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Culture of primary ciliary dyskinesia epithelial cells at air-liquid interface can alter ciliary phenotype but remains a robust and informative diagnostic aid.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) requires the analysis of ciliary function and ultrastructure. Diagnosis can be complicated by secondary effects on cilia such as damage during sampling, local inflammation or recent infection. To differentiate primary from secondary abnormalities, re-analysis of cilia following culture and re-differentiation of epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface (ALI) aids the diagnosis of PCD. However changes in ciliary beat pattern of cilia following epithelial cell culture has previously been described, which has brought the robustness of this method into question. This is the first systematic study to evaluate ALI culture as an aid to diagnosis of PCD in the light of these concerns.
An ex vivo technique for imaging mouse airway epithelia for quantitative analysis of motile cilia function important for insight into mucociliary clearance function has been established. Freshly harvested mouse trachea is cut longitudinally through the trachealis muscle and mounted in a shallow walled chamber on a glass-bottomed dish. The trachea sample is positioned along its long axis to take advantage of the trachealis muscle to curl longitudinally. This allows imaging of ciliary motion in the profile view along the entire tracheal length. Videos at 200 frames/sec are obtained using differential interference contrast microscopy and a high speed digital camera to allow quantitative analysis of cilia beat frequency and ciliary waveform. With the addition of fluorescent beads during imaging, cilia generated fluid flow also can be determined. The protocol time spans approximately 30 min, with 5 min for chamber preparation, 5-10 min for sample mounting, and 10-15 min for videomicroscopy.
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Fundamental Technical Elements of Freeze-fracture/Freeze-etch in Biological Electron Microscopy
Authors: Johnny L. Carson.
Institutions: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch describes a process whereby specimens, typically biological or nanomaterial in nature, are frozen, fractured, and replicated to generate a carbon/platinum “cast” intended for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Specimens are subjected to ultrarapid freezing rates, often in the presence of cryoprotective agents to limit ice crystal formation, with subsequent fracturing of the specimen at liquid nitrogen cooled temperatures under high vacuum. The resultant fractured surface is replicated and stabilized by evaporation of carbon and platinum from an angle that confers surface three-dimensional detail to the cast. This technique has proved particularly enlightening for the investigation of cell membranes and their specializations and has contributed considerably to the understanding of cellular form to related cell function. In this report, we survey the instrument requirements and technical protocol for performing freeze-fracture, the associated nomenclature and characteristics of fracture planes, variations on the conventional procedure, and criteria for interpretation of freeze-fracture images. This technique has been widely used for ultrastructural investigation in many areas of cell biology and holds promise as an emerging imaging technique for molecular, nanotechnology, and materials science studies.
Biophysics, Issue 91, Freeze-fracture; Freeze-etch; Membranes; Intercellular junctions; Materials science; Nanotechnology; Electron microscopy
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Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Grown from Explants
Authors: Asma Yaghi, Aisha Zaman, Myrna Dolovich.
Institutions: McMaster University.
Human bronchial epithelial cells are needed for cell models of disease and to investigate the effect of excipients and pharmacologic agents on the function and structure of human epithelial cells. Here we describe in detail the method of growing bronchial epithelial cells from bronchial airway tissue that is harvested by the surgeon at the times of lung surgery (e.g. lung cancer or lung volume reduction surgery). With ethics approval and informed consent, the surgeon takes what is needed for pathology and provides us with a bronchial portion that is remote from the diseased areas. The tissue is then used as a source of explants that can be used for growing primary bronchial epithelial cells in culture. Bronchial segments about 0.5-1cm long and ≤1cm in diameter are rinsed with cold EBSS and excess parenchymal tissue is removed. Segments are cut open and minced into 2-3mm3 pieces of tissue. The pieces are used as a source of primary cells. After coating 100mm culture plates for 1-2 hr with a combination of collagen (30 μg/ml), fibronectin (10 μg/ml), and BSA (10 μg/ml), the plates are scratched in 4-5 areas and tissue pieces are placed in the scratched areas, then culture medium (DMEM/Ham F-12 with additives) suitable for epithelial cell growth is added and plates are placed in an incubator at 37°C in 5% CO2 humidified air. The culture medium is changed every 3-4 days. The epithelial cells grow from the pieces forming about 1.5 cm diameter rings in 3-4 weeks. Explants can be re-used up to 6 times by moving them into new pre-coated plates. Cells are lifted using trypsin/EDTA, pooled, counted, and re-plated in T75 Cell Bind flasks to increase their numbers. T75 flasks seeded with 2-3 million cells grow to 80% confluence in 4 weeks. Expanded primary human epithelial cells can be cultured and allowed to differentiate on air-liquid interface. Methods described here provide an abundant source of human bronchial epithelial cells from freshly isolated tissues and allow for studying these cells as models of disease and for pharmacology and toxicology screening.
Medicine, Issue 37, Human bronchus, epithelium, primary culture, permeable support, cilia
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Isolation, Enrichment, and Maintenance of Medulloblastoma Stem Cells
Authors: Xi Huang, Tatiana Ketova, Ying LItingtung, Chin Chiang.
Institutions: Vanderbilt University.
Brain tumors have been suggested to possess a small population of stem cells that are the root cause of tumorigenesis. Neurosphere assays have been generally adopted to study the nature of neural stem cells, including those derived from normal and tumorous tissues. However, appreciable amounts of differentiation and cell death are common in cultured neurospheres likely due to sub-optimal condition such as accessibility of all cells within sphere aggregates to culture medium. Medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric CNS tumor, is characterized by its rapid progression and tendency to spread along the entire brain-spinal axis with dismal clinical outcome. Medulloblastoma is a neuroepithelial tumor of the cerebellum, accounting for 20% and 40% of intracranial and posterior fossa tumor in childhood, respectively1. It is now well established that Shh signaling stimulates proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs) during cerebellar development 2-4. Numerous studies using mouse models, in which the Shh pathway is constitutively activated, have linked Shh signaling with medulloblastoma 5-9. A recent report has shown that a subset of medulloblastoma cells derived from Patched1LacZ/+ mice are cancer stem cells, which are capable of initiating and propogating tumors 10. Here we describe an efficient method to isolate, enrich and maintain tumor stem cells derived from several mouse models of medulloblastoma, with constitutively activated Shh pathway due to a mutation in Smoothened (11, hereon referred as SmoM2), a GPCR that is critical for Shh pathway activation. In every isolated medulloblastoma tissue, we were able to establish numerous highly proliferative colonies. These cells robustly expressed several neural stem cell markers such as Nestin and Sox2, can undergo serial passages (greater than 20) and were clonogenic. While these cultured tumor stem cells were relatively small, often bipoar with high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio when cultured under conditions favoring stem cell growth, they dramatically altered their morphology, extended multiple cellular processes, flattened and withdrew from the cell cycle upon switching to a cell culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. More importantly, these tumor stem cells differentiated into Tuj1+ or NeuN+ neurons, GFAP+ astrocytes and CNPase+ oligodendrocytes, thus highlighting their multi-potency. Furthermore, these cells were capable of propagating secondary medulloblastomas when orthotopically transplanted into host mice.
Medicine, Issue 43, medulloblastoma, stem cells, isolation, in vitro culture
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Ex vivo Live Imaging of Single Cell Divisions in Mouse Neuroepithelium
Authors: Karolina Piotrowska-Nitsche, Tamara Caspary.
Institutions: Emory University School of Medicine, IGAB Polish Academy of Sciences.
We developed a system that integrates live imaging of fluorescent markers and culturing slices of embryonic mouse neuroepithelium. We took advantage of existing mouse lines for genetic cell lineage tracing: a tamoxifen-inducible Cre line and a Cre reporter line expressing dsRed upon Cre-mediated recombination. By using a relatively low level of tamoxifen, we were able to induce recombination in a small number of cells, permitting us to follow individual cell divisions. Additionally, we observed the transcriptional response to Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling using an Olig2-eGFP transgenic line 1-3 and we monitored formation of cilia by infecting the cultured slice with virus expressing the cilia marker, Sstr3-GFP 4. In order to image the neuroepithelium, we harvested embryos at E8.5, isolated the neural tube, mounted the neural slice in proper culturing conditions into the imaging chamber and performed time-lapse confocal imaging. Our ex vivo live imaging method enables us to trace single cell divisions to assess the relative timing of primary cilia formation and Shh response in a physiologically relevant manner. This method can be easily adapted using distinct fluorescent markers and provides the field the tools with which to monitor cell behavior in situ and in real time.
Neuroscience, Issue 74, Genetics, Neurobiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Developmental Biology, ex vivo live imaging, cell division, imaging neuroepithelium, primary cilia, Shh, time-lapse confocal imaging, microscopy, immunofluorescence, cell culture, mouse, embryo, animal model
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Acute Dissociation of Lamprey Reticulospinal Axons to Enable Recording from the Release Face Membrane of Individual Functional Presynaptic Terminals
Authors: Shankar Ramachandran, Simon Alford.
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago.
Synaptic transmission is an extremely rapid process. Action potential driven influx of Ca2+ into the presynaptic terminal, through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) located in the release face membrane, is the trigger for vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release. Crucial to the rapidity of synaptic transmission is the spatial and temporal synchrony between the arrival of the action potential, VGCCs and the neurotransmitter release machinery. The ability to directly record Ca2+ currents from the release face membrane of individual presynaptic terminals is imperative for a precise understanding of the relationship between presynaptic Ca2+ and neurotransmitter release. Access to the presynaptic release face membrane for electrophysiological recording is not available in most preparations and presynaptic Ca2+ entry has been characterized using imaging techniques and macroscopic current measurements – techniques that do not have sufficient temporal resolution to visualize Ca2+ entry. The characterization of VGCCs directly at single presynaptic terminals has not been possible in central synapses and has thus far been successfully achieved only in the calyx-type synapse of the chick ciliary ganglion and in rat calyces. We have successfully addressed this problem in the giant reticulospinal synapse of the lamprey spinal cord by developing an acutely dissociated preparation of the spinal cord that yields isolated reticulospinal axons with functional presynaptic terminals devoid of postsynaptic structures. We can fluorescently label and identify individual presynaptic terminals and target them for recording. Using this preparation, we have characterized VGCCs directly at the release face of individual presynaptic terminals using immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology approaches. Ca2+ currents have been recorded directly at the release face membrane of individual presynaptic terminals, the first such recording to be carried out at central synapses.
Neuroscience, Issue 92, reticulospinal synapse, reticulospinal axons, presynaptic terminal, presynaptic calcium, voltage-gated calcium channels, vesicle fusion, synaptic transmission, neurotransmitter release, spinal cord, lamprey, synaptic vesicles, acute dissociation
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High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry
Authors: Subarna Bhattacharya, Paul W. Burridge, Erin M. Kropp, Sandra L. Chuppa, Wai-Meng Kwok, Joseph C. Wu, Kenneth R. Boheler, Rebekah L. Gundry.
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, Stanford University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Hong Kong University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin.
There is an urgent need to develop approaches for repairing the damaged heart, discovering new therapeutic drugs that do not have toxic effects on the heart, and improving strategies to accurately model heart disease. The potential of exploiting human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology to generate cardiac muscle “in a dish” for these applications continues to generate high enthusiasm. In recent years, the ability to efficiently generate cardiomyogenic cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has greatly improved, offering us new opportunities to model very early stages of human cardiac development not otherwise accessible. In contrast to many previous methods, the cardiomyocyte differentiation protocol described here does not require cell aggregation or the addition of Activin A or BMP4 and robustly generates cultures of cells that are highly positive for cardiac troponin I and T (TNNI3, TNNT2), iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-4 (IRX4), myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC2v) and myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) by day 10 across all human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and hiPSC lines tested to date. Cells can be passaged and maintained for more than 90 days in culture. The strategy is technically simple to implement and cost-effective. Characterization of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent cells often includes the analysis of reference markers, both at the mRNA and protein level. For protein analysis, flow cytometry is a powerful analytical tool for assessing quality of cells in culture and determining subpopulation homogeneity. However, technical variation in sample preparation can significantly affect quality of flow cytometry data. Thus, standardization of staining protocols should facilitate comparisons among various differentiation strategies. Accordingly, optimized staining protocols for the analysis of IRX4, MLC2v, MLC2a, TNNI3, and TNNT2 by flow cytometry are described.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, human induced pluripotent stem cell, flow cytometry, directed differentiation, cardiomyocyte, IRX4, TNNI3, TNNT2, MCL2v, MLC2a
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Non-enzymatic, Serum-free Tissue Culture of Pre-invasive Breast Lesions for Spontaneous Generation of Mammospheres
Authors: Virginia Espina, Kirsten H. Edmiston, Lance A. Liotta.
Institutions: George Mason University, Virginia Surgery Associates.
Breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), by definition, is proliferation of neoplastic epithelial cells within the confines of the breast duct, without breaching the collagenous basement membrane. While DCIS is a non-obligate precursor to invasive breast cancers, the molecular mechanisms and cell populations that permit progression to invasive cancer are not fully known. To determine if progenitor cells capable of invasion existed within the DCIS cell population, we developed a methodology for collecting and culturing sterile human breast tissue at the time of surgery, without enzymatic disruption of tissue. Sterile breast tissue containing ductal segments is harvested from surgically excised breast tissue following routine pathological examination. Tissue containing DCIS is placed in nutrient rich, antibiotic-containing, serum free medium, and transported to the tissue culture laboratory. The breast tissue is further dissected to isolate the calcified areas. Multiple breast tissue pieces (organoids) are placed in a minimal volume of serum free medium in a flask with a removable lid and cultured in a humidified CO2 incubator. Epithelial and fibroblast cell populations emerge from the organoid after 10 - 14 days. Mammospheres spontaneously form on and around the epithelial cell monolayer. Specific cell populations can be harvested directly from the flask without disrupting neighboring cells. Our non-enzymatic tissue culture system reliably reveals cytogenetically abnormal, invasive progenitor cells from fresh human DCIS lesions.
Cancer Biology, Issue 93, Breast, ductal carcinoma in situ, epidermal growth factor, mammosphere, organoid, pre-invasive, primary cell culture, serum-free, spheroid
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Multi-Scale Modification of Metallic Implants With Pore Gradients, Polyelectrolytes and Their Indirect Monitoring In vivo
Authors: Nihal E. Vrana, Agnes Dupret-Bories, Christophe Chaubaroux, Elisabeth Rieger, Christian Debry, Dominique Vautier, Marie-Helene Metz-Boutigue, Philippe Lavalle.
Institutions: INSERM, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg.
Metallic implants, especially titanium implants, are widely used in clinical applications. Tissue in-growth and integration to these implants in the tissues are important parameters for successful clinical outcomes. In order to improve tissue integration, porous metallic implants have being developed. Open porosity of metallic foams is very advantageous, since the pore areas can be functionalized without compromising the mechanical properties of the whole structure. Here we describe such modifications using porous titanium implants based on titanium microbeads. By using inherent physical properties such as hydrophobicity of titanium, it is possible to obtain hydrophobic pore gradients within microbead based metallic implants and at the same time to have a basement membrane mimic based on hydrophilic, natural polymers. 3D pore gradients are formed by synthetic polymers such as Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) by freeze-extraction method. 2D nanofibrillar surfaces are formed by using collagen/alginate followed by a crosslinking step with a natural crosslinker (genipin). This nanofibrillar film was built up by layer by layer (LbL) deposition method of the two oppositely charged molecules, collagen and alginate. Finally, an implant where different areas can accommodate different cell types, as this is necessary for many multicellular tissues, can be obtained. By, this way cellular movement in different directions by different cell types can be controlled. Such a system is described for the specific case of trachea regeneration, but it can be modified for other target organs. Analysis of cell migration and the possible methods for creating different pore gradients are elaborated. The next step in the analysis of such implants is their characterization after implantation. However, histological analysis of metallic implants is a long and cumbersome process, thus for monitoring host reaction to metallic implants in vivo an alternative method based on monitoring CGA and different blood proteins is also described. These methods can be used for developing in vitro custom-made migration and colonization tests and also be used for analysis of functionalized metallic implants in vivo without histology.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 77, Bioengineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Biophysics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Materials Science, Biomedical and Dental Materials, Composite Materials, Metals and Metallic Materials, Engineering (General), Titanium, pore gradient, implant, in vivo, blood analysis, freeze-extraction, foams, implants, transplantation, clinical applications
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Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Authors: Kristen K. McCampbell, Kristin N. Springer, Rebecca A. Wingert.
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90, zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
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Use of LysoTracker to Detect Programmed Cell Death in Embryos and Differentiating Embryonic Stem Cells
Authors: Jennifer L. Fogel, Thu Zan Tun Thein, Francesca V. Mariani.
Institutions: University of Southern California.
Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in adults to maintain normal tissue homeostasis and during embryological development to shape tissues and organs1,2,6,7. During development, toxic chemicals or genetic alterations can cause an increase in PCD or change PCD patterns resulting in developmental abnormalities and birth defects3-5. To understand the etiology of these defects, the study of embryos can be complemented with in vitro assays that use differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells. Apoptosis is a well-studied form of PCD that involves both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling to activate the caspase enzyme cascade. Characteristic cell changes include membrane blebbing, nuclear shrinking, and DNA fragmentation. Other forms of PCD do not involve caspase activation and may be the end-result of prolonged autophagy. Regardless of the PCD pathway, dying cells need to be removed. In adults, the immune cells perform this function, while in embryos, where the immune system has not yet developed, removal occurs by an alternative mechanism. This mechanism involves neighboring cells (called "non-professional phagocytes") taking on a phagocytic role-they recognize the 'eat me' signal on the surface of the dying cell and engulf it8-10. After engulfment, the debris is brought to the lysosome for degradation. Thus regardless of PCD mechanism, an increase in lysosomal activity can be correlated with increased cell death. To study PCD, a simple assay to visualize lysosomes in thick tissues and multilayer differentiating cultures can be useful. LysoTracker dye is a highly soluble small molecule that is retained in acidic subcellular compartments such as the lysosome11-13. The dye is taken up by diffusion and through the circulation. Since penetration is not a hindrance, visualization of PCD in thick tissues and multi-layer cultures is possible12,13. In contrast, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) analysis14, is limited to small samples, histological sections, and monolayer cultures because the procedure requires the entry/permeability of a terminal transferase. In contrast to Aniline blue, which diffuses and is dissolved by solvents, LysoTracker Red DND-99 is fixable, bright, and stable. Staining can be visualized with standard fluorescent or confocal microscopy in whole-mount or section using aqueous or solvent-based mounting media12,13. Here we describe protocols using this dye to look at PCD in normal and sonic hedgehog null mouse embryos. In addition, we demonstrate analysis of PCD in differentiating ES cell cultures and present a simple quantification method. In summary, LysoTracker staining can be a great complement to other methods of detecting PCD.
Developmental Biology, Issue 68, Molecular Biology, Stem Cell Biology, Cellular Biology, mouse embryo, embryonic stem cells, lysosome, programmed cell death, imaging, sonic hedgehog
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Culturing of Human Nasal Epithelial Cells at the Air Liquid Interface
Authors: Loretta Müller, Luisa E. Brighton, Johnny L. Carson, William A. Fischer II, Ilona Jaspers.
Institutions: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
In vitro models using human primary epithelial cells are essential in understanding key functions of the respiratory epithelium in the context of microbial infections or inhaled agents. Direct comparisons of cells obtained from diseased populations allow us to characterize different phenotypes and dissect the underlying mechanisms mediating changes in epithelial cell function. Culturing epithelial cells from the human tracheobronchial region has been well documented, but is limited by the availability of human lung tissue or invasiveness associated with obtaining the bronchial brushes biopsies. Nasal epithelial cells are obtained through much less invasive superficial nasal scrape biopsies and subjects can be biopsied multiple times with no significant side effects. Additionally, the nose is the entry point to the respiratory system and therefore one of the first sites to be exposed to any kind of air-borne stressor, such as microbial agents, pollutants, or allergens. Briefly, nasal epithelial cells obtained from human volunteers are expanded on coated tissue culture plates, and then transferred onto cell culture inserts. Upon reaching confluency, cells continue to be cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI), for several weeks, which creates more physiologically relevant conditions. The ALI culture condition uses defined media leading to a differentiated epithelium that exhibits morphological and functional characteristics similar to the human nasal epithelium, with both ciliated and mucus producing cells. Tissue culture inserts with differentiated nasal epithelial cells can be manipulated in a variety of ways depending on the research questions (treatment with pharmacological agents, transduction with lentiviral vectors, exposure to gases, or infection with microbial agents) and analyzed for numerous different endpoints ranging from cellular and molecular pathways, functional changes, morphology, etc. In vitro models of differentiated human nasal epithelial cells will enable investigators to address novel and important research questions by using organotypic experimental models that largely mimic the nasal epithelium in vivo.
Cellular Biology, Issue 80, Epithelium, Cell culture models, ciliated, air pollution, co-culture models, nasal epithelium
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In Vivo Modeling of the Morbid Human Genome using Danio rerio
Authors: Adrienne R. Niederriter, Erica E. Davis, Christelle Golzio, Edwin C. Oh, I-Chun Tsai, Nicholas Katsanis.
Institutions: Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Duke University Medical Center.
Here, we present methods for the development of assays to query potentially clinically significant nonsynonymous changes using in vivo complementation in zebrafish. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a useful animal system due to their experimental tractability; embryos are transparent to enable facile viewing, undergo rapid development ex vivo, and can be genetically manipulated.1 These aspects have allowed for significant advances in the analysis of embryogenesis, molecular processes, and morphogenetic signaling. Taken together, the advantages of this vertebrate model make zebrafish highly amenable to modeling the developmental defects in pediatric disease, and in some cases, adult-onset disorders. Because the zebrafish genome is highly conserved with that of humans (~70% orthologous), it is possible to recapitulate human disease states in zebrafish. This is accomplished either through the injection of mutant human mRNA to induce dominant negative or gain of function alleles, or utilization of morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides to suppress genes to mimic loss of function variants. Through complementation of MO-induced phenotypes with capped human mRNA, our approach enables the interpretation of the deleterious effect of mutations on human protein sequence based on the ability of mutant mRNA to rescue a measurable, physiologically relevant phenotype. Modeling of the human disease alleles occurs through microinjection of zebrafish embryos with MO and/or human mRNA at the 1-4 cell stage, and phenotyping up to seven days post fertilization (dpf). This general strategy can be extended to a wide range of disease phenotypes, as demonstrated in the following protocol. We present our established models for morphogenetic signaling, craniofacial, cardiac, vascular integrity, renal function, and skeletal muscle disorder phenotypes, as well as others.
Molecular Biology, Issue 78, Genetics, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Developmental Biology, Biochemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, Bioengineering, Genomics, Medical, zebrafish, in vivo, morpholino, human disease modeling, transcription, PCR, mRNA, DNA, Danio rerio, animal model
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Flash Photolysis of Caged Compounds in the Cilia of Olfactory Sensory Neurons
Authors: Anna Boccaccio, Claudia Sagheddu, Anna Menini.
Institutions: International School for Advanced Studies, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Italian Institute of Technology.
Photolysis of caged compounds allows the production of rapid and localized increases in the concentration of various physiologically active compounds1. Caged compounds are molecules made physiologically inactive by a chemical cage that can be broken by a flash of ultraviolet light. Here, we show how to obtain patch-clamp recordings combined with photolysis of caged compounds for the study of olfactory transduction in dissociated mouse olfactory sensory neurons. The process of olfactory transduction (Figure 1) takes place in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons, where odorant binding to receptors leads to the increase of cAMP that opens cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels2. Ca entry through CNG channels activates Ca-activated Cl channels. We show how to dissociate neurons from the mouse olfactory epithelium3 and how to activate CNG channels or Ca-activated Cl channels by photolysis of caged cAMP4 or caged Ca5. We use a flash lamp6,7 to apply ultraviolet flashes to the ciliary region to uncage cAMP or Ca while patch-clamp recordings are taken to measure the current in the whole-cell voltage-clamp configuration8-11.
Neuroscience, Issue 55, caged compounds, caged cAMP, caged Ca, olfactory sensory neuron, olfaction, whole-cell patch-clamp, flash photolysis, flash lampc
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In vitro Cell Culture Model for Toxic Inhaled Chemical Testing
Authors: Shama Ahmad, Aftab Ahmad, Keith B. Neeves, Tara Hendry-Hofer, Joan E. Loader, Carl W. White, Livia Veress.
Institutions: University of Colorado, Colorado School of Mines.
Cell cultures are indispensable to develop and study efficacy of therapeutic agents, prior to their use in animal models. We have the unique ability to model well differentiated human airway epithelium and heart muscle cells. This could be an invaluable tool to study the deleterious effects of toxic inhaled chemicals, such as chlorine, that can normally interact with the cell surfaces, and form various byproducts upon reacting with water, and limiting their effects in submerged cultures. Our model using well differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures at air-liqiuid interface circumvents this limitation as well as provides an opportunity to evaluate critical mechanisms of toxicity of potential poisonous inhaled chemicals. We describe enhanced loss of membrane integrity, caspase release and death upon toxic inhaled chemical such as chlorine exposure. In this article, we propose methods to model chlorine exposure in mammalian heart and airway epithelial cells in culture and simple tests to evaluate its effect on these cell types.
Bioengineering, Issue 87, air-liquid interface, chlorine exposure, toxic inhaled chemicals, Transepithelial Electrical Resistance,Immunocytochemistry
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Isolation of Mouse Respiratory Epithelial Cells and Exposure to Experimental Cigarette Smoke at Air Liquid Interface
Authors: Hilaire C. Lam, Augustine M.K. Choi, Stefan W. Ryter.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, University of Pittsburgh.
Pulmonary epithelial cells can be isolated from the respiratory tract of mice and cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI) as a model of differentiated respiratory epithelium. A protocol is described for isolating and exposing these cells to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS), in order to study epithelial cell responses to CS exposure. The protocol consists of three parts: the isolation of airway epithelial cells from mouse trachea, the culturing of these cells at air-liquid interface (ALI) as fully differentiated epithelial cells, and the delivery of calibrated mainstream CS to these cells in culture. The ALI culture system allows the culture of respiratory epithelia under conditions that more closely resemble their physiological setting than ordinary liquid culture systems. The study of molecular and lung cellular responses to CS exposure is a critical component of understanding the impact of environmental air pollution on human health. Research findings in this area may ultimately contribute towards understanding the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other tobacco-related diseases, which represent major global health problems.
Medicine, Issue 48, Air-Liquid Interface, Cell isolation, Cigarette smoke, Epithelial cells
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A Three-dimensional Tissue Culture Model to Study Primary Human Bone Marrow and its Malignancies
Authors: Mukti R. Parikh, Andrew R. Belch, Linda M Pilarski, Julia Kirshner.
Institutions: Purdue University, University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute.
Tissue culture has been an invaluable tool to study many aspects of cell function, from normal development to disease. Conventional cell culture methods rely on the ability of cells either to attach to a solid substratum of a tissue culture dish or to grow in suspension in liquid medium. Multiple immortal cell lines have been created and grown using such approaches, however, these methods frequently fail when primary cells need to be grown ex vivo. Such failure has been attributed to the absence of the appropriate extracellular matrix components of the tissue microenvironment from the standard systems where tissue culture plastic is used as a surface for cell growth. Extracellular matrix is an integral component of the tissue microenvironment and its presence is crucial for the maintenance of physiological functions such as cell polarization, survival, and proliferation. Here we present a 3-dimensional tissue culture method where primary bone marrow cells are grown in extracellular matrix formulated to recapitulate the microenvironment of the human bone (rBM system). Embedded in the extracellular matrix, cells are supplied with nutrients through the medium supplemented with human plasma, thus providing a comprehensive system where cell survival and proliferation can be sustained for up to 30 days while maintaining the cellular composition of the primary tissue. Using the rBM system we have successfully grown primary bone marrow cells from normal donors and patients with amyloidosis, and various hematological malignancies. The rBM system allows for direct, in-matrix real time visualization of the cell behavior and evaluation of preclinical efficacy of novel therapeutics. Moreover, cells can be isolated from the rBM and subsequently used for in vivo transplantation, cell sorting, flow cytometry, and nucleic acid and protein analysis. Taken together, the rBM method provides a reliable system for the growth of primary bone marrow cells under physiological conditions.
Medicine, Issue 85, extracellular matrix, 3D culture, bone marrow, hematological malignancies, primary cell culture, tumor microenvironment
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Isolation of Retinal Stem Cells from the Mouse Eye
Authors: Brenda L.K. Coles, Derek van der Kooy.
Institutions: University of Toronto.
The adult mouse retinal stem cell (RSC) is a rare quiescent cell found within the ciliary epithelium (CE) of the mammalian eye1,2,3. The CE is made up of non-pigmented inner and pigmented outer cell layers, and the clonal RSC colonies that arise from a single pigmented cell from the CE are made up of both pigmented and non-pigmented cells which can be differentiated to form all the cell types of the neural retina and the RPE. There is some controversy about whether all the cells within the spheres all contain at least some pigment4; however the cells are still capable of forming the different cell types found within the neural retina1-3. In some species, such as amphibians and fish, their eyes are capable of regeneration after injury5, however; the mammalian eye shows no such regenerative properties. We seek to identify the stem cell in vivo and to understand the mechanisms that keep the mammalian retinal stem cells quiescent6-8, even after injury as well as using them as a potential source of cells to help repair physical or genetic models of eye injury through transplantation9-12. Here we describe how to isolate the ciliary epithelial cells from the mouse eye and grow them in culture in order to form the clonal retinal stem cell spheres. Since there are no known markers of the stem cell in vivo, these spheres are the only known way to prospectively identify the stem cell population within the ciliary epithelium of the eye.
Cellular Biology, Issue 43, Stem Cells, Eye, Ciliary Epithelium, Tissue Culture, Mouse
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Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells form Mammospheres During Lactogenic Differentiation
Authors: Bethanie Morrison, Mary Lou Cutler.
Institutions: F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD.
A phenotypic measure commonly used to determine the degree of lactogenic differentiation in mouse mammary epithelial cell cultures is the formation of dome shaped cell structures referred to as mammospheres 1. The HC11 cell line has been employed as a model system for the study of regulation of mammary lactogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo 2. The HC11 cells differentiate and synthesize milk proteins in response to treatment with lactogenic hormones. Following the growth of HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells to confluence, lactogenic differentiation was induced by the addition of a combination of lactogenic hormones including dexamethasone, insulin, and prolactin, referred to as DIP. The HC11 cells induced to differentiate were photographed at times up to 120 hours post induction of differentiation and the number of mammospheres that appeared in each culture was enumerated. The size of the individual mammospheres correlates with the degree of differentiation and this is depicted in the images of the differentiating cells.
Cellular Biology, Issue 32, Mammospheres, HC11, lactogenic differentiation, mammary
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