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Phosphorylation of Sli15 by Ipl1 is important for proper CPC localization and chromosome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) is a key regulator of eukaryotic cell division, consisting of the protein kinase Aurora B/Ipl1 in association with its activator (INCENP/Sli15) and two additional proteins (Survivin/Bir1 and Borealin/Nbl1). Here we have identified multiple sites of CPC autophosphorylation on yeast Sli15 that are located within its central microtubule-binding domain and examined the functional significance of their phosphorylation by Ipl1 through mutation of these sites, either to non-phosphorylatable alanine (sli15-20A) or to acidic residues to mimic constitutive phosphorylation (sli15-20D). Both mutant sli15 alleles confer chromosome instability, but this is mediated neither by changes in the capacity of Sli15 to activate Ipl1 kinase nor by decreased efficiency of chromosome biorientation, a key process in cell division that requires CPC function. Instead, we find that mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of Sli15 on the Ipl1 phosphorylation sites causes delocalization of the CPC in metaphase, whereas blocking phosphorylation of Sli15 on the Ipl1 sites drives excessive localization of Sli15 to the mitotic spindle in pre-anaphase cells. Consistent with these results, direct interaction of Sli15 with microtubules in vitro is greatly reduced either following phosphorylation by Ipl1 or when constitutive phosphorylation at the Ipl1-dependent phosphorylation sites is mimicked by aspartate or glutamate substitutions. Furthermore, we find that mimicking Ipl1 phosphorylation of Sli15 interferes with the 'tension checkpoint'--the CPC-dependent mechanism through which cells activate the spindle assembly checkpoint to delay anaphase in the absence of tension on kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Ipl1-dependent phosphorylation of Sli15 therefore inhibits its association with microtubules both in vivo and in vitro and may negatively regulate the tension checkpoint mechanism.
Authors: Jeremy Willis, Darla DeStephanis, Yogin Patel, Vrushab Gowda, Shan Yan.
Published: 11-05-2012
On a daily basis, cells are subjected to a variety of endogenous and environmental insults. To combat these insults, cells have evolved DNA damage checkpoint signaling as a surveillance mechanism to sense DNA damage and direct cellular responses to DNA damage. There are several groups of proteins called sensors, transducers and effectors involved in DNA damage checkpoint signaling (Figure 1). In this complex signaling pathway, ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) is one of the major kinases that can respond to DNA damage and replication stress. Activated ATR can phosphorylate its downstream substrates such as Chk1 (Checkpoint kinase 1). Consequently, phosphorylated and activated Chk1 leads to many downstream effects in the DNA damage checkpoint including cell cycle arrest, transcription activation, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis or senescence (Figure 1). When DNA is damaged, failing to activate the DNA damage checkpoint results in unrepaired damage and, subsequently, genomic instability. The study of the DNA damage checkpoint will elucidate how cells maintain genomic integrity and provide a better understanding of how human diseases, such as cancer, develop. Xenopus laevis egg extracts are emerging as a powerful cell-free extract model system in DNA damage checkpoint research. Low-speed extract (LSE) was initially described by the Masui group1. The addition of demembranated sperm chromatin to LSE results in nuclei formation where DNA is replicated in a semiconservative fashion once per cell cycle. The ATR/Chk1-mediated checkpoint signaling pathway is triggered by DNA damage or replication stress 2. Two methods are currently used to induce the DNA damage checkpoint: DNA damaging approaches and DNA damage-mimicking structures 3. DNA damage can be induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, γ-irradiation, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), mitomycin C (MMC), 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), or aphidicolin3, 4. MMS is an alkylating agent that inhibits DNA replication and activates the ATR/Chk1-mediated DNA damage checkpoint 4-7. UV irradiation also triggers the ATR/Chk1-dependent DNA damage checkpoint 8. The DNA damage-mimicking structure AT70 is an annealed complex of two oligonucleotides poly-(dA)70 and poly-(dT)70. The AT70 system was developed in Bill Dunphy's laboratory and is widely used to induce ATR/Chk1 checkpoint signaling 9-12. Here, we describe protocols (1) to prepare cell-free egg extracts (LSE), (2) to treat Xenopus sperm chromatin with two different DNA damaging approaches (MMS and UV), (3) to prepare the DNA damage-mimicking structure AT70, and (4) to trigger the ATR/Chk1-mediated DNA damage checkpoint in LSE with damaged sperm chromatin or a DNA damage-mimicking structure.
24 Related JoVE Articles!
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Pull-down of Calmodulin-binding Proteins
Authors: Kanwardeep S. Kaleka, Amber N. Petersen, Matthew A. Florence, Nashaat Z. Gerges.
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin .
Calcium (Ca2+) is an ion vital in regulating cellular function through a variety of mechanisms. Much of Ca2+ signaling is mediated through the calcium-binding protein known as calmodulin (CaM)1,2. CaM is involved at multiple levels in almost all cellular processes, including apoptosis, metabolism, smooth muscle contraction, synaptic plasticity, nerve growth, inflammation and the immune response. A number of proteins help regulate these pathways through their interaction with CaM. Many of these interactions depend on the conformation of CaM, which is distinctly different when bound to Ca2+ (Ca2+-CaM) as opposed to its Ca2+-free state (ApoCaM)3. While most target proteins bind Ca2+-CaM, certain proteins only bind to ApoCaM. Some bind CaM through their IQ-domain, including neuromodulin4, neurogranin (Ng)5, and certain myosins6. These proteins have been shown to play important roles in presynaptic function7, postsynaptic function8, and muscle contraction9, respectively. Their ability to bind and release CaM in the absence or presence of Ca2+ is pivotal in their function. In contrast, many proteins only bind Ca2+-CaM and require this binding for their activation. Examples include myosin light chain kinase10, Ca2+/CaM-dependent kinases (CaMKs)11 and phosphatases (e.g. calcineurin)12, and spectrin kinase13, which have a variety of direct and downstream effects14. The effects of these proteins on cellular function are often dependent on their ability to bind to CaM in a Ca2+-dependent manner. For example, we tested the relevance of Ng-CaM binding in synaptic function and how different mutations affect this binding. We generated a GFP-tagged Ng construct with specific mutations in the IQ-domain that would change the ability of Ng to bind CaM in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The study of these different mutations gave us great insight into important processes involved in synaptic function8,15. However, in such studies, it is essential to demonstrate that the mutated proteins have the expected altered binding to CaM. Here, we present a method for testing the ability of proteins to bind to CaM in the presence or absence of Ca2+, using CaMKII and Ng as examples. This method is a form of affinity chromatography referred to as a CaM pull-down assay. It uses CaM-Sepharose beads to test proteins that bind to CaM and the influence of Ca2+ on this binding. It is considerably more time efficient and requires less protein relative to column chromatography and other assays. Altogether, this provides a valuable tool to explore Ca2+/CaM signaling and proteins that interact with CaM.
Molecular BIology, Issue 59, Calmodulin, calcium, IQ-motif, affinity chromatography, pull-down, Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Kinase II, neurogranin
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Identifying Protein-protein Interaction Sites Using Peptide Arrays
Authors: Hadar Amartely, Anat Iosub-Amir, Assaf Friedler.
Institutions: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Protein-protein interactions mediate most of the processes in the living cell and control homeostasis of the organism. Impaired protein interactions may result in disease, making protein interactions important drug targets. It is thus highly important to understand these interactions at the molecular level. Protein interactions are studied using a variety of techniques ranging from cellular and biochemical assays to quantitative biophysical assays, and these may be performed either with full-length proteins, with protein domains or with peptides. Peptides serve as excellent tools to study protein interactions since peptides can be easily synthesized and allow the focusing on specific interaction sites. Peptide arrays enable the identification of the interaction sites between two proteins as well as screening for peptides that bind the target protein for therapeutic purposes. They also allow high throughput SAR studies. For identification of binding sites, a typical peptide array usually contains partly overlapping 10-20 residues peptides derived from the full sequences of one or more partner proteins of the desired target protein. Screening the array for binding the target protein reveals the binding peptides, corresponding to the binding sites in the partner proteins, in an easy and fast method using only small amount of protein. In this article we describe a protocol for screening peptide arrays for mapping the interaction sites between a target protein and its partners. The peptide array is designed based on the sequences of the partner proteins taking into account their secondary structures. The arrays used in this protocol were Celluspots arrays prepared by INTAVIS Bioanalytical Instruments. The array is blocked to prevent unspecific binding and then incubated with the studied protein. Detection using an antibody reveals the binding peptides corresponding to the specific interaction sites between the proteins.
Molecular Biology, Issue 93, peptides, peptide arrays, protein-protein interactions, binding sites, peptide synthesis, micro-arrays
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Quantitation and Analysis of the Formation of HO-Endonuclease Stimulated Chromosomal Translocations by Single-Strand Annealing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Authors: Lauren Liddell, Glenn Manthey, Nicholas Pannunzio, Adam Bailis.
Institutions: Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center and Beckman Research Institute, University of Southern California, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center.
Genetic variation is frequently mediated by genomic rearrangements that arise through interaction between dispersed repetitive elements present in every eukaryotic genome. This process is an important mechanism for generating diversity between and within organisms1-3. The human genome consists of approximately 40% repetitive sequence of retrotransposon origin, including a variety of LINEs and SINEs4. Exchange events between these repetitive elements can lead to genome rearrangements, including translocations, that can disrupt gene dosage and expression that can result in autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases5, as well as cancer in humans6-9. Exchange between repetitive elements occurs in a variety of ways. Exchange between sequences that share perfect (or near-perfect) homology occurs by a process called homologous recombination (HR). By contrast, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) uses little-or-no sequence homology for exchange10,11. The primary purpose of HR, in mitotic cells, is to repair double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated endogenously by aberrant DNA replication and oxidative lesions, or by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), and other exogenous DNA damaging agents. In the assay described here, DSBs are simultaneously created bordering recombination substrates at two different chromosomal loci in diploid cells by a galactose-inducible HO-endonuclease (Figure 1). The repair of the broken chromosomes generates chromosomal translocations by single strand annealing (SSA), a process where homologous sequences adjacent to the chromosome ends are covalently joined subsequent to annealing. One of the substrates, his3-Δ3', contains a 3' truncated HIS3 allele and is located on one copy of chromosome XV at the native HIS3 locus. The second substrate, his3-Δ5', is located at the LEU2 locus on one copy of chromosome III, and contains a 5' truncated HIS3 allele. Both substrates are flanked by a HO endonuclease recognition site that can be targeted for incision by HO-endonuclease. HO endonuclease recognition sites native to the MAT locus, on both copies of chromosome III, have been deleted in all strains. This prevents interaction between the recombination substrates and other broken chromosome ends from interfering in the assay. The KAN-MX-marked galactose-inducible HO endonuclease expression cassette is inserted at the TRP1 locus on chromosome IV. The substrates share 311 bp or 60 bp of the HIS3 coding sequence that can be used by the HR machinery for repair by SSA. Cells that use these substrates to repair broken chromosomes by HR form an intact HIS3 allele and a tXV::III chromosomal translocation that can be selected for by the ability to grow on medium lacking histidine (Figure 2A). Translocation frequency by HR is calculated by dividing the number of histidine prototrophic colonies that arise on selective medium by the total number of viable cells that arise after plating appropriate dilutions onto non-selective medium (Figure 2B). A variety of DNA repair mutants have been used to study the genetic control of translocation formation by SSA using this system12-14.
Genetics, Issue 55, translocation formation, HO-endonuclease, Genomic Southern blot, Chromosome blot, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Homologous recombination, DNA double-strand breaks, Single-strand annealing
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Reporter-based Growth Assay for Systematic Analysis of Protein Degradation
Authors: Itamar Cohen, Yifat Geffen, Guy Ravid, Tommer Ravid.
Institutions: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a major regulatory mechanism for protein homeostasis in all eukaryotes. The standard approach to determining intracellular protein degradation relies on biochemical assays for following the kinetics of protein decline. Such methods are often laborious and time consuming and therefore not amenable to experiments aimed at assessing multiple substrates and degradation conditions. As an alternative, cell growth-based assays have been developed, that are, in their conventional format, end-point assays that cannot quantitatively determine relative changes in protein levels. Here we describe a method that faithfully determines changes in protein degradation rates by coupling them to yeast cell-growth kinetics. The method is based on an established selection system where uracil auxotrophy of URA3-deleted yeast cells is rescued by an exogenously expressed reporter protein, comprised of a fusion between the essential URA3 gene and a degradation determinant (degron). The reporter protein is designed so that its synthesis rate is constant whilst its degradation rate is determined by the degron. As cell growth in uracil-deficient medium is proportional to the relative levels of Ura3, growth kinetics are entirely dependent on the reporter protein degradation. This method accurately measures changes in intracellular protein degradation kinetics. It was applied to: (a) Assessing the relative contribution of known ubiquitin-conjugating factors to proteolysis (b) E2 conjugating enzyme structure-function analyses (c) Identification and characterization of novel degrons. Application of the degron-URA3-based system transcends the protein degradation field, as it can also be adapted to monitoring changes of protein levels associated with functions of other cellular pathways.
Cellular Biology, Issue 93, Protein Degradation, Ubiquitin, Proteasome, Baker's Yeast, Growth kinetics, Doubling time
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Isolation of mRNAs Associated with Yeast Mitochondria to Study Mechanisms of Localized Translation
Authors: Chen Lesnik, Yoav Arava.
Institutions: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.
Most of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and need to be imported into the organelle. Import may occur while the protein is synthesized near the mitochondria. Support for this possibility is derived from recent studies, in which many mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins were shown to be localized to the mitochondria vicinity. Together with earlier demonstrations of ribosomes’ association with the outer membrane, these results suggest a localized translation process. Such localized translation may improve import efficiency, provide unique regulation sites and minimize cases of ectopic expression. Diverse methods have been used to characterize the factors and elements that mediate localized translation. Standard among these is subcellular fractionation by differential centrifugation. This protocol has the advantage of isolation of mRNAs, ribosomes and proteins in a single procedure. These can then be characterized by various molecular and biochemical methods. Furthermore, transcriptomics and proteomics methods can be applied to the resulting material, thereby allow genome-wide insights. The utilization of yeast as a model organism for such studies has the advantages of speed, costs and simplicity. Furthermore, the advanced genetic tools and available deletion strains facilitate verification of candidate factors.
Biochemistry, Issue 85, mitochondria, mRNA localization, Yeast, S. cerevisiae, microarray, localized translation, biochemical fractionation
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Isolation of Cellular Lipid Droplets: Two Purification Techniques Starting from Yeast Cells and Human Placentas
Authors: Jaana Mannik, Alex Meyers, Paul Dalhaimer.
Institutions: University of Tennessee, University of Tennessee.
Lipid droplets are dynamic organelles that can be found in most eukaryotic and certain prokaryotic cells. Structurally, the droplets consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer. One of the most useful techniques in determining the cellular roles of droplets has been proteomic identification of bound proteins, which can be isolated along with the droplets. Here, two methods are described to isolate lipid droplets and their bound proteins from two wide-ranging eukaryotes: fission yeast and human placental villous cells. Although both techniques have differences, the main method - density gradient centrifugation - is shared by both preparations. This shows the wide applicability of the presented droplet isolation techniques. In the first protocol, yeast cells are converted into spheroplasts by enzymatic digestion of their cell walls. The resulting spheroplasts are then gently lysed in a loose-fitting homogenizer. Ficoll is added to the lysate to provide a density gradient, and the mixture is centrifuged three times. After the first spin, the lipid droplets are localized to the white-colored floating layer of the centrifuge tubes along with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the plasma membrane, and vacuoles. Two subsequent spins are used to remove these other three organelles. The result is a layer that has only droplets and bound proteins. In the second protocol, placental villous cells are isolated from human term placentas by enzymatic digestion with trypsin and DNase I. The cells are homogenized in a loose-fitting homogenizer. Low-speed and medium-speed centrifugation steps are used to remove unbroken cells, cellular debris, nuclei, and mitochondria. Sucrose is added to the homogenate to provide a density gradient and the mixture is centrifuged to separate the lipid droplets from the other cellular fractions. The purity of the lipid droplets in both protocols is confirmed by Western Blot analysis. The droplet fractions from both preps are suitable for subsequent proteomic and lipidomic analysis.
Bioengineering, Issue 86, Lipid droplet, lipid body, fat body, oil body, Yeast, placenta, placental villous cells, isolation, purification, density gradient centrifugation
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Expression and Purification of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Authors: Liam O'Ryan, Tracy Rimington, Natasha Cant, Robert C. Ford.
Institutions: University of Manchester.
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel, that when mutated, can give rise to cystic fibrosis in humans.There is therefore considerable interest in this protein, but efforts to study its structure and activity have been hampered by the difficulty of expressing and purifying sufficient amounts of the protein1-3. Like many 'difficult' eukaryotic membrane proteins, expression in a fast-growing organism is desirable, but challenging, and in the yeast S. cerevisiae, so far low amounts were obtained and rapid degradation of the recombinant protein was observed 4-9. Proteins involved in the processing of recombinant CFTR in yeast have been described6-9 .In this report we describe a methodology for expression of CFTR in yeast and its purification in significant amounts. The protocol describes how the earlier proteolysis problems can be overcome and how expression levels of CFTR can be greatly improved by modifying the cell growth conditions and by controlling the induction conditions, in particular the time period prior to cell harvesting. The reagants associated with this protocol (murine CFTR-expressing yeast cells or yeast plasmids) will be distributed via the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, which has sponsored the research. An article describing the design and synthesis of the CFTR construct employed in this report will be published separately (Urbatsch, I.; Thibodeau, P. et al., unpublished). In this article we will explain our method beginning with the transformation of the yeast cells with the CFTR construct - containing yeast plasmid (Fig. 1). The construct has a green fluorescent protein (GFP) sequence fused to CFTR at its C-terminus and follows the system developed by Drew et al. (2008)10. The GFP allows the expression and purification of CFTR to be followed relatively easily. The JoVE visualized protocol finishes after the preparation of microsomes from the yeast cells, although we include some suggestions for purification of the protein from the microsomes. Readers may wish to add their own modifications to the microsome purification procedure, dependent on the final experiments to be carried out with the protein and the local equipment available to them. The yeast-expressed CFTR protein can be partially purified using metal ion affinity chromatography, using an intrinsic polyhistidine purification tag. Subsequent size-exclusion chromatography yields a protein that appears to be >90% pure, as judged by SDS-PAGE and Coomassie-staining of the gel.
Molecular Biology, Issue 61, Membrane protein, cystic fibrosis, CFTR, protein expression, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, expression system, green fluorescent protein
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Split-Ubiquitin Based Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (MYTH) System: A Powerful Tool For Identifying Protein-Protein Interactions
Authors: Jamie Snider, Saranya Kittanakom, Jasna Curak, Igor Stagljar.
Institutions: University of Toronto, University of Toronto, University of Toronto.
The fundamental biological and clinical importance of integral membrane proteins prompted the development of a yeast-based system for the high-throughput identification of protein-protein interactions (PPI) for full-length transmembrane proteins. To this end, our lab developed the split-ubiquitin based Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (MYTH) system. This technology allows for the sensitive detection of transient and stable protein interactions using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a host organism. MYTH takes advantage of the observation that ubiquitin can be separated into two stable moieties: the C-terminal half of yeast ubiquitin (Cub) and the N-terminal half of the ubiquitin moiety (Nub). In MYTH, this principle is adapted for use as a 'sensor' of protein-protein interactions. Briefly, the integral membrane bait protein is fused to Cub which is linked to an artificial transcription factor. Prey proteins, either in individual or library format, are fused to the Nub moiety. Protein interaction between the bait and prey leads to reconstitution of the ubiquitin moieties, forming a full-length 'pseudo-ubiquitin' molecule. This molecule is in turn recognized by cytosolic deubiquitinating enzymes, resulting in cleavage of the transcription factor, and subsequent induction of reporter gene expression. The system is highly adaptable, and is particularly well-suited to high-throughput screening. It has been successfully employed to investigate interactions using integral membrane proteins from both yeast and other organisms.
Cellular Biology, Issue 36, protein-protein interaction, membrane, split-ubiquitin, yeast, library screening, Y2H, yeast two-hybrid, MYTH
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Nanogold Labeling of the Yeast Endosomal System for Ultrastructural Analyses
Authors: Muriel Mari, Janice Griffith, Fulvio Reggiori.
Institutions: University Medical Center Utrecht.
Endosomes are one of the major membrane sorting checkpoints in eukaryotic cells and they regulate recycling or destruction of proteins mostly from the plasma membrane and the Golgi. As a result the endosomal system plays a central role in maintaining cell homeostasis, and mutations in genes belonging to this network of organelles interconnected by vesicular transport, cause severe pathologies including cancer and neurobiological disorders. It is therefore of prime relevance to understand the mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and organization of the endosomal system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been pivotal in this task. To specifically label and analyze at the ultrastructural level the endosomal system of this model organism, we present here a detailed protocol for the positively charged nanogold uptake by spheroplasts followed by the visualization of these particles through a silver enhancement reaction. This method is also a valuable tool for the morphological examination of mutants with defects in endosomal trafficking. Moreover, it is not only applicable for ultrastructural examinations but it can also be combined with immunogold labelings for protein localization investigations.
Cellular Biology, Issue 89, positively charged nanogold, silver enhancement, Tokuyasu procedure, electron microscopy, immunogold labeling, yeast
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Discovering Protein Interactions and Characterizing Protein Function Using HaloTag Technology
Authors: Danette L. Daniels, Jacqui Méndez, Hélène Benink, Andrew Niles, Nancy Murphy, Michael Ford, Richard Jones, Ravi Amunugama, David Allen, Marjeta Urh.
Institutions: Promega Corporation, MS Bioworks LLC.
Research in proteomics has exploded in recent years with advances in mass spectrometry capabilities that have led to the characterization of numerous proteomes, including those from viruses, bacteria, and yeast.  In comparison, analysis of the human proteome lags behind, partially due to the sheer number of proteins which must be studied, but also the complexity of networks and interactions these present. To specifically address the challenges of understanding the human proteome, we have developed HaloTag technology for protein isolation, particularly strong for isolation of multiprotein complexes and allowing more efficient capture of weak or transient interactions and/or proteins in low abundance.  HaloTag is a genetically encoded protein fusion tag, designed for covalent, specific, and rapid immobilization or labelling of proteins with various ligands. Leveraging these properties, numerous applications for mammalian cells were developed to characterize protein function and here we present methodologies including: protein pull-downs used for discovery of novel interactions or functional assays, and cellular localization. We find significant advantages in the speed, specificity, and covalent capture of fusion proteins to surfaces for proteomic analysis as compared to other traditional non-covalent approaches. We demonstrate these and the broad utility of the technology using two important epigenetic proteins as examples, the human bromodomain protein BRD4, and histone deacetylase HDAC1.  These examples demonstrate the power of this technology in enabling  the discovery of novel interactions and characterizing cellular localization in eukaryotes, which will together further understanding of human functional proteomics.              
Cellular Biology, Issue 89, proteomics, HaloTag, protein interactions, mass spectrometry, bromodomain proteins, BRD4, histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC cellular assays, and confocal imaging
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Assaying the Kinase Activity of LRRK2 in vitro
Authors: Patrick A. Lewis.
Institutions: UCL Institute of Neurology.
Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a 2527 amino acid member of the ROCO family of proteins, possessing a complex, multidomain structure including a GTPase domain (termed ROC, for Ras of Complex proteins) and a kinase domain1. The discovery in 2004 of mutations in LRRK2 that cause Parkinson's disease (PD) resulted in LRRK2 being the focus of a huge volume of research into its normal function and how the protein goes awry in the disease state2,3. Initial investigations into the function of LRRK2 focused on its enzymatic activities4-6. Although a clear picture has yet to emerge of a consistent alteration in these due to mutations, data from a number of groups has highlighted the importance of the kinase activity of LRRK2 in cell death linked to mutations7,8. Recent publications have reported inhibitors targeting the kinase activity of LRRK2, providing a key experimental tool9-11. In light of these data, it is likely that the enzymatic properties of LRRK2 afford us an important window into the biology of this protein, although whether they are potential drug targets for Parkinson's is open to debate. A number of different approaches have been used to assay the kinase activity of LRRK2. Initially, assays were carried out using epitope tagged protein overexpressed in mammalian cell lines and immunoprecipitated, with the assays carried out using this protein immobilised on agarose beads4,5,7. Subsequently, purified recombinant fragments of LRRK2 in solution have also been used, for example a GST tagged fragment purified from insect cells containing residues 970 to 2527 of LRRK212. Recently, Daniëls et al. reported the isolation of full length LRRK2 in solution from human embryonic kidney cells, however this protein is not widely available13. In contrast, the GST fusion truncated form of LRRK2 is commercially available (from Invitrogen, see table 1 for details), and provides a convenient tool for demonstrating an assay for LRRK2 kinase activity. Several different outputs for LRRK2 kinase activity have been reported. Autophosphorylation of LRRK2 itself, phosphorylation of Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) as a generic kinase substrate and phosphorylation of an artificial substrate - dubbed LRRKtide, based upon phosphorylation of threonine 558 in Moesin - have all been used, as have a series of putative physiological substrates including α-synuclein, Moesin and 4-EBP14-17. The status of these proteins as substrates for LRRK2 remains unclear, and as such the protocol described below will focus on using MBP as a generic substrate, noting the utility of this system to assay LRRK2 kinase activity directed against a range of potential substrates.
Molecular Biology, Issue 59, Kinase, LRRK2, Parkinson's disease
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Monitoring Kinase and Phosphatase Activities Through the Cell Cycle by Ratiometric FRET
Authors: Elvira Hukasova, Helena Silva Cascales, Shravan R. Kumar, Arne Lindqvist.
Institutions: Karolinska Institutet.
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based reporters1 allow the assessment of endogenous kinase and phosphatase activities in living cells. Such probes typically consist of variants of CFP and YFP, intervened by a phosphorylatable sequence and a phospho-binding domain. Upon phosphorylation, the probe changes conformation, which results in a change of the distance or orientation between CFP and YFP, leading to a change in FRET efficiency (Fig 1). Several probes have been published during the last decade, monitoring the activity balance of multiple kinases and phosphatases, including reporters of PKA2, PKB3, PKC4, PKD5, ERK6, JNK7, Cdk18, Aurora B9 and Plk19. Given the modular design, additional probes are likely to emerge in the near future10. Progression through the cell cycle is affected by stress signaling pathways 11. Notably, the cell cycle is regulated differently during unperturbed growth compared to when cells are recovering from stress12.Time-lapse imaging of cells through the cell cycle therefore requires particular caution. This becomes a problem particularly when employing ratiometric imaging, since two images with a high signal to noise ratio are required to correctly interpret the results. Ratiometric FRET imaging of cell cycle dependent changes in kinase and phosphatase activities has predominately been restricted to sub-sections of the cell cycle8,9,13,14. Here, we discuss a method to monitor FRET-based probes using ratiometric imaging throughout the human cell cycle. The method relies on equipment that is available to many researchers in life sciences and does not require expert knowledge of microscopy or image processing.
Molecular Biology, Issue 59, FRET, kinase, phosphatase, live cell, cell cycle, mitosis, Plk1
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Studying Mitotic Checkpoint by Illustrating Dynamic Kinetochore Protein Behavior and Chromosome Motion in Living Drosophila Syncytial Embryos
Authors: Maureen Sinclair, Jun-Yong Huang.
Institutions: University of Newcastle, United Kingdom.
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) mechanism is an active signal, which monitors the interaction between chromosome kinetochores and spindle microtubules to prevent anaphase onset until the chromosomes are properly connected. Cells use this mechanism to prevent aneuploidy or genomic instability, and hence cancers and other human diseases like birth defects and Alzheimer's1. A number of the SAC components such as Mad1, Mad2, Bub1, BubR1, Bub3, Mps1, Zw10, Rod and Aurora B kinase have been identified and they are all kinetochore dynamic proteins2. Evidence suggests that the kinetochore is where the SAC signal is initiated. The SAC prime regulatory target is Cdc20. Cdc20 is one of the essential APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome) activators3 and is also a kinetochore dynamic protein4-6. When activated, the SAC inhibits the activity of the APC/C to prevent the destruction of two key substrates, cyclin B and securin, thereby preventing the metaphase to anaphase transition7,8. Exactly how the SAC signal is initiated and assembled on the kinetochores and relayed onto the APC/C to inhibit its function still remains elusive. Drosophila is an extremely tractable experimental system; a much simpler and better-understood organism compared to the human but one that shares fundamental processes in common. It is, perhaps, one of the best organisms to use for bio-imaging studies in living cells, especially for visualization of the mitotic events in space and time, as the early embryo goes through 13 rapid nuclear division cycles synchronously (8-10 minutes for each cycle at 25 °C) and gradually organizes the nuclei in a single monolayer just underneath the cortex9. Here, I present a bio-imaging method using transgenic Drosophila expressing GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) or its variant-targeted proteins of interest and a Leica TCS SP2 confocal laser scanning microscope system to study the SAC function in flies, by showing images of GFP fusion proteins of some of the SAC components, Cdc20 and Mad2, as the example.
Cellular Biology, Issue 64, Developmental Biology, Spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), Mitosis, Laser scanning confocal microscopy system, Kinetochore, Drosophila melanogaster, Syncytial embryo
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Identification of Post-translational Modifications of Plant Protein Complexes
Authors: Sophie J. M. Piquerez, Alexi L. Balmuth, Jan Sklenář, Alexandra M.E. Jones, John P. Rathjen, Vardis Ntoukakis.
Institutions: University of Warwick, Norwich Research Park, The Australian National University.
Plants adapt quickly to changing environments due to elaborate perception and signaling systems. During pathogen attack, plants rapidly respond to infection via the recruitment and activation of immune complexes. Activation of immune complexes is associated with post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, or ubiquitination. Understanding how these PTMs are choreographed will lead to a better understanding of how resistance is achieved. Here we describe a protein purification method for nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR)-interacting proteins and the subsequent identification of their post-translational modifications (PTMs). With small modifications, the protocol can be applied for the purification of other plant protein complexes. The method is based on the expression of an epitope-tagged version of the protein of interest, which is subsequently partially purified by immunoprecipitation and subjected to mass spectrometry for identification of interacting proteins and PTMs. This protocol demonstrates that: i). Dynamic changes in PTMs such as phosphorylation can be detected by mass spectrometry; ii). It is important to have sufficient quantities of the protein of interest, and this can compensate for the lack of purity of the immunoprecipitate; iii). In order to detect PTMs of a protein of interest, this protein has to be immunoprecipitated to get a sufficient quantity of protein.
Plant Biology, Issue 84, plant-microbe interactions, protein complex purification, mass spectrometry, protein phosphorylation, Prf, Pto, AvrPto, AvrPtoB
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Metabolic Labeling of Leucine Rich Repeat Kinases 1 and 2 with Radioactive Phosphate
Authors: Jean-Marc Taymans, Fangye Gao, Veerle Baekelandt.
Institutions: KU Leuven and Leuven Institute for Neuroscience and Disease (LIND).
Leucine rich repeat kinases 1 and 2 (LRRK1 and LRRK2) are paralogs which share a similar domain organization, including a serine-threonine kinase domain, a Ras of complex proteins domain (ROC), a C-terminal of ROC domain (COR), and leucine-rich and ankyrin-like repeats at the N-terminus. The precise cellular roles of LRRK1 and LRRK2 have yet to be elucidated, however LRRK1 has been implicated in tyrosine kinase receptor signaling1,2, while LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease3,4. In this report, we present a protocol to label the LRRK1 and LRRK2 proteins in cells with 32P orthophosphate, thereby providing a means to measure the overall phosphorylation levels of these 2 proteins in cells. In brief, affinity tagged LRRK proteins are expressed in HEK293T cells which are exposed to medium containing 32P-orthophosphate. The 32P-orthophosphate is assimilated by the cells after only a few hours of incubation and all molecules in the cell containing phosphates are thereby radioactively labeled. Via the affinity tag (3xflag) the LRRK proteins are isolated from other cellular components by immunoprecipitation. Immunoprecipitates are then separated via SDS-PAGE, blotted to PVDF membranes and analysis of the incorporated phosphates is performed by autoradiography (32P signal) and western detection (protein signal) of the proteins on the blots. The protocol can readily be adapted to monitor phosphorylation of any other protein that can be expressed in cells and isolated by immunoprecipitation.
Cellular Biology, Issue 79, biology (general), biochemistry, bioengineering (general), LRRK1, LRRK2, metabolic labeling, 32P orthophosphate, immunoprecipitation, autoradiography
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Combining Magnetic Sorting of Mother Cells and Fluctuation Tests to Analyze Genome Instability During Mitotic Cell Aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Authors: Melissa N. Patterson, Patrick H. Maxwell.
Institutions: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an excellent model system for examining mechanisms and consequences of genome instability. Information gained from this yeast model is relevant to many organisms, including humans, since DNA repair and DNA damage response factors are well conserved across diverse species. However, S. cerevisiae has not yet been used to fully address whether the rate of accumulating mutations changes with increasing replicative (mitotic) age due to technical constraints. For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. Variations of this basic protocol provide the means to investigate the influence of alterations in specific gene functions or specific environmental conditions on mutation accumulation to address mechanisms underlying genome instability during replicative aging.
Microbiology, Issue 92, Aging, mutations, genome instability, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fluctuation test, magnetic sorting, mother cell, replicative aging
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Preparation of Segmented Microtubules to Study Motions Driven by the Disassembling Microtubule Ends
Authors: Vladimir A. Volkov, Anatoly V. Zaytsev, Ekaterina L. Grishchuk.
Institutions: Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia, University of Pennsylvania.
Microtubule depolymerization can provide force to transport different protein complexes and protein-coated beads in vitro. The underlying mechanisms are thought to play a vital role in the microtubule-dependent chromosome motions during cell division, but the relevant proteins and their exact roles are ill-defined. Thus, there is a growing need to develop assays with which to study such motility in vitro using purified components and defined biochemical milieu. Microtubules, however, are inherently unstable polymers; their switching between growth and shortening is stochastic and difficult to control. The protocols we describe here take advantage of the segmented microtubules that are made with the photoablatable stabilizing caps. Depolymerization of such segmented microtubules can be triggered with high temporal and spatial resolution, thereby assisting studies of motility at the disassembling microtubule ends. This technique can be used to carry out a quantitative analysis of the number of molecules in the fluorescently-labeled protein complexes, which move processively with dynamic microtubule ends. To optimize a signal-to-noise ratio in this and other quantitative fluorescent assays, coverslips should be treated to reduce nonspecific absorption of soluble fluorescently-labeled proteins. Detailed protocols are provided to take into account the unevenness of fluorescent illumination, and determine the intensity of a single fluorophore using equidistant Gaussian fit. Finally, we describe the use of segmented microtubules to study microtubule-dependent motions of the protein-coated microbeads, providing insights into the ability of different motor and nonmotor proteins to couple microtubule depolymerization to processive cargo motion.
Basic Protocol, Issue 85, microscopy flow chamber, single-molecule fluorescence, laser trap, microtubule-binding protein, microtubule-dependent motor, microtubule tip-tracking
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DNA-affinity-purified Chip (DAP-chip) Method to Determine Gene Targets for Bacterial Two component Regulatory Systems
Authors: Lara Rajeev, Eric G. Luning, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay.
Institutions: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
In vivo methods such as ChIP-chip are well-established techniques used to determine global gene targets for transcription factors. However, they are of limited use in exploring bacterial two component regulatory systems with uncharacterized activation conditions. Such systems regulate transcription only when activated in the presence of unique signals. Since these signals are often unknown, the in vitro microarray based method described in this video article can be used to determine gene targets and binding sites for response regulators. This DNA-affinity-purified-chip method may be used for any purified regulator in any organism with a sequenced genome. The protocol involves allowing the purified tagged protein to bind to sheared genomic DNA and then affinity purifying the protein-bound DNA, followed by fluorescent labeling of the DNA and hybridization to a custom tiling array. Preceding steps that may be used to optimize the assay for specific regulators are also described. The peaks generated by the array data analysis are used to predict binding site motifs, which are then experimentally validated. The motif predictions can be further used to determine gene targets of orthologous response regulators in closely related species. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by determining the gene targets and binding site motifs and thus predicting the function for a sigma54-dependent response regulator DVU3023 in the environmental bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.
Genetics, Issue 89, DNA-Affinity-Purified-chip, response regulator, transcription factor binding site, two component system, signal transduction, Desulfovibrio, lactate utilization regulator, ChIP-chip
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Reconstitution Of β-catenin Degradation In Xenopus Egg Extract
Authors: Tony W. Chen, Matthew R. Broadus, Stacey S. Huppert, Ethan Lee.
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
Xenopus laevis egg extract is a well-characterized, robust system for studying the biochemistry of diverse cellular processes. Xenopus egg extract has been used to study protein turnover in many cellular contexts, including the cell cycle and signal transduction pathways1-3. Herein, a method is described for isolating Xenopus egg extract that has been optimized to promote the degradation of the critical Wnt pathway component, β-catenin. Two different methods are described to assess β-catenin protein degradation in Xenopus egg extract. One method is visually informative ([35S]-radiolabeled proteins), while the other is more readily scaled for high-throughput assays (firefly luciferase-tagged fusion proteins). The techniques described can be used to, but are not limited to, assess β-catenin protein turnover and identify molecular components contributing to its turnover. Additionally, the ability to purify large volumes of homogenous Xenopus egg extract combined with the quantitative and facile readout of luciferase-tagged proteins allows this system to be easily adapted for high-throughput screening for modulators of β-catenin degradation.
Molecular Biology, Issue 88, Xenopus laevis, Xenopus egg extracts, protein degradation, radiolabel, luciferase, autoradiography, high-throughput screening
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Comprehensive Profiling of Dopamine Regulation in Substantia Nigra and Ventral Tegmental Area
Authors: Michael F. Salvatore, Brandon S. Pruett, Charles Dempsey, Victoria Fields.
Institutions: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.
Dopamine is a vigorously studied neurotransmitter in the CNS. Indeed, its involvement in locomotor activity and reward-related behaviour has fostered five decades of inquiry into the molecular deficiencies associated with dopamine regulation. The majority of these inquiries of dopamine regulation in the brain focus upon the molecular basis for its regulation in the terminal field regions of the nigrostriatal and mesoaccumbens pathways; striatum and nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, such studies have concentrated on analysis of dopamine tissue content with normalization to only wet tissue weight. Investigation of the proteins that regulate dopamine, such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein, TH phosphorylation, dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) protein often do not include analysis of dopamine tissue content in the same sample. The ability to analyze both dopamine tissue content and its regulating proteins (including post-translational modifications) not only gives inherent power to interpreting the relationship of dopamine with the protein level and function of TH, DAT, or VMAT2, but also extends sample economy. This translates into less cost, and yet produces insights into the molecular regulation of dopamine in virtually any paradigm of the investigators' choice. We focus the analyses in the midbrain. Although the SN and VTA are typically neglected in most studies of dopamine regulation, these nuclei are easily dissected with practice. A comprehensive readout of dopamine tissue content and TH, DAT, or VMAT2 can be conducted. There is burgeoning literature on the impact of dopamine function in the SN and VTA on behavior, and the impingements of exogenous substances or disease processes therein 1-5. Furthermore, compounds such as growth factors have a profound effect on dopamine and dopamine-regulating proteins, to a comparatively greater extent in the SN or VTA 6-8. Therefore, this methodology is presented for reference to laboratories that want to extend their inquiries on how specific treatments modulate behaviour and dopamine regulation. Here, a multi-step method is presented for the analyses of dopamine tissue content, the protein levels of TH, DAT, or VMAT2, and TH phosphorylation from the substantia nigra and VTA from rodent midbrain. The analysis of TH phosphorylation can yield significant insights into not only how TH activity is regulated, but also the signaling cascades affected in the somatodendritic nuclei in a given paradigm. We will illustrate the dissection technique to segregate these two nuclei and the sample processing of dissected tissue that produces a profile revealing molecular mechanisms of dopamine regulation in vivo, specific for each nuclei (Figure 1).
Neuroscience, Issue 66, Medicine, Physiology, midbrain, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, tyrosine hydroxylase, phosphorylation, nigrostriatal, mesoaccumbens, dopamine transporter
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Monitoring Activation of the Antiviral Pattern Recognition Receptors RIG-I And PKR By Limited Protease Digestion and Native PAGE
Authors: Michaela Weber, Friedemann Weber.
Institutions: Philipps-University Marburg.
Host defenses to virus infection are dependent on a rapid detection by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system. In the cytoplasm, the PRRs RIG-I and PKR bind to specific viral RNA ligands. This first mediates conformational switching and oligomerization, and then enables activation of an antiviral interferon response. While methods to measure antiviral host gene expression are well established, methods to directly monitor the activation states of RIG-I and PKR are only partially and less well established. Here, we describe two methods to monitor RIG-I and PKR stimulation upon infection with an established interferon inducer, the Rift Valley fever virus mutant clone 13 (Cl 13). Limited trypsin digestion allows to analyze alterations in protease sensitivity, indicating conformational changes of the PRRs. Trypsin digestion of lysates from mock infected cells results in a rapid degradation of RIG-I and PKR, whereas Cl 13 infection leads to the emergence of a protease-resistant RIG-I fragment. Also PKR shows a virus-induced partial resistance to trypsin digestion, which coincides with its hallmark phosphorylation at Thr 446. The formation of RIG-I and PKR oligomers was validated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Upon infection, there is a strong accumulation of RIG-I and PKR oligomeric complexes, whereas these proteins remained as monomers in mock infected samples. Limited protease digestion and native PAGE, both coupled to western blot analysis, allow a sensitive and direct measurement of two diverse steps of RIG-I and PKR activation. These techniques are relatively easy and quick to perform and do not require expensive equipment.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 89, innate immune response, virus infection, pathogen recognition receptor, RIG-I, PKR, IRF-3, limited protease digestion, conformational switch, native PAGE, oligomerization
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Studying Proteolysis of Cyclin B at the Single Cell Level in Whole Cell Populations
Authors: Dominik Schnerch, Marie Follo, Julia Felthaus, Monika Engelhardt, Ralph Wäsch.
Institutions: University Medical Center Freiburg.
Equal distribution of chromosomes between the two daughter cells during cell division is a prerequisite for guaranteeing genetic stability 1. Inaccuracies during chromosome separation are a hallmark of malignancy and associated with progressive disease 2-4. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a mitotic surveillance mechanism that holds back cells at metaphase until every single chromosome has established a stable bipolar attachment to the mitotic spindle1. The SAC exerts its function by interference with the activating APC/C subunit Cdc20 to block proteolysis of securin and cyclin B and thus chromosome separation and mitotic exit. Improper attachment of chromosomes prevents silencing of SAC signaling and causes continued inhibition of APC/CCdc20 until the problem is solved to avoid chromosome missegregation, aneuploidy and malignant growths1. Most studies that addressed the influence of improper chromosomal attachment on APC/C-dependent proteolysis took advantage of spindle disruption using depolymerizing or microtubule-stabilizing drugs to interfere with chromosomal attachment to microtubules. Since interference with microtubule kinetics can affect the transport and localization of critical regulators, these procedures bear a risk of inducing artificial effects 5. To study how the SAC interferes with APC/C-dependent proteolysis of cyclin B during mitosis in unperturbed cell populations, we established a histone H2-GFP-based system which allowed the simultaneous monitoring of metaphase alignment of mitotic chromosomes and proteolysis of cyclin B 6. To depict proteolytic profiles, we generated a chimeric cyclin B reporter molecule with a C-terminal SNAP moiety 6 (Figure 1). In a self-labeling reaction, the SNAP-moiety is able to form covalent bonds with alkylguanine-carriers (SNAP substrate) 7,8 (Figure 1). SNAP substrate molecules are readily available and carry a broad spectrum of different fluorochromes. Chimeric cyclin B-SNAP molecules become labeled upon addition of the membrane-permeable SNAP substrate to the growth medium 7 (Figure 1). Following the labeling reaction, the cyclin B-SNAP fluorescence intensity drops in a pulse-chase reaction-like manner and fluorescence intensities reflect levels of cyclin B degradation 6 (Figure 1). Our system facilitates the monitoring of mitotic APC/C-dependent proteolysis in large numbers of cells (or several cell populations) in parallel. Thereby, the system may be a valuable tool to identify agents/small molecules that are able to interfere with proteolytic activity at the metaphase to anaphase transition. Moreover, as synthesis of cyclin B during mitosis has recently been suggested as an important mechanism in fostering a mitotic block in mice and humans by keeping cyclin B expression levels stable 9,10, this system enabled us to analyze cyclin B proteolysis as one element of a balanced equilibrium 6.
Genetics, Issue 67, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Proteomics, Cyclin B, spindle assembly checkpoint, anaphase-promoting complex, mitosis, proteasome-dependent proteolysis, SNAP, cell cycle
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Polymerase Chain Reaction: Basic Protocol Plus Troubleshooting and Optimization Strategies
Authors: Todd C. Lorenz.
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles .
In the biological sciences there have been technological advances that catapult the discipline into golden ages of discovery. For example, the field of microbiology was transformed with the advent of Anton van Leeuwenhoek's microscope, which allowed scientists to visualize prokaryotes for the first time. The development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of those innovations that changed the course of molecular science with its impact spanning countless subdisciplines in biology. The theoretical process was outlined by Keppe and coworkers in 1971; however, it was another 14 years until the complete PCR procedure was described and experimentally applied by Kary Mullis while at Cetus Corporation in 1985. Automation and refinement of this technique progressed with the introduction of a thermal stable DNA polymerase from the bacterium Thermus aquaticus, consequently the name Taq DNA polymerase. PCR is a powerful amplification technique that can generate an ample supply of a specific segment of DNA (i.e., an amplicon) from only a small amount of starting material (i.e., DNA template or target sequence). While straightforward and generally trouble-free, there are pitfalls that complicate the reaction producing spurious results. When PCR fails it can lead to many non-specific DNA products of varying sizes that appear as a ladder or smear of bands on agarose gels. Sometimes no products form at all. Another potential problem occurs when mutations are unintentionally introduced in the amplicons, resulting in a heterogeneous population of PCR products. PCR failures can become frustrating unless patience and careful troubleshooting are employed to sort out and solve the problem(s). This protocol outlines the basic principles of PCR, provides a methodology that will result in amplification of most target sequences, and presents strategies for optimizing a reaction. By following this PCR guide, students should be able to: ● Set up reactions and thermal cycling conditions for a conventional PCR experiment ● Understand the function of various reaction components and their overall effect on a PCR experiment ● Design and optimize a PCR experiment for any DNA template ● Troubleshoot failed PCR experiments
Basic Protocols, Issue 63, PCR, optimization, primer design, melting temperature, Tm, troubleshooting, additives, enhancers, template DNA quantification, thermal cycler, molecular biology, genetics
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Microinjection Techniques for Studying Mitosis in the Drosophila melanogaster Syncytial Embryo
Authors: Ingrid Brust-Mascher, Jonathan M. Scholey.
Institutions: University of California, Davis.
This protocol describes the use of the Drosophila melanogaster syncytial embryo for studying mitosis1. Drosophila has useful genetics with a sequenced genome, and it can be easily maintained and manipulated. Many mitotic mutants exist, and transgenic flies expressing functional fluorescently (e.g. GFP) - tagged mitotic proteins have been and are being generated. Targeted gene expression is possible using the GAL4/UAS system2. The Drosophila early embryo carries out multiple mitoses very rapidly (cell cycle duration, ≈10 min). It is well suited for imaging mitosis, because during cycles 10-13, nuclei divide rapidly and synchronously without intervening cytokinesis at the surface of the embryo in a single monolayer just underneath the cortex. These rapidly dividing nuclei probably use the same mitotic machinery as other cells, but they are optimized for speed; the checkpoint is generally believed to not be stringent, allowing the study of mitotic proteins whose absence would cause cell cycle arrest in cells with a strong checkpoint. Embryos expressing GFP labeled proteins or microinjected with fluorescently labeled proteins can be easily imaged to follow live dynamics (Fig. 1). In addition, embryos can be microinjected with function-blocking antibodies or inhibitors of specific proteins to study the effect of the loss or perturbation of their function3. These reagents can diffuse throughout the embryo, reaching many spindles to produce a gradient of concentration of inhibitor, which in turn results in a gradient of defects comparable to an allelic series of mutants. Ideally, if the target protein is fluorescently labeled, the gradient of inhibition can be directly visualized4. It is assumed that the strongest phenotype is comparable to the null phenotype, although it is hard to formally exclude the possibility that the antibodies may have dominant effects in rare instances, so rigorous controls and cautious interpretation must be applied. Further away from the injection site, protein function is only partially lost allowing other functions of the target protein to become evident.
Developmental Biology, Issue 31, mitosis, Drosophila melanogaster syncytial embryo, microinjection, protein inhibition
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