Microtubule (MT) plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs) localize to the growing plus-ends of MTs and regulate MT dynamics1,2. One of the most well-known and widely-utilized +TIPs for analyzing MT dynamics is the End-Binding protein, EB1, which binds all growing MT plus-ends, and thus, is a marker for MT polymerization1. Many studies of EB1 behavior within growth cones have used time-consuming and biased computer-assisted, hand-tracking methods to analyze individual MTs1-3. Our approach is to quantify global parameters of MT dynamics using the software package, plusTipTracker4, following the acquisition of high-resolution, live images of tagged EB1 in cultured embryonic growth cones5. This software is a MATLAB-based, open-source, user-friendly package that combines automated detection, tracking, visualization, and analysis for movies of fluorescently-labeled +TIPs. Here, we present the protocol for using plusTipTracker for the analysis of fluorescently-labeled +TIP comets in cultured Xenopus laevis growth cones. However, this software can also be used to characterize MT dynamics in various cell types6-8.
17 Related JoVE Articles!
Visualizing Protein-DNA Interactions in Live Bacterial Cells Using Photoactivated Single-molecule Tracking
Institutions: University of Oxford, University of Oxford.
Protein-DNA interactions are at the heart of many fundamental cellular processes. For example, DNA replication, transcription, repair, and chromosome organization are governed by DNA-binding proteins that recognize specific DNA structures or sequences. In vitro
experiments have helped to generate detailed models for the function of many types of DNA-binding proteins, yet, the exact mechanisms of these processes and their organization in the complex environment of the living cell remain far less understood. We recently introduced a method for quantifying DNA-repair activities in live Escherichia coli
cells using Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) combined with single-molecule tracking. Our general approach identifies individual DNA-binding events by the change in the mobility of a single protein upon association with the chromosome. The fraction of bound molecules provides a direct quantitative measure for the protein activity and abundance of substrates or binding sites at the single-cell level. Here, we describe the concept of the method and demonstrate sample preparation, data acquisition, and data analysis procedures.
Immunology, Issue 85, Super-resolution microscopy, single-particle tracking, Live-cell imaging, DNA-binding proteins, DNA repair, molecular diffusion
Acquiring Fluorescence Time-lapse Movies of Budding Yeast and Analyzing Single-cell Dynamics using GRAFTS
Institutions: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Fluorescence time-lapse microscopy has become a powerful tool in the study of many biological processes at the single-cell level. In particular, movies depicting the temporal dependence of gene expression provide insight into the dynamics of its regulation; however, there are many technical challenges to obtaining and analyzing fluorescence movies of single cells. We describe here a simple protocol using a commercially available microfluidic culture device to generate such data, and a MATLAB-based, graphical user interface (GUI) -based software package to quantify the fluorescence images. The software segments and tracks cells, enables the user to visually curate errors in the data, and automatically assigns lineage and division times. The GUI further analyzes the time series to produce whole cell traces as well as their first and second time derivatives. While the software was designed for S. cerevisiae
, its modularity and versatility should allow it to serve as a platform for studying other cell types with few modifications.
Microbiology, Issue 77, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Biophysics, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Cell Biology, microscopy/fluorescence and time-lapse, budding yeast, gene expression dynamics, segmentation, lineage tracking, image tracking, software, yeast, cells, imaging
Creating Adhesive and Soluble Gradients for Imaging Cell Migration with Fluorescence Microscopy
Institutions: The University of New South Wales, The University of New South Wales.
Cells can sense and migrate towards higher concentrations of adhesive cues such as the glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix and soluble cues such as growth factors. Here, we outline a method to create opposing gradients of adhesive and soluble cues in a microfluidic chamber, which is compatible with live cell imaging. A copolymer of poly-L-lysine and polyethylene glycol (PLL-PEG) is employed to passivate glass coverslips and prevent non-specific adsorption of biomolecules and cells. Next, microcontact printing or dip pen lithography are used to create tracks of streptavidin on the passivated surfaces to serve as anchoring points for the biotinylated peptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) as the adhesive cue. A microfluidic device is placed onto the modified surface and used to create the gradient of adhesive cues (100% RGD to 0% RGD) on the streptavidin tracks. Finally, the same microfluidic device is used to create a gradient of a chemoattractant such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), as the soluble cue in the opposite direction of the gradient of adhesive cues.
Bioengineering, Issue 74, Microbiology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Cell migration, live cell imaging, soluble and adherent gradients, microcontact printing, dip pen lithography, microfluidics, RGD, PEG, biotin, streptavidin, chemotaxis, chemoattractant, imaging
Intravital Microscopy of the Spleen: Quantitative Analysis of Parasite Mobility and Blood Flow
Institutions: Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, University of Barcelona- Scientific and Technological Centers, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA).
The advent of intravital microscopy in experimental rodent malaria models has allowed major advances to the knowledge of parasite-host interactions 1,2
. Thus, in vivo
imaging of malaria parasites during pre-erythrocytic stages have revealed the active entrance of parasites into skin lymph nodes 3
, the complete development of the parasite in the skin 4
, and the formation of a hepatocyte-derived merosome to assure migration and release of merozoites into the blood stream 5
. Moreover, the development of individual parasites in erythrocytes has been recently documented using 4D imaging and challenged our current view on protein export in malaria 6
. Thus, intravital imaging has radically changed our view on key events in Plasmodium
development. Unfortunately, studies of the dynamic passage of malaria parasites through the spleen, a major lymphoid organ exquisitely adapted to clear infected red blood cells are lacking due to technical constraints.
Using the murine model of malaria Plasmodium yoelii
in Balb/c mice, we have implemented intravital imaging of the spleen and reported a differential remodeling of it and adherence of parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) to barrier cells of fibroblastic origin in the red pulp during infection with the non-lethal parasite line P.yoelii
17X as opposed to infections with the P.yoelii
17XL lethal parasite line 7
. To reach these conclusions, a specific methodology using ImageJ free software was developed to enable characterization of the fast three-dimensional movement of single-pRBCs. Results obtained with this protocol allow determining velocity, directionality and residence time of parasites in the spleen, all parameters addressing adherence in vivo
. In addition, we report the methodology for blood flow quantification using intravital microscopy and the use of different colouring agents to gain insight into the complex microcirculatory structure of the spleen.
All the animal studies were performed at the animal facilities of University of Barcelona in accordance with guidelines and protocols approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation of the University of Barcelona CEEA-UB (Protocol No DMAH: 5429). Female Balb/c mice of 6-8 weeks of age were obtained from Charles River Laboratories.
Immunology, Issue 59, intravital microscopy, GFP, malaria, spleen, mobility, adhesion, Plasmodium yoelii, Balb/c mice
Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors
Institutions: University College London.
Inhibitory neurons act in the central nervous system to regulate the dynamics and spatio-temporal co-ordination of neuronal networks. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is released from the presynaptic terminals of inhibitory neurons within highly specialized intercellular junctions known as synapses, where it binds to GABAA
Rs) present at the plasma membrane of the synapse-receiving, postsynaptic neurons. Activation of these GABA-gated ion channels leads to influx of chloride resulting in postsynaptic potential changes that decrease the probability that these neurons will generate action potentials.
During development, diverse types of inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological, electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics have the ability to recognize their target neurons and form synapses which incorporate specific GABAA
Rs subtypes. This principle of selective innervation of neuronal targets raises the question as to how the appropriate synaptic partners identify each other.
To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro
co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABAA
R subtypes. Synapses form rapidly, efficiently and selectively in this system, and are easily accessible for quantification. Our results indicate that various GABAA
R subtypes differ in their ability to promote synapse formation, suggesting that this reduced in vitro
model system can be used to reproduce, at least in part, the in vivo
conditions required for the recognition of the appropriate synaptic partners and formation of specific synapses. Here the protocols for culturing the medium spiny neurons and generating HEK293 cells lines expressing GABAA
Rs are first described, followed by detailed instructions on how to combine these two cell types in co-culture and analyze the formation of synaptic contacts.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
Visualizing Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of G Protein-coupled Receptors at Single-event Resolution via TIRF Microscopy
Institutions: Carnegie Mellon University.
Many important signaling receptors are internalized through the well-studied process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Traditional cell biological assays, measuring global changes in endocytosis, have identified over 30 known components participating in CME, and biochemical studies have generated an interaction map of many of these components. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that CME is a highly dynamic process whose regulation is complex and delicate. In this manuscript, we describe the use of Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to directly visualize the dynamics of components of the clathrin-mediated endocytic machinery, in real time in living cells, at the level of individual events that mediate this process. This approach is essential to elucidate the subtle changes that can alter endocytosis without globally blocking it, as is seen with physiological regulation. We will focus on using this technique to analyze an area of emerging interest, the role of cargo composition in modulating the dynamics of distinct clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). This protocol is compatible with a variety of widely available fluorescence probes, and may be applied to visualizing the dynamics of many cargo molecules that are internalized from the cell surface.
Cellular Biology, Issue 92, Endocytosis, TIRF, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, clathrin, arrestin, receptors, live-cell microscopy, clathrin-mediated endocytosis
High-resolution Spatiotemporal Analysis of Receptor Dynamics by Single-molecule Fluorescence Microscopy
Institutions: University of Würzburg, Germany.
Single-molecule microscopy is emerging as a powerful approach to analyze the behavior of signaling molecules, in particular concerning those aspect (e.g
., kinetics, coexistence of different states and populations, transient interactions), which are typically hidden in ensemble measurements, such as those obtained with standard biochemical or microscopy methods. Thus, dynamic events, such as receptor-receptor interactions, can be followed in real time in a living cell with high spatiotemporal resolution. This protocol describes a method based on labeling with small and bright organic fluorophores and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to directly visualize single receptors on the surface of living cells. This approach allows one to precisely localize receptors, measure the size of receptor complexes, and capture dynamic events such as transient receptor-receptor interactions. The protocol provides a detailed description of how to perform a single-molecule experiment, including sample preparation, image acquisition and image analysis. As an example, the application of this method to analyze two G-protein-coupled receptors, i.e
-adrenergic and γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB
) receptor, is reported. The protocol can be adapted to other membrane proteins and different cell models, transfection methods and labeling strategies.
Bioengineering, Issue 89, pharmacology, microscopy, receptor, live-cell imaging, single-molecule, total internal reflection fluorescence, tracking, dimerization, protein-protein interactions
From Voxels to Knowledge: A Practical Guide to the Segmentation of Complex Electron Microscopy 3D-Data
Institutions: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Modern 3D electron microscopy approaches have recently allowed unprecedented insight into the 3D ultrastructural organization of cells and tissues, enabling the visualization of large macromolecular machines, such as adhesion complexes, as well as higher-order structures, such as the cytoskeleton and cellular organelles in their respective cell and tissue context. Given the inherent complexity of cellular volumes, it is essential to first extract the features of interest in order to allow visualization, quantification, and therefore comprehension of their 3D organization. Each data set is defined by distinct characteristics, e.g.
, signal-to-noise ratio, crispness (sharpness) of the data, heterogeneity of its features, crowdedness of features, presence or absence of characteristic shapes that allow for easy identification, and the percentage of the entire volume that a specific region of interest occupies. All these characteristics need to be considered when deciding on which approach to take for segmentation.
The six different 3D ultrastructural data sets presented were obtained by three different imaging approaches: resin embedded stained electron tomography, focused ion beam- and serial block face- scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM, SBF-SEM) of mildly stained and heavily stained samples, respectively. For these data sets, four different segmentation approaches have been applied: (1) fully manual model building followed solely by visualization of the model, (2) manual tracing segmentation of the data followed by surface rendering, (3) semi-automated approaches followed by surface rendering, or (4) automated custom-designed segmentation algorithms followed by surface rendering and quantitative analysis. Depending on the combination of data set characteristics, it was found that typically one of these four categorical approaches outperforms the others, but depending on the exact sequence of criteria, more than one approach may be successful. Based on these data, we propose a triage scheme that categorizes both objective data set characteristics and subjective personal criteria for the analysis of the different data sets.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, 3D electron microscopy, feature extraction, segmentation, image analysis, reconstruction, manual tracing, thresholding
A Video Demonstration of Preserved Piloting by Scent Tracking but Impaired Dead Reckoning After Fimbria-Fornix Lesions in the Rat
Institutions: Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge.
Piloting and dead reckoning navigation strategies use very different cue constellations and computational processes (Darwin, 1873; Barlow, 1964; O’Keefe and Nadel, 1978; Mittelstaedt and Mittelstaedt, 1980; Landeau et al., 1984; Etienne, 1987; Gallistel, 1990;
Maurer and Séguinot, 1995). Piloting requires the use of the relationships between relatively stable external (visual, olfactory, auditory) cues, whereas dead reckoning requires the integration of cues generated by self-movement. Animals obtain self-movement information from vestibular receptors, and possibly muscle and joint receptors, and efference copy of commands that generate movement. An animal may also use the flows of visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli caused by its movements. Using a piloting strategy an animal can use geometrical calculations to determine directions and distances to places in its environment, whereas using an dead reckoning strategy it can integrate cues generated by its previous movements to return to a just left location. Dead reckoning is colloquially called "sense of direction" and "sense of distance."
Although there is considerable evidence that the hippocampus is involved in piloting (O’Keefe and Nadel, 1978; O’Keefe and Speakman, 1987), there is also evidence from behavioral (Whishaw et al., 1997; Whishaw and Maaswinkel, 1998; Maaswinkel and Whishaw, 1999), modeling (Samsonovich and McNaughton, 1997), and electrophysiological (O’Mare et al., 1994; Sharp et al., 1995; Taube and Burton, 1995; Blair and Sharp, 1996; McNaughton et al., 1996; Wiener, 1996; Golob and Taube, 1997) studies that the hippocampal formation is involved in dead reckoning. The relative contribution of the hippocampus to the two forms of navigation is still uncertain, however. Ordinarily, it is difficult to be certain that an animal is using a piloting versus a dead reckoning strategy because animals are very flexible in their use of strategies and cues (Etienne et al., 1996; Dudchenko et al., 1997; Martin et al., 1997; Maaswinkel and Whishaw, 1999). The objective of the present video demonstrations was to solve the problem of cue specification in order to examine the relative contribution of the hippocampus in the use of these strategies. The rats were trained in a new task in which they followed linear or polygon scented trails to obtain a large food pellet hidden on an open field. Because rats have a proclivity to carry the food back to the refuge, accuracy and the cues used to return to the home base were dependent variables (Whishaw and Tomie, 1997). To force an animal to use a a dead reckoning strategy to reach its refuge with the food, the rats were tested when blindfolded or under infrared light, a spectral wavelength in which they cannot see, and in some experiments the scent trail was additionally removed once an animal reached the food. To examine the relative contribution of the hippocampus, fimbria–fornix (FF) lesions, which disrupt information flow in the hippocampal formation (Bland, 1986), impair memory (Gaffan and Gaffan, 1991), and produce spatial deficits (Whishaw and Jarrard, 1995), were used.
Neuroscience, Issue 26, Dead reckoning, fimbria-fornix, hippocampus, odor tracking, path integration, spatial learning, spatial navigation, piloting, rat, Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience
Preparation of Segmented Microtubules to Study Motions Driven by the Disassembling Microtubule Ends
Institutions: Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia, University of Pennsylvania.
Microtubule depolymerization can provide force to transport different protein complexes and protein-coated beads in vitro
. The underlying mechanisms are thought to play a vital role in the microtubule-dependent chromosome motions during cell division, but the relevant proteins and their exact roles are ill-defined. Thus, there is a growing need to develop assays with which to study such motility in vitro
using purified components and defined biochemical milieu. Microtubules, however, are inherently unstable polymers; their switching between growth and shortening is stochastic and difficult to control. The protocols we describe here take advantage of the segmented microtubules that are made with the photoablatable stabilizing caps. Depolymerization of such segmented microtubules can be triggered with high temporal and spatial resolution, thereby assisting studies of motility at the disassembling microtubule ends. This technique can be used to carry out a quantitative analysis of the number of molecules in the fluorescently-labeled protein complexes, which move processively with dynamic microtubule ends. To optimize a signal-to-noise ratio in this and other quantitative fluorescent assays, coverslips should be treated to reduce nonspecific absorption of soluble fluorescently-labeled proteins. Detailed protocols are provided to take into account the unevenness of fluorescent illumination, and determine the intensity of a single fluorophore using equidistant Gaussian fit. Finally, we describe the use of segmented microtubules to study microtubule-dependent motions of the protein-coated microbeads, providing insights into the ability of different motor and nonmotor proteins to couple microtubule depolymerization to processive cargo motion.
Basic Protocol, Issue 85, microscopy flow chamber, single-molecule fluorescence, laser trap, microtubule-binding protein, microtubule-dependent motor, microtubule tip-tracking
Ex vivo Imaging of T Cells in Murine Lymph Node Slices with Widefield and Confocal Microscopes
Institutions: Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), U1016, Paris, France.
Naïve T cells continuously traffic to secondary lymphoid organs, including peripheral lymph nodes, to detect rare expressed antigens. The migration of T cells into lymph nodes is a complex process which involves both cellular and chemical factors including chemokines. Recently, the use of two-photon microscopy has permitted to track T cells in intact lymph nodes and to derive some quantitative information on their behavior and their interactions with other cells. While there are obvious advantages to an in vivo
system, this approach requires a complex and expensive instrumentation and provides limited access to the tissue. To analyze the behavior of T cells within murine lymph nodes, we have developed a slice assay
, originally set up by neurobiologists and transposed recently to murine thymus 2
. In this technique, fluorescently labeled T cells are plated on top of an acutely prepared lymph node slice. In this video-article, the localization and migration of T cells into the tissue are analyzed in real-time with a widefield and a confocal microscope. The technique which complements in vivo
two-photon microscopy offers an effective approach to image T cells in their natural environment and to elucidate mechanisms underlying T cell migration.
Immunology, Issue 53, mouse, lymph node, organotypic slices, T cell, migration, fluorescence, microscopy, confocal
A Microfluidic Device for Studying Multiple Distinct Strains
Institutions: Tel Aviv University.
The study of cell responses to environmental changes poses many experimental challenges: cells need to be imaged under changing conditions, often in a comparative manner. Multiwell plates are routinely used to compare many different strains or cell lines, but allow limited control over the environment dynamics. Microfluidic devices, on the other hand, allow exquisite dynamic control over the surrounding conditions, but it is challenging to image and distinguish more than a few strains in them. Here we describe a method to easily and rapidly manufacture a microfluidic device capable of applying dynamically changing conditions to multiple distinct yeast strains in one channel. The device is designed and manufactured by simple means without the need for soft lithography. It is composed of a Y-shaped flow channel attached to a second layer harboring microwells. The strains are placed in separate microwells, and imaged under the exact same dynamic conditions. We demonstrate the use of the device for measuring protein localization responses to pulses of nutrient changes in different yeast strains.
Bioengineering, Issue 69, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Microfluidics, PDMS, Time lapse fluorescent microscopy, S. cerevisiae, imaging, bacteria, strains
A Quantitative Evaluation of Cell Migration by the Phagokinetic Track Motility Assay
Institutions: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.
Cellular motility is an important biological process for both unicellular and multicellular organisms. It is essential for movement of unicellular organisms towards a source of nutrients or away from unsuitable conditions, as well as in multicellular organisms for tissue development, immune surveillance and wound healing, just to mention a few roles1,2,3
. Deregulation of this process can lead to serious neurological, cardiovascular and immunological diseases, as well as exacerbated tumor formation and spread4,5
. Molecularly, actin polymerization and receptor recycling have been shown to play important roles in creating cellular extensions (lamellipodia), that drive the forward movement of the cell6,7,8
. However, many biological questions about cell migration remain unanswered.
The central role for cellular motility in human health and disease underlines the importance of understanding the specific mechanisms involved in this process and makes accurate methods for evaluating cell motility particularly important. Microscopes are usually used to visualize the movement of cells. However, cells move rather slowly, making the quantitative measurement of cell migration a resource-consuming process requiring expensive cameras and software to create quantitative time-lapsed movies of motile cells. Therefore, the ability to perform a quantitative measurement of cell migration that is cost-effective, non-laborious, and that utilizes common laboratory equipment is a great need for many researchers.
The phagokinetic track motility assay utilizes the ability of a moving cell to clear gold particles from its path to create a measurable track on a colloidal gold-coated glass coverslip9,10
. With the use of freely available software, multiple tracks can be evaluated for each treatment to accomplish statistical requirements. The assay can be utilized to assess motility of many cell types, such as cancer cells11,12
, skeletal muscle cells14
, endothelial cells17
, and monocytes10,18-22
. The protocol involves the creation of slides coated with gold nanoparticles (Au°) that are generated by a reduction of chloroauric acid (Au3+
) by sodium citrate. This method was developed by Turkevich et al.
and then improved in the 1970s by Frens et al.24,25
. As a result of this chemical reduction step, gold particles (10-20 nm in diameter) precipitate from the reaction mixture and can be applied to glass coverslips, which are then ready for use in cellular migration analyses9,26,27
In general, the phagokinetic track motility assay is a quick, quantitative and easy measure of cellular motility. In addition, it can be utilized as a simple high-throughput assay, for use with cell types that are not amenable to time-lapsed imaging, as well as other uses depending on the needs of the researcher. Together, the ability to quantitatively measure cellular motility of multiple cell types without the need for expensive microscopes and software, along with the use of common laboratory equipment and chemicals, make the phagokinetic track motility assay a solid choice for scientists with an interest in understanding cellular motility.
Immunology, Issue 70, Microbiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, gold nanoparticles, coverslips, cell migration, quantitative cell movement, microscopy, motility, assay
Constant Pressure-controlled Extrusion Method for the Preparation of Nano-sized Lipid Vesicles
Institutions: University of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado Boulder.
Liposomes are artificially prepared vesicles consisting of natural and synthetic phospholipids that are widely used as a cell membrane mimicking platform to study protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions3
, monitor drug delivery4,5
, and encapsulation4
. Phospholipids naturally create curved lipid bilayers, distinguishing itself from a micelle.6
Liposomes are traditionally classified by size and number of bilayers, i.e. large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and multilamellar vesicles (MLVs)7
. In particular, the preparation of homogeneous liposomes of various sizes is important for studying membrane curvature that plays a vital role in cell signaling, endo- and exocytosis, membrane fusion, and protein trafficking8
. Several groups analyze how proteins are used to modulate processes that involve membrane curvature and thus prepare liposomes of diameters <100 - 400 nm to study their behavior on cell functions3
. Others focus on liposome-drug encapsulation, studying liposomes as vehicles to carry and deliver a drug of interest9
. Drug encapsulation can be achieved as reported during liposome formation9
. Our extrusion step should not affect the encapsulated drug for two reasons, i.e. (1) drug encapsulation should be achieved prior to this step and (2) liposomes should retain their natural biophysical stability, securely carrying the drug in the aqueous core. These research goals further suggest the need for an optimized method to design stable sub-micron lipid vesicles.
Nonetheless, the current liposome preparation technologies (sonication10
, sedimentation) do not allow preparation of liposomes with highly curved surface (i.e. diameter <100 nm) with high consistency and efficiency10,5
, which limits the biophysical studies of an emerging field of membrane curvature sensing. Herein, we present a robust preparation method for a variety of biologically relevant liposomes.
Manual extrusion using gas-tight syringes and polycarbonate membranes10,5
is a common practice but heterogeneity is often observed when using pore sizes <100 nm due to due to variability of manual pressure applied. We employed a constant pressure-controlled extrusion apparatus to prepare synthetic liposomes whose diameters range between 30 and 400 nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS)10
, electron microscopy11
and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)12
were used to quantify the liposome sizes as described in our protocol, with commercial polystyrene (PS) beads used as a calibration standard. A near linear correlation was observed between the employed pore sizes and the experimentally determined liposomes, indicating high fidelity of our pressure-controlled liposome preparation method. Further, we have shown that this lipid vesicle preparation method is generally applicable, independent of various liposome sizes. Lastly, we have also demonstrated in a time course study that these prepared liposomes were stable for up to 16 hours. A representative nano-sized liposome preparation protocol is demonstrated below.
Bioengineering, Issue 64, Biomedical Engineering, Liposomes, particle extrusion, nano-sized vesicles, dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)
Time-lapse Imaging of Neuroblast Migration in Acute Slices of the Adult Mouse Forebrain
Institutions: Centre de Recherche Université Laval Robert-Giffard.
There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that new functional neurons are constitutively generated from an endogenous pool of neural stem cells in restricted areas of the adult mammalian brain. Newborn neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to their final destination in the olfactory bulb (OB)1
. In the RMS, neuroblasts migrate tangentially in chains ensheathed by astrocytic processes2,3
using blood vessels as a structural support and a source of molecular factors required for migration4,5
. In the OB, neuroblasts detach from the chains and migrate radially into the different bulbar layers where they differentiate into interneurons and integrate into the existing network1, 6
In this manuscript we describe the procedure for monitoring cell migration in acute slices of the rodent brain. The use of acute slices allows the assessment of cell migration in the microenvironment that closely resembling to in vivo
conditions and in brain regions that are difficult to access for in vivo
imaging. In addition, it avoids long culturing condition as in the case of organotypic and cell cultures that may eventually alter the migration properties of the cells. Neuronal precursors in acute slices can be visualized using DIC optics or fluorescent proteins. Viral labeling of neuronal precursors in the SVZ, grafting neuroblasts from reporter mice into the SVZ of wild-type mice, and using transgenic mice that express fluorescent protein in neuroblasts are all suitable methods for visualizing neuroblasts and following their migration. The later method, however, does not allow individual cells to be tracked for long periods of time because of the high density of labeled cells. We used a wide-field fluorescent upright microscope equipped with a CCD camera to achieve a relatively rapid acquisition interval (one image every 15 or 30 sec) to reliably identify the stationary and migratory phases. A precise identification of the duration of the stationary and migratory phases is crucial for the unambiguous interpretation of results. We also performed multiple z-step acquisitions to monitor neuroblasts migration in 3D. Wide-field fluorescent imaging has been used extensively to visualize neuronal migration7-10
. Here, we describe detailed protocol for labeling neuroblasts, performing real-time video-imaging of neuroblast migration in acute slices of the adult mouse forebrain, and analyzing cell migration. While the described protocol exemplified the migration of neuroblasts in the adult RMS, it can also be used to follow cell migration in embryonic and early postnatal brains.
Neuroscience, Issue 67, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Physiology, brain, migration, neuroblast, rostral migratory stream (RMS), blood vessels, subventricular zone (SVZ), olfactory bulb, real-time video imaging
In vivo Visualization of Synaptic Vesicles Within Drosophila Larval Segmental Axons
Institutions: SUNY-University at Buffalo.
Elucidating the mechanisms of axonal transport has shown to be very important in determining how defects in long distance transport affect different neurological diseases. Defects in this essential process can have detrimental effects on neuronal functioning and development. We have developed a dissection protocol that is designed to expose the Drosophila
larval segmental nerves to view axonal transport in real time. We have adapted this protocol for live imaging from the one published by Hurd and Saxton (1996) used for immunolocalizatin of larval segmental nerves. Careful dissection and proper buffer conditions are critical for maximizing the lifespan of the dissected larvae. When properly done, dissected larvae have shown robust vesicle transport for 2-3 hours under physiological conditions. We use the UAS-GAL4 method 1
to express GFP-tagged APP or synaptotagmin vesicles within a single axon or many axons in larval segmental nerves by using different neuronal GAL4 drivers. Other fluorescently tagged markers, for example mitochrondria (MitoTracker) or lysosomes (LysoTracker), can be also applied to the larvae before viewing. GFP-vesicle movement and particle movement can be viewed simultaneously using separate wavelengths.
Neuroscience, Issue 44, Live imaging, Axonal transport, GFP-tagged vesicles
Microfabrication of Chip-sized Scaffolds for Three-dimensional Cell cultivation
Institutions: Karlsruhe Research Centre, University of Twente, Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Karlsruhe Research Centre, Karlsruhe Research Centre.
Using microfabrication technologies is a prerequisite to create scaffolds of reproducible geometry and constant quality for three-dimensional cell cultivation. These technologies offer a wide spectrum of advantages not only for manufacturing but also for different applications. The size and shape of formed cell clusters can be influenced by the exact and reproducible architecture of the microfabricated scaffold and, therefore, the diffusion path length of nutrients and gases can be controlled.1 This is unquestionably a useful tool to prevent apoptosis and necrosis of cells due to an insufficient nutrient and gas supply or removal of cellular metabolites.
Our polymer chip, called CellChip, has the outer dimensions of 2 x 2 cm with a central microstructured area. This area is subdivided into an array of up to 1156 microcontainers with a typical dimension of 300 m edge length for the cubic design (cp- or cf-chip) or of 300 m diameter and depth for the round design (r-chip).2
So far, hot embossing or micro injection moulding (in combination with subsequent laborious machining of the parts) was used for the fabrication of the microstructured chips. Basically, micro injection moulding is one of the only polymer based replication techniques that, up to now, is capable for mass production of polymer microstructures.3 However, both techniques have certain unwanted limitations due to the processing of a viscous polymer melt with the generation of very thin walls or integrated through holes. In case of the CellChip, thin bottom layers are necessary to perforate the polymer and provide small pores of defined size to supply cells with culture medium e.g. by microfluidic perfusion of the containers.
In order to overcome these limitations and to reduce the manufacturing costs we have developed a new microtechnical approach on the basis of a down-scaled thermoforming process. For the manufacturing of highly porous and thin walled polymer chips, we use a combination of heavy ion irradiation, microthermoforming and track etching. In this so called "SMART" process (Substrate Modification And Replication by Thermoforming) thin polymer films are irradiated with energetic heavy projectiles of several hundred MeV introducing so-called "latent tracks" Subsequently, the film in a rubber elastic state is formed into three dimensional parts without modifying or annealing the tracks. After the forming process, selective chemical etching finally converts the tracks into cylindrical pores of adjustable diameter.
Cellular Biology, Issue 15, SMART, microthermoforming, microfabrication, scaffolds, polymer