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A mathematical model of the enhanced permeability and retention effect for liposome transport in solid tumors.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
The discovery of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect has resulted in the development of nanomedicines, including liposome-based formulations of drugs, as cancer therapies. The use of liposomes has resulted in substantial increases in accumulation of drugs in solid tumors; yet, significant improvements in therapeutic efficacy have yet to be achieved. Imaging of the tumor accumulation of liposomes has revealed that this poor or variable performance is in part due to heterogeneous inter-subject and intra-tumoral liposome accumulation, which occurs as a result of an abnormal transport microenvironment. A mathematical model that relates liposome accumulation to the underlying transport properties in solid tumors could provide insight into inter and intra-tumoral variations in the EPR effect. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework to describe liposome transport in solid tumors. The mathematical model is based on biophysical transport equations that describe pressure driven fluid flow across blood vessels and through the tumor interstitium. The model was validated by direct comparison with computed tomography measurements of tumor accumulation of liposomes in three preclinical tumor models. The mathematical model was fit to liposome accumulation curves producing predictions of transport parameters that reflect the tumor microenvironment. Notably, all fits had a high coefficient of determination and predictions of interstitial fluid pressure agreed with previously published independent measurements made in the same tumor type. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the model attributed inter-subject heterogeneity in liposome accumulation to variations in peak interstitial fluid pressure. These findings highlight the relationship between transvascular and interstitial flow dynamics and variations in the EPR effect. In conclusion, we have presented a theoretical framework that predicts inter-subject and intra-tumoral variations in the EPR effect based on fundamental properties of the tumor microenvironment and forms the basis for transport modeling of liposome drug delivery.
We recently developed porphysomes as intrinsically multifunctional nanovesicles. A photosensitizer, pyropheophorbide α, was conjugated to a phospholipid and then self-assembled to liposome-like spherical vesicles. Due to the extremely high density of porphyrin in the porphyrin-lipid bilayer, porphysomes generated large extinction coefficients, structure-dependent fluorescence self-quenching, and excellent photothermal efficacy. In our formulation, porphysomes were synthesized using high pressure extrusion, and displayed a mean particle size around 120 nm. Twenty-four hr post-intravenous injection of porphysomes, the local temperature of the tumor increased from 30 °C to 62 °C rapidly upon one minute exposure of 750 mW (1.18 W/cm2), 671 nm laser irradiation. Following the complete thermal ablation of the tumor, eschars formed and healed within 2 weeks, while in the control groups the tumors continued to grow and all reached the defined end point within 3 weeks. These data show how porphysomes can be used as potent photothermal therapy (PTT) agents.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
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Long-term Intravital Immunofluorescence Imaging of Tissue Matrix Components with Epifluorescence and Two-photon Microscopy
Authors: Esra Güç, Manuel Fankhauser, Amanda W. Lund, Melody A. Swartz, Witold W. Kilarski.
Institutions: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Oregon Health & Science University.
Besides being a physical scaffold to maintain tissue morphology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is actively involved in regulating cell and tissue function during development and organ homeostasis. It does so by acting via biochemical, biomechanical, and biophysical signaling pathways, such as through the release of bioactive ECM protein fragments, regulating tissue tension, and providing pathways for cell migration. The extracellular matrix of the tumor microenvironment undergoes substantial remodeling, characterized by the degradation, deposition and organization of fibrillar and non-fibrillar matrix proteins. Stromal stiffening of the tumor microenvironment can promote tumor growth and invasion, and cause remodeling of blood and lymphatic vessels. Live imaging of matrix proteins, however, to this point is limited to fibrillar collagens that can be detected by second harmonic generation using multi-photon microscopy, leaving the majority of matrix components largely invisible. Here we describe procedures for tumor inoculation in the thin dorsal ear skin, immunolabeling of extracellular matrix proteins and intravital imaging of the exposed tissue in live mice using epifluorescence and two-photon microscopy. Our intravital imaging method allows for the direct detection of both fibrillar and non-fibrillar matrix proteins in the context of a growing dermal tumor. We show examples of vessel remodeling caused by local matrix contraction. We also found that fibrillar matrix of the tumor detected with the second harmonic generation is spatially distinct from newly deposited matrix components such as tenascin C. We also showed long-term (12 hours) imaging of T-cell interaction with tumor cells and tumor cells migration along the collagen IV of basement membrane. Taken together, this method uniquely allows for the simultaneous detection of tumor cells, their physical microenvironment and the endogenous tissue immune response over time, which may provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying tumor progression and ultimate success or resistance to therapy.
Bioengineering, Issue 86, Intravital imaging, epifluorescence, two-photon imaging, Tumor matrix, Matrix remodeling
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Three-dimensional Cell Culture Model for Measuring the Effects of Interstitial Fluid Flow on Tumor Cell Invasion
Authors: Alimatou M. Tchafa, Arpit D. Shah, Shafei Wang, Melissa T. Duong, Adrian C. Shieh.
Institutions: Drexel University .
The growth and progression of most solid tumors depend on the initial transformation of the cancer cells and their response to stroma-associated signaling in the tumor microenvironment 1. Previously, research on the tumor microenvironment has focused primarily on tumor-stromal interactions 1-2. However, the tumor microenvironment also includes a variety of biophysical forces, whose effects remain poorly understood. These forces are biomechanical consequences of tumor growth that lead to changes in gene expression, cell division, differentiation and invasion3. Matrix density 4, stiffness 5-6, and structure 6-7, interstitial fluid pressure 8, and interstitial fluid flow 8 are all altered during cancer progression. Interstitial fluid flow in particular is higher in tumors compared to normal tissues 8-10. The estimated interstitial fluid flow velocities were measured and found to be in the range of 0.1-3 μm s-1, depending on tumor size and differentiation 9, 11. This is due to elevated interstitial fluid pressure caused by tumor-induced angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability 12. Interstitial fluid flow has been shown to increase invasion of cancer cells 13-14, vascular fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells 15. This invasion may be due to autologous chemotactic gradients created around cells in 3-D 16 or increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression 15, chemokine secretion and cell adhesion molecule expression 17. However, the mechanism by which cells sense fluid flow is not well understood. In addition to altering tumor cell behavior, interstitial fluid flow modulates the activity of other cells in the tumor microenvironment. It is associated with (a) driving differentiation of fibroblasts into tumor-promoting myofibroblasts 18, (b) transporting of antigens and other soluble factors to lymph nodes 19, and (c) modulating lymphatic endothelial cell morphogenesis 20. The technique presented here imposes interstitial fluid flow on cells in vitro and quantifies its effects on invasion (Figure 1). This method has been published in multiple studies to measure the effects of fluid flow on stromal and cancer cell invasion 13-15, 17. By changing the matrix composition, cell type, and cell concentration, this method can be applied to other diseases and physiological systems to study the effects of interstitial flow on cellular processes such as invasion, differentiation, proliferation, and gene expression.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 65, Bioengineering, Biophysics, Cancer Biology, Cancer, interstitial fluid flow, invasion, mechanobiology, migration, three-dimensional cell culture, tumor microenvironment
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Constant Pressure-controlled Extrusion Method for the Preparation of Nano-sized Lipid Vesicles
Authors: Leslie A. Morton, Jonel P. Saludes, Hang Yin.
Institutions: University of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado Boulder.
Liposomes are artificially prepared vesicles consisting of natural and synthetic phospholipids that are widely used as a cell membrane mimicking platform to study protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions3, monitor drug delivery4,5, and encapsulation4. Phospholipids naturally create curved lipid bilayers, distinguishing itself from a micelle.6 Liposomes are traditionally classified by size and number of bilayers, i.e. large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and multilamellar vesicles (MLVs)7. In particular, the preparation of homogeneous liposomes of various sizes is important for studying membrane curvature that plays a vital role in cell signaling, endo- and exocytosis, membrane fusion, and protein trafficking8. Several groups analyze how proteins are used to modulate processes that involve membrane curvature and thus prepare liposomes of diameters <100 - 400 nm to study their behavior on cell functions3. Others focus on liposome-drug encapsulation, studying liposomes as vehicles to carry and deliver a drug of interest9. Drug encapsulation can be achieved as reported during liposome formation9. Our extrusion step should not affect the encapsulated drug for two reasons, i.e. (1) drug encapsulation should be achieved prior to this step and (2) liposomes should retain their natural biophysical stability, securely carrying the drug in the aqueous core. These research goals further suggest the need for an optimized method to design stable sub-micron lipid vesicles. Nonetheless, the current liposome preparation technologies (sonication10, freeze-and-thaw10, sedimentation) do not allow preparation of liposomes with highly curved surface (i.e. diameter <100 nm) with high consistency and efficiency10,5, which limits the biophysical studies of an emerging field of membrane curvature sensing. Herein, we present a robust preparation method for a variety of biologically relevant liposomes. Manual extrusion using gas-tight syringes and polycarbonate membranes10,5 is a common practice but heterogeneity is often observed when using pore sizes <100 nm due to due to variability of manual pressure applied. We employed a constant pressure-controlled extrusion apparatus to prepare synthetic liposomes whose diameters range between 30 and 400 nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS)10, electron microscopy11 and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)12 were used to quantify the liposome sizes as described in our protocol, with commercial polystyrene (PS) beads used as a calibration standard. A near linear correlation was observed between the employed pore sizes and the experimentally determined liposomes, indicating high fidelity of our pressure-controlled liposome preparation method. Further, we have shown that this lipid vesicle preparation method is generally applicable, independent of various liposome sizes. Lastly, we have also demonstrated in a time course study that these prepared liposomes were stable for up to 16 hours. A representative nano-sized liposome preparation protocol is demonstrated below.
Bioengineering, Issue 64, Biomedical Engineering, Liposomes, particle extrusion, nano-sized vesicles, dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)
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Microfluidic Device for Recreating a Tumor Microenvironment in Vitro
Authors: Bhushan J. Toley, Dan E. Ganz, Colin L. Walsh, Neil S. Forbes.
Institutions: University Of Massachusetts Amherst.
We have developed a microfluidic device that mimics the delivery and systemic clearance of drugs to heterogeneous three-dimensional tumor tissues in vitro. Nutrients delivered by vasculature fail to reach all parts of tumors, giving rise to heterogeneous microenvironments consisting of viable, quiescent and necrotic cell types. Many cancer drugs fail to effectively penetrate and treat all types of cells because of this heterogeneity. Monolayers of cancer cells do not mimic this heterogeneity, making it difficult to test cancer drugs with a suitable in vitro model. Our microfluidic devices were fabricated out of PDMS using soft lithography. Multicellular tumor spheroids, formed by the hanging drop method, were inserted and constrained into rectangular chambers on the device and maintained with continuous medium perfusion on one side. The rectangular shape of chambers on the device created linear gradients within tissue. Fluorescent stains were used to quantify the variability in apoptosis within tissue. Tumors on the device were treated with the fluorescent chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin, time-lapse microscopy was used to monitor its diffusion into tissue, and the effective diffusion coefficient was estimated. The hanging drop method allowed quick formation of uniform spheroids from several cancer cell lines. The device enabled growth of spheroids for up to 3 days. Cells in proximity of flowing medium were minimally apoptotic and those far from the channel were more apoptotic, thereby accurately mimicking regions in tumors adjacent to blood vessels. The estimated value of the doxorubicin diffusion coefficient agreed with a previously reported value in human breast cancer. Because the penetration and retention of drugs in solid tumors affects their efficacy, we believe that this device is an important tool in understanding the behavior of drugs, and developing new cancer therapeutics.
Bioengineering, Issue 57, Microfluidic Device, Tumor Microenvironment, Hanging Drop Spheroids, Apoptosis, Drug Penetration
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Analysis of Targeted Viral Protein Nanoparticles Delivered to HER2+ Tumors
Authors: Jae Youn Hwang, Daniel L. Farkas, Lali K. Medina-Kauwe.
Institutions: University of Southern California, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, University of California, Los Angeles.
The HER2+ tumor-targeted nanoparticle, HerDox, exhibits tumor-preferential accumulation and tumor-growth ablation in an animal model of HER2+ cancer. HerDox is formed by non-covalent self-assembly of a tumor targeted cell penetration protein with the chemotherapy agent, doxorubicin, via a small nucleic acid linker. A combination of electrophilic, intercalation, and oligomerization interactions facilitate self-assembly into round 10-20 nm particles. HerDox exhibits stability in blood as well as in extended storage at different temperatures. Systemic delivery of HerDox in tumor-bearing mice results in tumor-cell death with no detectable adverse effects to non-tumor tissue, including the heart and liver (which undergo marked damage by untargeted doxorubicin). HER2 elevation facilitates targeting to cells expressing the human epidermal growth factor receptor, hence tumors displaying elevated HER2 levels exhibit greater accumulation of HerDox compared to cells expressing lower levels, both in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescence intensity imaging combined with in situ confocal and spectral analysis has allowed us to verify in vivo tumor targeting and tumor cell penetration of HerDox after systemic delivery. Here we detail our methods for assessing tumor targeting via multimode imaging after systemic delivery.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 76, Cancer Biology, Medicine, Bioengineering, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Nanotechnology, Nanomedicine, Drug Delivery Systems, Molecular Imaging, optical imaging devices (design and techniques), HerDox, Nanoparticle, Tumor, Targeting, Self-Assembly, Doxorubicin, Human Epidermal Growth Factor, HER, HER2+, Receptor, mice, animal model, tumors, imaging
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Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing for the Quantification of Endothelial Proliferation, Barrier Function, and Motility
Authors: Robert Szulcek, Harm Jan Bogaard, Geerten P. van Nieuw Amerongen.
Institutions: Institute for Cardiovascular Research, VU University Medical Center, Institute for Cardiovascular Research, VU University Medical Center.
Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) is an in vitro impedance measuring system to quantify the behavior of cells within adherent cell layers. To this end, cells are grown in special culture chambers on top of opposing, circular gold electrodes. A constant small alternating current is applied between the electrodes and the potential across is measured. The insulating properties of the cell membrane create a resistance towards the electrical current flow resulting in an increased electrical potential between the electrodes. Measuring cellular impedance in this manner allows the automated study of cell attachment, growth, morphology, function, and motility. Although the ECIS measurement itself is straightforward and easy to learn, the underlying theory is complex and selection of the right settings and correct analysis and interpretation of the data is not self-evident. Yet, a clear protocol describing the individual steps from the experimental design to preparation, realization, and analysis of the experiment is not available. In this article the basic measurement principle as well as possible applications, experimental considerations, advantages and limitations of the ECIS system are discussed. A guide is provided for the study of cell attachment, spreading and proliferation; quantification of cell behavior in a confluent layer, with regard to barrier function, cell motility, quality of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesions; and quantification of wound healing and cellular responses to vasoactive stimuli. Representative results are discussed based on human microvascular (MVEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but are applicable to all adherent growing cells.
Bioengineering, Issue 85, ECIS, Impedance Spectroscopy, Resistance, TEER, Endothelial Barrier, Cell Adhesions, Focal Adhesions, Proliferation, Migration, Motility, Wound Healing
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Reconstitution of a Kv Channel into Lipid Membranes for Structural and Functional Studies
Authors: Sungsoo Lee, Hui Zheng, Liang Shi, Qiu-Xing Jiang.
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.
To study the lipid-protein interaction in a reductionistic fashion, it is necessary to incorporate the membrane proteins into membranes of well-defined lipid composition. We are studying the lipid-dependent gating effects in a prototype voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, and have worked out detailed procedures to reconstitute the channels into different membrane systems. Our reconstitution procedures take consideration of both detergent-induced fusion of vesicles and the fusion of protein/detergent micelles with the lipid/detergent mixed micelles as well as the importance of reaching an equilibrium distribution of lipids among the protein/detergent/lipid and the detergent/lipid mixed micelles. Our data suggested that the insertion of the channels in the lipid vesicles is relatively random in orientations, and the reconstitution efficiency is so high that no detectable protein aggregates were seen in fractionation experiments. We have utilized the reconstituted channels to determine the conformational states of the channels in different lipids, record electrical activities of a small number of channels incorporated in planar lipid bilayers, screen for conformation-specific ligands from a phage-displayed peptide library, and support the growth of 2D crystals of the channels in membranes. The reconstitution procedures described here may be adapted for studying other membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, especially for the investigation of the lipid effects on the eukaryotic voltage-gated ion channels.
Molecular Biology, Issue 77, Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Structural Biology, Biophysics, Membrane Lipids, Phospholipids, Carrier Proteins, Membrane Proteins, Micelles, Molecular Motor Proteins, life sciences, biochemistry, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, lipid-protein interaction, channel reconstitution, lipid-dependent gating, voltage-gated ion channel, conformation-specific ligands, lipids
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Induction of Invasive Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinoma in Immune Intact Human MUC1 Transgenic Mice: A Model for Immunotherapy Development
Authors: Daniel P. Vang, Gregory T. Wurz, Stephen M. Griffey, Chiao-Jung Kao, Audrey M. Gutierrez, Gregory K. Hanson, Michael Wolf, Michael W. DeGregorio.
Institutions: University of California, Davis, University of California, Davis, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.
A preclinical model of invasive bladder cancer was developed in human mucin 1 (MUC1) transgenic (MUC1.Tg) mice for the purpose of evaluating immunotherapy and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy. To induce bladder cancer, C57BL/6 mice (MUC1.Tg and wild type) were treated orally with the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) at 3.0 mg/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. To assess the effects of OH-BBN on serum cytokine profile during tumor development, whole blood was collected via submandibular bleeds prior to treatment and every four weeks. In addition, a MUC1-targeted peptide vaccine and placebo were administered to groups of mice weekly for eight weeks. Multiplex fluorometric microbead immunoanalyses of serum cytokines during tumor development and following vaccination were performed. At termination, interferon gamma (IFN-γ)/interleukin-4 (IL-4) ELISpot analysis for MUC1 specific T-cell immune response and histopathological evaluations of tumor type and grade were performed. The results showed that: (1) the incidence of bladder cancer in both MUC1.Tg and wild type mice was 67%; (2) transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) developed at a 2:1 ratio compared to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); (3) inflammatory cytokines increased with time during tumor development; and (4) administration of the peptide vaccine induces a Th1-polarized serum cytokine profile and a MUC1 specific T-cell response. All tumors in MUC1.Tg mice were positive for MUC1 expression, and half of all tumors in MUC1.Tg and wild type mice were invasive. In conclusion, using a team approach through the coordination of the efforts of pharmacologists, immunologists, pathologists and molecular biologists, we have developed an immune intact transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer that expresses hMUC1.
Medicine, Issue 80, Urinary Bladder, Animals, Genetically Modified, Cancer Vaccines, Immunotherapy, Animal Experimentation, Models, Neoplasms Bladder Cancer, C57BL/6 Mouse, MUC1, Immunotherapy, Preclinical Model
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Optimized Negative Staining: a High-throughput Protocol for Examining Small and Asymmetric Protein Structure by Electron Microscopy
Authors: Matthew Rames, Yadong Yu, Gang Ren.
Institutions: The Molecular Foundry.
Structural determination of proteins is rather challenging for proteins with molecular masses between 40 - 200 kDa. Considering that more than half of natural proteins have a molecular mass between 40 - 200 kDa1,2, a robust and high-throughput method with a nanometer resolution capability is needed. Negative staining (NS) electron microscopy (EM) is an easy, rapid, and qualitative approach which has frequently been used in research laboratories to examine protein structure and protein-protein interactions. Unfortunately, conventional NS protocols often generate structural artifacts on proteins, especially with lipoproteins that usually form presenting rouleaux artifacts. By using images of lipoproteins from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) as a standard, the key parameters in NS specimen preparation conditions were recently screened and reported as the optimized NS protocol (OpNS), a modified conventional NS protocol 3 . Artifacts like rouleaux can be greatly limited by OpNS, additionally providing high contrast along with reasonably high‐resolution (near 1 nm) images of small and asymmetric proteins. These high-resolution and high contrast images are even favorable for an individual protein (a single object, no average) 3D reconstruction, such as a 160 kDa antibody, through the method of electron tomography4,5. Moreover, OpNS can be a high‐throughput tool to examine hundreds of samples of small proteins. For example, the previously published mechanism of 53 kDa cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) involved the screening and imaging of hundreds of samples 6. Considering cryo-EM rarely successfully images proteins less than 200 kDa has yet to publish any study involving screening over one hundred sample conditions, it is fair to call OpNS a high-throughput method for studying small proteins. Hopefully the OpNS protocol presented here can be a useful tool to push the boundaries of EM and accelerate EM studies into small protein structure, dynamics and mechanisms.
Environmental Sciences, Issue 90, small and asymmetric protein structure, electron microscopy, optimized negative staining
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Giant Liposome Preparation for Imaging and Patch-Clamp Electrophysiology
Authors: Marcus D. Collins, Sharona E. Gordon.
Institutions: University of Washington.
The reconstitution of ion channels into chemically defined lipid membranes for electrophysiological recording has been a powerful technique to identify and explore the function of these important proteins. However, classical preparations, such as planar bilayers, limit the manipulations and experiments that can be performed on the reconstituted channel and its membrane environment. The more cell-like structure of giant liposomes permits traditional patch-clamp experiments without sacrificing control of the lipid environment. Electroformation is an efficient mean to produce giant liposomes >10 μm in diameter which relies on the application of alternating voltage to a thin, ordered lipid film deposited on an electrode surface. However, since the classical protocol calls for the lipids to be deposited from organic solvents, it is not compatible with less robust membrane proteins like ion channels and must be modified. Recently, protocols have been developed to electroform giant liposomes from partially dehydrated small liposomes, which we have adapted to protein-containing liposomes in our laboratory. We present here the background, equipment, techniques, and pitfalls of electroformation of giant liposomes from small liposome dispersions. We begin with the classic protocol, which should be mastered first before attempting the more challenging protocols that follow. We demonstrate the process of controlled partial dehydration of small liposomes using vapor equilibrium with saturated salt solutions. Finally, we demonstrate the process of electroformation itself. We will describe simple, inexpensive equipment that can be made in-house to produce high-quality liposomes, and describe visual inspection of the preparation at each stage to ensure the best results.
Physiology, Issue 76, Biophysics, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Proteins, Membranes, Artificial, Lipid Bilayers, Liposomes, Phospholipids, biochemistry, Lipids, Giant Unilamellar Vesicles, liposome, electrophysiology, electroformation, reconstitution, patch clamp
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Oscillation and Reaction Board Techniques for Estimating Inertial Properties of a Below-knee Prosthesis
Authors: Jeremy D. Smith, Abbie E. Ferris, Gary D. Heise, Richard N. Hinrichs, Philip E. Martin.
Institutions: University of Northern Colorado, Arizona State University, Iowa State University.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) demonstrate a technique that can be used to directly estimate the inertial properties of a below-knee prosthesis, and 2) contrast the effects of the proposed technique and that of using intact limb inertial properties on joint kinetic estimates during walking in unilateral, transtibial amputees. An oscillation and reaction board system was validated and shown to be reliable when measuring inertial properties of known geometrical solids. When direct measurements of inertial properties of the prosthesis were used in inverse dynamics modeling of the lower extremity compared with inertial estimates based on an intact shank and foot, joint kinetics at the hip and knee were significantly lower during the swing phase of walking. Differences in joint kinetics during stance, however, were smaller than those observed during swing. Therefore, researchers focusing on the swing phase of walking should consider the impact of prosthesis inertia property estimates on study outcomes. For stance, either one of the two inertial models investigated in our study would likely lead to similar outcomes with an inverse dynamics assessment.
Bioengineering, Issue 87, prosthesis inertia, amputee locomotion, below-knee prosthesis, transtibial amputee
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Long-term Silencing of Intersectin-1s in Mouse Lungs by Repeated Delivery of a Specific siRNA via Cationic Liposomes. Evaluation of Knockdown Effects by Electron Microscopy
Authors: Cristina Bardita, Dan Predescu, Sanda Predescu.
Institutions: Rush University, Rush University.
Previous studies showed that knockdown of ITSN-1s (KDITSN), an endocytic protein involved in regulating lung vascular permeability and endothelial cells (ECs) survival, induced apoptotic cell death, a major obstacle in developing a cell culture system with prolonged ITSN-1s inhibition1. Using cationic liposomes as carriers, we explored the silencing of ITSN-1s gene in mouse lungs by systemic administration of siRNA targeting ITSN-1 gene (siRNAITSN). Cationic liposomes offer several advantages for siRNA delivery: safe with repeated dosing, nonimmunogenic, nontoxic, and easy to produce2. Liposomes performance and biological activity depend on their size, charge, lipid composition, stability, dose and route of administration3Here, efficient and specific KDITSN in mouse lungs has been obtained using a cholesterol and dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide combination. Intravenous delivery of siRNAITSN/cationic liposome complexes transiently knocked down ITSN-1s protein and mRNA in mouse lungs at day 3, which recovered after additional 3 days. Taking advantage of the cationic liposomes as a repeatable safe carrier, the study extended for 24 days. Thus, retro-orbital treatment with freshly generated complexes was administered every 3rd day, inducing sustained KDITSN throughout the study4. Mouse tissues collected at several time points post-siRNAITSN were subjected to electron microscopy (EM) analyses to evaluate the effects of chronic KDITSN, in lung endothelium. High-resolution EM imaging allowed us to evaluate the morphological changes caused by KDITSN in the lung vascular bed (i.e. disruption of the endothelial barrier, decreased number of caveolae and upregulation of alternative transport pathways), characteristics non-detectable by light microscopy. Overall these findings established an important role of ITSN-1s in the ECs function and lung homeostasis, while illustrating the effectiveness of siRNA-liposomes delivery in vivo.
Bioengineering, Issue 76, Biomedical Engineering, Biochemistry, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Medicine, Immunology, Pharmacology, animal models, Cardiovascular Diseases, intersectin-1s, siRNA, liposomes, retro-orbital injection, acute and chronic ITSN-1s knockdown, transgenic mice, liposome, endothelial cells, tissue, lung, perfusion, electron microscopy, animal model
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Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Authors: Yves Molino, Françoise Jabès, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Nicolas Gaudin, Michel Khrestchatisky.
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2 on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3 cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
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Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers
Authors: Rasa Ghaffarian, Silvia Muro.
Institutions: University of Maryland, University of Maryland.
Sub-micrometer carriers (nanocarriers; NCs) enhance efficacy of drugs by improving solubility, stability, circulation time, targeting, and release. Additionally, traversing cellular barriers in the body is crucial for both oral delivery of therapeutic NCs into the circulation and transport from the blood into tissues, where intervention is needed. NC transport across cellular barriers is achieved by: (i) the paracellular route, via transient disruption of the junctions that interlock adjacent cells, or (ii) the transcellular route, where materials are internalized by endocytosis, transported across the cell body, and secreted at the opposite cell surface (transyctosis). Delivery across cellular barriers can be facilitated by coupling therapeutics or their carriers with targeting agents that bind specifically to cell-surface markers involved in transport. Here, we provide methods to measure the extent and mechanism of NC transport across a model cell barrier, which consists of a monolayer of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells grown on a porous membrane located in a transwell insert. Formation of a permeability barrier is confirmed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), transepithelial transport of a control substance, and immunostaining of tight junctions. As an example, ~200 nm polymer NCs are used, which carry a therapeutic cargo and are coated with an antibody that targets a cell-surface determinant. The antibody or therapeutic cargo is labeled with 125I for radioisotope tracing and labeled NCs are added to the upper chamber over the cell monolayer for varying periods of time. NCs associated to the cells and/or transported to the underlying chamber can be detected. Measurement of free 125I allows subtraction of the degraded fraction. The paracellular route is assessed by determining potential changes caused by NC transport to the barrier parameters described above. Transcellular transport is determined by addressing the effect of modulating endocytosis and transcytosis pathways.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Antigens, Enzymes, Biological Therapy, bioengineering (general), Pharmaceutical Preparations, Macromolecular Substances, Therapeutics, Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, drug delivery systems, targeted nanocarriers, transcellular transport, epithelial cells, tight junctions, transepithelial electrical resistance, endocytosis, transcytosis, radioisotope tracing, immunostaining
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Synthesis of Phase-shift Nanoemulsions with Narrow Size Distributions for Acoustic Droplet Vaporization and Bubble-enhanced Ultrasound-mediated Ablation
Authors: Jonathan A. Kopechek, Peng Zhang, Mark T. Burgess, Tyrone M. Porter.
Institutions: Boston University .
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is used clinically to thermally ablate tumors. To enhance localized heating and improve thermal ablation in tumors, lipid-coated perfluorocarbon droplets have been developed which can be vaporized by HIFU. The vasculature in many tumors is abnormally leaky due to their rapid growth, and nanoparticles are able to penetrate the fenestrations and passively accumulate within tumors. Thus, controlling the size of the droplets can result in better accumulation within tumors. In this report, the preparation of stable droplets in a phase-shift nanoemulsion (PSNE) with a narrow size distribution is described. PSNE were synthesized by sonicating a lipid solution in the presence of liquid perfluorocarbon. A narrow size distribution was obtained by extruding the PSNE multiple times using filters with pore sizes of 100 or 200 nm. The size distribution was measured over a 7-day period using dynamic light scattering. Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing PSNE were prepared for in vitro experiments. PSNE droplets in the hydrogels were vaporized with ultrasound and the resulting bubbles enhanced localized heating. Vaporized PSNE enables more rapid heating and also reduces the ultrasound intensity needed for thermal ablation. Thus, PSNE is expected to enhance thermal ablation in tumors, potentially improving therapeutic outcomes of HIFU-mediated thermal ablation treatments.
Mechanical Engineering, Issue 67, Physics, Materials Science, Cancer Biology, Phase-shift nanoemulsions, narrow size distribution, acoustic droplet vaporization, bubble-enhanced heating, HIFU ablation, polyacrylamide hydrogel
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Ex Vivo Treatment Response of Primary Tumors and/or Associated Metastases for Preclinical and Clinical Development of Therapeutics
Authors: Adriana D. Corben, Mohammad M. Uddin, Brooke Crawford, Mohammad Farooq, Shanu Modi, John Gerecitano, Gabriela Chiosis, Mary L. Alpaugh.
Institutions: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.
The molecular analysis of established cancer cell lines has been the mainstay of cancer research for the past several decades. Cell culture provides both direct and rapid analysis of therapeutic sensitivity and resistance. However, recent evidence suggests that therapeutic response is not exclusive to the inherent molecular composition of cancer cells but rather is greatly influenced by the tumor cell microenvironment, a feature that cannot be recapitulated by traditional culturing methods. Even implementation of tumor xenografts, though providing a wealth of information on drug delivery/efficacy, cannot capture the tumor cell/microenvironment crosstalk (i.e., soluble factors) that occurs within human tumors and greatly impacts tumor response. To this extent, we have developed an ex vivo (fresh tissue sectioning) technique which allows for the direct assessment of treatment response for preclinical and clinical therapeutics development. This technique maintains tissue integrity and cellular architecture within the tumor cell/microenvironment context throughout treatment response providing a more precise means to assess drug efficacy.
Cancer Biology, Issue 92, Ex vivo sectioning, Treatment response, Sensitivity/Resistance, Drug development, Patient tumors, Preclinical and Clinical
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In vitro Investigation of the MexAB Efflux Pump From Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Authors: Alice Verchère, Manuela Dezi, Isabelle Broutin, Martin Picard.
Institutions: CNRS & Université Paris Descartes.
There is an emerging scientific need for reliable tools for monitoring membrane protein transport. We present a methodology leading to the reconstitution of efflux pumps from the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a biomimetic environment that allows for an accurate investigation of their activity of transport. Three prerequisites are fulfilled: compartmentation in a lipidic environment, use of a relevant index for transport, and generation of a proton gradient. The membrane protein transporter is reconstituted into liposomes together with bacteriorhodopsin, a light-activated proton pump that generates a proton gradient that is robust as well as reversible and tunable. The activity of the protein is deduced from the pH variations occurring within the liposome, using pyranin, a pH-dependent fluorescent probe. We describe a step-by-step procedure where membrane protein purification, liposome formation, protein reconstitution, and transport analysis are addressed. Although they were specifically designed for an RND transporter, the described methods could potentially be adapted for use with any other membrane protein transporter energized by a proton gradient.
Biochemistry, Issue 84, membrane protein, transport, antibiotic resistance, liposomes, proton gradient, bacteriorhodopsin
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Real-time Monitoring of Ligand-receptor Interactions with Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
Authors: Navneet Dogra, Julia C. Reyes, Nishi Garg, Punit Kohli.
Institutions: Southern Illinois University.
FRET is a process whereby energy is non-radiatively transferred from an excited donor molecule to a ground-state acceptor molecule through long-range dipole-dipole interactions1. In the present sensing assay, we utilize an interesting property of PDA: blue-shift in the UV-Vis electronic absorption spectrum of PDA (Figure 1) after an analyte interacts with receptors attached to PDA2,3,4,7. This shift in the PDA absorption spectrum provides changes in the spectral overlap (J) between PDA (acceptor) and rhodamine (donor) that leads to changes in the FRET efficiency. Thus, the interactions between analyte (ligand) and receptors are detected through FRET between donor fluorophores and PDA. In particular, we show the sensing of a model protein molecule streptavidin. We also demonstrate the covalent-binding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to the liposome surface with FRET mechanism. These interactions between the bilayer liposomes and protein molecules can be sensed in real-time. The proposed method is a general method for sensing small chemical and large biochemical molecules. Since fluorescence is intrinsically more sensitive than colorimetry, the detection limit of the assay can be in sub-nanomolar range or lower8. Further, PDA can act as a universal acceptor in FRET, which means that multiple sensors can be developed with PDA (acceptor) functionalized with donors and different receptors attached on the surface of PDA liposomes.
Biochemistry, Issue 66, Molecular Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), Polydiacetylene (PDA), Biosensor, Liposome, Sensing
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Live Imaging of Drug Responses in the Tumor Microenvironment in Mouse Models of Breast Cancer
Authors: Elizabeth S. Nakasone, Hanne A. Askautrud, Mikala Egeblad.
Institutions: Watson School of Biological Sciences, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital.
The tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and the response to anti-cancer therapies. Three-dimensional co-culture systems are frequently used to explicate tumor-stroma interactions, including their role in drug responses. However, many of the interactions that occur in vivo in the intact microenvironment cannot be completely replicated in these in vitro settings. Thus, direct visualization of these processes in real-time has become an important tool in understanding tumor responses to therapies and identifying the interactions between cancer cells and the stroma that can influence these responses. Here we provide a method for using spinning disk confocal microscopy of live, anesthetized mice to directly observe drug distribution, cancer cell responses and changes in tumor-stroma interactions following administration of systemic therapy in breast cancer models. We describe procedures for labeling different tumor components, treatment of animals for observing therapeutic responses, and the surgical procedure for exposing tumor tissues for imaging up to 40 hours. The results obtained from this protocol are time-lapse movies, in which such processes as drug infiltration, cancer cell death and stromal cell migration can be evaluated using image analysis software.
Cancer Biology, Issue 73, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Oncology, Pharmacology, Surgery, Tumor Microenvironment, Intravital imaging, chemotherapy, Breast cancer, time-lapse, mouse models, cancer cell death, stromal cell migration, cancer, imaging, transgenic, animal model
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Polymalic Acid-based Nano Biopolymers for Targeting of Multiple Tumor Markers: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine?
Authors: Julia Y. Ljubimova, Hui Ding, Jose Portilla-Arias, Rameshwar Patil, Pallavi R. Gangalum, Alexandra Chesnokova, Satoshi Inoue, Arthur Rekechenetskiy, Tala Nassoura, Keith L. Black, Eggehard Holler.
Institutions: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
Tumors with similar grade and morphology often respond differently to the same treatment because of variations in molecular profiling. To account for this diversity, personalized medicine is developed for silencing malignancy associated genes. Nano drugs fit these needs by targeting tumor and delivering antisense oligonucleotides for silencing of genes. As drugs for the treatment are often administered repeatedly, absence of toxicity and negligible immune response are desirable. In the example presented here, a nano medicine is synthesized from the biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic platform polymalic acid by controlled chemical ligation of antisense oligonucleotides and tumor targeting molecules. The synthesis and treatment is exemplified for human Her2-positive breast cancer using an experimental mouse model. The case can be translated towards synthesis and treatment of other tumors.
Chemistry, Issue 88, Cancer treatment, personalized medicine, polymalic acid, nanodrug, biopolymer, targeting, host compatibility, biodegradability
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Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice
Authors: Robert S. McNeill, Ralf S. Schmid, Ryan E. Bash, Mark Vitucci, Kristen K. White, Andrea M. Werneke, Brian H. Constance, Byron Huff, C. Ryan Miller.
Institutions: University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine.
Current astrocytoma models are limited in their ability to define the roles of oncogenic mutations in specific brain cell types during disease pathogenesis and their utility for preclinical drug development. In order to design a better model system for these applications, phenotypically wild-type cortical astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) from conditional, genetically engineered mice (GEM) that harbor various combinations of floxed oncogenic alleles were harvested and grown in culture. Genetic recombination was induced in vitro using adenoviral Cre-mediated recombination, resulting in expression of mutated oncogenes and deletion of tumor suppressor genes. The phenotypic consequences of these mutations were defined by measuring proliferation, transformation, and drug response in vitro. Orthotopic allograft models, whereby transformed cells are stereotactically injected into the brains of immune-competent, syngeneic littermates, were developed to define the role of oncogenic mutations and cell type on tumorigenesis in vivo. Unlike most established human glioblastoma cell line xenografts, injection of transformed GEM-derived cortical astrocytes into the brains of immune-competent littermates produced astrocytomas, including the most aggressive subtype, glioblastoma, that recapitulated the histopathological hallmarks of human astrocytomas, including diffuse invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Bioluminescence imaging of orthotopic allografts from transformed astrocytes engineered to express luciferase was utilized to monitor in vivo tumor growth over time. Thus, astrocytoma models using astrocytes and NSC harvested from GEM with conditional oncogenic alleles provide an integrated system to study the genetics and cell biology of astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo and may be useful in preclinical drug development for these devastating diseases.
Neuroscience, Issue 90, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
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In vivo Bioluminescent Imaging of Mammary Tumors Using IVIS Spectrum
Authors: Ed Lim, Kshitij D Modi, JaeBeom Kim.
Institutions: Caliper Life Sciences.
4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells can be implanted sub-cutaneously in nu/nu mice to form palpable tumors in 15 to 20 days. This xenograft tumor model system is valuable for the pre-clinical in vivo evaluation of putative antitumor compounds. The 4T1 cell line has been engineered to constitutively express the firefly luciferase gene (luc2). When mice carrying 4T1-luc2 tumors are injected with Luciferin the tumors emit a visual light signal that can be monitored using a sensitive optical imaging system like the IVIS Spectrum. The photon flux from the tumor is proportional to the number of light emitting cells and the signal can be measured to monitor tumor growth and development. IVIS is calibrated to enable absolute quantitation of the bioluminescent signal and longitudinal studies can be performed over many months and over several orders of signal magnitude without compromising the quantitative result. Tumor growth can be monitored for several days by bioluminescence before the tumor size becomes palpable or measurable by traditional physical means. This rapid monitoring can provide insight into early events in tumor development or lead to shorter experimental procedures. Tumor cell death and necrosis due to hypoxia or drug treatment is indicated early by a reduction in the bioluminescent signal. This cell death might not be accompanied by a reduction in tumor size as measured by physical means. The ability to see early events in tumor necrosis has significant impact on the selection and development of therapeutic agents. Quantitative imaging of tumor growth using IVIS provides precise quantitation and accelerates the experimental process to generate results.
Cellular Biology, Issue 26, tumor, mammary, mouse, bioluminescence, in vivo, imaging, IVIS, luciferase, luciferin
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