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Altered mucus glycosylation in core 1 O-glycan-deficient mice affects microbiota composition and intestinal architecture.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
A functional mucus layer is a key requirement for gastrointestinal health as it serves as a barrier against bacterial invasion and subsequent inflammation. Recent findings suggest that mucus composition may pose an important selection pressure on the gut microbiota and that altered mucus thickness or properties such as glycosylation lead to intestinal inflammation dependent on bacteria. Here we used TM-IEC C1galt (-/-) mice, which carry an inducible deficiency of core 1-derived O-glycans in intestinal epithelial cells, to investigate the effects of mucus glycosylation on susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, gut microbial ecology and host physiology. We found that TM-IEC C1galt (-/-) mice did not develop spontaneous colitis, but they were more susceptible to dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis. Furthermore, loss of core 1-derived O-glycans induced inverse shifts in the abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. We also found that mucus glycosylation impacts intestinal architecture as TM-IEC C1galt(-/-) mice had an elongated gastrointestinal tract with deeper ileal crypts, a small increase in the number of proliferative epithelial cells and thicker circular muscle layers in both the ileum and colon. Alterations in the length of the gastrointestinal tract were partly dependent on the microbiota. Thus, the mucus layer plays a role in the regulation of gut microbiota composition, balancing intestinal inflammation, and affects gut architecture.
Authors: Miriam Cohen, Nissi M. Varki, Mark D. Jankowski, Pascal Gagneux.
Published: 09-21-2012
Mucins are complex and heavily glycosylated O-linked glycoproteins, which contain more than 70% carbohydrate by weight1-3. Secreted mucins, produced by goblet cells and the gastric mucosa, provide the scaffold for a micrometers-thick mucus layer that lines the epithelia of the gut and respiratory tract3,4. In addition to mucins, mucus layers also contain antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and immunoglobulins5-9. The mucus layer is an important part of host innate immunity, and forms the first line of defense against invading microorganisms8,10-12. As such, the mucus is subject to numerous interactions with microbes, both pathogens and symbionts, and secreted mucins form an important interface for these interactions. The study of such biological interactions usually involves histological methods for tissue collection and staining. The two most commonly used histological methods for tissue collection and preservation in the clinic and in research laboratories are: formalin fixation followed by paraffin embedding, and tissue freezing, followed by embedding in cryo-protectant media. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples produce sections with optimal qualities for histological visualization including clarity and well-defined morphology. However, during the paraffin embedding process a number of epitopes become altered and in order to study these epitopes, tissue sections have to be further processed with one of many epitope retrieval methods13. Secreted mucins and lipids are extracted from the tissue during the paraffin-embedding clearing step, which requires prolong incubation with organic solvents (xylene or Citrisolv). Therefore this approach is sub-optimal for studies focusing on the nature and distribution of mucins and mucus in vivo. In contrast, freezing tissues in Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) embedding medium avoids dehydration and clearing of the sample, and maintains the sample hydration. This allows for better preservation of the hydrated mucus layer, and thus permits the study of the numerous roles of mucins in epithelial biology. As this method requires minimal processing of the tissue, the tissue is preserved in a more natural state. Therefore frozen tissues sections do not require any additional processing prior to staining and can be readily analyzed using immunohistochemistry methods. We demonstrate the preservation of micrometers-thick secreted mucus layer in frozen colon samples. This layer is drastically reduced when the same tissues are embedded in paraffin. We also demonstrate immunofluorescence staining of glycan epitopes presented on mucins using plant lectins. The advantage of this approach is that it does not require the use of special fixatives and allows utilizing frozen tissues that may already be preserved in the laboratory.
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Oral Transmission of Listeria monocytogenes in Mice via Ingestion of Contaminated Food
Authors: Elsa N. Bou Ghanem, Tanya Myers-Morales, Grant S. Jones, Sarah E.F. D'Orazio.
Institutions: University of Kentucky .
L. monocytogenes are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause food borne infections in humans. Very little is known about the gastrointestinal phase of listeriosis due to the lack of a small animal model that closely mimics human disease. This paper describes a novel mouse model for oral transmission of L. monocytogenes. Using this model, mice fed L. monocytogenes-contaminated bread have a discrete phase of gastrointestinal infection, followed by varying degrees of systemic spread in susceptible (BALB/c/By/J) or resistant (C57BL/6) mouse strains. During the later stages of the infection, dissemination to the gall bladder and brain is observed. The food borne model of listeriosis is highly reproducible, does not require specialized skills, and can be used with a wide variety of bacterial isolates and laboratory mouse strains. As such, it is the ideal model to study both virulence strategies used by L. monocytogenes to promote intestinal colonization, as well as the host response to invasive food borne bacterial infection.
Infection, Issue 75, Microbiology, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Surgery, Listeria, animal models, Bacteria, intestines, food borne pathogen, L. monocytogenes, bacterial pathogens, inoculation, isolation, cell culture, mice, animal model
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DNBS/TNBS Colitis Models: Providing Insights Into Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Effects of Dietary Fat
Authors: Vijay Morampudi, Ganive Bhinder, Xiujuan Wu, Chuanbin Dai, Ho Pan Sham, Bruce A. Vallance, Kevan Jacobson.
Institutions: BC Children's Hospital.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), including Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, have long been associated with a genetic basis, and more recently host immune responses to microbial and environmental agents. Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis allows one to study the pathogenesis of IBD associated environmental triggers such as stress and diet, the effects of potential therapies, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury. In this paper, we investigated the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the colonic mucosal inflammatory response to DNBS-induced colitis in rats. All rats were fed identical diets with the exception of different types of fatty acids [safflower oil (SO), canola oil (CO), or fish oil (FO)] for three weeks prior to exposure to intrarectal DNBS. Control rats given intrarectal ethanol continued gaining weight over the 5 day study, whereas, DNBS-treated rats fed lipid diets all lost weight with FO and CO fed rats demonstrating significant weight loss by 48 hr and rats fed SO by 72 hr. Weight gain resumed after 72 hr post DNBS, and by 5 days post DNBS, the FO group had a higher body weight than SO or CO groups. Colonic sections collected 5 days post DNBS-treatment showed focal ulceration, crypt destruction, goblet cell depletion, and mucosal infiltration of both acute and chronic inflammatory cells that differed in severity among diet groups. The SO fed group showed the most severe damage followed by the CO, and FO fed groups that showed the mildest degree of tissue injury. Similarly, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker of neutrophil activity was significantly higher in SO followed by CO fed rats, with FO fed rats having significantly lower MPO activity. These results demonstrate the use of DNBS-induced colitis, as outlined in this protocol, to determine the impact of diet in the pathogenesis of IBD.
Medicine, Issue 84, Chemical colitis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, intra rectal administration, intestinal inflammation, transmural inflammation, myeloperoxidase activity
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Investigating Intestinal Inflammation in DSS-induced Model of IBD
Authors: Janice J. Kim, Md. Sharif Shajib, Marcus M. Manocha, Waliul I. Khan.
Institutions: McMaster University .
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) encompasses a range of intestinal pathologies, the most common of which are ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD). Both UC and CD, when present in the colon, generate a similar symptom profile which can include diarrhea, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, and weight loss.1 Although the pathogenesis of IBD remains unknown, it is described as a multifactorial disease that involves both genetic and environmental components.2 There are numerous and variable animal models of colonic inflammation that resemble several features of IBD. Animal models of colitis range from those arising spontaneously in susceptible strains of certain species to those requiring administration of specific concentrations of colitis-inducing chemicals, such as dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Chemical-induced models of gut inflammation are the most commonly used and best described models of IBD. Administration of DSS in drinking water produces acute or chronic colitis depending on the administration protocol.3 Animals given DSS exhibit weight loss and signs of loose stool or diarrhea, sometimes with evidence of rectal bleeding.4,5 Here, we describe the methods by which colitis development and the resulting inflammatory response can be characterized following administration of DSS. These methods include histological analysis of hematoxylin/eosin stained colon sections, measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, which can be used as a surrogate marker of inflammation.6 The extent of the inflammatory response in disease state can be assessed by the presence of clinical symptoms or by alteration in histology in mucosal tissue. Colonic histological damage is assessed by using a scoring system that considers loss of crypt architecture, inflammatory cell infiltration, muscle thickening, goblet cell depletion, and crypt abscess.7 Quantitatively, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines with acute inflammatory properties, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α,can be determined using conventional ELISA methods. In addition, MPO activity can be measured using a colorimetric assay and used as an index of inflammation.8 In experimental colitis, disease severity is often correlated with an increase in MPO activity and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Colitis severity and inflammation-associated damage can be assessed by examining stool consistency and bleeding, in addition to assessing the histopathological state of the intestine using hematoxylin/eosin stained colonic tissue sections. Colonic tissue fragments can be used to determine MPO activity and cytokine production. Taken together, these measures can be used to evaluate the intestinal inflammatory response in animal models of experimental colitis.
Medicine, Issue 60, inflammation, myeloperoxidase (MPO), acute colonic damage, granulocyte, colon, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), neutrophil
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Isolation and Characterization of Dendritic Cells and Macrophages from the Mouse Intestine
Authors: Duke Geem, Oscar Medina-Contreras, Wooki Kim, Clifton S. Huang, Timothy L. Denning.
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
Within the intestine reside unique populations of innate and adaptive immune cells that are involved in promoting tolerance towards commensal flora and food antigens while concomitantly remaining poised to mount inflammatory responses toward invasive pathogens1,2. Antigen presenting cells, particularly DCs and macrophages, play critical roles in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis via their ability to sense and appropriately respond to the microbiota3-14. Efficient isolation of intestinal DCs and macrophages is a critical step in characterizing the phenotype and function of these cells. While many effective methods of isolating intestinal immune cells, including DCs and macrophages, have been described6,10,15-24, many rely upon long digestions times that may negatively influence cell surface antigen expression, cell viability, and/or cell yield. Here, we detail a methodology for the rapid isolation of large numbers of viable, intestinal DCs and macrophages. Phenotypic characterization of intestinal DCs and macrophages is carried out by directly staining isolated intestinal cells with specific fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies for multi-color flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, highly pure DC and macrophage populations are isolated for functional studies utilizing CD11c and CD11b magnetic-activated cell sorting beads followed by cell sorting.
Immunology, Issue 63, intestine, immunology, APCs, dendritic cells, macrophages, cell culture
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Chronic Salmonella Infected Mouse Model
Authors: Shaoping Wu, Rong Lu, Yong-guo Zhang, Jun Sun.
Institutions: University of Rochester.
The bacterial infected mouse model is a powerful model system for studying areas such as infection, inflammation, immunology, signal transduction, and tumorigenesis. Many researchers have taken advantage of the colitis induced by Salmonella typhimurium for the studies on the early phase of inflammation and infection. However, only few reports are on the chronic infection in vivo. Mice with Salmonella persistent existence in the gastrointestinal tract allow us to explore the long-term host-bacterial interaction, signal transduction, and tumorigenesis. We have established a chronic bacterial infected mouse model with Salmonella typhimurium colonization in the mouse intestine over 6 months. To use this system, it is necessary for the researcher to learn how to prepare the bacterial culture and gavage the animals. We detail a methodology for prepare bacterial culture and gavage mice. We also show how to detect the Salmonella persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. Overall, this protocol will aid researchers using the bacterial infected mouse model to address fundamentally important biological and microbiological questions.
Microbiology, Issue 39, Salmonella, intestine, colitis, chronic infection, mouse model
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Chemically-blocked Antibody Microarray for Multiplexed High-throughput Profiling of Specific Protein Glycosylation in Complex Samples
Authors: Chen Lu, Joshua L. Wonsidler, Jianwei Li, Yanming Du, Timothy Block, Brian Haab, Songming Chen.
Institutions: Institute for Hepatitis and Virus Research, Thomas Jefferson University , Drexel University College of Medicine, Van Andel Research Institute, Serome Biosciences Inc..
In this study, we describe an effective protocol for use in a multiplexed high-throughput antibody microarray with glycan binding protein detection that allows for the glycosylation profiling of specific proteins. Glycosylation of proteins is the most prevalent post-translational modification found on proteins, and leads diversified modifications of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of proteins. Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. However, current methods to study protein glycosylation typically are too complicated or expensive for use in most normal laboratory or clinical settings and a more practical method to study protein glycosylation is needed. The new protocol described in this study makes use of a chemically blocked antibody microarray with glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection and significantly reduces the time, cost, and lab equipment requirements needed to study protein glycosylation. In this method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are printed directly onto the microarray slides and the N-glycans on the antibodies are blocked. The blocked, immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are able to capture and isolate glycoproteins from a complex sample that is applied directly onto the microarray slides. Glycan detection then can be performed by the application of biotinylated lectins and other GBPs to the microarray slide, while binding levels can be determined using Dylight 549-Streptavidin. Through the use of an antibody panel and probing with multiple biotinylated lectins, this method allows for an effective glycosylation profile of the different proteins found in a given human or animal sample to be developed. Introduction Glycosylation of protein, which is the most ubiquitous post-translational modification on proteins, modifies the physical, chemical, and biological properties of a protein, and plays a fundamental role in various biological processes1-6. Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases 7-12. In fact, most current cancer biomarkers, such as the L3 fraction of α-1 fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular carcinoma 13-15, and CA199 for pancreatic cancer 16, 17 are all aberrant glycan moieties on glycoproteins. However, methods to study protein glycosylation have been complicated, and not suitable for routine laboratory and clinical settings. Chen et al. has recently invented a chemically blocked antibody microarray with a glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection method for high-throughput and multiplexed profile glycosylation of native glycoproteins in a complex sample 18. In this affinity based microarray method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies capture and isolate glycoproteins from the complex mixture directly on the microarray slide, and the glycans on each individual captured protein are measured by GBPs. Because all normal antibodies contain N-glycans which could be recognized by most GBPs, the critical step of this method is to chemically block the glycans on the antibodies from binding to GBP. In the procedure, the cis-diol groups of the glycans on the antibodies were first oxidized to aldehyde groups by using NaIO4 in sodium acetate buffer avoiding light. The aldehyde groups were then conjugated to the hydrazide group of a cross-linker, 4-(4-N-MaleimidoPhenyl)butyric acid Hydrazide HCl (MPBH), followed by the conjugation of a dipeptide, Cys-Gly, to the maleimide group of the MPBH. Thus, the cis-diol groups on glycans of antibodies were converted into bulky none hydroxyl groups, which hindered the lectins and other GBPs bindings to the capture antibodies. This blocking procedure makes the GBPs and lectins bind only to the glycans of captured proteins. After this chemically blocking, serum samples were incubated with the antibody microarray, followed by the glycans detection by using different biotinylated lectins and GBPs, and visualized with Cy3-streptavidin. The parallel use of an antibody panel and multiple lectin probing provides discrete glycosylation profiles of multiple proteins in a given sample 18-20. This method has been used successfully in multiple different labs 1, 7, 13, 19-31. However, stability of MPBH and Cys-Gly, complicated and extended procedure in this method affect the reproducibility, effectiveness and efficiency of the method. In this new protocol, we replaced both MPBH and Cys-Gly with one much more stable reagent glutamic acid hydrazide (Glu-hydrazide), which significantly improved the reproducibility of the method, simplified and shorten the whole procedure so that the it can be completed within one working day. In this new protocol, we describe the detailed procedure of the protocol which can be readily adopted by normal labs for routine protein glycosylation study and techniques which are necessary to obtain reproducible and repeatable results.
Molecular Biology, Issue 63, Glycoproteins, glycan-binding protein, specific protein glycosylation, multiplexed high-throughput glycan blocked antibody microarray
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Improved In-gel Reductive β-Elimination for Comprehensive O-linked and Sulfo-glycomics by Mass Spectrometry
Authors: David B. Nix, Tadahiro Kumagai, Toshihiko Katoh, Michael Tiemeyer, Kazuhiro Aoki.
Institutions: University of Georgia, University of Georgia, Ishikawa Prefectural University.
Separation of proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by in-gel proteolytic digestion of resolved protein bands has produced high-resolution proteomic analysis of biological samples. Similar approaches, that would allow in-depth analysis of the glycans carried by glycoproteins resolved by SDS-PAGE, require special considerations in order to maximize recovery and sensitivity when using mass spectrometry (MS) as the detection method. A major hurdle to be overcome in achieving high-quality data is the removal of gel-derived contaminants that interfere with MS analysis. The sample workflow presented here is robust, efficient, and eliminates the need for in-line HPLC clean-up prior to MS. Gel pieces containing target proteins are washed in acetonitrile, water, and ethyl acetate to remove contaminants, including polymeric acrylamide fragments. O-linked glycans are released from target proteins by in-gel reductive β-elimination and recovered through robust, simple clean-up procedures. An advantage of this workflow is that it improves sensitivity for detecting and characterizing sulfated glycans. These procedures produce an efficient separation of sulfated permethylated glycans from non-sulfated (sialylated and neutral) permethylated glycans by a rapid phase-partition prior to MS analysis, and thereby enhance glycomic and sulfoglycomic analyses of glycoproteins resolved by SDS-PAGE.
Chemistry, Issue 93, glycoprotein, glycosylation, in-gel reductive β-elimination, O-linked glycan, sulfated glycan, mass spectrometry, protein ID, SDS-PAGE, glycomics, sulfoglycomics
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Identification and Characterization of Protein Glycosylation using Specific Endo- and Exoglycosidases
Authors: Paula E. Magnelli, Alicia M. Bielik, Ellen P. Guthrie.
Institutions: New England Biolabs.
Glycosylation, the addition of covalently linked sugars, is a major post-translational modification of proteins that can significantly affect processes such as cell adhesion, molecular trafficking, clearance, and signal transduction1-4. In eukaryotes, the most common glycosylation modifications in the secretory pathway are additions at consensus asparagine residues (N-linked); or at serine or threonine residues (O-linked) (Figure 1). Initiation of N-glycan synthesis is highly conserved in eukaryotes, while the end products can vary greatly among different species, tissues, or proteins. Some glycans remain unmodified ("high mannose N-glycans") or are further processed in the Golgi ("complex N-glycans"). Greater diversity is found for O-glycans, which start with a common N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residue in animal cells but differ in lower organisms1. The detailed analysis of the glycosylation of proteins is a field unto itself and requires extensive resources and expertise to execute properly. However a variety of available enzymes that remove sugars (glycosidases) makes possible to have a general idea of the glycosylation status of a protein in a standard laboratory setting. Here we illustrate the use of glycosidases for the analysis of a model glycoprotein: recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin beta (hCGβ), which carries two N-glycans and four O-glycans 5. The technique requires only simple instrumentation and typical consumables, and it can be readily adapted to the analysis of multiple glycoprotein samples. Several enzymes can be used in parallel to study a glycoprotein. PNGase F is able to remove almost all types of N-linked glycans6,7. For O-glycans, there is no available enzyme that can cleave an intact oligosaccharide from the protein backbone. Instead, O-glycans are trimmed by exoglycosidases to a short core, which is then easily removed by O-Glycosidase. The Protein Deglycosylation Mix contains PNGase F, O-Glycosidase, Neuraminidase (sialidase), β1-4 Galactosidase, and β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase. It is used to simultaneously remove N-glycans and some O-glycans8 . Finally, the Deglycosylation Mix was supplemented with a mixture of other exoglycosidases (α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase, α1-2 Fucosidase, α1-3,6 Galactosidase, and β1-3 Galactosidase ), which help remove otherwise resistant monosaccharides that could be present in certain O-glycans. SDS-PAGE/Coomasie blue is used to visualize differences in protein migration before and after glycosidase treatment. In addition, a sugar-specific staining method, ProQ Emerald-300, shows diminished signal as glycans are successively removed. This protocol is designed for the analysis of small amounts of glycoprotein (0.5 to 2 μg), although enzymatic deglycosylation can be scaled up to accommodate larger quantities of protein as needed.
Molecular Biology , Issue 58, Glycoprotein, N-glycan, O-glycan, PNGase F, O-glycosidase, deglycosylation, glycosidase
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A Novel Method for the Culture and Polarized Stimulation of Human Intestinal Mucosa Explants
Authors: Katerina Tsilingiri, Angelica Sonzogni, Flavio Caprioli, Maria Rescigno.
Institutions: European Institute of Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Ospedale Policlinico di Milano.
Few models currently exist to realistically simulate the complex human intestine's micro-environment, where a variety of interactions take place. Proper homeostasis directly depends on these interactions, as they shape an entire immunological response inducing tolerance against food antigens while at the same time mounting effective immune responses against pathogenic microbes accidentally ingested with food. Intestinal homeostasis is preserved also through various complex interactions between the microbiota (including food-associated beneficial bacterial strains) and the host, that regulate the attachment/degradation of mucus, the production of antimicrobial peptides by the epithelial barrier, and the "education" of epithelial cells' that controls the tolerogenic or immunogenic phenotype of unique, gut-resident lymphoid cells' populations. These interactions have been so far very difficult to reproduce with in vitro assays using either cultured cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, mouse models differ substantially in components of the intestinal mucosa (mucus layer organization, commensal bacteria community) with respect to the human gut. Thus, studies of a variety of treatments to be brought in the clinics for important stress-related or pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer have been difficult to carry out. To address these issues, we developed a novel system that enables us to stimulate explants of human intestinal mucosa that retain their in situ conditioning by the host microbiota and immune response, in a polarized fashion. Polarized apical stimulation is of great importance for the outcome of the elicited immune response. It has been repeatedly shown that the same stimuli can produce completely different responses when they bypass the apical face of the intestinal epithelium, stimulating epithelial cells basolaterally or coming into direct contact with lamina propria components, switching the phenotype from tolerogenic to immunogenic and causing unnecessary and excessive inflammation in the area. We achieved polarized stimulation by gluing a cave cylinder which delimited the area of stimulation on the apical face of the mucosa as will be described in the protocol. We used this model to examine, among others, differential effects of three different Lactobacilli strains. We show that this model system is very powerful to assess the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in healthy and disease conditions.
Microbiology, Issue 75, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Bacteria, Tissue Engineering, Tissue culture, intestinal mucosa, polarized stimulation, probiotics, explants, Lactobacilli, microbiota, cell culture
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Trichuris muris Infection: A Model of Type 2 Immunity and Inflammation in the Gut
Authors: Frann Antignano, Sarah C. Mullaly, Kyle Burrows, Colby Zaph.
Institutions: University of British Columbia, University of British Columbia.
Trichuris muris is a natural pathogen of mice and is biologically and antigenically similar to species of Trichuris that infect humans and livestock1. Infective eggs are given by oral gavage, hatch in the distal small intestine, invade the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that line the crypts of the cecum and proximal colon and upon maturation the worms release eggs into the environment1. This model is a powerful tool to examine factors that control CD4+ T helper (Th) cell activation as well as changes in the intestinal epithelium. The immune response that occurs in resistant inbred strains, such as C57BL/6 and BALB/c, is characterized by Th2 polarized cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) and expulsion of worms while Th1-associated cytokines (IL-12, IL-18, IFN-γ) promote chronic infections in genetically susceptible AKR/J mice2-6. Th2 cytokines promote physiological changes in the intestinal microenvironment including rapid turnover of IECs, goblet cell differentiation, recruitment and changes in epithelial permeability and smooth muscle contraction, all of which have been implicated in worm expulsion7-15. Here we detail a protocol for propagating Trichuris muris eggs which can be used in subsequent experiments. We also provide a sample experimental harvest with suggestions for post-infection analysis. Overall, this protocol will provide researchers with the basic tools to perform a Trichuris muris mouse infection model which can be used to address questions pertaining to Th proclivity in the gastrointestinal tract as well as immune effector functions of IECs.
Infection, Issue 51, Trichuris muris, mouse, Th2, intestine, inflammation
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In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration
Authors: Mark E. Kusek, Michael A. Pazos, Waheed Pirzai, Bryan P. Hurley.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, MGH for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Mucosal surfaces serve as protective barriers against pathogenic organisms. Innate immune responses are activated upon sensing pathogen leading to the infiltration of tissues with migrating inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. This process has the potential to be destructive to tissues if excessive or held in an unresolved state.  Cocultured in vitro models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. This type of model provides versatility in experimental design with opportunity for controlled manipulation of the pathogen, epithelial barrier, or neutrophil. Pathogenic infection of the apical surface of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable transwell filters instigates physiologically relevant basolateral to apical trans-epithelial migration of neutrophils applied to the basolateral surface. The in vitro model described herein demonstrates the multiple steps necessary for demonstrating neutrophil migration across a polarized lung epithelial monolayer that has been infected with pathogenic P. aeruginosa (PAO1). Seeding and culturing of permeable transwells with human derived lung epithelial cells is described, along with isolation of neutrophils from whole human blood and culturing of PAO1 and nonpathogenic K12 E. coli (MC1000).  The emigrational process and quantitative analysis of successfully migrated neutrophils that have been mobilized in response to pathogenic infection is shown with representative data, including positive and negative controls. This in vitro model system can be manipulated and applied to other mucosal surfaces. Inflammatory responses that involve excessive neutrophil infiltration can be destructive to host tissues and can occur in the absence of pathogenic infections. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote neutrophil trans-epithelial migration through experimental manipulation of the in vitro coculture assay system described herein has significant potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for a range of mucosal infectious as well as inflammatory diseases.
Infection, Issue 83, Cellular Biology, Epithelium, Neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Neutrophils, epithelial barriers, pathogens, transmigration
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Murine Endoscopy for In Vivo Multimodal Imaging of Carcinogenesis and Assessment of Intestinal Wound Healing and Inflammation
Authors: Markus Brückner, Philipp Lenz, Tobias M. Nowacki, Friederike Pott, Dirk Foell, Dominik Bettenworth.
Institutions: University Hospital Münster, University Children's Hospital Münster.
Mouse models are widely used to study pathogenesis of human diseases and to evaluate diagnostic procedures as well as therapeutic interventions preclinically. However, valid assessment of pathological alterations often requires histological analysis, and when performed ex vivo, necessitates death of the animal. Therefore in conventional experimental settings, intra-individual follow-up examinations are rarely possible. Thus, development of murine endoscopy in live mice enables investigators for the first time to both directly visualize the gastrointestinal mucosa and also repeat the procedure to monitor for alterations. Numerous applications for in vivo murine endoscopy exist, including studying intestinal inflammation or wound healing, obtaining mucosal biopsies repeatedly, and to locally administer diagnostic or therapeutic agents using miniature injection catheters. Most recently, molecular imaging has extended diagnostic imaging modalities allowing specific detection of distinct target molecules using specific photoprobes. In conclusion, murine endoscopy has emerged as a novel cutting-edge technology for diagnostic experimental in vivo imaging and may significantly impact on preclinical research in various fields.
Medicine, Issue 90, gastroenterology, in vivo imaging, murine endoscopy, diagnostic imaging, carcinogenesis, intestinal wound healing, experimental colitis
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Flexible Colonoscopy in Mice to Evaluate the Severity of Colitis and Colorectal Tumors Using a Validated Endoscopic Scoring System
Authors: Tomohiro Kodani, Alex Rodriguez-Palacios, Daniele Corridoni, Loris Lopetuso, Luca Di Martino, Brian Marks, James Pizarro, Theresa Pizarro, Amitabh Chak, Fabio Cominelli.
Institutions: Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland.
The use of modern endoscopy for research purposes has greatly facilitated our understanding of gastrointestinal pathologies. In particular, experimental endoscopy has been highly useful for studies that require repeated assessments in a single laboratory animal, such as those evaluating mechanisms of chronic inflammatory bowel disease and the progression of colorectal cancer. However, the methods used across studies are highly variable. At least three endoscopic scoring systems have been published for murine colitis and published protocols for the assessment of colorectal tumors fail to address the presence of concomitant colonic inflammation. This study develops and validates a reproducible endoscopic scoring system that integrates evaluation of both inflammation and tumors simultaneously. This novel scoring system has three major components: 1) assessment of the extent and severity of colorectal inflammation (based on perianal findings, transparency of the wall, mucosal bleeding, and focal lesions), 2) quantitative recording of tumor lesions (grid map and bar graph), and 3) numerical sorting of clinical cases by their pathological and research relevance based on decimal units with assigned categories of observed lesions and endoscopic complications (decimal identifiers). The video and manuscript presented herein were prepared, following IACUC-approved protocols, to allow investigators to score their own experimental mice using a well-validated and highly reproducible endoscopic methodology, with the system option to differentiate distal from proximal endoscopic colitis (D-PECS).
Medicine, Issue 80, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, colon cancer, Clostridium difficile, SAMP mice, DSS/AOM-colitis, decimal scoring identifier
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Modeling Mucosal Candidiasis in Larval Zebrafish by Swimbladder Injection
Authors: Remi L. Gratacap, Audrey C. Bergeron, Robert T. Wheeler.
Institutions: University of Maine, University of Maine.
Early defense against mucosal pathogens consists of both an epithelial barrier and innate immune cells. The immunocompetency of both, and their intercommunication, are paramount for the protection against infections. The interactions of epithelial and innate immune cells with a pathogen are best investigated in vivo, where complex behavior unfolds over time and space. However, existing models do not allow for easy spatio-temporal imaging of the battle with pathogens at the mucosal level. The model developed here creates a mucosal infection by direct injection of the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, into the swimbladder of juvenile zebrafish. The resulting infection enables high-resolution imaging of epithelial and innate immune cell behavior throughout the development of mucosal disease. The versatility of this method allows for interrogation of the host to probe the detailed sequence of immune events leading to phagocyte recruitment and to examine the roles of particular cell types and molecular pathways in protection. In addition, the behavior of the pathogen as a function of immune attack can be imaged simultaneously by using fluorescent protein-expressing C. albicans. Increased spatial resolution of the host-pathogen interaction is also possible using the described rapid swimbladder dissection technique. The mucosal infection model described here is straightforward and highly reproducible, making it a valuable tool for the study of mucosal candidiasis. This system may also be broadly translatable to other mucosal pathogens such as mycobacterial, bacterial or viral microbes that normally infect through epithelial surfaces.
Immunology, Issue 93, Zebrafish, mucosal candidiasis, mucosal infection, epithelial barrier, epithelial cells, innate immunity, swimbladder, Candida albicans, in vivo.
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Microgavage of Zebrafish Larvae
Authors: Jordan L. Cocchiaro, John F. Rawls.
Institutions: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill .
The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development1-5, physiology6-11, disease12-16, and host-microbe interactions17-25. Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae26. Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results. We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be used to quantify transit from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal spaces. This test can be used to verify proper execution of the microgavage procedure, and also provides a novel zebrafish assay to examine intestinal epithelial barrier integrity under different experimental conditions (e.g. genetic manipulation, drug treatment, or exposure to environmental factors). Furthermore, we show how gavage can be used to evaluate intestinal motility by gavaging fluorescent microspheres and monitoring their subsequent transit. Microgavage can be applied to deliver diverse materials such as live microorganisms, secreted microbial factors/toxins, pharmacological agents, and physiological probes. With these capabilities, the larval zebrafish microgavage method has the potential to enhance a broad range of research fields using the zebrafish model system.
Biochemistry, Issue 72, Molecular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Basic Protocols, Surgery, Zebrafish, Danio rerio, intestine, lumen, larvae, gavage, microgavage, epithelium, barrier function, gut motility, microsurgery, microscopy, animal model
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The Citrobacter rodentium Mouse Model: Studying Pathogen and Host Contributions to Infectious Colitis
Authors: Ganive Bhinder, Ho Pan Sham, Justin M. Chan, Vijay Morampudi, Kevan Jacobson, Bruce A. Vallance.
Institutions: BC Children's Hospital.
This protocol outlines the steps required to produce a robust model of infectious disease and colitis, as well as the methods used to characterize Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice. C. rodentium is a gram negative, murine specific bacterial pathogen that is closely related to the clinically important human pathogens enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Upon infection with C. rodentium, immunocompetent mice suffer from modest and transient weight loss and diarrhea. Histologically, intestinal crypt elongation, immune cell infiltration, and goblet cell depletion are observed. Clearance of infection is achieved after 3 to 4 weeks. Measurement of intestinal epithelial barrier integrity, bacterial load, and histological damage at different time points after infection, allow the characterization of mouse strains susceptible to infection. The virulence mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens colonize the intestinal tract of their hosts, as well as specific host responses that defend against such infections are poorly understood. Therefore the C. rodentium model of enteric bacterial infection serves as a valuable tool to aid in our understanding of these processes. Enteric bacteria have also been linked to Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs). It has been hypothesized that the maladaptive chronic inflammatory responses seen in IBD patients develop in genetically susceptible individuals following abnormal exposure of the intestinal mucosal immune system to enteric bacteria. Therefore, the study of models of infectious colitis offers significant potential for defining potentially pathogenic host responses to enteric bacteria. C. rodentium induced colitis is one such rare model that allows for the analysis of host responses to enteric bacteria, furthering our understanding of potential mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis; essential in the development of novel preventative and therapeutic treatments.
Infection, Issue 72, Immunology, Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Microbiology, Gastrointestinal Tract, Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections, Colitis, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Infectious colitis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, colitis, hyperplasia, immunostaining, epithelial barrier integrity, FITC-dextran, oral gavage, mouse, animal model
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Glycan Profiling of Plant Cell Wall Polymers using Microarrays
Authors: Isabel E. Moller, Filomena A. Pettolino, Charlie Hart, Edwin R. Lampugnani, William G.T. Willats, Antony Bacic.
Institutions: University of Melbourne, University of Melbourne, CSIRO Plant Industry, Black Mountain Laboratories, University of Copenhagen.
Plant cell walls are complex matrixes of heterogeneous glycans which play an important role in the physiology and development of plants and provide the raw materials for human societies (e.g. wood, paper, textile and biofuel industries)1,2. However, understanding the biosynthesis and function of these components remains challenging. Cell wall glycans are chemically and conformationally diverse due to the complexity of their building blocks, the glycosyl residues. These form linkages at multiple positions and differ in ring structure, isomeric or anomeric configuration, and in addition, are substituted with an array of non-sugar residues. Glycan composition varies in different cell and/or tissue types or even sub-domains of a single cell wall3. Furthermore, their composition is also modified during development1, or in response to environmental cues4. In excess of 2,000 genes have Plant cell walls are complex matrixes of heterogeneous glycans been predicted to be involved in cell wall glycan biosynthesis and modification in Arabidopsis5. However, relatively few of the biosynthetic genes have been functionally characterized 4,5. Reverse genetics approaches are difficult because the genes are often differentially expressed, often at low levels, between cell types6. Also, mutant studies are often hindered by gene redundancy or compensatory mechanisms to ensure appropriate cell wall function is maintained7. Thus novel approaches are needed to rapidly characterise the diverse range of glycan structures and to facilitate functional genomics approaches to understanding cell wall biosynthesis and modification. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)8,9 have emerged as an important tool for determining glycan structure and distribution in plants. These recognise distinct epitopes present within major classes of plant cell wall glycans, including pectins, xyloglucans, xylans, mannans, glucans and arabinogalactans. Recently their use has been extended to large-scale screening experiments to determine the relative abundance of glycans in a broad range of plant and tissue types simultaneously9,10,11. Here we present a microarray-based glycan screening method called Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) (Figures 1 & 2)10,11 that enables multiple samples (100 sec) to be screened using a miniaturised microarray platform with reduced reagent and sample volumes. The spot signals on the microarray can be formally quantified to give semi-quantitative data about glycan epitope occurrence. This approach is well suited to tracking glycan changes in complex biological systems12 and providing a global overview of cell wall composition particularly when prior knowledge of this is unavailable.
Plant Biology, Issue 70, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics, Proteins, Cell Walls, Polysaccharides, Monoclonal Antibodies, Microarrays, CoMPP, glycans, Arabidopsis, tissue collection
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Investigating the Microbial Community in the Termite Hindgut - Interview
Authors: Jared Leadbetter.
Institutions: California Institute of Technology - Caltech.
Jared Leadbetter explains why the termite-gut microbial community is an excellent system for studying the complex interactions between microbes. The symbiotic relationship existing between the host insect and lignocellulose-degrading gut microbes is explained, as well as the industrial uses of these microbes for degrading plant biomass and generating biofuels.
Microbiology, issue 4, microbial community, diversity
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