A simple, validated protocol consisting of a battery of tests is available to identify elderly patients with frailty syndrome. This syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors increases in incidence with increasing age. In the elderly, frailty may pursue a step-wise loss of function from non-frail to pre-frail to frail. We studied frailty in HIV-infected patients and found that ~20% are frail using the Fried phenotype using stringent criteria developed for the elderly1,2. In HIV infection the syndrome occurs at a younger age.
HIV patients were checked for 1) unintentional weight loss; 2) slowness as determined by walking speed; 3) weakness as measured by a grip dynamometer; 4) exhaustion by responses to a depression scale; and 5) low physical activity was determined by assessing kilocalories expended in a week's time. Pre-frailty was present with any two of five criteria and frailty was present if any three of the five criteria were abnormal.
The tests take approximately 10-15 min to complete and they can be performed by medical assistants during routine clinic visits. Test results are scored by referring to standard tables. Understanding which of the five components contribute to frailty in an individual patient can allow the clinician to address relevant underlying problems, many of which are not evident in routine HIV clinic visits.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
RNAscope for In situ Detection of Transcriptionally Active Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Institutions: Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Inc..
The 'gold standard' for oncogenic HPV detection is the demonstration of transcriptionally active high-risk HPV in tumor tissue. However, detection of E6/E7 mRNA by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) requires RNA extraction which destroys the tumor tissue context critical for morphological correlation and has been difficult to be adopted in routine clinical practice. Our recently developed RNA in situ
hybridization technology, RNAscope, permits direct visualization of RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue with single molecule sensitivity and single cell resolution, which enables highly sensitive and specific in situ
analysis of any RNA biomarker in routine clinical specimens. The RNAscope HPV assay was designed to detect the E6/E7 mRNA of seven high-risk HPV genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) using a pool of genotype-specific probes. It has demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity against the current 'gold standard' method of detecting E6/E7 mRNA by qRT-PCR. HPV status determined by RNAscope is strongly prognostic of clinical outcome in oropharyngeal cancer patients.
Medicine, Issue 85, RNAscope, Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC), Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC), Human Papillomavirus (HPV), E6/ E7 mRNA, in situ hybridization, tumor
Use of Interferon-γ Enzyme-linked Immunospot Assay to Characterize Novel T-cell Epitopes of Human Papillomavirus
Institutions: China Medical University , University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences , University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences .
A protocol has been developed to overcome the difficulties of isolating and characterizing rare T cells specific for pathogens, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), that cause localized infections. The steps involved are identifying region(s) of HPV proteins that contain T-cell epitope(s) from a subject, selecting for the peptide-specific T cells based on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion, and growing and characterizing the T-cell clones (Fig. 1
). Subject 1 was a patient who was recently diagnosed with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion by biopsy and underwent loop electrical excision procedure for treatment on the day the T cells were collected1
. A region within the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) E6 and E7 proteins which contained a T-cell epitope was identified using an IFN- g enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay performed with overlapping synthetic peptides (Fig. 2
). The data from this assay were used not only to identify a region containing a T-cell epitope, but also to estimate the number of epitope specific T cells and to isolate them on the basis of IFN- γ secretion using commercially available magnetic beads (CD8 T-cell isolation kit, Miltenyi Biotec, Auburn CA). The selected IFN-γ secreting T cells were diluted and grown singly in the presence of an irradiated feeder cell mixture in order to support the growth of a single T-cell per well. These T-cell clones were screened using an IFN- γ ELISPOT assay in the presence of peptides covering the identified region and autologous Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs, obtained how described by Walls and Crawford)2
in order to minimize the number of T-cell clone cells needed. Instead of using 1 x 105
cells per well typically used in ELISPOT assays1,3
, 1,000 T-cell clone cells in the presence of 1 x 105
autologous LCLs were used, dramatically reducing the number of T-cell clone cells needed. The autologous LCLs served not only to present peptide antigens to the T-cell clone cells, but also to keep a high cell density in the wells allowing the epitope-specific T-cell clone cells to secrete IFN-γ. This assures successful performance of IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Similarly, IFN- γ ELISPOT assays were utilized to characterize the minimal and optimal amino acid sequence of the CD8 T-cell epitope (HPV 16 E6 52-61 FAFRDLCIVY) and its HLA class I restriction element (B58). The IFN- γ ELISPOT assay was also performed using autologous LCLs infected with vaccinia virus expressing HPV 16 E6 or E7 protein. The result demonstrated that the E6 T-cell epitope was endogenously processed. The cross-recognition of homologous T-cell epitope of other high-risk HPV types was shown. This method can also be used to describe CD4 T-cell epitopes4
Immunology, Issue 61, Interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay, T-cell, epitope, human papillomavirus
A Comparative Approach to Characterize the Landscape of Host-Pathogen Protein-Protein Interactions
Institutions: Institut Pasteur , Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, Dana Farber Cancer Institute.
Significant efforts were gathered to generate large-scale comprehensive protein-protein interaction network maps. This is instrumental to understand the pathogen-host relationships and was essentially performed by genetic screenings in yeast two-hybrid systems. The recent improvement of protein-protein interaction detection by a Gaussia
luciferase-based fragment complementation assay now offers the opportunity to develop integrative comparative interactomic approaches necessary to rigorously compare interaction profiles of proteins from different pathogen strain variants against a common set of cellular factors.
This paper specifically focuses on the utility of combining two orthogonal methods to generate protein-protein interaction datasets: yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and a new assay, high-throughput Gaussia princeps
protein complementation assay (HT-GPCA) performed in mammalian cells.
A large-scale identification of cellular partners of a pathogen protein is performed by mating-based yeast two-hybrid screenings of cDNA libraries using multiple pathogen strain variants. A subset of interacting partners selected on a high-confidence statistical scoring is further validated in mammalian cells for pair-wise interactions with the whole set of pathogen variants proteins using HT-GPCA. This combination of two complementary methods improves the robustness of the interaction dataset, and allows the performance of a stringent comparative interaction analysis. Such comparative interactomics constitute a reliable and powerful strategy to decipher any pathogen-host interplays.
Immunology, Issue 77, Genetics, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Infection, Cancer Biology, Virology, Medicine, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Protein-protein interaction, High-throughput screening, Luminescence, Yeast two-hybrid, HT-GPCA, Network, protein, yeast, cell, culture
Collection, Isolation, and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Human Endocervical Samples
Institutions: University of Manitoba, University of Manitoba.
Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo
flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina.
Medicine, Issue 89, mucosal, immunology, FGT, lavage, cervical, CMC
An Orthotopic Murine Model of Human Prostate Cancer Metastasis
Institutions: Northwestern University, Northwestern University, Northwestern University.
Our laboratory has developed a novel orthotopic implantation model of human prostate cancer (PCa). As PCa death is not due to the primary tumor, but rather the formation of distinct metastasis, the ability to effectively model this progression pre-clinically is of high value. In this model, cells are directly implanted into the ventral lobe of the prostate in Balb/c athymic mice, and allowed to progress for 4-6 weeks. At experiment termination, several distinct endpoints can be measured, such as size and molecular characterization of the primary tumor, the presence and quantification of circulating tumor cells in the blood and bone marrow, and formation of metastasis to the lung. In addition to a variety of endpoints, this model provides a picture of a cells ability to invade and escape the primary organ, enter and survive in the circulatory system, and implant and grow in a secondary site. This model has been used effectively to measure metastatic response to both changes in protein expression as well as to response to small molecule therapeutics, in a short turnaround time.
Medicine, Issue 79, Urogenital System, Male Urogenital Diseases, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Life Sciences (General), Prostate Cancer, Metastasis, Mouse Model, Drug Discovery, Molecular Biology
Videomorphometric Analysis of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction of Intra-pulmonary Arteries Using Murine Precision Cut Lung Slices
Acute alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) - also known as von Euler-Liljestrand mechanism - which serves to match lung perfusion to ventilation. Up to now, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The major vascular segment contributing to HPV is the intra-acinar artery. This vessel section is responsible for the blood supply of an individual acinus, which is defined as the portion of lung distal to a terminal bronchiole. Intra-acinar arteries are mostly located in that part of the lung that cannot be selectively reached by a number of commonly used techniques such as measurement of the pulmonary artery pressure in isolated perfused lungs or force recordings from dissected proximal pulmonary artery segments1,2
. The analysis of subpleural vessels by real-time confocal laser scanning luminescence microscopy is limited to vessels with up to 50 µm in diameter3
We provide a technique to study HPV of murine intra-pulmonary arteries in the range of 20-100 µm inner diameters. It is based on the videomorphometric analysis of cross-sectioned arteries in precision cut lung slices (PCLS). This method allows the quantitative measurement of vasoreactivity of small intra-acinar
arteries with inner diameter between 20-40 µm which are located at gussets of alveolar septa next to alveolar ducts and of larger pre-acinar
arteries with inner diameters between 40-100 µm which run adjacent to bronchi and bronchioles. In contrast to real-time imaging of subpleural vessels in anesthetized and ventilated mice, videomorphometric analysis of PCLS occurs under conditions free of shear stress. In our experimental model both arterial segments exhibit a monophasic HPV when exposed to medium gassed with 1% O2
and the response fades after 30-40 min at hypoxia.
Medicine, Issue 83, Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, murine lungs, precision cut lung slices, intra-pulmonary, pre- and intra-acinar arteries, videomorphometry
An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings
Institutions: University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Jembi Health Systems, University of Amsterdam, Stanford Medical School.
HIV-1 drug resistance has the potential to seriously compromise the effectiveness and impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART). As ART programs in sub-Saharan Africa continue to expand, individuals on ART should be closely monitored for the emergence of drug resistance. Surveillance of transmitted drug resistance to track transmission of viral strains already resistant to ART is also critical. Unfortunately, drug resistance testing is still not readily accessible in resource limited settings, because genotyping is expensive and requires sophisticated laboratory and data management infrastructure. An open access genotypic drug resistance monitoring method to manage individuals and assess transmitted drug resistance is described. The method uses free open source software for the interpretation of drug resistance patterns and the generation of individual patient reports. The genotyping protocol has an amplification rate of greater than 95% for plasma samples with a viral load >1,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. The sensitivity decreases significantly for viral loads <1,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. The method described here was validated against a method of HIV-1 drug resistance testing approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Viroseq genotyping method. Limitations of the method described here include the fact that it is not automated and that it also failed to amplify the circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG from a validation panel of samples, although it amplified subtypes A and B from the same panel.
Medicine, Issue 85, Biomedical Technology, HIV-1, HIV Infections, Viremia, Nucleic Acids, genetics, antiretroviral therapy, drug resistance, genotyping, affordable
A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro
. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro
replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag
gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag
gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro
replication of chronically derived gag-pro
sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 90, HIV-1, Gag, viral replication, replication capacity, viral fitness, MJ4, CEM, GXR25
Getting to Compliance in Forced Exercise in Rodents: A Critical Standard to Evaluate Exercise Impact in Aging-related Disorders and Disease
Institutions: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.
There is a major increase in the awareness of the positive impact of exercise on improving several disease states with neurobiological basis; these include improving cognitive function and physical performance. As a result, there is an increase in the number of animal studies employing exercise. It is argued that one intrinsic value of forced exercise is that the investigator has control over the factors that can influence the impact of exercise on behavioral outcomes, notably exercise frequency, duration, and intensity of the exercise regimen. However, compliance in forced exercise regimens may be an issue, particularly if potential confounds of employing foot-shock are to be avoided. It is also important to consider that since most cognitive and locomotor impairments strike in the aged individual, determining impact of exercise on these impairments should consider using aged rodents with a highest possible level of compliance to ensure minimal need for test subjects. Here, the pertinent steps and considerations necessary to achieve nearly 100% compliance to treadmill exercise in an aged rodent model will be presented and discussed. Notwithstanding the particular exercise regimen being employed by the investigator, our protocol should be of use to investigators that are particularly interested in the potential impact of forced exercise on aging-related impairments, including aging-related Parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease.
Behavior, Issue 90, Exercise, locomotor, Parkinson’s disease, aging, treadmill, bradykinesia, Parkinsonism
Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies
Institutions: Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Hasselt University, Hasselt University, Leuven University.
The microcirculation consists of blood vessels with diameters less than 150 µm. It makes up a large part of the circulatory system and plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular health. The retina is a tissue that lines the interior of the eye and it is the only tissue that allows for a non-invasive analysis of the microvasculature. Nowadays, high-quality fundus images can be acquired using digital cameras. Retinal images can be collected in 5 min or less, even without dilatation of the pupils. This unobtrusive and fast procedure for visualizing the microcirculation is attractive to apply in epidemiological studies and to monitor cardiovascular health from early age up to old age.
Systemic diseases that affect the circulation can result in progressive morphological changes in the retinal vasculature. For example, changes in the vessel calibers of retinal arteries and veins have been associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and increased risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. The vessel widths are derived using image analysis software and the width of the six largest arteries and veins are summarized in the Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent (CRAE) and the Central Retinal Venular Equivalent (CRVE). The latter features have been shown useful to study the impact of modifiable lifestyle and environmental cardiovascular disease risk factors.
The procedures to acquire fundus images and the analysis steps to obtain CRAE and CRVE are described. Coefficients of variation of repeated measures of CRAE and CRVE are less than 2% and within-rater reliability is very high. Using a panel study, the rapid response of the retinal vessel calibers to short-term changes in particulate air pollution, a known risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, is reported. In conclusion, retinal imaging is proposed as a convenient and instrumental tool for epidemiological studies to study microvascular responses to cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Medicine, Issue 92, retina, microvasculature, image analysis, Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent, Central Retinal Venular Equivalent, air pollution, particulate matter, black carbon
Induction of Invasive Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinoma in Immune Intact Human MUC1 Transgenic Mice: A Model for Immunotherapy Development
Institutions: University of California, Davis, University of California, Davis, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.
A preclinical model of invasive bladder cancer was developed in human mucin 1 (MUC1) transgenic (MUC1.Tg) mice for the purpose of evaluating immunotherapy and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy. To induce bladder cancer, C57BL/6 mice (MUC1.Tg and wild type) were treated orally with the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) at 3.0 mg/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. To assess the effects of OH-BBN on serum cytokine profile during tumor development, whole blood was collected via submandibular bleeds prior to treatment and every four weeks. In addition, a MUC1-targeted peptide vaccine and placebo were administered to groups of mice weekly for eight weeks. Multiplex fluorometric microbead immunoanalyses of serum cytokines during tumor development and following vaccination were performed. At termination, interferon gamma (IFN-γ)/interleukin-4 (IL-4) ELISpot analysis for MUC1 specific T-cell immune response and histopathological evaluations of tumor type and grade were performed. The results showed that: (1) the incidence of bladder cancer in both MUC1.Tg and wild type mice was 67%; (2) transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) developed at a 2:1 ratio compared to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); (3) inflammatory cytokines increased with time during tumor development; and (4) administration of the peptide vaccine induces a Th1-polarized serum cytokine profile and a MUC1 specific T-cell response. All tumors in MUC1.Tg mice were positive for MUC1 expression, and half of all tumors in MUC1.Tg and wild type mice were invasive. In conclusion, using a team approach through the coordination of the efforts of pharmacologists, immunologists, pathologists and molecular biologists, we have developed an immune intact transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer that expresses hMUC1.
Medicine, Issue 80, Urinary Bladder, Animals, Genetically Modified, Cancer Vaccines, Immunotherapy, Animal Experimentation, Models, Neoplasms Bladder Cancer, C57BL/6 Mouse, MUC1, Immunotherapy, Preclinical Model
An Experimental Model to Study Tuberculosis-Malaria Coinfection upon Natural Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium berghei
Institutions: University Hospital Heidelberg, Research Center Borstel.
Coinfections naturally occur due to the geographic overlap of distinct types of pathogenic organisms. Concurrent infections most likely modulate the respective immune response to each single pathogen and may thereby affect pathogenesis and disease outcome. Coinfected patients may also respond differentially to anti-infective interventions. Coinfection between tuberculosis as caused by mycobacteria and the malaria parasite Plasmodium
, both of which are coendemic in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, has not been studied in detail. In order to approach the challenging but scientifically and clinically highly relevant question how malaria-tuberculosis coinfection modulate host immunity and the course of each disease, we established an experimental mouse model that allows us to dissect the elicited immune responses to both pathogens in the coinfected host. Of note, in order to most precisely mimic naturally acquired human infections, we perform experimental infections of mice with both pathogens by their natural routes of infection, i.e.
aerosol and mosquito bite, respectively.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 84, coinfection, mouse, Tuberculosis, Malaria, Plasmodium berghei, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, natural transmission
Dithranol as a Matrix for Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging on a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer
Institutions: University of Victoria, University of Victoria.
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) determines the spatial localization and distribution patterns of compounds on the surface of a tissue section, mainly using MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization)-based analytical techniques. New matrices for small-molecule MSI, which can improve the analysis of low-molecular weight (MW) compounds, are needed. These matrices should provide increased analyte signals while decreasing MALDI background signals. In addition, the use of ultrahigh-resolution instruments, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometers, has the ability to resolve analyte signals from matrix signals, and this can partially overcome many problems associated with the background originating from the MALDI matrix. The reduction in the intensities of the metastable matrix clusters by FTICR MS can also help to overcome some of the interferences associated with matrix peaks on other instruments. High-resolution instruments such as the FTICR mass spectrometers are advantageous as they can produce distribution patterns of many compounds simultaneously while still providing confidence in chemical identifications. Dithranol (DT; 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroanthracen-9-one) has previously been reported as a MALDI matrix for tissue imaging. In this work, a protocol for the use of DT for MALDI imaging of endogenous lipids from the surfaces of mammalian tissue sections, by positive-ion MALDI-MS, on an ultrahigh-resolution hybrid quadrupole FTICR instrument has been provided.
Basic Protocol, Issue 81, eye, molecular imaging, chemistry technique, analytical, mass spectrometry, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), tandem mass spectrometry, lipid, tissue imaging, bovine lens, dithranol, matrix, FTICR (Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance)
Feeding of Ticks on Animals for Transmission and Xenodiagnosis in Lyme Disease Research
Institutions: Tulane University Health Sciences Center.
Transmission of the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi,
occurs by the attachment and blood feeding of Ixodes
species ticks on mammalian hosts. In nature, this zoonotic bacterial pathogen may use a variety of reservoir hosts, but the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus
) is the primary reservoir for larval and nymphal ticks in North America. Humans are incidental hosts most frequently infected with B. burgdorferi
by the bite of ticks in the nymphal stage. B. burgdorferi
adapts to its hosts throughout the enzootic cycle, so the ability to explore the functions of these spirochetes and their effects on mammalian hosts requires the use of tick feeding. In addition, the technique of xenodiagnosis (using the natural vector for detection and recovery of an infectious agent) has been useful in studies of cryptic infection. In order to obtain nymphal ticks that harbor B. burgdorferi
, ticks are fed live spirochetes in culture through capillary tubes. Two animal models, mice and nonhuman primates, are most commonly used for Lyme disease studies involving tick feeding. We demonstrate the methods by which these ticks can be fed upon, and recovered from animals for either infection or xenodiagnosis.
Infection, Issue 78, Medicine, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Biomedical Engineering, Primates, Muridae, Ticks, Borrelia, Borrelia Infections, Ixodes, ticks, Lyme disease, xenodiagnosis, Borrelia, burgdorferi, mice, nonhuman primates, animal model
Generation of Organotypic Raft Cultures from Primary Human Keratinocytes
Institutions: University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.
The development of organotypic epithelial raft cultures has provided researchers with an efficient in vitro
system that faithfully recapitulates epithelial differentiation. There are many uses for this system. For instance, the ability to grow three-dimensional organotypic raft cultures of keratinocytes has been an important milestone in the study of human papillomavirus (HPV)1
. The life cycle of HPV is tightly linked to the differentiation of squamous epithelium2
. Organotypic epithelial raft cultures as demonstrated here reproduce the entire papillomavirus life cycle, including virus production3,4,5
. In addition, these raft cultures exhibit dysplastic lesions similar to those observed upon in vivo
infection with HPV. Hence this system can also be used to study epithelial cell cancers, as well as the effect of drugs on epithelial cell differentiation in general. Originally developed by Asselineau and Prunieras6
and modified by Kopan et al
, the organotypic epithelial raft culture system has matured into a general, relatively easy culture model, which involves the growth of cells on collagen plugs maintained at an air-liquid interface (Figure 1A). Over the course of 10-14 days, the cells stratify and differentiate, forming a full thickness epithelium that produces differentiation-specific cytokeratins. Harvested rafts can be examined histologically, as well as by standard molecular and biochemical techniques. In this article, we describe a method for the generation of raft cultures from primary human keratinocytes. The same technique can be used with established epithelial cell lines, and can easily be adapted for use with epithelial tissue from normal or diseased biopsies8
. Many viruses target either the cutaneous or mucosal epithelium as part of their replicative life cycle. Over the past several years, the feasibility of using organotypic raft cultures as a method of studying virus-host cell interactions has been shown for several herpesviruses, as well as adenoviruses, parvoviruses, and poxviruses9
. Organotypic raft cultures can thus be adapted to examine viral pathogenesis, and are the only means to test novel antiviral agents for those viruses that are not cultivable in permanent cell lines.
Immunology, Issue 60, Epithelium, organotypic raft culture, virus, keratinocytes, papillomavirus
FSL Constructs: A Simple Method for Modifying Cell/Virion Surfaces with a Range of Biological Markers Without Affecting their Viability
Institutions: AUT University and KODE Biotech Ltd, Moscow, Russia.
The ability to modify/visualize biological surfaces, and then study the modified cell/virion in a range of in vitro
and in vivo
environments is essential to gaining further insight into the function of specific molecules or the entire entity. Studies of biological surface modification are generally limited to genetic engineering of the organism or the covalent attachment of chemical moieties to the cell surface1,2
. However these traditional techniques expose the cell to chemical reactants, or they require significant manipulation to achieve the desired outcome, making them cumbersome, and they may also inadvertently affect the viability/functionality of the modified cell. A simple method to harmlessly modify the surface of cells is required.
Recently a new technology, KODE Technology has introduced a range of novel constructs consisting of three components: a functional head group (F), a spacer (S) and a lipid tail (L) and are known as Function-Spacer-Lipid or FSL constructs3. The spacer (S) is selected to provide a construct that is dispersible in water, yet will spontaneously and stably incorporate into a membrane.
FSL construct functional moieties (F) so far include a range of saccharides including blood group-related determinants, sialic acids, hyaluronan polysaccharides, fluorophores, biotin, radiolabels, and a range of peptides3-12
. FSL constructs have been used in modifying embryos, spermatozoa, zebrafish, epithelial/endometrial cells, red blood cells, and virions to create quality controls systems and diagnostic panels, to modify cell adhesion/ interaction/ separation/ immobilization, and for in vitro
and in vivo
imaging of cells/virions3-12
The process of modifying cells/virions is generic and extremely simple. The most common procedure is incubation of cells (in lipid free media) with a solution for FSL constructs for 1-2 hours at 37°C4-10
. During the incubation the FSL constructs spontaneously incorporate into the membrane, and the process is complete. Washing is optional. Cells modified by FSL constructs are known as kodecytes6-9
, while virions are kodevirions10
FSL constructs as direct infusions and kodecytes/kodevirions have been used in experimental animal models7,8,10
. All kodecytes/kodevirions appear to retain their normal vitality and functionality while gaining the new function of the F moiety7,8,10,11
The combination of dispersibility in biocompatible media, spontaneous incorporation into cell membranes, and apparent low toxicity, makes FSL constructs valuable research tools for the study of cells and virions.
Molecular Biology, Issue 54, kodecyte, FSL construct, imaging, biotin, fluorophore
The C-seal: A Biofragmentable Drain Protecting the Stapled Colorectal Anastomosis from Leakage
Institutions: University Medical Center Groningen.
Colorectal anastomotic leakage (AL) is a serious complication in colorectal surgery leading to high morbidity and mortality rates1
. The incidence of AL varies between 2.5 and 20% 2-5
. Over the years, many strategies aimed at lowering the incidence of anastomotic leakage have been examined6, 7
The cause of AL is probably multifactorial. Etiological factors include insufficient arterial blood supply, tension on the anastomosis, hematoma and/or infection at the anastomotic site, and co-morbid factors of the patient as diabetes and atherosclerosis8
. Furthermore, some anastomoses may be insufficient from the start due to technical failure.
Currently a new device is developed in our institute aimed at protecting the colorectal anastomosis and lowering the incidence of AL. This so called C-seal is a biofragmentable drain, which is stapled to the anastomosis with the circular stapler. It covers the luminal side of the colorectal anastomosis thereby preventing leakage.
The C-seal is a thin-walled tube-like drain, with an approximate diameter of 4 cm and an approximate length of 25 cm (figure 1). It is a tubular device composed of biodegradable polyurethane. Two flaps with adhesive tape are found at one end of the tube. These flaps are used to attach the C-seal to the anvil of the circular stapler, so that after the anastomosis is made the C-seal can be pulled through the anus. The C-seal remains in situ
for at least 10 days. Thereafter it will lose strength and will degrade to be secreted from the body together with the gastrointestinal natural contents.
The C-seal does not prevent the formation of dehiscences. However, it prevents extravasation of faeces into the peritoneal cavity. This means that a gap at the anastomotic site does not lead to leakage.
Currently, a phase II study testing the C-seal in 35 patients undergoing (colo-)rectal resection with stapled anastomosis is recruiting. The C-seal can be used in both open procedures as well as laparoscopic procedures. The C-seal is only applied in stapled anastomoses within 15cm from the anal verge. In the video, application of the C-seal is shown in an open extended sigmoid resection in a patient suffering from diverticular disease with a stenotic colon.
Medicine, Issue 45, Surgery, low anterior resection, colorectal anastomosis, anastomotic leakage, drain, rectal cancer, circular stapler
A Strategy to Identify de Novo Mutations in Common Disorders such as Autism and Schizophrenia
Institutions: Universite de Montreal, Universite de Montreal, Universite de Montreal.
There are several lines of evidence supporting the role of de novo
mutations as a mechanism for common disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. First, the de novo
mutation rate in humans is relatively high, so new mutations are generated at a high frequency in the population. However, de novo
mutations have not been reported in most common diseases. Mutations in genes leading to severe diseases where there is a strong negative selection against the phenotype, such as lethality in embryonic stages or reduced reproductive fitness, will not be transmitted to multiple family members, and therefore will not be detected by linkage gene mapping or association studies. The observation of very high concordance in monozygotic twins and very low concordance in dizygotic twins also strongly supports the hypothesis that a significant fraction of cases may result from new mutations. Such is the case for diseases such as autism and schizophrenia. Second, despite reduced reproductive fitness1
and extremely variable environmental factors, the incidence of some diseases is maintained worldwide at a relatively high and constant rate. This is the case for autism and schizophrenia, with an incidence of approximately 1% worldwide. Mutational load can be thought of as a balance between selection for or against a deleterious mutation and its production by de novo
mutation. Lower rates of reproduction constitute a negative selection factor that should reduce the number of mutant alleles in the population, ultimately leading to decreased disease prevalence. These selective pressures tend to be of different intensity in different environments. Nonetheless, these severe mental disorders have been maintained at a constant relatively high prevalence in the worldwide population across a wide range of cultures and countries despite a strong negative selection against them2
. This is not what one would predict in diseases with reduced reproductive fitness, unless there was a high new mutation rate. Finally, the effects of paternal age: there is a significantly increased risk of the disease with increasing paternal age, which could result from the age related increase in paternal de novo
mutations. This is the case for autism and schizophrenia3
. The male-to-female ratio of mutation rate is estimated at about 4–6:1, presumably due to a higher number of germ-cell divisions with age in males. Therefore, one would predict that de novo
mutations would more frequently come from males, particularly older males4
. A high rate of new mutations may in part explain why genetic studies have so far failed to identify many genes predisposing to complexes diseases genes, such as autism and schizophrenia, and why diseases have been identified for a mere 3% of genes in the human genome. Identification for de novo
mutations as a cause of a disease requires a targeted molecular approach, which includes studying parents and affected subjects. The process for determining if the genetic basis of a disease may result in part from de novo
mutations and the molecular approach to establish this link will be illustrated, using autism and schizophrenia as examples.
Medicine, Issue 52, de novo mutation, complex diseases, schizophrenia, autism, rare variations, DNA sequencing
Atmospheric-pressure Molecular Imaging of Biological Tissues and Biofilms by LAESI Mass Spectrometry
Institutions: George Washington University.
Ambient ionization methods in mass spectrometry allow analytical investigations to be performed directly on a tissue or biofilm under native-like experimental conditions. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) is one such development and is particularly well-suited for the investigation of water-containing specimens. LAESI utilizes a mid-infrared laser beam (2.94 μm wavelength) to excite the water molecules of the sample. When the ablation fluence threshold is exceeded, the sample material is expelled in the form of particulate matter and these projectiles travel to tens of millimeters above the sample surface. In LAESI, this ablation plume is intercepted by highly charged droplets to capture a fraction of the ejected sample material and convert its chemical constituents into gas-phase ions. A mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric-pressure ion source interface is employed to analyze and record the composition of the released ions originating from the probed area (pixel) of the sample. A systematic interrogation over an array of pixels opens a way for molecular imaging in the microprobe analysis mode. A unique aspect of LAESI mass spectrometric imaging is depth profiling that, in combination with lateral imaging, enables three-dimensional (3D) molecular imaging. With current lateral and depth resolutions of ~100 μm and ~40 μm, respectively, LAESI mass spectrometric imaging helps to explore the molecular structure of biological tissues. Herein, we review the major elements of a LAESI system and provide guidelines for a successful imaging experiment.
Molecular Biology, Issue 43, imaging mass spectrometry, ambient mass spectrometry, direct analysis, tissue, biofilm
Direct Tracheal Instillation of Solutes into Mouse Lung
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University, Emory University.
Intratracheal instillations deliver solutes directly into the lungs. This procedure targets the delivery of the instillate into the distal regions of the lung, and is therefore often incorporated in studies aimed at studying alveoli. We provide a detailed survival protocol for performing intratracheal instillations in mice. Using this approach, one can target delivery of test solutes or solids (such as lung therapeutics, surfactants, viruses, and small oligonucleotides) into the distal lung. Tracheal instillations may be the preferred methodology, over inhalation protocols that may primarily target the upper respiratory tract and possibly expose the investigator to potentially hazardous substances. Additionally, in using the tracheal instillation protocol, animals can fully recover from the non-invasive procedure. This allows for making subsequent physiological measurements on test animals, or reinstallation using the same animal. The amount of instillate introduced into the lung must be carefully determined and osmotically balanced to ensure animal recovery. Typically, 30-75 μL instillate volume can be introduced into mouse lung.
Medicine, Issue 42, trachea, instillation, distal lung, alveolar space, survival surgery