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Cell atavistic transition: Paired box 2 re-expression occurs in mature tubular epithelial cells during acute kidney injury and is regulated by Angiotensin II.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
The regeneration of tubular epithelial cells (TECs) after acute kidney injury (AKI) is crucial for the recovery of renal structure and function. The mechanism by which quiescent TECs re-obtain a potential to regenerate remains unknown. In this study, we observed a transient re-expression of embryonic gene Paired box 2 (Pax2) in adult rat TECs in vivo during ischemia-reperfusion induced AKI and most Pax2 positive TECs co-expressed kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a tubular injury marker. The re-expression of Pax2 was accompanied by increased levels of intrarenal Angiotensin II, which is a crucial injury factor of AKI. Furthermore, we also found a temporary re-expression of Pax2 in NRK-52E cells under the stimulation of Angiotensin II. This stimulatory effect could be blocked by PD123319 (Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) inhibitor) and AG490 (Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor). As Pax2 is essential for the phenotypic conversion from mesenchymal stem cells to TECs during kidney development, we proposed that the re-expression of Pax2 in mature TECs may be an indicator of "atavistic" transition which mimics but reverses the processes of development of TECs. This could be proved by that a progenitor marker, CD24, was also found to be transiently expressed shortly after the expression of Pax2 in NRK-52E cells stimulated with Angiotensin II. The expression of CD24 was also suppressed by PD123319 and AG490. Moreover, knockdown of Pax2 by RNA interference could significantly reduce the expression of CD24 in NRK-52E cells stimulated with Angiotension II. Those findings suggest that mature TECs can trans-differentiate into progenitor-like cells by "atavistic transition", which may participate in the recovery of tissue structure and Pax2 may play a pivotal role in this process. That might have important implications for further understanding of tubular regeneration after injury.
Authors: Nataliya I. Skrypnyk, Raymond C. Harris, Mark P. de Caestecker.
Published: 08-09-2013
ABSTRACT
Ischemia-reperfusion induced acute kidney injury (IR-AKI) is widely used as a model of AKI in mice, but results are often quite variable with high, often unreported mortality rates that may confound analyses. Bilateral renal pedicle clamping is commonly used to induce IR-AKI, but differences between effective clamp pressures and/or renal responses to ischemia between kidneys often lead to more variable results. In addition, shorter clamp times are known to induce more variable tubular injury, and while mice undergoing bilateral injury with longer clamp times develop more consistent tubular injury, they often die within the first 3 days after injury due to severe renal insufficiency. To improve post-injury survival and obtain more consistent and predictable results, we have developed two models of unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury followed by contralateral nephrectomy. Both surgeries are performed using a dorsal approach, reducing surgical stress resulting from ventral laparotomy, commonly used for mouse IR-AKI surgeries. For induction of moderate injury BALB/c mice undergo unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 26 min and also undergo simultaneous contralateral nephrectomy. Using this approach, 50-60% of mice develop moderate AKI 24 hr after injury but 90-100% of mice survive. To induce more severe AKI, BALB/c mice undergo renal pedicle clamping for 30 min followed by contralateral nephrectomy 8 days after injury. This allows functional assessment of renal recovery after injury with 90-100% survival. Early post-injury tubular damage as well as post injury fibrosis are highly consistent using this model.
19 Related JoVE Articles!
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Laser Ablation of the Zebrafish Pronephros to Study Renal Epithelial Regeneration
Authors: Corbin S. Johnson, Nicholas F. Holzemer, Rebecca A. Wingert.
Institutions: University of Notre Dame .
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by high mortality rates from deterioration of renal function over a period of hours or days that culminates in renal failure1. AKI can be caused by a number of factors including ischemia, drug-based toxicity, or obstructive injury1. This results in an inability to maintain fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. While AKI has been observed for decades, effective clinical therapies have yet to be developed. Intriguingly, some patients with AKI recover renal functions over time, a mysterious phenomenon that has been only rudimentally characterized1,2. Research using mammalian models of AKI has shown that ischemic or nephrotoxin-injured kidneys experience epithelial cell death in nephron tubules1,2, the functional units of the kidney that are made up of a series of specialized regions (segments) of epithelial cell types3. Within nephrons, epithelial cell death is highest in proximal tubule cells. There is evidence that suggests cell destruction is followed by dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration of surrounding epithelial cells, which can regenerate the nephron entirely1,2. However, there are many unanswered questions about the mechanisms of renal epithelial regeneration, ranging from the signals that modulate these events to reasons for the wide variation of abilities among humans to regenerate injured kidneys. The larval zebrafish provides an excellent model to study kidney epithelial regeneration as its pronephric kidney is comprised of nephrons that are conserved with higher vertebrates including mammals4,5. The nephrons of zebrafish larvae can be visualized with fluorescence techniques because of the relative transparency of the young zebrafish6. This provides a unique opportunity to image cell and molecular changes in real-time, in contrast to mammalian models where nephrons are inaccessible because the kidneys are structurally complex systems internalized within the animal. Recent studies have employed the aminoglycoside gentamicin as a toxic causative agent for study of AKI and subsequent renal failure: gentamicin and other antibiotics have been shown to cause AKI in humans, and researchers have formulated methods to use this agent to trigger kidney damage in zebrafish7,8. However, the effects of aminoglycoside toxicity in zebrafish larvae are catastrophic and lethal, which presents a difficulty when studying epithelial regeneration and function over time. Our method presents the use of targeted cell ablation as a novel tool for the study of epithelial injury in zebrafish. Laser ablation gives researchers the ability to induce cell death in a limited population of cells. Varying areas of cells can be targeted based on morphological location, function, or even expression of a particular cellular phenotype. Thus, laser ablation will increase the specificity of what researchers can study, and can be a powerful new approach to shed light on the mechanisms of renal epithelial regeneration. This protocol can be broadly applied to target cell populations in other organs in the zebrafish embryo to study injury and regeneration in any number of contexts of interest.
Developmental Biology, Issue 54, kidney, zebrafish, regeneration, epithelium, acute kidney injury, ablation
2845
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Renal Ischaemia Reperfusion Injury: A Mouse Model of Injury and Regeneration
Authors: Emily E. Hesketh, Alicja Czopek, Michael Clay, Gary Borthwick, David Ferenbach, David Kluth, Jeremy Hughes.
Institutions: University of Edinburgh.
Renal ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients and occlusion of renal blood flow is unavoidable during renal transplantation. Experimental models that accurately and reproducibly recapitulate renal IRI are crucial in dissecting the pathophysiology of AKI and the development of novel therapeutic agents. Presented here is a mouse model of renal IRI that results in reproducible AKI. This is achieved by a midline laparotomy approach for the surgery with one incision allowing both a right nephrectomy that provides control tissue and clamping of the left renal pedicle to induce ischaemia of the left kidney. By careful monitoring of the clamp position and body temperature during the period of ischaemia this model achieves reproducible functional and structural injury. Mice sacrificed 24 hr following surgery demonstrate loss of renal function with elevation of the serum or plasma creatinine level as well as structural kidney damage with acute tubular necrosis evident. Renal function improves and the acute tissue injury resolves during the course of 7 days following renal IRI such that this model may be used to study renal regeneration. This model of renal IRI has been utilized to study the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of AKI as well as analysis of the subsequent renal regeneration.
Medicine, Issue 88, Murine, Acute Kidney Injury, Ischaemia, Reperfusion, Nephrectomy, Regeneration, Laparotomy
51816
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Isolation, Identification, and Purification of Murine Thymic Epithelial Cells
Authors: Yan Xing, Kristin A. Hogquist.
Institutions: University of Minnesota.
The thymus is a vital organ for T lymphocyte development. Of thymic stromal cells, thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are particularly crucial at multiple stages of T cell development: T cell commitment, positive selection and negative selection. However, the function of TECs in the thymus remains incompletely understood. In the article, we provide a method to isolate TEC subsets from fresh mouse thymus using a combination of mechanical disruption and enzymatic digestion. The method allows thymic stromal cells and thymocytes to be efficiently released from cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix connections and to form a single-cell suspension. Using the isolated cells, multiparameter flow cytometry can be applied to identification and characterization of TECs and dendritic cells. Because TECs are a rare cell population in the thymus, we also describe an effective way to enrich and purify TECs by depleting thymocytes, the most abundant cell type in the thymus. Following the enrichment, cell sorting time can be decreased so that loss of cell viability can be minimized during purification of TECs. Purified cells are suitable for various downstream analyses like Real Time-PCR, Western blot and gene expression profiling. The protocol will promote research of TEC function and as well as the development of in vitro T cell reconstitution.
Immunology, Issue 90, Immunology, Thymus, T cell development, Thymic epithelial cell, Isolation, Positive selection
51780
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Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Authors: Kristen K. McCampbell, Kristin N. Springer, Rebecca A. Wingert.
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90, zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
51644
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A Manual Small Molecule Screen Approaching High-throughput Using Zebrafish Embryos
Authors: Shahram Jevin Poureetezadi, Eric K. Donahue, Rebecca A. Wingert.
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
Zebrafish have become a widely used model organism to investigate the mechanisms that underlie developmental biology and to study human disease pathology due to their considerable degree of genetic conservation with humans. Chemical genetics entails testing the effect that small molecules have on a biological process and is becoming a popular translational research method to identify therapeutic compounds. Zebrafish are specifically appealing to use for chemical genetics because of their ability to produce large clutches of transparent embryos, which are externally fertilized. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos can be easily drug treated by the simple addition of a compound to the embryo media. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), mRNA expression can be clearly visualized within zebrafish embryos. Together, using chemical genetics and WISH, the zebrafish becomes a potent whole organism context in which to determine the cellular and physiological effects of small molecules. Innovative advances have been made in technologies that utilize machine-based screening procedures, however for many labs such options are not accessible or remain cost-prohibitive. The protocol described here explains how to execute a manual high-throughput chemical genetic screen that requires basic resources and can be accomplished by a single individual or small team in an efficient period of time. Thus, this protocol provides a feasible strategy that can be implemented by research groups to perform chemical genetics in zebrafish, which can be useful for gaining fundamental insights into developmental processes, disease mechanisms, and to identify novel compounds and signaling pathways that have medically relevant applications.
Developmental Biology, Issue 93, zebrafish, chemical genetics, chemical screen, in vivo small molecule screen, drug discovery, whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), high-throughput screening (HTS), high-content screening (HCS)
52063
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Inducing Plasticity of Astrocytic Receptors by Manipulation of Neuronal Firing Rates
Authors: Alison X. Xie, Kelli Lauderdale, Thomas Murphy, Timothy L. Myers, Todd A. Fiacco.
Institutions: University of California Riverside, University of California Riverside, University of California Riverside.
Close to two decades of research has established that astrocytes in situ and in vivo express numerous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be stimulated by neuronally-released transmitter. However, the ability of astrocytic receptors to exhibit plasticity in response to changes in neuronal activity has received little attention. Here we describe a model system that can be used to globally scale up or down astrocytic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in acute brain slices. Included are methods on how to prepare parasagittal hippocampal slices, construct chambers suitable for long-term slice incubation, bidirectionally manipulate neuronal action potential frequency, load astrocytes and astrocyte processes with fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, and measure changes in astrocytic Gq GPCR activity by recording spontaneous and evoked astrocyte Ca2+ events using confocal microscopy. In essence, a “calcium roadmap” is provided for how to measure plasticity of astrocytic Gq GPCRs. Applications of the technique for study of astrocytes are discussed. Having an understanding of how astrocytic receptor signaling is affected by changes in neuronal activity has important implications for both normal synaptic function as well as processes underlying neurological disorders and neurodegenerative disease.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, astrocyte, plasticity, mGluRs, neuronal Firing, electrophysiology, Gq GPCRs, Bolus-loading, calcium, microdomains, acute slices, Hippocampus, mouse
51458
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Isolation of Double Negative αβ T Cells from the Kidney
Authors: Maria N. Martina, Samatha Bandapalle, Hamid Rabb, Abdel R. Hamad.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
There is currently no standard protocol for the isolation of DN T cells from the non-lymphoid tissues despite their increasingly reported involvement in various immune responses. DN T cells are a unique immune cell type that has been implicated in regulating immune and autoimmune responses and tolerance to allotransplants1-6. DN T cells are, however, rare in peripheral blood and secondary lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes), but are major residents of the normal kidney. Very little is known about their pathophysiologic function7 due to their paucity in the periphery. We recently described a comprehensive phenotypic and functional analysis of this population in the kidney8 in steady state and during ischemia reperfusion injury. Analysis of DN T cell function will be greatly enhanced by developing a protocol for their isolation from the kidney. Here, we describe a novel protocol that allows isolation of highly pure ab CD4+ CD8+ T cells and DN T cells from the murine kidney. Briefly, we digest kidney tissue using collagenase and isolate kidney mononuclear cells (KMNC) by density gradient. This is followed by two steps to enrich hematopoietic T cells from 3% to 70% from KMNC. The first step consists of a positive selection of hematopoietic cells using a CD45+ isolation kit. In the second step, DN T cells are negatively isolated by removal of non-desired cells using CD4, CD8, and MHC class II monoclonal antibodies and CD1d α-galcer tetramer. This strategy leads to a population of more than 90% pure DN T cells. Surface staining with the above mentioned antibodies followed by FACs analysis is used to confirm purity.
Immunology, Issue 87, Double Negative (DN) αβ, T cells, CD45+ T cell isolation, renal lymphocytes, non-lymphoid-tissues, T cells purification, Ischemia Reperfusion Injury, Acute Kidney Injury, Tissue Resident Lymphocytes, Lymphoproliferative Disorders, Erythematosus Lupus
51192
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In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration
Authors: Mark E. Kusek, Michael A. Pazos, Waheed Pirzai, Bryan P. Hurley.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, MGH for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Mucosal surfaces serve as protective barriers against pathogenic organisms. Innate immune responses are activated upon sensing pathogen leading to the infiltration of tissues with migrating inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. This process has the potential to be destructive to tissues if excessive or held in an unresolved state.  Cocultured in vitro models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. This type of model provides versatility in experimental design with opportunity for controlled manipulation of the pathogen, epithelial barrier, or neutrophil. Pathogenic infection of the apical surface of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable transwell filters instigates physiologically relevant basolateral to apical trans-epithelial migration of neutrophils applied to the basolateral surface. The in vitro model described herein demonstrates the multiple steps necessary for demonstrating neutrophil migration across a polarized lung epithelial monolayer that has been infected with pathogenic P. aeruginosa (PAO1). Seeding and culturing of permeable transwells with human derived lung epithelial cells is described, along with isolation of neutrophils from whole human blood and culturing of PAO1 and nonpathogenic K12 E. coli (MC1000).  The emigrational process and quantitative analysis of successfully migrated neutrophils that have been mobilized in response to pathogenic infection is shown with representative data, including positive and negative controls. This in vitro model system can be manipulated and applied to other mucosal surfaces. Inflammatory responses that involve excessive neutrophil infiltration can be destructive to host tissues and can occur in the absence of pathogenic infections. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote neutrophil trans-epithelial migration through experimental manipulation of the in vitro coculture assay system described herein has significant potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for a range of mucosal infectious as well as inflammatory diseases.
Infection, Issue 83, Cellular Biology, Epithelium, Neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Neutrophils, epithelial barriers, pathogens, transmigration
50823
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Intravenous Microinjections of Zebrafish Larvae to Study Acute Kidney Injury
Authors: Chiara Cianciolo Cosentino, Beth L. Roman, Iain A. Drummond, Neil A. Hukriede.
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Harvard Medical School.
In this video article we describe a zebrafish model of AKI using gentamicin as the nephrotoxicant. The technique consists of intravenous microinjections on 2 dpf zebrafish. This technique represents an efficient and rapid method to deliver soluble substances into the bloodstream of zebrafish larvae, allowing for the injection of 15-20 fish per hour. In addition to AKI studies, this microinjection technique can also be used for other types of experimental studies such as angiography. We provide a detailed protocol of the technique from equipment required to visual measures of decreased kidney function. In addition, we also demonstrate the process of fixation, whole mount immunohistochemistry with a kidney tubule marker, plastic embedding and sectioning of the larval zebrafish. We demonstrate that zebrafish larvae injected with gentamicin show morphological features consistent with AKI: edema, loss of cell polarity in proximal tubular epithelial cells, and morphological disruption of the tubule.
Developmental Biology, Issue 42, intravenous microinjection, zebrafish, gentamicin, acute kidney injury
2079
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5/6th Nephrectomy in Combination with High Salt Diet and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition to Induce Chronic Kidney Disease in the Lewis Rat
Authors: Arianne van Koppen, Marianne C. Verhaar, Lennart G. Bongartz, Jaap A. Joles.
Institutions: University Medical Center Utrecht.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global problem. Slowing CKD progression is a major health priority. Since CKD is characterized by complex derangements of homeostasis, integrative animal models are necessary to study development and progression of CKD. To study development of CKD and novel therapeutic interventions in CKD, we use the 5/6th nephrectomy ablation model, a well known experimental model of progressive renal disease, resembling several aspects of human CKD. The gross reduction in renal mass causes progressive glomerular and tubulo-interstitial injury, loss of remnant nephrons and development of systemic and glomerular hypertension. It is also associated with progressive intrarenal capillary loss, inflammation and glomerulosclerosis. Risk factors for CKD invariably impact on endothelial function. To mimic this, we combine removal of 5/6th of renal mass with nitric oxide (NO) depletion and a high salt diet. After arrival and acclimatization, animals receive a NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-Arginine) (L-NNA) supplemented to drinking water (20 mg/L) for a period of 4 weeks, followed by right sided uninephrectomy. One week later, a subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) is performed on the left side. After SNX, animals are allowed to recover for two days followed by LNNA in drinking water (20 mg/L) for a further period of 4 weeks. A high salt diet (6%), supplemented in ground chow (see time line Figure 1), is continued throughout the experiment. Progression of renal failure is followed over time by measuring plasma urea, systolic blood pressure and proteinuria. By six weeks after SNX, renal failure has developed. Renal function is measured using 'gold standard' inulin and para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) clearance technology. This model of CKD is characterized by a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), hypertension (systolic blood pressure>150 mmHg), proteinuria (> 50 mg/24 hr) and mild uremia (>10 mM). Histological features include tubulo-interstitial damage reflected by inflammation, tubular atrophy and fibrosis and focal glomerulosclerosis leading to massive reduction of healthy glomeruli within the remnant population (<10%). Follow-up until 12 weeks after SNX shows further progression of CKD.
Medicine, Issue 77, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Surgery, Nephrology Kidney Diseases, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Hemodynamics, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Chronic kidney disease, remnant kidney, chronic renal diseases, kidney, Nitric Oxide depletion, NO depletion, high salt diet, proteinuria, uremia, glomerulosclerosis, transgenic rat, animal model
50398
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Culturing Primary Rat Inner Medullary Collecting Duct Cells
Authors: Dörte Faust, Andrea Geelhaar, Beate Eisermann, Jenny Eichhorst, Burkhard Wiesner, Walter Rosenthal, Enno Klussmann.
Institutions: Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, Leibniz Institute for Molecular Pharmacology (FMP), Charité University Medicine Berlin.
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) facilitates water reabsorption by renal collecting duct principal cells and thereby fine-tunes body water homeostasis. AVP binds to vasopressin V2 receptors (V2R) on the surface of the cells and thereby induces synthesis of cAMP. This stimulates cellular signaling processes leading to changes in the phosphorylation of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2). Protein kinase A phoshorylates AQP2 and thereby triggers the translocation of AQP2 from intracellular vesicles into the plasma membrane facilitating water reabsorption from primary urine. Aberrations of AVP release from the pituitary or AVP-activated signaling in principal cells can cause central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, respectively; an elevated blood plasma AVP level is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as chronic heart failure and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Here, we present a protocol for cultivation of primary rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, which express V2R and AQP2 endogenously. The cells are suitable for elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying the control of AQP2 and thus to discover novel drug targets for the treatment of diseases associated with dysregulation of AVP-mediated water reabsorption. IMCD cells are obtained from rat renal inner medullae and are used for experiments six to eight days after seeding. IMCD cells can be cultured in regular cell culture dishes, flasks and micro-titer plates of different formats, the procedure only requires a few hours, and is appropriate for standard cell culture laboratories.
Cellular Biology, Issue 76, Bioengineering, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Pharmacology, Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Exocytosis, Signal Transduction, Second Messenger Systems, Calcium Signaling, Cardiovascular Diseases, Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists, Life Sciences (General), water reabsorption, kidney, principal cells, vasopressin, cyclic AMP, aquaporin, animal model, cell culture
50366
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In Vivo Modeling of the Morbid Human Genome using Danio rerio
Authors: Adrienne R. Niederriter, Erica E. Davis, Christelle Golzio, Edwin C. Oh, I-Chun Tsai, Nicholas Katsanis.
Institutions: Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Duke University Medical Center.
Here, we present methods for the development of assays to query potentially clinically significant nonsynonymous changes using in vivo complementation in zebrafish. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a useful animal system due to their experimental tractability; embryos are transparent to enable facile viewing, undergo rapid development ex vivo, and can be genetically manipulated.1 These aspects have allowed for significant advances in the analysis of embryogenesis, molecular processes, and morphogenetic signaling. Taken together, the advantages of this vertebrate model make zebrafish highly amenable to modeling the developmental defects in pediatric disease, and in some cases, adult-onset disorders. Because the zebrafish genome is highly conserved with that of humans (~70% orthologous), it is possible to recapitulate human disease states in zebrafish. This is accomplished either through the injection of mutant human mRNA to induce dominant negative or gain of function alleles, or utilization of morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides to suppress genes to mimic loss of function variants. Through complementation of MO-induced phenotypes with capped human mRNA, our approach enables the interpretation of the deleterious effect of mutations on human protein sequence based on the ability of mutant mRNA to rescue a measurable, physiologically relevant phenotype. Modeling of the human disease alleles occurs through microinjection of zebrafish embryos with MO and/or human mRNA at the 1-4 cell stage, and phenotyping up to seven days post fertilization (dpf). This general strategy can be extended to a wide range of disease phenotypes, as demonstrated in the following protocol. We present our established models for morphogenetic signaling, craniofacial, cardiac, vascular integrity, renal function, and skeletal muscle disorder phenotypes, as well as others.
Molecular Biology, Issue 78, Genetics, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Developmental Biology, Biochemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, Bioengineering, Genomics, Medical, zebrafish, in vivo, morpholino, human disease modeling, transcription, PCR, mRNA, DNA, Danio rerio, animal model
50338
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Normothermic Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Mouse Model of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
Authors: Michael P. Hutchens, Richard J. Traystman, Tetsuhiro Fujiyoshi, Shin Nakayama, Paco S. Herson.
Institutions: Oregon Health & Sciences University, University of Colorado Denver.
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common, highly lethal, complication of critical illness which has a high mortality1-4 and which is most frequently caused by whole-body hypoperfusion.5,6 Successful reproduction of whole-body hypoperfusion in rodent models has been fraught with difficulty.7-9,9,10 Models which employ focal ischemia have repeatedly demonstrated results which do not translate to the clinical setting, and larger animal models which allow for whole body hypoperfusion lack access to the full toolset of genetic manipulation possible in the mouse.11,12 However, in recent years a mouse model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation has emerged which can be adapted to model AKI.13 This model reliably reproduces physiologic, functional, anatomic, and histologic outcomes seen in clinical AKI, is rapidly repeatable, and offers all of the significant advantages of a murine surgical model, including access to genetic manipulative techniques, low cost relative to large animals, and ease of use. Our group has developed extensive experience with use of this model to assess a number of organ-specific outcomes in AKI.14,15
Medicine, Issue 54, AKI, Acute Kidney Injury, Acute Renal Failure, Cardiac Arrest, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Mouse Model, Chest Compressions, CA/CPR. stereology, perfusion-fixation
3116
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Modeling Neural Immune Signaling of Episodic and Chronic Migraine Using Spreading Depression In Vitro
Authors: Aya D. Pusic, Yelena Y. Grinberg, Heidi M. Mitchell, Richard P. Kraig.
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center, The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Migraine and its transformation to chronic migraine are healthcare burdens in need of improved treatment options. We seek to define how neural immune signaling modulates the susceptibility to migraine, modeled in vitro using spreading depression (SD), as a means to develop novel therapeutic targets for episodic and chronic migraine. SD is the likely cause of migraine aura and migraine pain. It is a paroxysmal loss of neuronal function triggered by initially increased neuronal activity, which slowly propagates within susceptible brain regions. Normal brain function is exquisitely sensitive to, and relies on, coincident low-level immune signaling. Thus, neural immune signaling likely affects electrical activity of SD, and therefore migraine. Pain perception studies of SD in whole animals are fraught with difficulties, but whole animals are well suited to examine systems biology aspects of migraine since SD activates trigeminal nociceptive pathways. However, whole animal studies alone cannot be used to decipher the cellular and neural circuit mechanisms of SD. Instead, in vitro preparations where environmental conditions can be controlled are necessary. Here, it is important to recognize limitations of acute slices and distinct advantages of hippocampal slice cultures. Acute brain slices cannot reveal subtle changes in immune signaling since preparing the slices alone triggers: pro-inflammatory changes that last days, epileptiform behavior due to high levels of oxygen tension needed to vitalize the slices, and irreversible cell injury at anoxic slice centers. In contrast, we examine immune signaling in mature hippocampal slice cultures since the cultures closely parallel their in vivo counterpart with mature trisynaptic function; show quiescent astrocytes, microglia, and cytokine levels; and SD is easily induced in an unanesthetized preparation. Furthermore, the slices are long-lived and SD can be induced on consecutive days without injury, making this preparation the sole means to-date capable of modeling the neuroimmune consequences of chronic SD, and thus perhaps chronic migraine. We use electrophysiological techniques and non-invasive imaging to measure neuronal cell and circuit functions coincident with SD. Neural immune gene expression variables are measured with qPCR screening, qPCR arrays, and, importantly, use of cDNA preamplification for detection of ultra-low level targets such as interferon-gamma using whole, regional, or specific cell enhanced (via laser dissection microscopy) sampling. Cytokine cascade signaling is further assessed with multiplexed phosphoprotein related targets with gene expression and phosphoprotein changes confirmed via cell-specific immunostaining. Pharmacological and siRNA strategies are used to mimic and modulate SD immune signaling.
Neuroscience, Issue 52, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, T-cells, hippocampus, slice culture, gene expression, laser dissection microscopy, real-time qPCR, interferon-gamma
2910
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Transplantation of Cells Directly into the Kidney of Adult Zebrafish
Authors: Cuong Q. Diep, Alan J. Davidson.
Institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital.
Regenerative medicine based on the transplantation of stem or progenitor cells into damaged tissues has the potential to treat a wide range of chronic diseases1. However, most organs are not easily accessible, necessitating the need to develop surgical methods to gain access to these structures. In this video article, we describe a method for transplanting cells directly into the kidney of adult zebrafish, a popular model to study regeneration and disease2. Recipient fish are pre-conditioned by irradiation to suppress the immune rejection of the injected cells3. We demonstrate how the head kidney can be exposed by a lateral incision in the flank of the fish, followed by the injection of cells directly in to the organ. Using fluorescently labeled whole kidney marrow cells comprising a mixed population of renal and hematopoietic precursors, we show that nephron progenitors can engraft and differentiate into new renal tissue - the gold standard of any cell-based regenerative therapy. This technique can be adapted to deliver purified stem or progenitor cells and/or small molecules to the kidney as well as other internal organs and further enhances the zebrafish as a versatile model to study regenerative medicine.
Cellular Biology, Issue 51, zebrafish, kidney, regeneration, transplantation
2725
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Isolation and Culture of Cells from the Nephrogenic Zone of the Embryonic Mouse Kidney
Authors: Aaron C. Brown, Ulrika Blank, Derek C. Adams, Michele J. Karolak, Jennifer L. Fetting, Beth L. Hill, Leif Oxburgh.
Institutions: Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Lund University Hospital.
Embryonic development of the kidney has been extensively studied both as a model for epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in organogenesis and to gain understanding of the origins of congenital kidney disease. More recently, the possibility of steering naïve embryonic stem cells toward nephrogenic fates has been explored in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. Genetic studies in the mouse have identified several pathways required for kidney development, and a global catalog of gene transcription in the organ has recently been generated http://www.gudmap.org/, providing numerous candidate regulators of essential developmental functions. Organogenesis of the rodent kidney can be studied in organ culture, and many reports have used this approach to analyze outcomes of either applying candidate proteins or knocking down the expression of candidate genes using siRNA or morpholinos. However, the applicability of organ culture to the study of signaling that regulates stem/progenitor cell differentiation versus renewal in the developing kidney is limited as cultured organs contain a compact extracellular matrix limiting diffusion of macromolecules and virus particles. To study the cell signaling events that influence the stem/progenitor cell niche in the kidney we have developed a primary cell system that establishes the nephrogenic zone or progenitor cell niche of the developing kidney ex vivo in isolation from the epithelial inducer of differentiation. Using limited enzymatic digestion, nephrogenic zone cells can be selectively liberated from developing kidneys at E17.5. Following filtration, these cells can be cultured as an irregular monolayer using optimized conditions. Marker gene analysis demonstrates that these cultures contain a distribution of cell types characteristic of the nephrogenic zone in vivo, and that they maintain appropriate marker gene expression during the culture period. These cells are highly accessible to small molecule and recombinant protein treatment, and importantly also to viral transduction, which greatly facilitates the study of candidate stem/progenitor cell regulator effects. Basic cell biological parameters such as proliferation and cell death as well as changes in expression of molecular markers characteristic of nephron stem/progenitor cells in vivo can be successfully used as experimental outcomes. Ongoing work in our laboratory using this novel primary cell technique aims to uncover basic mechanisms governing the regulation of self-renewal versus differentiation in nephron stem/progenitor cells.
Cellular Biology, Issue 50, Kidney development, nephrogenesis, nephrogenic zone, nephron progenitor cells, cortical stroma
2555
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Use of a Hanging-weight System for Isolated Renal Artery Occlusion
Authors: Almut Grenz, Julee H. Hong, Alexander Badulak, Douglas Ridyard, Timothy Luebbert, Jae-Hwan Kim, Holger K. Eltzschig.
Institutions: University of Colorado, University of Colorado, Korea University College of Medicine.
In hospitalized patients, over 50% of cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) are caused by renal ischemia 1-3. A recent study of hospitalized patients revealed that only a mild increase in serum creatinine levels (0.3 to 0.4 mg/dl) is associated with a 70% greater risk of death than in persons without any increase 1. Along these lines, surgical procedures requiring cross-clamping of the aorta and renal vessels are associated with a renal failure rates of up to 30% 4. Similarly, AKI after cardiac surgery occurs in over 10% of patients under normal circumstances and is associated with dramatic increases in mortality. AKI are also common complications after liver transplantation. At least 8-17% of patients end up requiring renal replacement therapy 5. Moreover, delayed graft function due to tubule cell injury during kidney transplantation is frequently related to ischemia-associated AKI 6. Moreover, AKI occurs in approximately 20% of patients suffering from sepsis 6.The occurrence of AKI is associated with dramatic increases of morbidity and mortality 1. Therapeutic approaches are very limited and the majority of interventional trials in AKI have failed in humans. Therefore, additional therapeutic modalities to prevent renal injury from ischemia are urgently needed 3, 7-9. To elucidate mechanisms of renal injury due to ischemia and possible therapeutic strategies murine models are intensively required 7-13. Mouse models provide the possibility of utilizing different genetic models including gene-targeted mice and tissue specific gene-targeted mice (cre-flox system). However, murine renal ischemia is technically challenging and experimental details significantly influence results. We performed a systematic evaluation of a novel model for isolated renal artery occlusion in mice, which specifically avoids the use of clamping or suturing the renal pedicle 14. This model requires a nephrectomy of the right kidney since ischemia can be only performed in one kidney due to the experimental setting. In fact, by using a hanging-weight system, the renal artery is only instrumented once throughout the surgical procedure. In addition, no venous or urethral obstruction occurs with this technique. We could demonstrate time-dose-dependent and highly reproducible renal injury with ischemia by measuring serum creatinine. Moreover, when comparing this new model with conventional clamping of the whole pedicle, renal protection by ischemic preconditioning is more profound and more reliable. Therefore his new technique might be useful for other researchers who are working in the field of acute kidney injury.
Medicine, Issue 53, targeted gene deletion, murine model, acute renal failure, ischemia, reperfusion, video demonstration
2549
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Strategies for Study of Neuroprotection from Cold-preconditioning
Authors: Heidi M. Mitchell, David M. White, Richard P. Kraig.
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for therapeutics development to protect brain before injury onset. Low-level pro-inflammatory mediator signaling changes over time are essential for cold-preconditioning neuroprotection. This signaling is consistent with the basic tenets of physiological conditioning hormesis, which require that irritative stimuli reach a threshold magnitude with sufficient time for adaptation to the stimuli for protection to become evident. Accordingly, delineation of the immune signaling involved in cold-preconditioning neuroprotection requires that biological systems and experimental manipulations plus technical capacities are highly reproducible and sensitive. Our approach is to use hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro model that closely reflects their in vivo counterparts with multi-synaptic neural networks influenced by mature and quiescent macroglia / microglia. This glial state is particularly important for microglia since they are the principal source of cytokines, which are operative in the femtomolar range. Also, slice cultures can be maintained in vitro for several weeks, which is sufficient time to evoke activating stimuli and assess adaptive responses. Finally, environmental conditions can be accurately controlled using slice cultures so that cytokine signaling of cold-preconditioning can be measured, mimicked, and modulated to dissect the critical node aspects. Cytokine signaling system analyses require the use of sensitive and reproducible multiplexed techniques. We use quantitative PCR for TNF-α to screen for microglial activation followed by quantitative real-time qPCR array screening to assess tissue-wide cytokine changes. The latter is a most sensitive and reproducible means to measure multiple cytokine system signaling changes simultaneously. Significant changes are confirmed with targeted qPCR and then protein detection. We probe for tissue-based cytokine protein changes using multiplexed microsphere flow cytometric assays using Luminex technology. Cell-specific cytokine production is determined with double-label immunohistochemistry. Taken together, this brain tissue preparation and style of use, coupled to the suggested investigative strategies, may be an optimal approach for identifying potential targets for the development of novel therapeutics that could mimic the advantages of cold-preconditioning.
Neuroscience, Issue 43, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, hippocampus, slice culture, immunohistochemistry, neural-immune, gene expression, real-time PCR
2192
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Mouse Kidney Transplantation: Models of Allograft Rejection
Authors: George H. Tse, Emily E. Hesketh, Michael Clay, Gary Borthwick, Jeremy Hughes, Lorna P. Marson.
Institutions: The University of Edinburgh.
Rejection of the transplanted kidney in humans is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The mouse model of renal transplantation closely replicates both the technical and pathological processes that occur in human renal transplantation. Although mouse models of allogeneic rejection in organs other than the kidney exist, and are more technically feasible, there is evidence that different organs elicit disparate rejection modes and dynamics, for instance the time course of rejection in cardiac and renal allograft differs significantly in certain strain combinations. This model is an attractive tool for many reasons despite its technical challenges. As inbred mouse strain haplotypes are well characterized it is possible to choose donor and recipient combinations to model acute allograft rejection by transplanting across MHC class I and II loci. Conversely by transplanting between strains with similar haplotypes a chronic process can be elicited were the allograft kidney develops interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. We have modified the surgical technique to reduce operating time and improve ease of surgery, however a learning curve still needs to be overcome in order to faithfully replicate the model. This study will provide key points in the surgical procedure and aid the process of establishing this technique.
Medicine, Issue 92, transplantation, mouse model, surgery, kidney, immunology, rejection
52163
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