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Pubmed Article
A quantitative comparison of the behavior of human ventricular cardiac electrophysiology models in tissue.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Numerical integration of mathematical models of heart cell electrophysiology provides an important computational tool for studying cardiac arrhythmias, but the abundance of available models complicates selecting an appropriate model. We study the behavior of two recently published models of human ventricular action potentials, the Grandi-Pasqualini-Bers (GPB) and the O'Hara-Virág-Varró-Rudy (OVVR) models, and compare the results with four previously published models and with available experimental and clinical data. We find the shapes and durations of action potentials and calcium transients differ between the GPB and OVVR models, as do the magnitudes and rate-dependent properties of transmembrane currents and the calcium transient. Differences also occur in the steady-state and S1-S2 action potential duration and conduction velocity restitution curves, including a maximum conduction velocity for the OVVR model roughly half that of the GPB model and well below clinical values. Between single cells and tissue, both models exhibit differences in properties, including maximum upstroke velocity, action potential amplitude, and minimum diastolic interval. Compared to experimental data, action potential durations for the GPB and OVVR models agree fairly well (although OVVR epicardial action potentials are shorter), but maximum slopes of steady-state restitution curves are smaller. Although studies show alternans in normal hearts, it occurs only in the OVVR model, and only for a narrow range of cycle lengths. We find initiated spiral waves do not progress to sustained breakup for either model. The dominant spiral wave period of the GPB model falls within clinically relevant values for ventricular tachycardia (VT), but for the OVVR model, the dominant period is longer than periods associated with VT. Our results should facilitate choosing a model to match properties of interest in human cardiac tissue and to replicate arrhythmia behavior more closely. Furthermore, by indicating areas where existing models disagree, our findings suggest avenues for further experimental work.
Authors: Fijoy Vadakkumpadan, Hermenegild Arevalo, Natalia A. Trayanova.
Published: 01-08-2013
ABSTRACT
Patient-specific simulations of heart (dys)function aimed at personalizing cardiac therapy are hampered by the absence of in vivo imaging technology for clinically acquiring myocardial fiber orientations. The objective of this project was to develop a methodology to estimate cardiac fiber orientations from in vivo images of patient heart geometries. An accurate representation of ventricular geometry and fiber orientations was reconstructed, respectively, from high-resolution ex vivo structural magnetic resonance (MR) and diffusion tensor (DT) MR images of a normal human heart, referred to as the atlas. Ventricular geometry of a patient heart was extracted, via semiautomatic segmentation, from an in vivo computed tomography (CT) image. Using image transformation algorithms, the atlas ventricular geometry was deformed to match that of the patient. Finally, the deformation field was applied to the atlas fiber orientations to obtain an estimate of patient fiber orientations. The accuracy of the fiber estimates was assessed using six normal and three failing canine hearts. The mean absolute difference between inclination angles of acquired and estimated fiber orientations was 15.4 °. Computational simulations of ventricular activation maps and pseudo-ECGs in sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia indicated that there are no significant differences between estimated and acquired fiber orientations at a clinically observable level.The new insights obtained from the project will pave the way for the development of patient-specific models of the heart that can aid physicians in personalized diagnosis and decisions regarding electrophysiological interventions.
23 Related JoVE Articles!
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Isolation and Functional Characterization of Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes from Fresh Surgical Samples
Authors: Raffaele Coppini, Cecila Ferrantini, Alessandro Aiazzi, Luca Mazzoni, Laura Sartiani, Alessandro Mugelli, Corrado Poggesi, Elisabetta Cerbai.
Institutions: University of Florence, University of Florence.
Cardiomyocytes from diseased hearts are subjected to complex remodeling processes involving changes in cell structure, excitation contraction coupling and membrane ion currents. Those changes are likely to be responsible for the increased arrhythmogenic risk and the contractile alterations leading to systolic and diastolic dysfunction in cardiac patients. However, most information on the alterations of myocyte function in cardiac diseases has come from animal models. Here we describe and validate a protocol to isolate viable myocytes from small surgical samples of ventricular myocardium from patients undergoing cardiac surgery operations. The protocol is described in detail. Electrophysiological and intracellular calcium measurements are reported to demonstrate the feasibility of a number of single cell measurements in human ventricular cardiomyocytes obtained with this method. The protocol reported here can be useful for future investigations of the cellular and molecular basis of functional alterations of the human heart in the presence of different cardiac diseases. Further, this method can be used to identify novel therapeutic targets at cellular level and to test the effectiveness of new compounds on human cardiomyocytes, with direct translational value.
Medicine, Issue 86, cardiology, cardiac cells, electrophysiology, excitation-contraction coupling, action potential, calcium, myocardium, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac patients, cardiac disease
51116
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In Vivo Electrophysiological Measurements on Mouse Sciatic Nerves
Authors: Alexander Schulz, Christian Walther, Helen Morrison, Reinhard Bauer.
Institutions: Fritz Lipmann Institute, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Friedrich Schiller University Jena.
Electrophysiological studies allow a rational classification of various neuromuscular diseases and are of help, together with neuropathological techniques, in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology1. Here we describe a method to perform electrophysiological studies on mouse sciatic nerves in vivo. The animals are anesthetized with isoflurane in order to ensure analgesia for the tested mice and undisturbed working environment during the measurements that take about 30 min/animal. A constant body temperature of 37 °C is maintained by a heating plate and continuously measured by a rectal thermo probe2. Additionally, an electrocardiogram (ECG) is routinely recorded during the measurements in order to continuously monitor the physiological state of the investigated animals. Electrophysiological recordings are performed on the sciatic nerve, the largest nerve of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), supplying the mouse hind limb with both motoric and sensory fiber tracts. In our protocol, sciatic nerves remain in situ and therefore do not have to be extracted or exposed, allowing measurements without any adverse nerve irritations along with actual recordings. Using appropriate needle electrodes3 we perform both proximal and distal nerve stimulations, registering the transmitted potentials with sensing electrodes at gastrocnemius muscles. After data processing, reliable and highly consistent values for the nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and the compound motor action potential (CMAP), the key parameters for quantification of gross peripheral nerve functioning, can be achieved.
Neuroscience, Issue 86, Demyelinating Diseases, Neurodegenerative Diseases, electrophysiology, sciatic nerve, mouse, nerve conduction velocity, neuromuscular diseases
51181
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Recapitulation of an Ion Channel IV Curve Using Frequency Components
Authors: John R. Rigby, Steven Poelzing.
Institutions: University of Utah.
INTRODUCTION: Presently, there are no established methods to measure multiple ion channel types simultaneously and decompose the measured current into portions attributable to each channel type. This study demonstrates how impedance spectroscopy may be used to identify specific frequencies that highly correlate with the steady state current amplitude measured during voltage clamp experiments. The method involves inserting a noise function containing specific frequencies into the voltage step protocol. In the work presented, a model cell is used to demonstrate that no high correlations are introduced by the voltage clamp circuitry, and also that the noise function itself does not introduce any high correlations when no ion channels are present. This validation is necessary before the technique can be applied to preparations containing ion channels. The purpose of the protocol presented is to demonstrate how to characterize the frequency response of a single ion channel type to a noise function. Once specific frequencies have been identified in an individual channel type, they can be used to reproduce the steady state current voltage (IV) curve. Frequencies that highly correlate with one channel type and minimally correlate with other channel types may then be used to estimate the current contribution of multiple channel types measured simultaneously. METHODS: Voltage clamp measurements were performed on a model cell using a standard voltage step protocol (-150 to +50 mV, 5mV steps). Noise functions containing equal magnitudes of 1-15 kHz frequencies (zero to peak amplitudes: 50 or 100mV) were inserted into each voltage step. The real component of the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the output signal was calculated with and without noise for each step potential. The magnitude of each frequency as a function of voltage step was correlated with the current amplitude at the corresponding voltages. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of noise (control), magnitudes of all frequencies except the DC component correlated poorly (|R|<0.5) with the IV curve, whereas the DC component had a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999 in all measurements. The quality of correlation between individual frequencies and the IV curve did not change when a noise function was added to the voltage step protocol. Likewise, increasing the amplitude of the noise function also did not increase the correlation. Control measurements demonstrate that the voltage clamp circuitry by itself does not cause any frequencies above 0 Hz to highly correlate with the steady-state IV curve. Likewise, measurements in the presence of the noise function demonstrate that the noise function does not cause any frequencies above 0 Hz to correlate with the steady-state IV curve when no ion channels are present. Based on this verification, the method can now be applied to preparations containing a single ion channel type with the intent of identifying frequencies whose amplitudes correlate specifically with that channel type.
Biophysics, Issue 48, Ion channel, Kir2.1, impedance spectroscopy, frequency response, voltage clamp, electrophysiology
2361
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Transthoracic Echocardiography in Mice
Authors: Jonathan L. Respress, Xander H.T. Wehrens.
Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Baylor College of Medicine (BCM).
In recent years, murine models have become the primary avenue for studying the molecular mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction resulting from changes in gene expression. Transgenic and gene targeting methods can be used to generate mice with altered cardiac size and function,1-3 and as a result, in vivo techniques are needed to evaluate their cardiac phenotype. Transthoracic echocardiography, pulse wave Doppler (PWD), and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) can be used to provide dimensional measurements of the mouse heart and to quantify the degree of cardiac systolic and diastolic performance. Two-dimensional imaging is used to detect abnormal anatomy or movements of the left ventricle, whereas M-mode echo is used for quantification of cardiac dimensions and contractility.4,5 In addition, PWD is used to quantify localized velocity of turbulent flow,6 whereas TDI is used to measure the velocity of myocardial motion.7 Thus, transthoracic echocardiography offers a comprehensive method for the noninvasive evaluation of cardiac function in mice.
Medicine, Issue 39, Echocardiography, pulse wave Doppler, tissue Doppler imaging, ultrasound
1738
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High-Resolution Endocardial and Epicardial Optical Mapping in a Sheep Model of Stretch-Induced Atrial Fibrillation
Authors: David Filgueiras-Rama, Raphael Pedro Martins, Steven R. Ennis, Sergey Mironov, Jiang Jiang, Masatoshi Yamazaki, Jérôme Kalifa, Josè Jalife, Omer Berenfeld.
Institutions: University of Michigan .
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a complex cardiac arrhythmia with high morbidity and mortality.1,2 It is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance seen in clinical practice and its prevalence is expected to increase in the coming years.3 Increased intra-atrial pressure and dilatation have been long recognized to lead to AF,1,4 which highlights the relevance of using animal models and stretch to study AF dynamics. Understanding the mechanisms underlying AF requires visualization of the cardiac electrical waves with high spatial and temporal resolution. While high-temporal resolution can be achieved by conventional electrical mapping traditionally used in human electrophysiological studies, the small number of intra-atrial electrodes that can be used simultaneously limits the spatial resolution and precludes any detailed tracking of the electrical waves during the arrhythmia. The introduction of optical mapping in the early 90's enabled wide-field characterization of fibrillatory activity together with sub-millimeter spatial resolution in animal models5,6 and led to the identification of rapidly spinning electrical wave patterns (rotors) as the sources of the fibrillatory activity that may occur in the ventricles or the atria.7-9 Using combined time- and frequency-domain analyses of optical mapping it is possible to demonstrate discrete sites of high frequency periodic activity during AF, along with frequency gradients between left and right atrium. The region with fastest rotors activates at the highest frequency and drives the overall arrhythmia.10,11 The waves emanating from such rotor interact with either functional or anatomic obstacles in their path, resulting in the phenomenon of fibrillatory conduction.12 Mapping the endocardial surface of the posterior left atrium (PLA) allows the tracking of AF wave dynamics in the region with the highest rotor frequency. Importantly, the PLA is the region where intracavitary catheter-based ablative procedures are most successful terminating AF in patients,13 which underscores the relevance of studying AF dynamics from the interior of the left atrium. Here we describe a sheep model of acute stretch-induced AF, which resembles some of the characteristics of human paroxysmal AF. Epicardial mapping on the left atrium is complemented with endocardial mapping of the PLA using a dual-channel rigid borescope c-mounted to a CCD camera, which represents the most direct approach to visualize the patterns of activation in the most relevant region for AF maintenance.
Medicine, Issue 53, atrial fibrillation, endocardial mapping, patterns of activation, posterior left atrium
3103
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Isolation, Culture, and Functional Characterization of Adult Mouse Cardiomyoctyes
Authors: Evan Lee Graham, Cristina Balla, Hannabeth Franchino, Yonathan Melman, Federica del Monte, Saumya Das.
Institutions: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Sapienza University.
The use of primary cardiomyocytes (CMs) in culture has provided a powerful complement to murine models of heart disease in advancing our understanding of heart disease. In particular, the ability to study ion homeostasis, ion channel function, cellular excitability and excitation-contraction coupling and their alterations in diseased conditions and by disease-causing mutations have led to significant insights into cardiac diseases. Furthermore, the lack of an adequate immortalized cell line to mimic adult CMs, and the limitations of neonatal CMs (which lack many of the structural and functional biomechanics characteristic of adult CMs) in culture have hampered our understanding of the complex interplay between signaling pathways, ion channels and contractile properties in the adult heart strengthening the importance of studying adult isolated cardiomyocytes. Here, we present methods for the isolation, culture, manipulation of gene expression by adenoviral-expressed proteins, and subsequent functional analysis of cardiomyocytes from the adult mouse. The use of these techniques will help to develop mechanistic insight into signaling pathways that regulate cellular excitability, Ca2+ dynamics and contractility and provide a much more physiologically relevant characterization of cardiovascular disease.
Cellular Biology, Issue 79, Medicine, Cardiology, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Mice, Ion Channels, Primary Cell Culture, Cardiac Electrophysiology, adult mouse cardiomyocytes, cell isolation, IonOptix, Cell Culture, adenoviral transfection, patch clamp, fluorescent nanosensor
50289
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Permanent Ligation of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery in Mice: A Model of Post-myocardial Infarction Remodelling and Heart Failure
Authors: Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Marleen Lox, Frank Jacobs, Bart De Geest.
Institutions: Catholic University of Leuven.
Heart failure is a syndrome in which the heart fails to pump blood at a rate commensurate with cellular oxygen requirements at rest or during stress. It is characterized by fluid retention, shortness of breath, and fatigue, in particular on exertion. Heart failure is a growing public health problem, the leading cause of hospitalization, and a major cause of mortality. Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of heart failure. Ventricular remodelling refers to changes in structure, size, and shape of the left ventricle. This architectural remodelling of the left ventricle is induced by injury (e.g., myocardial infarction), by pressure overload (e.g., systemic arterial hypertension or aortic stenosis), or by volume overload. Since ventricular remodelling affects wall stress, it has a profound impact on cardiac function and on the development of heart failure. A model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice is used to investigate ventricular remodelling and cardiac function post-myocardial infarction. This model is fundamentally different in terms of objectives and pathophysiological relevance compared to the model of transient ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In this latter model of ischemia/reperfusion injury, the initial extent of the infarct may be modulated by factors that affect myocardial salvage following reperfusion. In contrast, the infarct area at 24 hr after permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery is fixed. Cardiac function in this model will be affected by 1) the process of infarct expansion, infarct healing, and scar formation; and 2) the concomitant development of left ventricular dilatation, cardiac hypertrophy, and ventricular remodelling. Besides the model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the technique of invasive hemodynamic measurements in mice is presented in detail.
Medicine, Issue 94, Myocardial infarction, cardiac remodelling, infarct expansion, heart failure, cardiac function, invasive hemodynamic measurements
52206
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Echocardiographic Assessment of the Right Heart in Mice
Authors: Evan Brittain, Niki L. Penner, James West, Anna Hemnes.
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
Transgenic and toxic models of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are widely used to study the pathophysiology of PAH and to investigate potential therapies. Given the expense and time involved in creating animal models of disease, it is critical that researchers have tools to accurately assess phenotypic expression of disease. Right ventricular dysfunction is the major manifestation of pulmonary hypertension. Echocardiography is the mainstay of the noninvasive assessment of right ventricular function in rodent models and has the advantage of clear translation to humans in whom the same tool is used. Published echocardiography protocols in murine models of PAH are lacking. In this article, we describe a protocol for assessing RV and pulmonary vascular function in a mouse model of PAH with a dominant negative BMPRII mutation; however, this protocol is applicable to any diseases affecting the pulmonary vasculature or right heart. We provide a detailed description of animal preparation, image acquisition and hemodynamic calculation of stroke volume, cardiac output and an estimate of pulmonary artery pressure.
Medicine, Issue 81, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Cardiology, Cardiac Imaging Techniques, Echocardiography, Echocardiography, Doppler, Cardiovascular Physiological Processes, Cardiovascular System, Cardiovascular Diseases, Echocardiography, right ventricle, right ventricular function, pulmonary hypertension, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, transgenic models, hemodynamics, animal model
50912
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Isolation and Culture of Neonatal Mouse Cardiomyocytes
Authors: Elisabeth Ehler, Thomas Moore-Morris, Stephan Lange.
Institutions: King’s College London, University of California San Diego .
Cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes have long been used to study myofibrillogenesis and myofibrillar functions. Cultured cardiomyocytes allow for easy investigation and manipulation of biochemical pathways, and their effect on the biomechanical properties of spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes. The following 2-day protocol describes the isolation and culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. We show how to easily dissect hearts from neonates, dissociate the cardiac tissue and enrich cardiomyocytes from the cardiac cell-population. We discuss the usage of different enzyme mixes for cell-dissociation, and their effects on cell-viability. The isolated cardiomyocytes can be subsequently used for a variety of morphological, electrophysiological, biochemical, cell-biological or biomechanical assays. We optimized the protocol for robustness and reproducibility, by using only commercially available solutions and enzyme mixes that show little lot-to-lot variability. We also address common problems associated with the isolation and culture of cardiomyocytes, and offer a variety of options for the optimization of isolation and culture conditions.
Cellular Biology, Issue 79, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Molecular Biology, Cell Culture Techniques, Primary Cell Culture, Cell Culture Techniques, Primary Cell Culture, Cell Culture Techniques, Primary Cell Culture, Cell Culture Techniques, Disease Models, Animal, Models, Cardiovascular, Cell Biology, neonatal mouse, cardiomyocytes, isolation, culture, primary cells, NMC, heart cells, animal model
50154
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Intramyocardial Cell Delivery: Observations in Murine Hearts
Authors: Tommaso Poggioli, Padmini Sarathchandra, Nadia Rosenthal, Maria P. Santini.
Institutions: Imperial College London, Imperial College London, Monash University.
Previous studies showed that cell delivery promotes cardiac function amelioration by release of cytokines and factors that increase cardiac tissue revascularization and cell survival. In addition, further observations revealed that specific stem cells, such as cardiac stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and cardiospheres have the ability to integrate within the surrounding myocardium by differentiating into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Here, we present the materials and methods to reliably deliver noncontractile cells into the left ventricular wall of immunodepleted mice. The salient steps of this microsurgical procedure involve anesthesia and analgesia injection, intratracheal intubation, incision to open the chest and expose the heart and delivery of cells by a sterile 30-gauge needle and a precision microliter syringe. Tissue processing consisting of heart harvesting, embedding, sectioning and histological staining showed that intramyocardial cell injection produced a small damage in the epicardial area, as well as in the ventricular wall. Noncontractile cells were retained into the myocardial wall of immunocompromised mice and were surrounded by a layer of fibrotic tissue, likely to protect from cardiac pressure and mechanical load.
Medicine, Issue 83, intramyocardial cell injection, heart, grafting, cell therapy, stem cells, fibrotic tissue
51064
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Remote Magnetic Navigation for Accurate, Real-time Catheter Positioning and Ablation in Cardiac Electrophysiology Procedures
Authors: David Filgueiras-Rama, Alejandro Estrada, Josh Shachar, Sergio Castrejón, David Doiny, Marta Ortega, Eli Gang, José L. Merino.
Institutions: La Paz University Hospital, Magnetecs Corp., Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Los Angeles.
New remote navigation systems have been developed to improve current limitations of conventional manually guided catheter ablation in complex cardiac substrates such as left atrial flutter. This protocol describes all the clinical and invasive interventional steps performed during a human electrophysiological study and ablation to assess the accuracy, safety and real-time navigation of the Catheter Guidance, Control and Imaging (CGCI) system. Patients who underwent ablation of a right or left atrium flutter substrate were included. Specifically, data from three left atrial flutter and two counterclockwise right atrial flutter procedures are shown in this report. One representative left atrial flutter procedure is shown in the movie. This system is based on eight coil-core electromagnets, which generate a dynamic magnetic field focused on the heart. Remote navigation by rapid changes (msec) in the magnetic field magnitude and a very flexible magnetized catheter allow real-time closed-loop integration and accurate, stable positioning and ablation of the arrhythmogenic substrate.
Medicine, Issue 74, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Surgery, Cardiology, catheter ablation, remote navigation, magnetic, robotic, catheter, positioning, electrophysiology, clinical techniques
3658
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Inducing Plasticity of Astrocytic Receptors by Manipulation of Neuronal Firing Rates
Authors: Alison X. Xie, Kelli Lauderdale, Thomas Murphy, Timothy L. Myers, Todd A. Fiacco.
Institutions: University of California Riverside, University of California Riverside, University of California Riverside.
Close to two decades of research has established that astrocytes in situ and in vivo express numerous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be stimulated by neuronally-released transmitter. However, the ability of astrocytic receptors to exhibit plasticity in response to changes in neuronal activity has received little attention. Here we describe a model system that can be used to globally scale up or down astrocytic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in acute brain slices. Included are methods on how to prepare parasagittal hippocampal slices, construct chambers suitable for long-term slice incubation, bidirectionally manipulate neuronal action potential frequency, load astrocytes and astrocyte processes with fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, and measure changes in astrocytic Gq GPCR activity by recording spontaneous and evoked astrocyte Ca2+ events using confocal microscopy. In essence, a “calcium roadmap” is provided for how to measure plasticity of astrocytic Gq GPCRs. Applications of the technique for study of astrocytes are discussed. Having an understanding of how astrocytic receptor signaling is affected by changes in neuronal activity has important implications for both normal synaptic function as well as processes underlying neurological disorders and neurodegenerative disease.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, astrocyte, plasticity, mGluRs, neuronal Firing, electrophysiology, Gq GPCRs, Bolus-loading, calcium, microdomains, acute slices, Hippocampus, mouse
51458
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Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Authors: Eva Wagner, Sören Brandenburg, Tobias Kohl, Stephan E. Lehnart.
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+ release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
51823
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Multiparametric Optical Mapping of the Langendorff-perfused Rabbit Heart
Authors: Qing Lou, Wenwen Li, Igor R. Efimov.
Institutions: Washington University in St. Louis.
Optical imaging and fluorescent probes have significantly advanced research methodology in the field of cardiac electrophysiology in ways that could not have been accomplished by other approaches1. With the use of the calcium- and voltage-sensitive dyes, optical mapping allows measurement of transmembrane action potentials and calcium transients with high spatial resolution without the physical contact with the tissue. This makes measurements of the cardiac electrical activity possible under many conditions where the use of electrodes is inconvenient or impossible1. For example, optical recordings provide accurate morphological changes of membrane potential during and immediately after stimulation and defibrillation, while conventional electrode techniques suffer from stimulus-induced artifacts during and after stimuli due to electrode polarization1. The Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart is one of the most studied models of human heart physiology and pathophysiology. Many types of arrhythmias observed clinically could be recapitulated in the rabbit heart model. It was shown that wave patterns in the rabbit heart during ventricular arrhythmias, determined by effective size of the heart and the wavelength of reentry, are very similar to that in the human heart2. It was also shown that critical aspects of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in rabbit myocardium, such as the relative contribution of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), is very similar to human EC coupling3. Here we present the basic procedures of optical mapping experiments in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts, including the Langendorff perfusion system setup, the optical mapping systems setup, the isolation and cannulation of the heart, perfusion and dye-staining of the heart, excitation-contraction uncoupling, and collection of optical signals. These methods could be also applied to the heart from species other than rabbit with adjustments to flow rates, optics, solutions, etc. Two optical mapping systems are described. The panoramic mapping system is used to map the entire epicardium of the rabbit heart4-7. This system provides a global view of the evolution of reentrant circuits during arrhythmogenesis and defibrillation, and has been used to study the mechanisms of arrhythmias and antiarrhythmia therapy8,9. The dual mapping system is used to map the action potential (AP) and calcium transient (CaT) simultaneously from the same field of view10-13. This approach has enhanced our understanding of the important role of calcium in the electrical alternans and the induction of arrhythmia14-16.
Bioengineering, Issue 55, optical mapping, rabbit heart, action potential, calcium transient, voltage-sensitive dye, calcium dye
3160
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Isolation and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxin From Complex Matrices Using the BoTest Matrix Assays
Authors: F. Mark Dunning, Timothy M. Piazza, Füsûn N. Zeytin, Ward C. Tucker.
Institutions: BioSentinel Inc., Madison, WI.
Accurate detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in complex matrices is required for pharmaceutical, environmental, and food sample testing. Rapid BoNT testing of foodstuffs is needed during outbreak forensics, patient diagnosis, and food safety testing while accurate potency testing is required for BoNT-based drug product manufacturing and patient safety. The widely used mouse bioassay for BoNT testing is highly sensitive but lacks the precision and throughput needed for rapid and routine BoNT testing. Furthermore, the bioassay's use of animals has resulted in calls by drug product regulatory authorities and animal-rights proponents in the US and abroad to replace the mouse bioassay for BoNT testing. Several in vitro replacement assays have been developed that work well with purified BoNT in simple buffers, but most have not been shown to be applicable to testing in highly complex matrices. Here, a protocol for the detection of BoNT in complex matrices using the BoTest Matrix assays is presented. The assay consists of three parts: The first part involves preparation of the samples for testing, the second part is an immunoprecipitation step using anti-BoNT antibody-coated paramagnetic beads to purify BoNT from the matrix, and the third part quantifies the isolated BoNT's proteolytic activity using a fluorogenic reporter. The protocol is written for high throughput testing in 96-well plates using both liquid and solid matrices and requires about 2 hr of manual preparation with total assay times of 4-26 hr depending on the sample type, toxin load, and desired sensitivity. Data are presented for BoNT/A testing with phosphate-buffered saline, a drug product, culture supernatant, 2% milk, and fresh tomatoes and includes discussion of critical parameters for assay success.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, Botulinum, food testing, detection, quantification, complex matrices, BoTest Matrix, Clostridium, potency testing
51170
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Characterization of Complex Systems Using the Design of Experiments Approach: Transient Protein Expression in Tobacco as a Case Study
Authors: Johannes Felix Buyel, Rainer Fischer.
Institutions: RWTH Aachen University, Fraunhofer Gesellschaft.
Plants provide multiple benefits for the production of biopharmaceuticals including low costs, scalability, and safety. Transient expression offers the additional advantage of short development and production times, but expression levels can vary significantly between batches thus giving rise to regulatory concerns in the context of good manufacturing practice. We used a design of experiments (DoE) approach to determine the impact of major factors such as regulatory elements in the expression construct, plant growth and development parameters, and the incubation conditions during expression, on the variability of expression between batches. We tested plants expressing a model anti-HIV monoclonal antibody (2G12) and a fluorescent marker protein (DsRed). We discuss the rationale for selecting certain properties of the model and identify its potential limitations. The general approach can easily be transferred to other problems because the principles of the model are broadly applicable: knowledge-based parameter selection, complexity reduction by splitting the initial problem into smaller modules, software-guided setup of optimal experiment combinations and step-wise design augmentation. Therefore, the methodology is not only useful for characterizing protein expression in plants but also for the investigation of other complex systems lacking a mechanistic description. The predictive equations describing the interconnectivity between parameters can be used to establish mechanistic models for other complex systems.
Bioengineering, Issue 83, design of experiments (DoE), transient protein expression, plant-derived biopharmaceuticals, promoter, 5'UTR, fluorescent reporter protein, model building, incubation conditions, monoclonal antibody
51216
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Membrane Potentials, Synaptic Responses, Neuronal Circuitry, Neuromodulation and Muscle Histology Using the Crayfish: Student Laboratory Exercises
Authors: Brittany Baierlein, Alison L. Thurow, Harold L. Atwood, Robin L. Cooper.
Institutions: University of Kentucky, University of Toronto.
The purpose of this report is to help develop an understanding of the effects caused by ion gradients across a biological membrane. Two aspects that influence a cell's membrane potential and which we address in these experiments are: (1) Ion concentration of K+ on the outside of the membrane, and (2) the permeability of the membrane to specific ions. The crayfish abdominal extensor muscles are in groupings with some being tonic (slow) and others phasic (fast) in their biochemical and physiological phenotypes, as well as in their structure; the motor neurons that innervate these muscles are correspondingly different in functional characteristics. We use these muscles as well as the superficial, tonic abdominal flexor muscle to demonstrate properties in synaptic transmission. In addition, we introduce a sensory-CNS-motor neuron-muscle circuit to demonstrate the effect of cuticular sensory stimulation as well as the influence of neuromodulators on certain aspects of the circuit. With the techniques obtained in this exercise, one can begin to answer many questions remaining in other experimental preparations as well as in physiological applications related to medicine and health. We have demonstrated the usefulness of model invertebrate preparations to address fundamental questions pertinent to all animals.
Neuroscience, Issue 47, Invertebrate, Crayfish, neurophysiology, muscle, anatomy, electrophysiology
2322
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High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry
Authors: Subarna Bhattacharya, Paul W. Burridge, Erin M. Kropp, Sandra L. Chuppa, Wai-Meng Kwok, Joseph C. Wu, Kenneth R. Boheler, Rebekah L. Gundry.
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, Stanford University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Hong Kong University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin.
There is an urgent need to develop approaches for repairing the damaged heart, discovering new therapeutic drugs that do not have toxic effects on the heart, and improving strategies to accurately model heart disease. The potential of exploiting human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology to generate cardiac muscle “in a dish” for these applications continues to generate high enthusiasm. In recent years, the ability to efficiently generate cardiomyogenic cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has greatly improved, offering us new opportunities to model very early stages of human cardiac development not otherwise accessible. In contrast to many previous methods, the cardiomyocyte differentiation protocol described here does not require cell aggregation or the addition of Activin A or BMP4 and robustly generates cultures of cells that are highly positive for cardiac troponin I and T (TNNI3, TNNT2), iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-4 (IRX4), myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC2v) and myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) by day 10 across all human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and hiPSC lines tested to date. Cells can be passaged and maintained for more than 90 days in culture. The strategy is technically simple to implement and cost-effective. Characterization of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent cells often includes the analysis of reference markers, both at the mRNA and protein level. For protein analysis, flow cytometry is a powerful analytical tool for assessing quality of cells in culture and determining subpopulation homogeneity. However, technical variation in sample preparation can significantly affect quality of flow cytometry data. Thus, standardization of staining protocols should facilitate comparisons among various differentiation strategies. Accordingly, optimized staining protocols for the analysis of IRX4, MLC2v, MLC2a, TNNI3, and TNNT2 by flow cytometry are described.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, human induced pluripotent stem cell, flow cytometry, directed differentiation, cardiomyocyte, IRX4, TNNI3, TNNT2, MCL2v, MLC2a
52010
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Modeling Biological Membranes with Circuit Boards and Measuring Electrical Signals in Axons: Student Laboratory Exercises
Authors: Martha M. Robinson, Jonathan M. Martin, Harold L. Atwood, Robin L. Cooper.
Institutions: University of Kentucky, University of Toronto.
This is a demonstration of how electrical models can be used to characterize biological membranes. This exercise also introduces biophysical terminology used in electrophysiology. The same equipment is used in the membrane model as on live preparations. Some properties of an isolated nerve cord are investigated: nerve action potentials, recruitment of neurons, and responsiveness of the nerve cord to environmental factors.
Basic Protocols, Issue 47, Invertebrate, Crayfish, Modeling, Student laboratory, Nerve cord
2325
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Cortical Source Analysis of High-Density EEG Recordings in Children
Authors: Joe Bathelt, Helen O'Reilly, Michelle de Haan.
Institutions: UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London.
EEG is traditionally described as a neuroimaging technique with high temporal and low spatial resolution. Recent advances in biophysical modelling and signal processing make it possible to exploit information from other imaging modalities like structural MRI that provide high spatial resolution to overcome this constraint1. This is especially useful for investigations that require high resolution in the temporal as well as spatial domain. In addition, due to the easy application and low cost of EEG recordings, EEG is often the method of choice when working with populations, such as young children, that do not tolerate functional MRI scans well. However, in order to investigate which neural substrates are involved, anatomical information from structural MRI is still needed. Most EEG analysis packages work with standard head models that are based on adult anatomy. The accuracy of these models when used for children is limited2, because the composition and spatial configuration of head tissues changes dramatically over development3.  In the present paper, we provide an overview of our recent work in utilizing head models based on individual structural MRI scans or age specific head models to reconstruct the cortical generators of high density EEG. This article describes how EEG recordings are acquired, processed, and analyzed with pediatric populations at the London Baby Lab, including laboratory setup, task design, EEG preprocessing, MRI processing, and EEG channel level and source analysis. 
Behavior, Issue 88, EEG, electroencephalogram, development, source analysis, pediatric, minimum-norm estimation, cognitive neuroscience, event-related potentials 
51705
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Optical Mapping of Action Potentials and Calcium Transients in the Mouse Heart
Authors: Di Lang, Matthew Sulkin, Qing Lou, Igor R. Efimov.
Institutions: Washington University in St. Louis.
The mouse heart is a popular model for cardiovascular studies due to the existence of low cost technology for genetic engineering in this species. Cardiovascular physiological phenotyping of the mouse heart can be easily done using fluorescence imaging employing various probes for transmembrane potential (Vm), calcium transients (CaT), and other parameters. Excitation-contraction coupling is characterized by action potential and intracellular calcium dynamics; therefore, it is critically important to map both Vm and CaT simultaneously from the same location on the heart1-4. Simultaneous optical mapping from Langendorff perfused mouse hearts has the potential to elucidate mechanisms underlying heart failure, arrhythmias, metabolic disease, and other heart diseases. Visualization of activation, conduction velocity, action potential duration, and other parameters at a myriad of sites cannot be achieved from cellular level investigation but is well solved by optical mapping1,5,6. In this paper we present the instrumentation setup and experimental conditions for simultaneous optical mapping of Vm and CaT in mouse hearts with high spatio-temporal resolution using state-of-the-art CMOS imaging technology. Consistent optical recordings obtained with this method illustrate that simultaneous optical mapping of Langendorff perfused mouse hearts is both feasible and reliable.
Bioengineering, Issue 55, optical mapping, action potential, calcium transient, mouse, heart
3275
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Programmed Electrical Stimulation in Mice
Authors: Na Li, Xander H.T Wehrens.
Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Baylor College of Medicine (BCM).
Genetically-modified mice have emerged as a preferable animal model to study the molecular mechanisms underlying conduction abnormalities, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death.1 Intracardiac pacing studies can be performed in mice using a 1.1F octapolar catheter inserted into the jugular vein, and advanced into the right atrium and ventricle. Here, we illustrate the steps involved in performing programmed electrical stimulation in mice. Surface ECG and intracardiac electrograms are recorded simultaneously in the atria, atrioventricular junction, and ventricular myocardium, whereas intracardiac pacing of the atrium is performed using an external stimulator. Thus, programmed electrical stimulation in mice provides unique opportunities to explore molecular mechanisms underlying conduction defects and cardiac arrhythmias.
JoVE Medicine, Issue 39, Arrhythmias, electrophysiology, mouse, programmed electrical stimulation
1730
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Methods for ECG Evaluation of Indicators of Cardiac Risk, and Susceptibility to Aconitine-induced Arrhythmias in Rats Following Status Epilepticus
Authors: Steven L. Bealer, Cameron S. Metcalf, Jason G. Little.
Institutions: University of Utah.
Lethal cardiac arrhythmias contribute to mortality in a number of pathological conditions. Several parameters obtained from a non-invasive, easily obtained electrocardiogram (ECG) are established, well-validated prognostic indicators of cardiac risk in patients suffering from a number of cardiomyopathies. Increased heart rate, decreased heart rate variability (HRV), and increased duration and variability of cardiac ventricular electrical activity (QT interval) are all indicative of enhanced cardiac risk 1-4. In animal models, it is valuable to compare these ECG-derived variables and susceptibility to experimentally induced arrhythmias. Intravenous infusion of the arrhythmogenic agent aconitine has been widely used to evaluate susceptibility to arrhythmias in a range of experimental conditions, including animal models of depression 5 and hypertension 6, following exercise 7 and exposure to air pollutants 8, as well as determination of the antiarrhythmic efficacy of pharmacological agents 9,10. It should be noted that QT dispersion in humans is a measure of QT interval variation across the full set of leads from a standard 12-lead ECG. Consequently, the measure of QT dispersion from the 2-lead ECG in the rat described in this protocol is different than that calculated from human ECG records. This represents a limitation in the translation of the data obtained from rodents to human clinical medicine. Status epilepticus (SE) is a single seizure or series of continuously recurring seizures lasting more than 30 min 11,12 11,12, and results in mortality in 20% of cases 13. Many individuals survive the SE, but die within 30 days 14,15. The mechanism(s) of this delayed mortality is not fully understood. It has been suggested that lethal ventricular arrhythmias contribute to many of these deaths 14-17. In addition to SE, patients experiencing spontaneously recurring seizures, i.e. epilepsy, are at risk of premature sudden and unexpected death associated with epilepsy (SUDEP) 18. As with SE, the precise mechanisms mediating SUDEP are not known. It has been proposed that ventricular abnormalities and resulting arrhythmias make a significant contribution 18-22. To investigate the mechanisms of seizure-related cardiac death, and the efficacy of cardioprotective therapies, it is necessary to obtain both ECG-derived indicators of risk and evaluate susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias in animal models of seizure disorders 23-25. Here we describe methods for implanting ECG electrodes in the Sprague-Dawley laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus), following SE, collection and analysis of ECG recordings, and induction of arrhythmias during iv infusion of aconitine. These procedures can be used to directly determine the relationships between ECG-derived measures of cardiac electrical activity and susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in rat models of seizure disorders, or any pathology associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death.
Medicine, Issue 50, cardiac, seizure disorders, QTc, QTd, cardiac arrhythmias, rat
2726
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