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Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs and dental agenesis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
The aim of the study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to AEDs and the risk of dental agenesis and to differentiate between the possible effects of the different drugs used.
Authors: Andreas Ender, Albert Mehl.
Published: 04-29-2014
Reference scanners are used in dental medicine to verify a lot of procedures. The main interest is to verify impression methods as they serve as a base for dental restorations. The current limitation of many reference scanners is the lack of accuracy scanning large objects like full dental arches, or the limited possibility to assess detailed tooth surfaces. A new reference scanner, based on focus variation scanning technique, was evaluated with regards to highest local and general accuracy. A specific scanning protocol was tested to scan original tooth surface from dental impressions. Also, different model materials were verified. The results showed a high scanning accuracy of the reference scanner with a mean deviation of 5.3 ± 1.1 µm for trueness and 1.6 ± 0.6 µm for precision in case of full arch scans. Current dental impression methods showed much higher deviations (trueness: 20.4 ± 2.2 µm, precision: 12.5 ± 2.5 µm) than the internal scanning accuracy of the reference scanner. Smaller objects like single tooth surface can be scanned with an even higher accuracy, enabling the system to assess erosive and abrasive tooth surface loss. The reference scanner can be used to measure differences for a lot of dental research fields. The different magnification levels combined with a high local and general accuracy can be used to assess changes of single teeth or restorations up to full arch changes.
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Experimental Methods for Testing the Effects of Neurotrophic Peptide, ADNF-9, Against Alcohol-induced Apoptosis during Pregnancy in C57BL/6 Mice
Authors: Youssef Sari.
Institutions: University of Toledo .
Experimental designs for investigating the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure during early embryonic stages in fetal brain growth are challenging. This is mostly due to the difficulty of microdissection of fetal brains and their sectioning for determination of apoptotic cells caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. The experiments described here provide visualized techniques from mice breeding to the identification of cell death in fetal brain tissue. This study used C57BL/6 mice as the animal model for studying fetal alcohol exposure and the role of trophic peptide against alcohol-induced apoptosis. The breeding consists of a 2-hr matting window to determine the exact stage of embryonic age. An established fetal alcohol exposure model has been used in this study to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in fetal brains. This involves free access to alcohol or pair-fed liquid diets as the sole source of nutrients for the pregnant mice. The techniques involving dissection of fetuses and microdissection of fetal brains are described carefully, since the latter can be challenging. Microdissection requires a stereomicroscope and ultra-fine forceps. Step-by-step procedures for dissecting the fetal brains are provided visually. The fetal brains are dissected from the base of the primordium olfactory bulb to the base of the metencephalon. For investigating apoptosis, fetal brains are first embedded in gelatin using a peel-away mold to facilitate their sectioning with a vibratome apparatus. Fetal brains embedded and fixed in paraformaldehyde are easily sectioned, and the free floating sections can be mounted in superfrost plus slides for determination of apoptosis or cell death. TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling; TdT: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase) assay has been used to identify cell death or apoptotic cells. It is noteworthy that apoptosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity are characterized by DNA fragmentation. Thus, the visualized TUNEL-positive cells are indicative of cell death or apoptotic cells. The experimental designs here provide information about the use of an established liquid diet for studying the effects of alcohol and the role of neurotrophic peptides during pregnancy in fetal brains. This involves breeding and feeding pregnant mice, microdissecting fetal brains, and determining apoptosis. Together, these visual and textual techniques might be a source for investigating prenatal exposure of harmful agents in fetal brains.
Neuroscience, Issue 74, Developmental Biology, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemsitry, Biomedical Engineering, Pharmacology, Embryonic Structures, Nervous System, Nervous System Diseases, Neurotrophic Peptides, TUNEL, Apoptosis, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Neuroprotection, fetal brain sections, transgenic mice, animal model, assay
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Assessment and Evaluation of the High Risk Neonate: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale
Authors: Barry M. Lester, Lynne Andreozzi-Fontaine, Edward Tronick, Rosemarie Bigsby.
Institutions: Brown University, Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts, Boston.
There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used.
Behavior, Issue 90, NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale, NNNS, High risk infant, Assessment, Evaluation, Prediction, Long term outcome
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In situ Compressive Loading and Correlative Noninvasive Imaging of the Bone-periodontal Ligament-tooth Fibrous Joint
Authors: Andrew T. Jang, Jeremy D. Lin, Youngho Seo, Sergey Etchin, Arno Merkle, Kevin Fahey, Sunita P. Ho.
Institutions: University of California San Francisco, University of California San Francisco, Xradia Inc..
This study demonstrates a novel biomechanics testing protocol. The advantage of this protocol includes the use of an in situ loading device coupled to a high resolution X-ray microscope, thus enabling visualization of internal structural elements under simulated physiological loads and wet conditions. Experimental specimens will include intact bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth fibrous joints. Results will illustrate three important features of the protocol as they can be applied to organ level biomechanics: 1) reactionary force vs. displacement: tooth displacement within the alveolar socket and its reactionary response to loading, 2) three-dimensional (3D) spatial configuration and morphometrics: geometric relationship of the tooth with the alveolar socket, and 3) changes in readouts 1 and 2 due to a change in loading axis, i.e. from concentric to eccentric loads. Efficacy of the proposed protocol will be evaluated by coupling mechanical testing readouts to 3D morphometrics and overall biomechanics of the joint. In addition, this technique will emphasize on the need to equilibrate experimental conditions, specifically reactionary loads prior to acquiring tomograms of fibrous joints. It should be noted that the proposed protocol is limited to testing specimens under ex vivo conditions, and that use of contrast agents to visualize soft tissue mechanical response could lead to erroneous conclusions about tissue and organ-level biomechanics.
Bioengineering, Issue 85, biomechanics, bone-periodontal ligament-tooth complex, concentric loads, eccentric loads, contrast agent
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Barnes Maze Testing Strategies with Small and Large Rodent Models
Authors: Cheryl S. Rosenfeld, Sherry A. Ferguson.
Institutions: University of Missouri, Food and Drug Administration.
Spatial learning and memory of laboratory rodents is often assessed via navigational ability in mazes, most popular of which are the water and dry-land (Barnes) mazes. Improved performance over sessions or trials is thought to reflect learning and memory of the escape cage/platform location. Considered less stressful than water mazes, the Barnes maze is a relatively simple design of a circular platform top with several holes equally spaced around the perimeter edge. All but one of the holes are false-bottomed or blind-ending, while one leads to an escape cage. Mildly aversive stimuli (e.g. bright overhead lights) provide motivation to locate the escape cage. Latency to locate the escape cage can be measured during the session; however, additional endpoints typically require video recording. From those video recordings, use of automated tracking software can generate a variety of endpoints that are similar to those produced in water mazes (e.g. distance traveled, velocity/speed, time spent in the correct quadrant, time spent moving/resting, and confirmation of latency). Type of search strategy (i.e. random, serial, or direct) can be categorized as well. Barnes maze construction and testing methodologies can differ for small rodents, such as mice, and large rodents, such as rats. For example, while extra-maze cues are effective for rats, smaller wild rodents may require intra-maze cues with a visual barrier around the maze. Appropriate stimuli must be identified which motivate the rodent to locate the escape cage. Both Barnes and water mazes can be time consuming as 4-7 test trials are typically required to detect improved learning and memory performance (e.g. shorter latencies or path lengths to locate the escape platform or cage) and/or differences between experimental groups. Even so, the Barnes maze is a widely employed behavioral assessment measuring spatial navigational abilities and their potential disruption by genetic, neurobehavioral manipulations, or drug/ toxicant exposure.
Behavior, Issue 84, spatial navigation, rats, Peromyscus, mice, intra- and extra-maze cues, learning, memory, latency, search strategy, escape motivation
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Confocal Time Lapse Imaging as an Efficient Method for the Cytocompatibility Evaluation of Dental Composites
Authors: Ghania Nina Attik, Kerstin Gritsch, Pierre Colon, Brigitte Grosgogeat.
Institutions: UMR CNRS 5615, Université Lyon1, Hospices Civils de Lyon, APHP, Hôpital Rothschild.
It is generally accepted that in vitro cell material interaction is a useful criterion in the evaluation of dental material biocompatibility. The objective of this study was to use 3D CLSM time lapse confocal imaging to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of dental composites. This method provides an accurate and sensitive indication of viable cell rate in contact with dental composite extracts. The ELS extra low shrinkage, a dental composite used for direct restoration, has been taken as example. In vitro assessment was performed on cultured primary human gingival fibroblast cells using Live/Dead staining. Images were obtained with the FV10i confocal biological inverted system and analyzed with the FV10-ASW 3.1 Software. Image analysis showed a very slight cytotoxicity in the presence of the tested composite after 5 hours of time lapse. A slight decrease of cell viability was shown in contact with the tested composite extracts compared to control cells. The findings highlighted the use of 3D CLSM time lapse imaging as a sensitive method to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the biocompatibility behavior of dental composites.
Medicine, Issue 93, In vitro biocompatibility, dental composites, Live/Deadstaining, 3D imaging, Confocal Microscopy, Time lapse imaging
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Bladder Smooth Muscle Strip Contractility as a Method to Evaluate Lower Urinary Tract Pharmacology
Authors: F. Aura Kullmann, Stephanie L. Daugherty, William C. de Groat, Lori A. Birder.
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
We describe an in vitro method to measure bladder smooth muscle contractility, and its use for investigating physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscle as well as changes induced by pathology. This method provides critical information for understanding bladder function while overcoming major methodological difficulties encountered in in vivo experiments, such as surgical and pharmacological manipulations that affect stability and survival of the preparations, the use of human tissue, and/or the use of expensive chemicals. It also provides a way to investigate the properties of each bladder component (i.e. smooth muscle, mucosa, nerves) in healthy and pathological conditions. The urinary bladder is removed from an anesthetized animal, placed in Krebs solution and cut into strips. Strips are placed into a chamber filled with warm Krebs solution. One end is attached to an isometric tension transducer to measure contraction force, the other end is attached to a fixed rod. Tissue is stimulated by directly adding compounds to the bath or by electric field stimulation electrodes that activate nerves, similar to triggering bladder contractions in vivo. We demonstrate the use of this method to evaluate spontaneous smooth muscle contractility during development and after an experimental spinal cord injury, the nature of neurotransmission (transmitters and receptors involved), factors involved in modulation of smooth muscle activity, the role of individual bladder components, and species and organ differences in response to pharmacological agents. Additionally, it could be used for investigating intracellular pathways involved in contraction and/or relaxation of the smooth muscle, drug structure-activity relationships and evaluation of transmitter release. The in vitro smooth muscle contractility method has been used extensively for over 50 years, and has provided data that significantly contributed to our understanding of bladder function as well as to pharmaceutical development of compounds currently used clinically for bladder management.
Medicine, Issue 90, Krebs, species differences, in vitro, smooth muscle contractility, neural stimulation
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Construction of Vapor Chambers Used to Expose Mice to Alcohol During the Equivalent of all Three Trimesters of Human Development
Authors: Russell A. Morton, Marvin R. Diaz, Lauren A. Topper, C. Fernando Valenzuela.
Institutions: University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center.
Exposure to alcohol during development can result in a constellation of morphological and behavioral abnormalities that are collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). At the most severe end of the spectrum is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphology, and neurobehavioral deficits. Studies with animal models, including rodents, have elucidated many molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of FASDs. Ethanol administration to pregnant rodents has been used to model human exposure during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Third trimester ethanol consumption in humans has been modeled using neonatal rodents. However, few rodent studies have characterized the effect of ethanol exposure during the equivalent to all three trimesters of human pregnancy, a pattern of exposure that is common in pregnant women. Here, we show how to build vapor chambers from readily obtainable materials that can each accommodate up to six standard mouse cages. We describe a vapor chamber paradigm that can be used to model exposure to ethanol, with minimal handling, during all three trimesters. Our studies demonstrate that pregnant dams developed significant metabolic tolerance to ethanol. However, neonatal mice did not develop metabolic tolerance and the number of fetuses, fetus weight, placenta weight, number of pups/litter, number of dead pups/litter, and pup weight were not significantly affected by ethanol exposure. An important advantage of this paradigm is its applicability to studies with genetically-modified mice. Additionally, this paradigm minimizes handling of animals, a major confound in fetal alcohol research.
Medicine, Issue 89, fetal, ethanol, exposure, paradigm, vapor, development, alcoholism, teratogenic, animal, mouse, model
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Multi-electrode Array Recordings of Human Epileptic Postoperative Cortical Tissue
Authors: Elena Dossi, Thomas Blauwblomme, Rima Nabbout, Gilles Huberfeld, Nathalie Rouach.
Institutions: CNRS UMR 7241, INSERM U1050, Collège de France, Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CEA, Paris Descartes University, Paris Descartes University, La Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Sorbonne and Pierre and Marie Curie University.
Epilepsy, affecting about 1% of the population, comprises a group of neurological disorders characterized by the periodic occurrence of seizures, which disrupt normal brain function. Despite treatment with currently available antiepileptic drugs targeting neuronal functions, one third of patients with epilepsy are pharmacoresistant. In this condition, surgical resection of the brain area generating seizures remains the only alternative treatment. Studying human epileptic tissues has contributed to understand new epileptogenic mechanisms during the last 10 years. Indeed, these tissues generate spontaneous interictal epileptic discharges as well as pharmacologically-induced ictal events which can be recorded with classical electrophysiology techniques. Remarkably, multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), which are microfabricated devices embedding an array of spatially arranged microelectrodes, provide the unique opportunity to simultaneously stimulate and record field potentials, as well as action potentials of multiple neurons from different areas of the tissue. Thus MEAs recordings offer an excellent approach to study the spatio-temporal patterns of spontaneous interictal and evoked seizure-like events and the mechanisms underlying seizure onset and propagation. Here we describe how to prepare human cortical slices from surgically resected tissue and to record with MEAs interictal and ictal-like events ex vivo.
Medicine, Issue 92, electrophysiology, multi-electrode array, human tissue, slice, epilepsy, neocortex
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Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies
Authors: Patrick De Boever, Tijs Louwies, Eline Provost, Luc Int Panis, Tim S. Nawrot.
Institutions: Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Hasselt University, Hasselt University, Leuven University.
The microcirculation consists of blood vessels with diameters less than 150 µm. It makes up a large part of the circulatory system and plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular health. The retina is a tissue that lines the interior of the eye and it is the only tissue that allows for a non-invasive analysis of the microvasculature. Nowadays, high-quality fundus images can be acquired using digital cameras. Retinal images can be collected in 5 min or less, even without dilatation of the pupils. This unobtrusive and fast procedure for visualizing the microcirculation is attractive to apply in epidemiological studies and to monitor cardiovascular health from early age up to old age. Systemic diseases that affect the circulation can result in progressive morphological changes in the retinal vasculature. For example, changes in the vessel calibers of retinal arteries and veins have been associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and increased risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. The vessel widths are derived using image analysis software and the width of the six largest arteries and veins are summarized in the Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent (CRAE) and the Central Retinal Venular Equivalent (CRVE). The latter features have been shown useful to study the impact of modifiable lifestyle and environmental cardiovascular disease risk factors. The procedures to acquire fundus images and the analysis steps to obtain CRAE and CRVE are described. Coefficients of variation of repeated measures of CRAE and CRVE are less than 2% and within-rater reliability is very high. Using a panel study, the rapid response of the retinal vessel calibers to short-term changes in particulate air pollution, a known risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, is reported. In conclusion, retinal imaging is proposed as a convenient and instrumental tool for epidemiological studies to study microvascular responses to cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Medicine, Issue 92, retina, microvasculature, image analysis, Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent, Central Retinal Venular Equivalent, air pollution, particulate matter, black carbon
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A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research
Authors: Brian H. Smith, Christina M. Burden.
Institutions: Arizona State University.
Insects modify their responses to stimuli through experience of associating those stimuli with events important for survival (e.g., food, mates, threats). There are several behavioral mechanisms through which an insect learns salient associations and relates them to these events. It is important to understand this behavioral plasticity for programs aimed toward assisting insects that are beneficial for agriculture. This understanding can also be used for discovering solutions to biomedical and agricultural problems created by insects that act as disease vectors and pests. The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol was developed for honey bees (Apis mellifera) over 50 years ago to study how they perceive and learn about floral odors, which signal the nectar and pollen resources a colony needs for survival. The PER procedure provides a robust and easy-to-employ framework for studying several different ecologically relevant mechanisms of behavioral plasticity. It is easily adaptable for use with several other insect species and other behavioral reflexes. These protocols can be readily employed in conjunction with various means for monitoring neural activity in the CNS via electrophysiology or bioimaging, or for manipulating targeted neuromodulatory pathways. It is a robust assay for rapidly detecting sub-lethal effects on behavior caused by environmental stressors, toxins or pesticides. We show how the PER protocol is straightforward to implement using two procedures. One is suitable as a laboratory exercise for students or for quick assays of the effect of an experimental treatment. The other provides more thorough control of variables, which is important for studies of behavioral conditioning. We show how several measures for the behavioral response ranging from binary yes/no to more continuous variable like latency and duration of proboscis extension can be used to test hypotheses. And, we discuss some pitfalls that researchers commonly encounter when they use the procedure for the first time.
Neuroscience, Issue 91, PER, conditioning, honey bee, olfaction, olfactory processing, learning, memory, toxin assay
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A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an Organic Solvent
Authors: Lisa M. Weatherly, Rachel H. Kennedy, Juyoung Shim, Julie A. Gosse.
Institutions: University of Maine, Orono, University of Maine, Orono.
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g. by an allergen), they degranulate, a process that results in the exocytosis of allergic mediators. Modulation of mast cell degranulation by drugs and toxicants may have positive or adverse effects on human health. Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells3-5. Mast cell granule component and the allergic mediator β-hexosaminidase, which is released linearly in tandem with histamine from mast cells6, can easily and reliably be measured through reaction with a fluorogenic substrate, yielding measurable fluorescence intensity in a microplate assay that is amenable to high-throughput studies1. Originally published by Naal et al.1, we have adapted this degranulation assay for the screening of drugs and toxicants and demonstrate its use here. Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is present in many consumer products and has been found to be a therapeutic aid in human allergic skin disease7-11, although the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate an assay for the effect of triclosan on mast cell degranulation. We recently showed that triclosan strongly affects mast cell function2. In an effort to avoid use of an organic solvent, triclosan is dissolved directly into aqueous buffer with heat and stirring, and resultant concentration is confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (using ε280 = 4,200 L/M/cm)12. This protocol has the potential to be used with a variety of chemicals to determine their effects on mast cell degranulation, and more broadly, their allergic potential.
Immunology, Issue 81, mast cell, basophil, degranulation, RBL-2H3, triclosan, irgasan, antibacterial, β-hexosaminidase, allergy, Asthma, toxicants, ionophore, antigen, fluorescence, microplate, UV-Vis
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Determination of the Transport Rate of Xenobiotics and Nanomaterials Across the Placenta using the ex vivo Human Placental Perfusion Model
Authors: Stefanie Grafmüller, Pius Manser, Harald F. Krug, Peter Wick, Ursula von Mandach.
Institutions: University Hospital Zurich, EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, University of Bern.
Decades ago the human placenta was thought to be an impenetrable barrier between mother and unborn child. However, the discovery of thalidomide-induced birth defects and many later studies afterwards proved the opposite. Today several harmful xenobiotics like nicotine, heroin, methadone or drugs as well as environmental pollutants were described to overcome this barrier. With the growing use of nanotechnology, the placenta is likely to come into contact with novel nanoparticles either accidentally through exposure or intentionally in the case of potential nanomedical applications. Data from animal experiments cannot be extrapolated to humans because the placenta is the most species-specific mammalian organ 1. Therefore, the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion, developed by Panigel et al. in 1967 2 and continuously modified by Schneider et al. in 1972 3, can serve as an excellent model to study the transfer of xenobiotics or particles. Here, we focus on the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion protocol and its further development to acquire reproducible results. The placentae were obtained after informed consent of the mothers from uncomplicated term pregnancies undergoing caesarean delivery. The fetal and maternal vessels of an intact cotyledon were cannulated and perfused at least for five hours. As a model particle fluorescently labelled polystyrene particles with sizes of 80 and 500 nm in diameter were added to the maternal circuit. The 80 nm particles were able to cross the placental barrier and provide a perfect example for a substance which is transferred across the placenta to the fetus while the 500 nm particles were retained in the placental tissue or maternal circuit. The ex vivo human placental perfusion model is one of few models providing reliable information about the transport behavior of xenobiotics at an important tissue barrier which delivers predictive and clinical relevant data.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 76, Medicine, Bioengineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Pharmacology, Obstetrics, Nanotechnology, Placenta, Pharmacokinetics, Nanomedicine, humans, ex vivo perfusion, perfusion, biological barrier, xenobiotics, nanomaterials, clinical model
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Ex utero Electroporation and Whole Hemisphere Explants: A Simple Experimental Method for Studies of Early Cortical Development
Authors: Anna J. Nichols, Ryan S. O'Dell, Teresa A. Powrozek, Eric C. Olson.
Institutions: SUNY Upstate Medical University.
Cortical development involves complex interactions between neurons and non-neuronal elements including precursor cells, blood vessels, meninges and associated extracellular matrix. Because they provide a suitable organotypic environment, cortical slice explants are often used to investigate those interactions that control neuronal differentiation and development. Although beneficial, the slice explant model can suffer from drawbacks including aberrant cellular lamination and migration. Here we report a whole cerebral hemisphere explant system for studies of early cortical development that is easier to prepare than cortical slices and shows consistent organotypic migration and lamination. In this model system, early lamination and migration patterns proceed normally for a period of two days in vitro, including the period of preplate splitting, during which prospective cortical layer six forms. We then developed an ex utero electroporation (EUEP) approach that achieves ~80% success in targeting GFP expression to neurons developing in the dorsal medial cortex. The whole hemisphere explant model makes early cortical development accessible for electroporation, pharmacological intervention and live imaging approaches. This method avoids the survival surgery required of in utero electroporation (IUEP) approaches while improving both transfection and areal targeting consistency. This method will facilitate experimental studies of neuronal proliferation, migration and differentiation.
Neuroscience, Issue 74, Genetics, Neurobiology, Developmental Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Bioengineering, Tissue Engineering, preplate splitting, in vitro preparation, dendritogenesis, gene function assay, in utero electroporation, GFP, hemisphere explants, gene expression, plasmid, explant, tissue, cell culture, tissue culture, animal model
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Cannulation of the Mouse Submandibular Salivary Gland via the Wharton's Duct
Authors: Yusuke Kuriki, Younan Liu, Dengsheng Xia, Eva M. Gjerde, Saeed Khalili, Brennan Mui, Changyu Zheng, Simon D. Tran.
Institutions: McGill University , National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Severe salivary gland hypofunction is frequently found in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and those who receiving therapeutic irradiation in their head and neck regions for cancer treatment. Both groups of patients experience symptoms such as xerostomia (dry mouth), dysphagia (impaired chewing and swallowing), severe dental caries, altered taste, oro-pharyngeal infections (candidiasis), mucositis, pain and discomfort. One innovative approach of regenerative medicine for the treatment of salivary gland hypo-function is speculated in RS Redman, E Mezey et al. 2009: stem cells can be directly deposited by cannulation into the gland as a potent method in reviving the functions of the impaired organ. Presumably, the migrated foreign stem cells will differentiate into glandular cells to function as part of the host salivary gland. Also, this cannulation technique is an expedient and effective delivery method for clinical gene transfer application. Here we illustrate the steps involved in performing the cannulation procedure on the mouse submandibular salivary gland via the Wharton's duct (Fig 1). C3H mice (Charles River, Montreal, QC, Canada) are used for this experiment, which have been kept under clean conventional conditions at the McGill University animal resource center. All experiments have been approved by the University Animal Care Committee and were in accordance with the guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care. For this experiment, a trypan blue solution is infused into the gland through the opening of the Wharton's duct using a insulin syringe with a 29-gauge needle encased inside a polyethylene tube. Subsequently, the mouse is dissected to show that the infusions migrated into the gland successfully.
Medicine, Issue 51, Mouse, Salivary Gland, Wharton's Duct, dental disease, progenitor, stem cells
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Isolation and Culture of Hippocampal Neurons from Prenatal Mice
Authors: Michael L. Seibenhener, Marie W. Wooten.
Institutions: Auburn University .
Primary cultures of rat and murine hippocampal neurons are widely used to reveal cellular mechanisms in neurobiology. By isolating and growing individual neurons, researchers are able to analyze properties related to cellular trafficking, cellular structure and individual protein localization using a variety of biochemical techniques. Results from such experiments are critical for testing theories addressing the neural basis of memory and learning. However, unambiguous results from these forms of experiments are predicated on the ability to grow neuronal cultures with minimum contamination by other brain cell types. In this protocol, we use specific media designed for neuron growth and careful dissection of embryonic hippocampal tissue to optimize growth of healthy neurons while minimizing contaminating cell types (i.e. astrocytes). Embryonic mouse hippocampal tissue can be more difficult to isolate than similar rodent tissue due to the size of the sample for dissection. We show detailed dissection techniques of hippocampus from embryonic day 19 (E19) mouse pups. Once hippocampal tissue is isolated, gentle dissociation of neuronal cells is achieved with a dilute concentration of trypsin and mechanical disruption designed to separate cells from connective tissue while providing minimum damage to individual cells. A detailed description of how to prepare pipettes to be used in the disruption is included. Optimal plating densities are provided for immuno-fluorescence protocols to maximize successful cell culture. The protocol provides a fast (approximately 2 hr) and efficient technique for the culture of neuronal cells from mouse hippocampal tissue.
Neuroscience, Issue 65, Physiology, Medicine, Brain, Cell Culture, Hippocampal Neurons
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Recording Large-scale Neuronal Ensembles with Silicon Probes in the Anesthetized Rat
Authors: Andrea Gomez Palacio Schjetnan, Artur Luczak.
Institutions: University of Lethbridge.
Large scale electrophysiological recordings from neuronal ensembles offer the opportunity to investigate how the brain orchestrates the wide variety of behaviors from the spiking activity of its neurons. One of the most effective methods to monitor spiking activity from a large number of neurons in multiple local neuronal circuits simultaneously is by using silicon electrode arrays1-3. Action potentials produce large transmembrane voltage changes in the vicinity of cell somata. These output signals can be measured by placing a conductor in close proximity of a neuron. If there are many active (spiking) neurons in the vicinity of the tip, the electrode records combined signal from all of them, where contribution of a single neuron is weighted by its 'electrical distance'. Silicon probes are ideal recording electrodes to monitor multiple neurons because of a large number of recording sites (+64) and a small volume. Furthermore, multiple sites can be arranged over a distance of millimeters, thus allowing for the simultaneous recordings of neuronal activity in the various cortical layers or in multiple cortical columns (Fig. 1). Importantly, the geometrically precise distribution of the recording sites also allows for the determination of the spatial relationship of the isolated single neurons4. Here, we describe an acute, large-scale neuronal recording from the left and right forelimb somatosensory cortex simultaneously in an anesthetized rat with silicon probes (Fig. 2).
Neuroscience, Issue 56, neuronal ensembles, silicon probes, spiking, local field potentials, tetrode, acute recordings, rat
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Methods for ECG Evaluation of Indicators of Cardiac Risk, and Susceptibility to Aconitine-induced Arrhythmias in Rats Following Status Epilepticus
Authors: Steven L. Bealer, Cameron S. Metcalf, Jason G. Little.
Institutions: University of Utah.
Lethal cardiac arrhythmias contribute to mortality in a number of pathological conditions. Several parameters obtained from a non-invasive, easily obtained electrocardiogram (ECG) are established, well-validated prognostic indicators of cardiac risk in patients suffering from a number of cardiomyopathies. Increased heart rate, decreased heart rate variability (HRV), and increased duration and variability of cardiac ventricular electrical activity (QT interval) are all indicative of enhanced cardiac risk 1-4. In animal models, it is valuable to compare these ECG-derived variables and susceptibility to experimentally induced arrhythmias. Intravenous infusion of the arrhythmogenic agent aconitine has been widely used to evaluate susceptibility to arrhythmias in a range of experimental conditions, including animal models of depression 5 and hypertension 6, following exercise 7 and exposure to air pollutants 8, as well as determination of the antiarrhythmic efficacy of pharmacological agents 9,10. It should be noted that QT dispersion in humans is a measure of QT interval variation across the full set of leads from a standard 12-lead ECG. Consequently, the measure of QT dispersion from the 2-lead ECG in the rat described in this protocol is different than that calculated from human ECG records. This represents a limitation in the translation of the data obtained from rodents to human clinical medicine. Status epilepticus (SE) is a single seizure or series of continuously recurring seizures lasting more than 30 min 11,12 11,12, and results in mortality in 20% of cases 13. Many individuals survive the SE, but die within 30 days 14,15. The mechanism(s) of this delayed mortality is not fully understood. It has been suggested that lethal ventricular arrhythmias contribute to many of these deaths 14-17. In addition to SE, patients experiencing spontaneously recurring seizures, i.e. epilepsy, are at risk of premature sudden and unexpected death associated with epilepsy (SUDEP) 18. As with SE, the precise mechanisms mediating SUDEP are not known. It has been proposed that ventricular abnormalities and resulting arrhythmias make a significant contribution 18-22. To investigate the mechanisms of seizure-related cardiac death, and the efficacy of cardioprotective therapies, it is necessary to obtain both ECG-derived indicators of risk and evaluate susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias in animal models of seizure disorders 23-25. Here we describe methods for implanting ECG electrodes in the Sprague-Dawley laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus), following SE, collection and analysis of ECG recordings, and induction of arrhythmias during iv infusion of aconitine. These procedures can be used to directly determine the relationships between ECG-derived measures of cardiac electrical activity and susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in rat models of seizure disorders, or any pathology associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death.
Medicine, Issue 50, cardiac, seizure disorders, QTc, QTd, cardiac arrhythmias, rat
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Changes in Mammary Gland Morphology and Breast Cancer Risk in Rats
Authors: Sonia de Assis, Anni Warri, M. Idalia Cruz, Leena Hilakivi-Clarke.
Institutions: Georgetown University, University of Turku Medical Faculty.
Studies in rodent models of breast cancer show that exposures to dietary/hormonal factors during the in utero and pubertal periods, when the mammary gland undergoes extensive modeling and re-modeling, alter susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumors. Similar findings have been described in humans: for example, high birthweight increases later risk of developing breast cancer, and dietary intake of soy during childhood decreases breast cancer risk. It is thought that these prenatal and postnatal dietary modifications induce persistent morphological changes in the mammary gland that in turn modify breast cancer risk later in life. These morphological changes likely reflect epigenetic modifications, such as changes in DNA methylation, histones and miRNA expression that then affect gene transcription . In this article we describe how changes in mammary gland morphology can predict mammary cancer risk in rats. Our protocol specifically describes how to dissect and remove the rat abdominal mammary gland and how to prepare mammary gland whole mounts. It also describes how to analyze mammary gland morphology according to three end-points (number of terminal end buds, epithelial elongation and differentiation) and to use the data to predict risk of developing mammary cancer.
Medicine, Issue 44, mammary gland morphology, terminal end buds, mammary cancer, maternal dietary exposures, pregnancy, prepubertal dietay exposures
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Isolation of Human Umbilical Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells (HUASMC)
Authors: Maximiano P. Ribeiro, Ricardo Relvas, Samuel Chiquita, Ilídio J. Correia.
Institutions: Universidade da Beira Interior.
The human umbilical cord (UC) is a biological sample that can be easily obtained just after birth. This biological sample is, most of the time, discarded and their collection does not imply any added risk to the newborn or mother s health. Moreover no ethical concerns are raised. The UC is composed by one vein and two arteries from which both endothelial cells (ECs) 1 and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) 2, two of the main cellular components of blood vessels, can be isolated. In this project the SMCs were obtained after enzymatic treatment of the UC arteries accordingly the experimental procedure previously described by Jaffe et al 3. After cell isolation they were kept in t-flash with DMEM-F12 supplemented with 5% of fetal bovine serum and were cultured for several passages. Cells maintained their morphological and other phenotypic characteristics in the different generations. The aim of this study was to isolate smooth muscle cells in order to use them as models for future assays with constrictor drugs, isolate and structurally characterize L-type calcium channels, to study cellular and molecular aspects of the vascular function 4 and to use them in tissue engineering.
Cellular Biology, Issue 41, Human Cells, Umbilical Cord, Tissue Engineering, Cell Culture
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Survivable Stereotaxic Surgery in Rodents
Authors: Brenda M. Geiger, Lauren E. Frank, Angela D. Caldera-Siu, Emmanuel N. Pothos.
Institutions: Tufts University.
The ability to measure extracellular basal levels of neurotransmitters in the brain of awake animals allows for the determination of effects of different systemic challenges (pharmacological or physiological) to the CNS. For example, one can directly measure how the animal's midbrain dopamine projections respond to dopamine-releasing drugs like d-amphetamine or natural stimuli like food. In this video, we show you how to implant guide cannulas targeting specific sites in the rat brain, how to insert and implant a microdialysis probe and how to use high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC) to measure extracellular levels of oxidizable neurotransmitters and metabolites. Local precise introduction of drugs through the microdialysis probe allows for refined work on site specificity in a compound s mechanism of action. This technique has excellent anatomical and chemical resolution but only modest time resolution as microdialysis samples are usually processed every 20-30 minutes to ensure detectable neurotransmitter levels. Complementary ex vivo tools (i.e., slice and cell culture electrophysiology) can assist with monitoring real-time neurotransmission.
Neuroscience, Issue 20, microdialysis, nucleus accumbens, catecholamines, dopamine, rats. mice, brain
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