields of research. More specifically, the biotinylatable protein sequence has been incorporated into many target proteins because of the high affinity interaction between biotin with avidin and streptavidin. This addition has aided in enhancing detection and purification of tagged proteins as well as opening the way for secondary applications such as cell sorting. Thus, biotin-labeled molecules show an increasing and widespread influence in bioindustrial and biomedical fields. For the purpose of our research we have engineered recombinant biotinylated fusion proteins containing nerve growth factor (NGF) and semaphorin3A (Sema3A) functional regions. We have reported previously how these biotinylated fusion proteins, along with other active protein sequences, can be tethered to biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative purposes. This protocol outlines the basics of engineering biotinylatable proteins at the milligram scale, utilizing  a T7 lac inducible vector and E. coli expression hosts, starting from transformation to scale-up and purification.
Bioengineering, Issue 83, protein engineering, recombinant protein production, AviTag, BirA, biotinylation, pET vector system, E. coli, inclusion bodies, Ni-NTA, size exclusion chromatography
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A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an Organic Solvent
Authors: Lisa M. Weatherly, Rachel H. Kennedy, Juyoung Shim, Julie A. Gosse.
Institutions: University of Maine, Orono, University of Maine, Orono.
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g. by an allergen), they degranulate, a process that results in the exocytosis of allergic mediators. Modulation of mast cell degranulation by drugs and toxicants may have positive or adverse effects on human health. Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells3-5. Mast cell granule component and the allergic mediator β-hexosaminidase, which is released linearly in tandem with histamine from mast cells6, can easily and reliably be measured through reaction with a fluorogenic substrate, yielding measurable fluorescence intensity in a microplate assay that is amenable to high-throughput studies1. Originally published by Naal et al.1, we have adapted this degranulation assay for the screening of drugs and toxicants and demonstrate its use here. Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is present in many consumer products and has been found to be a therapeutic aid in human allergic skin disease7-11, although the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate an assay for the effect of triclosan on mast cell degranulation. We recently showed that triclosan strongly affects mast cell function2. In an effort to avoid use of an organic solvent, triclosan is dissolved directly into aqueous buffer with heat and stirring, and resultant concentration is confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (using ε280 = 4,200 L/M/cm)12. This protocol has the potential to be used with a variety of chemicals to determine their effects on mast cell degranulation, and more broadly, their allergic potential.
Immunology, Issue 81, mast cell, basophil, degranulation, RBL-2H3, triclosan, irgasan, antibacterial, β-hexosaminidase, allergy, Asthma, toxicants, ionophore, antigen, fluorescence, microplate, UV-Vis
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In situ Compressive Loading and Correlative Noninvasive Imaging of the Bone-periodontal Ligament-tooth Fibrous Joint
Authors: Andrew T. Jang, Jeremy D. Lin, Youngho Seo, Sergey Etchin, Arno Merkle, Kevin Fahey, Sunita P. Ho.
Institutions: University of California San Francisco, University of California San Francisco, Xradia Inc..
This study demonstrates a novel biomechanics testing protocol. The advantage of this protocol includes the use of an in situ loading device coupled to a high resolution X-ray microscope, thus enabling visualization of internal structural elements under simulated physiological loads and wet conditions. Experimental specimens will include intact bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth fibrous joints. Results will illustrate three important features of the protocol as they can be applied to organ level biomechanics: 1) reactionary force vs. displacement: tooth displacement within the alveolar socket and its reactionary response to loading, 2) three-dimensional (3D) spatial configuration and morphometrics: geometric relationship of the tooth with the alveolar socket, and 3) changes in readouts 1 and 2 due to a change in loading axis, i.e. from concentric to eccentric loads. Efficacy of the proposed protocol will be evaluated by coupling mechanical testing readouts to 3D morphometrics and overall biomechanics of the joint. In addition, this technique will emphasize on the need to equilibrate experimental conditions, specifically reactionary loads prior to acquiring tomograms of fibrous joints. It should be noted that the proposed protocol is limited to testing specimens under ex vivo conditions, and that use of contrast agents to visualize soft tissue mechanical response could lead to erroneous conclusions about tissue and organ-level biomechanics.
Bioengineering, Issue 85, biomechanics, bone-periodontal ligament-tooth complex, concentric loads, eccentric loads, contrast agent
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Dissection of 6.5 dpc Mouse Embryos
Authors: Kelly Shea, Niels Geijsen.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
Analysis of gene expression patterns during early stages of mammalian embryonic development can provide important clues about gene function, cell-cell interaction and signaling mechanisms that guide embryonic patterning. However, dissection of the mouse embryo from the decidua shortly after implantation can be a challenging procedure, and detailed step-by-step documentation of this process is lacking. Here we demonstrate how post-implantation (6.5 dpc) embryos are isolated by first dissecting the uterus of a pregnant mouse (detection of the vaginal plug was designated day 0.5 poist coitum) and subsequently dissecting the embryo from maternal decidua. The dissection of Reichert's membrane is described as well as the removal of the ectoplacental cone.
Developmental Biology, Issue 2, mouse, embryo, implantation, dissection
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Transfecting and Nucleofecting Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Authors: Papri Chatterjee, Yuri Cheung, Chee Liew.
Institutions: University of California Riverside.
Genetic modification is continuing to be an essential tool in studying stem cell biology and in setting forth potential clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs)1. While improvements in several gene delivery methods have been described2-9, transfection remains a capricious process for HESCs, and has not yet been reported in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this video, we demonstrate how our lab routinely transfects and nucleofects human iPSCs using plasmid with an enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) reporter. Human iPSCs are adapted and maintained as feeder-free cultures to eliminate the possibility of feeder cell transfection and to allow efficient selection of stable transgenic iPSC clones following transfection. For nucleofection, human iPSCs are pre-treated with ROCK inhibitor11, trypsinized into small clumps of cells, nucleofected and replated on feeders in feeder cell-conditioned medium to enhance cell recovery. Transgene-expressing human iPSCs can be obtained after 6 hours. Antibiotic selection is applied after 24 hours and stable transgenic lines appear within 1 week. Our protocol is robust and reproducible for human iPSC lines without altering pluripotency of these cells.
Medicine, Issue 56, Developmental Biology, Transfection, iPS cells, IPSCs, ES cells, HESCs, Nucleofection
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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