We present a protocol for measuring in vivo aortic stiffness in mice using high-resolution ultrasound imaging. Aortic diameter is measured by ultrasound and aortic blood pressure is measured invasively with a solid-state pressure catheter. Blood pressure is raised then lowered incrementally by intravenous infusion of vasoactive drugs phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Aortic diameter is measured for each pressure step to characterize the pressure-diameter relationship of the ascending aorta. Stiffness indices derived from the pressure-diameter relationship can be calculated from the data collected. Calculation of arterial compliance is described in this protocol.
This technique can be used to investigate mechanisms underlying increased aortic stiffness associated with cardiovascular disease and aging. The technique produces a physiologically relevant measure of stiffness compared to ex vivo approaches because physiological influences on aortic stiffness are incorporated in the measurement. The primary limitation of this technique is the measurement error introduced from the movement of the aorta during the cardiac cycle. This motion can be compensated by adjusting the location of the probe with the aortic movement as well as making multiple measurements of the aortic pressure-diameter relationship and expanding the experimental group size.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
Quantification of Atherosclerotic Plaque Activity and Vascular Inflammation using [18-F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT)
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine.
Conventional non-invasive imaging modalities of atherosclerosis such as coronary artery calcium (CAC)1
and carotid intimal medial thickness (C-IMT)2
provide information about the burden of disease. However, despite multiple validation studies of CAC3-5
, and C-IMT2,6
, these modalities do not accurately assess plaque characteristics7,8
, and the composition and inflammatory state of the plaque determine its stability and, therefore, the risk of clinical events9-13
F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) imaging using positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has been extensively studied in oncologic metabolism14,15
. Studies using animal models and immunohistochemistry in humans show that FDG-PET/CT is exquisitely sensitive for detecting macrophage activity16
, an important source of cellular inflammation in vessel walls. More recently, we17,18
and others have shown that FDG-PET/CT enables highly precise, novel measurements of inflammatory activity of activity of atherosclerotic plaques in large and medium-sized arteries9,16,19,20
. FDG-PET/CT studies have many advantages over other imaging modalities: 1) high contrast resolution; 2) quantification of plaque volume and metabolic activity allowing for multi-modal atherosclerotic plaque quantification; 3) dynamic, real-time, in vivo
imaging; 4) minimal operator dependence. Finally, vascular inflammation detected by FDG-PET/CT has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) events independent of traditional risk factors21,22
and is also highly associated with overall burden of atherosclerosis23
. Plaque activity by FDG-PET/CT is modulated by known beneficial CV interventions such as short term (12 week) statin therapy24
as well as longer term therapeutic lifestyle changes (16 months)25
The current methodology for quantification of FDG uptake in atherosclerotic plaque involves measurement of the standardized uptake value (SUV) of an artery of interest and of the venous blood pool in order to calculate a target to background ratio (TBR), which is calculated by dividing the arterial SUV by the venous blood pool SUV. This method has shown to represent a stable, reproducible phenotype over time, has a high sensitivity for detection of vascular inflammation, and also has high inter-and intra-reader reliability26
. Here we present our methodology for patient preparation, image acquisition, and quantification of atherosclerotic plaque activity and vascular inflammation using SUV, TBR, and a global parameter called the metabolic volumetric product (MVP). These approaches may be applied to assess vascular inflammation in various study samples of interest in a consistent fashion as we have shown in several prior publications.9,20,27,28
Medicine, Issue 63, FDG-PET/CT, atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation, quantitative radiology, imaging
Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice
Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Baylor College of Medicine (BCM).
Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in the mouse is a commonly used experimental model for pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.1
TAC initially leads to compensated hypertrophy of the heart, which often is associated with a temporary enhancement of cardiac contractility. Over time, however, the response to the chronic hemodynamic overload becomes maladaptive, resulting in cardiac dilatation and heart failure.2
The murine TAC model was first validated by Rockman et al
, and has since been extensively used as a valuable tool to mimic human cardiovascular diseases and elucidate fundamental signaling processes involved in the cardiac hypertrophic response and heart failure development. When compared to other experimental models of heart failure, such as complete occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, TAC provides a more reproducible model of cardiac hypertrophy and a more gradual time course in the development of heart failure. Here, we describe a step-by-step procedure to perform surgical TAC in mice. To determine the level of pressure overload produced by the aortic ligation, a high frequency Doppler probe is used to measure the ratio between blood flow velocities in the right and left carotid arteries.3, 4
With surgical survival rates of 80-90%, transverse aortic banding is an effective technique of inducing left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure in mice.
Medicine, Issue 38, Aorta, heart failure, hypertrophy, mouse, pressure-overload
Inducing Myointimal Hyperplasia Versus Atherosclerosis in Mice: An Introduction of Two Valid Models
Institutions: University Hospital Hamburg, Cardiovascular Research Center (CVRC) and DZHK University Hamburg, University Heart Center Hamburg, Columbia University, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Stanford University School of Medicine, Falk Cardiovascular Research Center.
Various in vivo
laboratory rodent models for the induction of artery stenosis have been established to mimic diseases that include arterial plaque formation and stenosis, as observed for example in ischemic heart disease. Two highly reproducible mouse models – both resulting in artery stenosis but each underlying a different pathway of development – are introduced here. The models represent the two most common causes of artery stenosis; namely one mouse model for each myointimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis are shown. To induce myointimal hyperplasia, a balloon catheter injury of the abdominal aorta is performed. For the development of atherosclerotic plaque, the ApoE -/- mouse model in combination with western fatty diet is used. Different model-adapted options for the measurement and evaluation of the results are named and described in this manuscript. The introduction and comparison of these two models provides information for scientists to choose the appropriate artery stenosis model in accordance to the scientific question asked.
Medicine, Issue 87, vascular diseases, atherosclerosis, coronary stenosis, neointima, myointimal hyperplasia, mice, denudation model, ApoE -/-, balloon injury, western diet, analysis
Flow Cytometry Analysis of Immune Cells Within Murine Aortas
Institutions: Eastern Virginia Medical School, LaJolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process of medium and large size vessels that is characterized by the formation of plaques consisting of foam cells, immune cells, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, platelets, extracellular matrix, and a lipid-rich core with extensive necrosis and fibrosis of surrounding tissues.1
The innate and adaptive arms of the immune response are involved in the initiation, development and persistence of atherosclerosis.2, 3
There is a significant body of evidence that different subsets of the immune cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B lymphocytes, are present within the aortas of healthy and atherosclerosis-prone mice4
. Additionally, immune cells are found in the surrounding aortic adventitia which suggests an important role of this tissue in atherogenesis.2
For some time, the quantitative detection of different types of immune cells, their activation status, and the cellular composition within the aortic wall was limited by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods for the study of atherosclerosis. Few attempts were made to perform flow cytometry using human aortas, and a number of problems, such as a high autofluorescence, have been reported5,6
. Human atherosclerotic plaques were digested with collagenase 1, and free cells were collected and stained for CD14+/CD11c+ to highlight macrophage-derived foam cells. In this study, a "mock" channel was used to avoid false-positive staining.6
Necrotic materials accumulating during the digestion process give rise in a large amount of debris that generates a high autofluorescence in aortic samples. To resolve this problem, a panel of negative and positive controls has been proposed, but only double staining could be applied in these samples. We have developed a new flow cytometry-based method7
to analyze the immune cell composition and characterize the activation, proliferation, differentiation of immune cells in healthy and atherosclerosis-prone aorta. This method allows the investigation of the immune cell composition of the aortic wall and opens possibilities to use a broad spectrum of immunological methods for investigations of immune aspects of this disease.
Immunology, Issue 53, atherosclerosis, immune response, leukocytes, adventitia, flow cytometry
Orthotopic Aortic Transplantation: A Rat Model to Study the Development of Chronic Vasculopathy
Institutions: University Hospital Hamburg, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Research models of chronic rejection are essential to investigate pathobiological and pathophysiological processes during the development of transplant vasculopathy (TVP).
The commonly used animal model for cardiovascular chronic rejection studies is the heterotopic heart transplant model performed in laboratory rodents. This model is used widely in experiments since Ono and Lindsey (3) published their technique. To analyze the findings in the blood vessels, the heart has to be sectioned and all vessels have to be measured.
Another method to investigate chronic rejection in cardiovascular questionings is the aortic transplant model (1, 2). In the orthotopic aortic transplant model, the aorta can easily be histologically evaluated (2). The PVG-to-ACI model is especially useful for CAV studies, since acute vascular rejection is not a major confounding factor and Cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment does not prevent the development of CAV, similar to what we find in the clinical setting (4). A7-day period of CsA is required in this model to prevent acute rejection and to achieve long-term survival with the development of TVP.
This model can also be used to investigate acute cellular rejection and media necrosis in xenogeneic models (5).
Medicine, Issue 46, chronic rejection, transplantation, rat, transplant vasculopathy
Murine Echocardiography and Ultrasound Imaging
Institutions: University of Rochester, University of Rochester, Visualsonics, University of Rochester.
Rodent models of cardiac pathophysiology represent a valuable research tool to investigate mechanism of disease as well as test new therapeutics.1
Echocardiography provides a powerful, non-invasive tool to serially assess cardiac morphometry and function in a living animal.2
However, using this technique on mice poses unique challenges owing to the small size and rapid heart rate of these animals.3
Until recently, few ultrasound systems were capable of performing quality echocardiography on mice, and those generally lacked the image resolution and frame rate necessary to obtain truly quantitative measurements. Newly released systems such as the VisualSonics Vevo2100 provide new tools for researchers to carefully and non-invasively investigate cardiac function in mice. This system generates high resolution images and provides analysis capabilities similar to those used with human patients. Although color Doppler has been available for over 30 years in humans, this valuable technology has only recently been possible in rodent ultrasound.4,5
Color Doppler has broad applications for echocardiography, including the ability to quickly assess flow directionality in vessels and through valves, and to rapidly identify valve regurgitation. Strain analysis is a critical advance that is utilized to quantitatively measure regional myocardial function.6
This technique has the potential to detect changes in pathology, or resolution of pathology, earlier than conventional techniques. Coupled with the addition of three-dimensional image reconstruction, volumetric assessment of whole-organs is possible, including visualization and assessment of cardiac and vascular structures. Murine-compatible contrast imaging can also allow for volumetric measurements and tissue perfusion assessment.
Medicine, Issue 42, echocardiography, heart, mouse, strain imaging, high frequency ultrasound, contrast imaging
Ultrasound Assessment of Endothelial-Dependent Flow-Mediated Vasodilation of the Brachial Artery in Clinical Research
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco.
The vascular endothelium is a monolayer of cells that cover the interior of blood vessels and provide both structural and functional roles. The endothelium acts as a barrier, preventing leukocyte adhesion and aggregation, as well as controlling permeability to plasma components. Functionally, the endothelium affects vessel tone.
Endothelial dysfunction is an imbalance between the chemical species which regulate vessel tone, thombroresistance, cellular proliferation and mitosis. It is the first step in atherosclerosis and is associated with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.
The first demonstration of endothelial dysfunction involved direct infusion of acetylcholine and quantitative coronary angiography. Acetylcholine binds to muscarinic receptors on the endothelial cell surface, leading to an increase of intracellular calcium and increased nitric oxide (NO) production. In subjects with an intact endothelium, vasodilation was observed while subjects with endothelial damage experienced paradoxical vasoconstriction.
There exists a non-invasive, in vivo
method for measuring endothelial function in peripheral arteries using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. The endothelial function of peripheral arteries is closely related to coronary artery function. This technique measures the percent diameter change in the brachial artery during a period of reactive hyperemia following limb ischemia.
This technique, known as endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) has value in clinical research settings. However, a number of physiological and technical issues can affect the accuracy of the results and appropriate guidelines for the technique have been published. Despite the guidelines, FMD remains heavily operator dependent and presents a steep learning curve. This article presents a standardized method for measuring FMD in the brachial artery on the upper arm and offers suggestions to reduce intra-operator variability.
Medicine, Issue 92, endothelial function, endothelial dysfunction, brachial artery, peripheral artery disease, ultrasound, vascular, endothelium, cardiovascular disease.
Permanent Ligation of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery in Mice: A Model of Post-myocardial Infarction Remodelling and Heart Failure
Institutions: Catholic University of Leuven.
Heart failure is a syndrome in which the heart fails to pump blood at a rate commensurate with cellular oxygen requirements at rest or during stress. It is characterized by fluid retention, shortness of breath, and fatigue, in particular on exertion. Heart failure is a growing public health problem, the leading cause of hospitalization, and a major cause of mortality. Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of heart failure.
Ventricular remodelling refers to changes in structure, size, and shape of the left ventricle. This architectural remodelling of the left ventricle is induced by injury (e.g.,
myocardial infarction), by pressure overload (e.g.,
systemic arterial hypertension or aortic stenosis), or by volume overload. Since ventricular remodelling affects wall stress, it has a profound impact on cardiac function and on the development of heart failure. A model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice is used to investigate ventricular remodelling and cardiac function post-myocardial infarction. This model is fundamentally different in terms of objectives and pathophysiological relevance compared to the model of transient ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In this latter model of ischemia/reperfusion injury, the initial extent of the infarct may be modulated by factors that affect myocardial salvage following reperfusion. In contrast, the infarct area at 24 hr after permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery is fixed. Cardiac function in this model will be affected by 1) the process of infarct expansion, infarct healing, and scar formation; and 2) the concomitant development of left ventricular dilatation, cardiac hypertrophy, and ventricular remodelling.
Besides the model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the technique of invasive hemodynamic measurements in mice is presented in detail.
Medicine, Issue 94, Myocardial infarction, cardiac remodelling, infarct expansion, heart failure, cardiac function, invasive hemodynamic measurements
Patient-specific Modeling of the Heart: Estimation of Ventricular Fiber Orientations
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University.
Patient-specific simulations of heart (dys)function aimed at personalizing cardiac therapy are hampered by the absence of in vivo
imaging technology for clinically acquiring myocardial fiber orientations. The objective of this project was to develop a methodology to estimate cardiac fiber orientations from in vivo
images of patient heart geometries. An accurate representation of ventricular geometry and fiber orientations was reconstructed, respectively, from high-resolution ex vivo structural magnetic resonance (MR) and diffusion tensor (DT) MR images of a normal human heart, referred to as the atlas. Ventricular geometry of a patient heart was extracted, via
semiautomatic segmentation, from an in vivo
computed tomography (CT) image. Using image transformation algorithms, the atlas ventricular geometry was deformed to match that of the patient. Finally, the deformation field was applied to the atlas fiber orientations to obtain an estimate of patient fiber orientations. The accuracy of the fiber estimates was assessed using six normal and three failing canine hearts. The mean absolute difference between inclination angles of acquired and estimated fiber orientations was 15.4 °. Computational simulations of ventricular activation maps and pseudo-ECGs in sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia indicated that there are no significant differences between estimated and acquired fiber orientations at a clinically observable level.The new insights obtained from the project will pave the way for the development of patient-specific models of the heart that can aid physicians in personalized diagnosis and decisions regarding electrophysiological interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 71, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cardiology, Myocytes, Cardiac, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI, Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiac Electrophysiology, computerized simulation (general), mathematical modeling (systems analysis), Cardiomyocyte, biomedical image processing, patient-specific modeling, Electrophysiology, simulation
Mouse Models for Graft Arteriosclerosis
Institutions: Yale University School of Medicine , Yale University School of Medicine .
Graft arteriosclerois (GA), also called allograft vasculopathy, is a pathologic lesion that develops over months to years in transplanted organs characterized by diffuse, circumferential stenosis of the entire graft vascular tree. The most critical component of GA pathogenesis is the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells within the intima. When a human coronary artery segment is interposed into the infra-renal aortae of immunodeficient mice, the intimas could be expand in response to adoptively transferred human T cells allogeneic to the artery donor or exogenous human IFN-γ in the absence of human T cells. Interposition of a mouse aorta from one strain into another mouse strain recipient is limited as a model for chronic rejection in humans because the acute cell-mediated rejection response in this mouse model completely eliminates all donor-derived vascular cells from the graft within two-three weeks. We have recently developed two new mouse models to circumvent these problems. The first model involves interposition of a vessel segment from a male mouse into a female recipient of the same inbred strain (C57BL/6J). Graft rejection in this case is directed only against minor histocompatibility antigens encoded by the Y chromosome (present in the male but not the female) and the rejection response that ensues is sufficiently indolent to preserve donor-derived smooth muscle cells for several weeks. The second model involves interposing an artery segment from a wild type C57BL/6J mouse donor into a host mouse of the same strain and gender that lacks the receptor for IFN-γ followed by administration of mouse IFN-γ (delivered via infection of the mouse liver with an adenoviral vector. There is no rejection in this case as both donor and recipient mice are of the same strain and gender but donor smooth muscle cells proliferate in response to the cytokine while host-derived cells, lacking receptor for this cytokine, are unresponsive. By backcrossing additional genetic changes into the vessel donor, both models can be used to assess the effect of specific genes on GA progression. Here, we describe detailed protocols for our mouse GA models.
Medicine, Issue 75, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cardiology, Pathology, Surgery, Tissue Engineering, Cardiovascular Diseases, vascular biology, graft arteriosclerosis, GA, mouse models, transplantation, graft, vessels, arteries, mouse, animal model, surgical techniques
Creation of Murine Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms with Elastase
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Transient intraluminal infusion of porcine pancreatic elastase into the infrarenal segment of the abdominal aorta is the most widely used animal model of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ever since it was first described in rats by Anidjar and colleagues.1
The rationale for its development was based on the disrupted nature of elastin observed in AAAs. This rat model has been modified to produce AAAs in the infrarenal aortic region of mice.2
The model has the ability to add broad insight into the pathobiology of AAA due to the emergence of numerous transgenic and gene knockout mice. Moreover, it is a viable platform to test potential therapeutic agents for AAA. In this video, we demonstrate the elastase infusion AAA procedure used in our laboratory.
Mice are anesthetized using 2.5% isoflurane, and a laparotomy is performed under sterile conditions. The abdominal aortais isolated with the assistance of an operating stereomicroscope (Leica). After placing temporary ligatures around the proximal and distal aorta, an aortotomy is created at the bifurcation with the tip of a 30-gauge needle. A heat-tapered segment of PE-10 polyethylene tubing is introduced through the aortotomy and secured. The aortic lumen is subsequently perfused for 5-15 minutes at 100 mm Hg with saline containing type I porcine pancreatic elastase (4.5 U/mL; Sigma Chemical Co.). After removing the perfusion catheter, the aortotomy is repaired without constriction of the lumen.
Medicine, Issue 29, abdominal aortic aneurysm, AAA, mouse, elastase
Isolation, Culture, and Functional Characterization of Adult Mouse Cardiomyoctyes
Institutions: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Sapienza University.
The use of primary cardiomyocytes (CMs) in culture has provided a powerful complement to murine models of heart disease in advancing our understanding of heart disease. In particular, the ability to study ion homeostasis, ion channel function, cellular excitability and excitation-contraction coupling and their alterations in diseased conditions and by disease-causing mutations have led to significant insights into cardiac diseases. Furthermore, the lack of an adequate immortalized cell line to mimic adult CMs, and the limitations of neonatal CMs (which lack many of the structural and functional biomechanics characteristic of adult CMs) in culture have hampered our understanding of the complex interplay between signaling pathways, ion channels and contractile properties in the adult heart strengthening the importance of studying adult isolated cardiomyocytes. Here, we present methods for the isolation, culture, manipulation of gene expression by adenoviral-expressed proteins, and subsequent functional analysis of cardiomyocytes from the adult mouse. The use of these techniques will help to develop mechanistic insight into signaling pathways that regulate cellular excitability, Ca2+
dynamics and contractility and provide a much more physiologically relevant characterization of cardiovascular disease.
Cellular Biology, Issue 79, Medicine, Cardiology, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Mice, Ion Channels, Primary Cell Culture, Cardiac Electrophysiology, adult mouse cardiomyocytes, cell isolation, IonOptix, Cell Culture, adenoviral transfection, patch clamp, fluorescent nanosensor
Evaluation of a Novel Laser-assisted Coronary Anastomotic Connector - the Trinity Clip - in a Porcine Off-pump Bypass Model
Institutions: University Medical Center Utrecht, Vascular Connect b.v., University Medical Center Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht.
To simplify and facilitate beating heart (i.e.,
off-pump), minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery, a new coronary anastomotic connector, the Trinity Clip, is developed based on the excimer laser-assisted nonocclusive anastomosis technique. The Trinity Clip connector enables simplified, sutureless, and nonocclusive connection of the graft to the coronary artery, and an excimer laser catheter laser-punches the opening of the anastomosis. Consequently, owing to the complete nonocclusive anastomosis construction, coronary conditioning (i.e.,
occluding or shunting) is not necessary, in contrast to the conventional anastomotic technique, hence simplifying the off-pump bypass procedure. Prior to clinical application in coronary artery bypass grafting, the safety and quality of this novel connector will be evaluated in a long-term experimental porcine off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) study. In this paper, we describe how to evaluate the coronary anastomosis in the porcine OPCAB model using various techniques to assess its quality. Representative results are summarized and visually demonstrated.
Medicine, Issue 93, Anastomosis, coronary, anastomotic connector, anastomotic coupler, excimer laser-assisted nonocclusive anastomosis (ELANA), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB), beating heart surgery, excimer laser, porcine model, experimental, medical device
Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+
release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
Retrograde Perfusion and Filling of Mouse Coronary Vasculature as Preparation for Micro Computed Tomography Imaging
Institutions: University of Washington, University of Washington.
Visualization of the vasculature is becoming increasingly important for understanding many different disease states. While several techniques exist for imaging vasculature, few are able to visualize the vascular network as a whole while extending to a resolution that includes the smaller vessels1,2
. Additionally, many vascular casting techniques destroy the surrounding tissue, preventing further analysis of the sample3-5
. One method which circumvents these issues is micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). μCT imaging can scan at resolutions <10 microns, is capable of producing 3D reconstructions of the vascular network, and leaves the tissue intact for subsequent analysis (e.g., histology and morphometry)6-11
. However, imaging vessels by ex vivo
μCT methods requires that the vessels be filled with a radiopaque compound. As such, the accurate representation of vasculature produced by μCT imaging is contingent upon reliable and complete filling of the vessels. In this protocol, we describe a technique for filling mouse coronary vessels in preparation for μCT imaging.
Two predominate techniques exist for filling the coronary vasculature: in vivo
via cannulation and retrograde perfusion of the aorta (or a branch off the aortic arch) 12-14
, or ex vivo
via a Langendorff perfusion system 15-17
. Here we describe an in vivo
aortic cannulation method which has been specifically designed to ensure filling of all vessels. We use a low viscosity radiopaque compound called Microfil which can perfuse through the smallest vessels to fill all the capillaries, as well as both the arterial and venous sides of the vascular network. Vessels are perfused with buffer using a pressurized perfusion system, and then filled with Microfil. To ensure that Microfil fills the small higher resistance vessels, we ligate the large branches emanating from the aorta, which diverts the Microfil into the coronaries. Once filling is complete, to prevent the elastic nature of cardiac tissue from squeezing Microfil out of some vessels, we ligate accessible major vascular exit points immediately after filling. Therefore, our technique is optimized for complete filling and maximum retention of the filling agent, enabling visualization of the complete coronary vascular network – arteries, capillaries, and veins alike.
Medicine, Issue 60, Vascular biology, heart, coronary vessels, mouse, micro Computed Tomography (μCT) imaging, Microfil
Quantitative Analysis and Characterization of Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Murine Aortic Sinus
Institutions: McMaster University, McMaster University.
Atherosclerosis is a disease of the large arteries and a major underlying cause of myocardial infarction and stroke. Several different mouse models have been developed to facilitate the study of the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of this disease. In this manuscript we describe specific techniques for the quantification and characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in the murine aortic sinus and ascending aorta. The advantage of this procedure is that it provides an accurate measurement of the cross-sectional area and total volume of the lesion, which can be used to compare atherosclerotic progression across different treatment groups. This is possible through the use of the valve leaflets as an anatomical landmark, together with careful adjustment of the sectioning angle. We also describe basic staining methods that can be used to begin to characterize atherosclerotic progression. These can be further modified to investigate antigens of specific interest to the researcher. The described techniques are generally applicable to a wide variety of existing and newly created dietary and genetically-induced models of atherogenesis.
Medicine, Issue 82, atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic lesion, Mouse Model, aortic sinus, tissue preparation and sectioning, Immunohistochemistry
A Mouse Model for Pathogen-induced Chronic Inflammation at Local and Systemic Sites
Institutions: Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine.
Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation.
Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis
, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis
accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccination and pharmacological intervention.
Immunology, Issue 90,
Pathogen-Induced Chronic Inflammation; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Oral Bone Loss; Periodontal Disease; Atherosclerosis; Chronic Inflammation; Host-Pathogen Interaction; microCT; MRI
Assessment of Vascular Function in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease
Institutions: University of Colorado, Denver, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to the general population, and this is only partially explained by traditional CVD risk factors. Vascular dysfunction is an important non-traditional risk factor, characterized by vascular endothelial dysfunction (most commonly assessed as impaired endothelium-dependent dilation [EDD]) and stiffening of the large elastic arteries. While various techniques exist to assess EDD and large elastic artery stiffness, the most commonly used are brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMDBA
) and aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV), respectively. Both of these noninvasive measures of vascular dysfunction are independent predictors of future cardiovascular events in patients with and without kidney disease. Patients with CKD demonstrate both impaired FMDBA
, and increased aPWV. While the exact mechanisms by which vascular dysfunction develops in CKD are incompletely understood, increased oxidative stress and a subsequent reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability are important contributors. Cellular changes in oxidative stress can be assessed by collecting vascular endothelial cells from the antecubital vein and measuring protein expression of markers of oxidative stress using immunofluorescence. We provide here a discussion of these methods to measure FMDBA
, aPWV, and vascular endothelial cell protein expression.
Medicine, Issue 88, chronic kidney disease, endothelial cells, flow-mediated dilation, immunofluorescence, oxidative stress, pulse-wave velocity
Protocol for Relative Hydrodynamic Assessment of Tri-leaflet Polymer Valves
Institutions: Florida International University, University of Florida , University of Florida , Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Limitations of currently available prosthetic valves, xenografts, and homografts have prompted a recent resurgence of developments in the area of tri-leaflet polymer valve prostheses. However, identification of a protocol for initial assessment of polymer valve hydrodynamic functionality is paramount during the early stages of the design process. Traditional in vitro
pulse duplicator systems are not configured to accommodate flexible tri-leaflet materials; in addition, assessment of polymer valve functionality needs to be made in a relative context to native and prosthetic heart valves under identical test conditions so that variability in measurements from different instruments can be avoided. Accordingly, we conducted hydrodynamic assessment of i) native (n = 4, mean diameter, D = 20 mm), ii) bi-leaflet mechanical (n= 2, D = 23 mm) and iii) polymer valves (n = 5, D = 22 mm) via the use of a commercially available pulse duplicator system (ViVitro Labs Inc, Victoria, BC) that was modified to accommodate tri-leaflet valve geometries. Tri-leaflet silicone valves developed at the University of Florida comprised the polymer valve group. A mixture in the ratio of 35:65 glycerin to water was used to mimic blood physical properties. Instantaneous flow rate was measured at the interface of the left ventricle and aortic units while pressure was recorded at the ventricular and aortic positions. Bi-leaflet and native valve data from the literature was used to validate flow and pressure readings. The following hydrodynamic metrics were reported: forward flow pressure drop, aortic root mean square forward flow rate, aortic closing, leakage and regurgitant volume, transaortic closing, leakage, and total energy losses. Representative results indicated that hydrodynamic metrics from the three valve groups could be successfully obtained by incorporating a custom-built assembly into a commercially available pulse duplicator system and subsequently, objectively compared to provide insights on functional aspects of polymer valve design.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Cardiovascular Diseases, Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Mechanical Engineering, valve disease, valve replacement, polymer valves, pulse duplicator, modification, tri-leaflet geometries, hydrodynamic studies, relative assessment, medicine, bioengineering, physiology
NADH Fluorescence Imaging of Isolated Biventricular Working Rabbit Hearts
Institutions: The George Washington University, The George Washington University.
Since its inception by Langendorff1
, the isolated perfused heart remains a prominent tool for studying cardiac physiology2
. However, it is not well-suited for studies of cardiac metabolism, which require the heart to perform work within the context of physiologic preload and afterload pressures. Neely introduced modifications to the Langendorff technique to establish appropriate left ventricular (LV) preload and afterload pressures3
. The model is known as the isolated LV working heart model and has been used extensively to study LV performance and metabolism4-6
. This model, however, does not provide a properly loaded right ventricle (RV). Demmy et al
. first reported a biventricular model as a modification of the LV working heart model7, 8
. They found that stroke volume, cardiac output, and pressure development improved in hearts converted from working LV mode to biventricular working mode8
. A properly loaded RV also diminishes abnormal pressure gradients across the septum to improve septal function. Biventricular working hearts have been shown to maintain aortic output, pulmonary flow, mean aortic pressure, heart rate, and myocardial ATP levels for up to 3 hours8
When studying the metabolic effects of myocardial injury, such as ischemia, it is often necessary to identify the location of the affected tissue. This can be done by imaging the fluorescence of NADH (the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)9-11
, a coenzyme found in large quantities in the mitochondria. NADH fluorescence (fNADH) displays a near linearly inverse relationship with local oxygen concentration12
and provides a measure of mitochondrial redox state13
. fNADH imaging during hypoxic and ischemic conditions has been used as a dye-free method to identify hypoxic regions14, 15
and to monitor the progression of hypoxic conditions over time10
The objective of the method is to monitor the mitochondrial redox state of biventricular working hearts during protocols that alter the rate of myocyte metabolism or induce hypoxia or create a combination of the two. Hearts from New Zealand white rabbits were connected to a biventricular working heart system (Hugo Sachs Elektronik) and perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution16
at 37 °C. Aortic, LV, pulmonary artery, and left & right atrial pressures were recorded. Electrical activity was measured using a monophasic action potential electrode. To image fNADH, light from a mercury lamp was filtered (350±25 nm) and used to illuminate the epicardium. Emitted light was filtered (460±20 nm) and imaged using a CCD camera. Changes in the epicardial fNADH of biventricular working hearts during different pacing rates are presented. The combination of the heart model and fNADH imaging provides a new and valuable experimental tool for studying acute cardiac pathologies within the context of realistic physiological conditions.
Medicine, Issue 65, Physiology, cardiology, cardiac physiology, fluorescence, imaging, NADH, working, rabbit, heart
Aortic Ring Assay
Institutions: Ben-Gurion University.
Angiogenesis, the sprouting of blood vessels from preexisting vasculature is associated with both natural and pathological processes. Various angiogenesis assays involve the study of individual endothelial cells in culture conditions (1). The aortic ring assay is an angiogenesis model that is based on organ culture. In this assay, angiogenic vessels grow from a segment of the aorta (modified from (2)). Briefly, mouse thoracic aorta is excised, the fat layer and adventitia are removed, and rings approximately 1 mm in length are prepared. Individual rings are then embedded in a small solid dome of basement matrix extract (BME), cast inside individual wells of a 48-well plate. Angiogenic factors and inhibitors of angiogenesis can be directly added to the rings, and a mixed co-culture of aortic rings and other cell types can be employed for the study of paracrine angiogenic effects. Sprouting is observed by inspection under a stereomicroscope over a period of 6-12 days. Due to the large variation caused by the irregularities in the aortic segments, experimentation in 6-plicates is strongly advised. Neovessel outgrowth is monitored throughout the experiment and imaged using phase microscopy, and supernatants are collected for measurement of relevant angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, cell death markers and nitrite.
Medicine, Issue 33, aortic rings, angiogenesis, blood vessels, aorta, mouse, vessel outgrowth
Imaging In-Stent Restenosis: An Inexpensive, Reliable, and Rapid Preclinical Model
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Preclinical models of restenosis are essential to unravel the pathophysiological processes that lead to in-stent restenosis and to optimize existing and future drug-eluting stents.
A variety of antibodies and transgenic and knockout strains are available in rats. Consequently, a model for in-stent restenosis in the rat would be convenient for pathobiological and pathophysiological studies.
In this video, we present the full procedure and pit-falls of a rat stent model suitable for high throughput stent research. We will show the surgical procedure of stent deployment, and the assessment of in-stent restenosis using the most elegant technique of OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography). This technique provides high accuracy in assessing plaque CSAs (cross section areas) and correlates well with histological sections, which require special and time consuming embedding and sectioning techniques. OCT imaging further allows longitudinal monitoring of the development of in-stent restenosis within the same animal compared to one-time snapshots using histology.
Medicine, Issue 31, stent, rats, restenosis, OCT, imaging