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Initiation of an inflammatory response in resident intestinal lamina propria cells -use of a human organ culture model.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis) revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease.
Authors: Vijay Morampudi, Ganive Bhinder, Xiujuan Wu, Chuanbin Dai, Ho Pan Sham, Bruce A. Vallance, Kevan Jacobson.
Published: 02-27-2014
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), including Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, have long been associated with a genetic basis, and more recently host immune responses to microbial and environmental agents. Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis allows one to study the pathogenesis of IBD associated environmental triggers such as stress and diet, the effects of potential therapies, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury. In this paper, we investigated the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the colonic mucosal inflammatory response to DNBS-induced colitis in rats. All rats were fed identical diets with the exception of different types of fatty acids [safflower oil (SO), canola oil (CO), or fish oil (FO)] for three weeks prior to exposure to intrarectal DNBS. Control rats given intrarectal ethanol continued gaining weight over the 5 day study, whereas, DNBS-treated rats fed lipid diets all lost weight with FO and CO fed rats demonstrating significant weight loss by 48 hr and rats fed SO by 72 hr. Weight gain resumed after 72 hr post DNBS, and by 5 days post DNBS, the FO group had a higher body weight than SO or CO groups. Colonic sections collected 5 days post DNBS-treatment showed focal ulceration, crypt destruction, goblet cell depletion, and mucosal infiltration of both acute and chronic inflammatory cells that differed in severity among diet groups. The SO fed group showed the most severe damage followed by the CO, and FO fed groups that showed the mildest degree of tissue injury. Similarly, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker of neutrophil activity was significantly higher in SO followed by CO fed rats, with FO fed rats having significantly lower MPO activity. These results demonstrate the use of DNBS-induced colitis, as outlined in this protocol, to determine the impact of diet in the pathogenesis of IBD.
19 Related JoVE Articles!
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A Mouse Model for Pathogen-induced Chronic Inflammation at Local and Systemic Sites
Authors: George Papadopoulos, Carolyn D. Kramer, Connie S. Slocum, Ellen O. Weinberg, Ning Hua, Cynthia V. Gudino, James A. Hamilton, Caroline A. Genco.
Institutions: Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine.
Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccination and pharmacological intervention.
Immunology, Issue 90, Pathogen-Induced Chronic Inflammation; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Oral Bone Loss; Periodontal Disease; Atherosclerosis; Chronic Inflammation; Host-Pathogen Interaction; microCT; MRI
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Modeling Mucosal Candidiasis in Larval Zebrafish by Swimbladder Injection
Authors: Remi L. Gratacap, Audrey C. Bergeron, Robert T. Wheeler.
Institutions: University of Maine, University of Maine.
Early defense against mucosal pathogens consists of both an epithelial barrier and innate immune cells. The immunocompetency of both, and their intercommunication, are paramount for the protection against infections. The interactions of epithelial and innate immune cells with a pathogen are best investigated in vivo, where complex behavior unfolds over time and space. However, existing models do not allow for easy spatio-temporal imaging of the battle with pathogens at the mucosal level. The model developed here creates a mucosal infection by direct injection of the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, into the swimbladder of juvenile zebrafish. The resulting infection enables high-resolution imaging of epithelial and innate immune cell behavior throughout the development of mucosal disease. The versatility of this method allows for interrogation of the host to probe the detailed sequence of immune events leading to phagocyte recruitment and to examine the roles of particular cell types and molecular pathways in protection. In addition, the behavior of the pathogen as a function of immune attack can be imaged simultaneously by using fluorescent protein-expressing C. albicans. Increased spatial resolution of the host-pathogen interaction is also possible using the described rapid swimbladder dissection technique. The mucosal infection model described here is straightforward and highly reproducible, making it a valuable tool for the study of mucosal candidiasis. This system may also be broadly translatable to other mucosal pathogens such as mycobacterial, bacterial or viral microbes that normally infect through epithelial surfaces.
Immunology, Issue 93, Zebrafish, mucosal candidiasis, mucosal infection, epithelial barrier, epithelial cells, innate immunity, swimbladder, Candida albicans, in vivo.
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Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Authors: Yves Molino, Françoise Jabès, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Nicolas Gaudin, Michel Khrestchatisky.
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2 on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3 cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
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Functional Assessment of Intestinal Motility and Gut Wall Inflammation in Rodents: Analyses in a Standardized Model of Intestinal Manipulation
Authors: Tim O. Vilz, Marcus Overhaus, Burkhard Stoffels, Martin von Websky, Joerg C. Kalff, Sven Wehner.
Institutions: University of Bonn.
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract is a common reason for a variety of human diseases. Animal research models are critical in investigating the complex cellular and molecular of intestinal pathology. Although the tunica mucosa is often the organ of interest in many inflammatory diseases, recent works demonstrated that the muscularis externa (ME) is also a highly immunocompetent organ that harbours a dense network of resident immunocytes.1,2 These works were performed within the standardized model of intestinal manipulation (IM) that leads to inflammation of the bowel wall, mainly limited to the ME. Clinically this inflammation leads to prolonged intestinal dysmotility, known as postoperative ileus (POI) which is a frequent and unavoidable complication after abdominal surgery.3 The inflammation is characterized by liberation of proinflammatory mediators such as IL-64 or IL-1β or inhibitory neurotransmitters like nitric oxide (NO).5 Subsequently, tremendous numbers of immunocytes extravasate into the ME, dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and monocytes and finally maintain POI.2 Lasting for days, this intestinal paralysis leads to an increased risk of aspiration, bacterial translocation and infectious complications up to sepsis and multi organ failure and causes a high economic burden.6 In this manuscript we demonstrate the standardized model of IM and in vivo assessment of gastrointestinal transit (GIT) and colonic transit. Furthermore we demonstrate a method for separation of the ME from the tunica mucosa followed by immunological analysis, which is crucial to distinguish between the inflammatory responses in these both highly immunoactive bowel wall compartments. All analyses are easily transferable to any other research models, affecting gastrointestinal function.
Medicine, Issue 67, Immunology, Anatomy, Physiology, intestinal manipulation, muscularis externa, intestinal inflammation, postoperative ileus, gastrointestinal transit, gut wall
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Gastrointestinal Motility Monitor (GIMM)
Authors: Jill M. Hoffman, Elice M. Brooks, Gary M. Mawe.
Institutions: The University of Vermont.
The Gastrointestinal Motility Monitor (GIMM; Catamount Research and Development; St. Albans, VT) is an in vitro system that monitors propulsive motility in isolated segments of guinea pig distal colon. The complete system consists of a computer, video camera, illuminated organ bath, peristaltic and heated water bath circulating pumps, and custom GIMM software to record and analyze data. Compared with traditional methods of monitoring colonic peristalsis, the GIMM system allows for continuous, quantitative evaluation of motility. The guinea pig distal colon is bathed in warmed, oxygenated Krebs solution, and fecal pellets inserted in the oral end are propelled along the segment of colon at a rate of about 2 mm/sec. Movies of the fecal pellet proceeding along the segment are captured, and the GIMM software can be used track the progress of the fecal pellet. Rates of propulsive motility can be obtained for the entire segment or for any particular region of interest. In addition to analysis of bolus-induced motility patterns, spatiotemporal maps can be constructed from captured video segments to assess spontaneous motor activity patterns. Applications of this system include pharmacological evaluation of the effects of receptor agonists and antagonists on propulsive motility, as well as assessment of changes that result from pathophysiological conditions, such as inflammation or stress. The guinea pig distal colon propulsive motility assay, using the GIMM system, is straightforward and simple to learn, and it provides a reliable and reproducible method of assessing propulsive motility.
Medicine, Issue 46, peristalsis, colon, in vitro, video tracking, video analysis, GIMM, guinea pig,
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Isolation of Primary Myofibroblasts from Mouse and Human Colon Tissue
Authors: Hassan Khalil, Wenxian Nie, Robert A Edwards, James Yoo.
Institutions: UCLA, UC Irvine.
The myofibroblast is a stromal cell of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that has been gaining considerable attention for its critical role in many GI functions. While several myofibroblast cell lines are commercially available to study these cells in vitro, research results from a cell line exposed to experimental cell culture conditions have inherent limitations due to the overly reductionist nature of the work. Use of primary myofibroblasts offers a great advantage in terms of confirming experimental findings identified in a cell line. Isolation of primary myofibroblasts from an animal model allows for the study of myofibroblasts under conditions that more closely mimic the disease state being studied. Isolation of primary myofibroblasts from human colon tissue provides arguably the most relevant experimental data, since the cells come directly from patients with the underlying disease. We describe a well-established technique that can be utilized to isolate primary myofibroblasts from both mouse and human colon tissue. These isolated cells have been characterized to be alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin-positive, and desmin-negative, consistent with subepithelial intestinal myofibroblasts. Primary myofibroblast cells can be grown in cell culture and used for experimental purposes over a limited number of passages.
Cellular Biology, Issue 80, Myofibroblasts, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Gastrointestinal Tract, stroma, colon, primary cells
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Oral Transmission of Listeria monocytogenes in Mice via Ingestion of Contaminated Food
Authors: Elsa N. Bou Ghanem, Tanya Myers-Morales, Grant S. Jones, Sarah E.F. D'Orazio.
Institutions: University of Kentucky .
L. monocytogenes are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause food borne infections in humans. Very little is known about the gastrointestinal phase of listeriosis due to the lack of a small animal model that closely mimics human disease. This paper describes a novel mouse model for oral transmission of L. monocytogenes. Using this model, mice fed L. monocytogenes-contaminated bread have a discrete phase of gastrointestinal infection, followed by varying degrees of systemic spread in susceptible (BALB/c/By/J) or resistant (C57BL/6) mouse strains. During the later stages of the infection, dissemination to the gall bladder and brain is observed. The food borne model of listeriosis is highly reproducible, does not require specialized skills, and can be used with a wide variety of bacterial isolates and laboratory mouse strains. As such, it is the ideal model to study both virulence strategies used by L. monocytogenes to promote intestinal colonization, as well as the host response to invasive food borne bacterial infection.
Infection, Issue 75, Microbiology, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Surgery, Listeria, animal models, Bacteria, intestines, food borne pathogen, L. monocytogenes, bacterial pathogens, inoculation, isolation, cell culture, mice, animal model
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Optical Frequency Domain Imaging of Ex vivo Pulmonary Resection Specimens: Obtaining One to One Image to Histopathology Correlation
Authors: Lida P. Hariri, Matthew B. Applegate, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Eugene J. Mark, Brett E. Bouma, Guillermo J. Tearney, Melissa J. Suter.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths1. Squamous cell and small cell cancers typically arise in association with the conducting airways, whereas adenocarcinomas are typically more peripheral in location. Lung malignancy detection early in the disease process may be difficult due to several limitations: radiological resolution, bronchoscopic limitations in evaluating tissue underlying the airway mucosa and identifying early pathologic changes, and small sample size and/or incomplete sampling in histology biopsies. High resolution imaging modalities, such as optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), provide non-destructive, large area 3-dimensional views of tissue microstructure to depths approaching 2 mm in real time (Figure 1)2-6. OFDI has been utilized in a variety of applications, including evaluation of coronary artery atherosclerosis6,7 and esophageal intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia6,8-10. Bronchoscopic OCT/OFDI has been demonstrated as a safe in vivo imaging tool for evaluating the pulmonary airways11-23 (Animation). OCT has been assessed in pulmonary airways16,23 and parenchyma17,22 of animal models and in vivo human airway14,15. OCT imaging of normal airway has demonstrated visualization of airway layering and alveolar attachments, and evaluation of dysplastic lesions has been found useful in distinguishing grades of dysplasia in the bronchial mucosa11,12,20,21. OFDI imaging of bronchial mucosa has been demonstrated in a short bronchial segment (0.8 cm)18. Additionally, volumetric OFDI spanning multiple airway generations in swine and human pulmonary airways in vivo has been described19. Endobronchial OCT/OFDI is typically performed using thin, flexible catheters, which are compatible with standard bronchoscopic access ports. Additionally, OCT and OFDI needle-based probes have recently been developed, which may be used to image regions of the lung beyond the airway wall or pleural surface17. While OCT/OFDI has been utilized and demonstrated as feasible for in vivo pulmonary imaging, no studies with precisely matched one-to-one OFDI:histology have been performed. Therefore, specific imaging criteria for various pulmonary pathologies have yet to be developed. Histopathological counterparts obtained in vivo consist of only small biopsy fragments, which are difficult to correlate with large OFDI datasets. Additionally, they do not provide the comprehensive histology needed for registration with large volume OFDI. As a result, specific imaging features of pulmonary pathology cannot be developed in the in vivo setting. Precisely matched, one-to-one OFDI and histology correlation is vital to accurately evaluate features seen in OFDI against histology as a gold standard in order to derive specific image interpretation criteria for pulmonary neoplasms and other pulmonary pathologies. Once specific imaging criteria have been developed and validated ex vivo with matched one-to-one histology, the criteria may then be applied to in vivo imaging studies. Here, we present a method for precise, one to one correlation between high resolution optical imaging and histology in ex vivo lung resection specimens. Throughout this manuscript, we describe the techniques used to match OFDI images to histology. However, this method is not specific to OFDI and can be used to obtain histology-registered images for any optical imaging technique. We performed airway centered OFDI with a specialized custom built bronchoscopic 2.4 French (0.8 mm diameter) catheter. Tissue samples were marked with tissue dye, visible in both OFDI and histology. Careful orientation procedures were used to precisely correlate imaging and histological sampling locations. The techniques outlined in this manuscript were used to conduct the first demonstration of volumetric OFDI with precise correlation to tissue-based diagnosis for evaluating pulmonary pathology24. This straightforward, effective technique may be extended to other tissue types to provide precise imaging to histology correlation needed to determine fine imaging features of both normal and diseased tissues.
Bioengineering, Issue 71, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Cancer Biology, Pathology, Surgery, Bronchoscopic imaging, In vivo optical microscopy, Optical imaging, Optical coherence tomography, Optical frequency domain imaging, Histology correlation, animal model, histopathology, airway, lung, biopsy, imaging
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Murine Endoscopy for In Vivo Multimodal Imaging of Carcinogenesis and Assessment of Intestinal Wound Healing and Inflammation
Authors: Markus Brückner, Philipp Lenz, Tobias M. Nowacki, Friederike Pott, Dirk Foell, Dominik Bettenworth.
Institutions: University Hospital Münster, University Children's Hospital Münster.
Mouse models are widely used to study pathogenesis of human diseases and to evaluate diagnostic procedures as well as therapeutic interventions preclinically. However, valid assessment of pathological alterations often requires histological analysis, and when performed ex vivo, necessitates death of the animal. Therefore in conventional experimental settings, intra-individual follow-up examinations are rarely possible. Thus, development of murine endoscopy in live mice enables investigators for the first time to both directly visualize the gastrointestinal mucosa and also repeat the procedure to monitor for alterations. Numerous applications for in vivo murine endoscopy exist, including studying intestinal inflammation or wound healing, obtaining mucosal biopsies repeatedly, and to locally administer diagnostic or therapeutic agents using miniature injection catheters. Most recently, molecular imaging has extended diagnostic imaging modalities allowing specific detection of distinct target molecules using specific photoprobes. In conclusion, murine endoscopy has emerged as a novel cutting-edge technology for diagnostic experimental in vivo imaging and may significantly impact on preclinical research in various fields.
Medicine, Issue 90, gastroenterology, in vivo imaging, murine endoscopy, diagnostic imaging, carcinogenesis, intestinal wound healing, experimental colitis
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Flexible Colonoscopy in Mice to Evaluate the Severity of Colitis and Colorectal Tumors Using a Validated Endoscopic Scoring System
Authors: Tomohiro Kodani, Alex Rodriguez-Palacios, Daniele Corridoni, Loris Lopetuso, Luca Di Martino, Brian Marks, James Pizarro, Theresa Pizarro, Amitabh Chak, Fabio Cominelli.
Institutions: Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland.
The use of modern endoscopy for research purposes has greatly facilitated our understanding of gastrointestinal pathologies. In particular, experimental endoscopy has been highly useful for studies that require repeated assessments in a single laboratory animal, such as those evaluating mechanisms of chronic inflammatory bowel disease and the progression of colorectal cancer. However, the methods used across studies are highly variable. At least three endoscopic scoring systems have been published for murine colitis and published protocols for the assessment of colorectal tumors fail to address the presence of concomitant colonic inflammation. This study develops and validates a reproducible endoscopic scoring system that integrates evaluation of both inflammation and tumors simultaneously. This novel scoring system has three major components: 1) assessment of the extent and severity of colorectal inflammation (based on perianal findings, transparency of the wall, mucosal bleeding, and focal lesions), 2) quantitative recording of tumor lesions (grid map and bar graph), and 3) numerical sorting of clinical cases by their pathological and research relevance based on decimal units with assigned categories of observed lesions and endoscopic complications (decimal identifiers). The video and manuscript presented herein were prepared, following IACUC-approved protocols, to allow investigators to score their own experimental mice using a well-validated and highly reproducible endoscopic methodology, with the system option to differentiate distal from proximal endoscopic colitis (D-PECS).
Medicine, Issue 80, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, colon cancer, Clostridium difficile, SAMP mice, DSS/AOM-colitis, decimal scoring identifier
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The Citrobacter rodentium Mouse Model: Studying Pathogen and Host Contributions to Infectious Colitis
Authors: Ganive Bhinder, Ho Pan Sham, Justin M. Chan, Vijay Morampudi, Kevan Jacobson, Bruce A. Vallance.
Institutions: BC Children's Hospital.
This protocol outlines the steps required to produce a robust model of infectious disease and colitis, as well as the methods used to characterize Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice. C. rodentium is a gram negative, murine specific bacterial pathogen that is closely related to the clinically important human pathogens enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Upon infection with C. rodentium, immunocompetent mice suffer from modest and transient weight loss and diarrhea. Histologically, intestinal crypt elongation, immune cell infiltration, and goblet cell depletion are observed. Clearance of infection is achieved after 3 to 4 weeks. Measurement of intestinal epithelial barrier integrity, bacterial load, and histological damage at different time points after infection, allow the characterization of mouse strains susceptible to infection. The virulence mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens colonize the intestinal tract of their hosts, as well as specific host responses that defend against such infections are poorly understood. Therefore the C. rodentium model of enteric bacterial infection serves as a valuable tool to aid in our understanding of these processes. Enteric bacteria have also been linked to Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs). It has been hypothesized that the maladaptive chronic inflammatory responses seen in IBD patients develop in genetically susceptible individuals following abnormal exposure of the intestinal mucosal immune system to enteric bacteria. Therefore, the study of models of infectious colitis offers significant potential for defining potentially pathogenic host responses to enteric bacteria. C. rodentium induced colitis is one such rare model that allows for the analysis of host responses to enteric bacteria, furthering our understanding of potential mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis; essential in the development of novel preventative and therapeutic treatments.
Infection, Issue 72, Immunology, Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Microbiology, Gastrointestinal Tract, Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections, Colitis, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Infectious colitis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, colitis, hyperplasia, immunostaining, epithelial barrier integrity, FITC-dextran, oral gavage, mouse, animal model
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Investigating Intestinal Inflammation in DSS-induced Model of IBD
Authors: Janice J. Kim, Md. Sharif Shajib, Marcus M. Manocha, Waliul I. Khan.
Institutions: McMaster University .
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) encompasses a range of intestinal pathologies, the most common of which are ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD). Both UC and CD, when present in the colon, generate a similar symptom profile which can include diarrhea, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, and weight loss.1 Although the pathogenesis of IBD remains unknown, it is described as a multifactorial disease that involves both genetic and environmental components.2 There are numerous and variable animal models of colonic inflammation that resemble several features of IBD. Animal models of colitis range from those arising spontaneously in susceptible strains of certain species to those requiring administration of specific concentrations of colitis-inducing chemicals, such as dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Chemical-induced models of gut inflammation are the most commonly used and best described models of IBD. Administration of DSS in drinking water produces acute or chronic colitis depending on the administration protocol.3 Animals given DSS exhibit weight loss and signs of loose stool or diarrhea, sometimes with evidence of rectal bleeding.4,5 Here, we describe the methods by which colitis development and the resulting inflammatory response can be characterized following administration of DSS. These methods include histological analysis of hematoxylin/eosin stained colon sections, measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, which can be used as a surrogate marker of inflammation.6 The extent of the inflammatory response in disease state can be assessed by the presence of clinical symptoms or by alteration in histology in mucosal tissue. Colonic histological damage is assessed by using a scoring system that considers loss of crypt architecture, inflammatory cell infiltration, muscle thickening, goblet cell depletion, and crypt abscess.7 Quantitatively, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines with acute inflammatory properties, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α,can be determined using conventional ELISA methods. In addition, MPO activity can be measured using a colorimetric assay and used as an index of inflammation.8 In experimental colitis, disease severity is often correlated with an increase in MPO activity and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Colitis severity and inflammation-associated damage can be assessed by examining stool consistency and bleeding, in addition to assessing the histopathological state of the intestine using hematoxylin/eosin stained colonic tissue sections. Colonic tissue fragments can be used to determine MPO activity and cytokine production. Taken together, these measures can be used to evaluate the intestinal inflammatory response in animal models of experimental colitis.
Medicine, Issue 60, inflammation, myeloperoxidase (MPO), acute colonic damage, granulocyte, colon, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), neutrophil
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In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration
Authors: Mark E. Kusek, Michael A. Pazos, Waheed Pirzai, Bryan P. Hurley.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, MGH for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Mucosal surfaces serve as protective barriers against pathogenic organisms. Innate immune responses are activated upon sensing pathogen leading to the infiltration of tissues with migrating inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. This process has the potential to be destructive to tissues if excessive or held in an unresolved state.  Cocultured in vitro models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. This type of model provides versatility in experimental design with opportunity for controlled manipulation of the pathogen, epithelial barrier, or neutrophil. Pathogenic infection of the apical surface of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable transwell filters instigates physiologically relevant basolateral to apical trans-epithelial migration of neutrophils applied to the basolateral surface. The in vitro model described herein demonstrates the multiple steps necessary for demonstrating neutrophil migration across a polarized lung epithelial monolayer that has been infected with pathogenic P. aeruginosa (PAO1). Seeding and culturing of permeable transwells with human derived lung epithelial cells is described, along with isolation of neutrophils from whole human blood and culturing of PAO1 and nonpathogenic K12 E. coli (MC1000).  The emigrational process and quantitative analysis of successfully migrated neutrophils that have been mobilized in response to pathogenic infection is shown with representative data, including positive and negative controls. This in vitro model system can be manipulated and applied to other mucosal surfaces. Inflammatory responses that involve excessive neutrophil infiltration can be destructive to host tissues and can occur in the absence of pathogenic infections. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote neutrophil trans-epithelial migration through experimental manipulation of the in vitro coculture assay system described herein has significant potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for a range of mucosal infectious as well as inflammatory diseases.
Infection, Issue 83, Cellular Biology, Epithelium, Neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Neutrophils, epithelial barriers, pathogens, transmigration
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Bladder Smooth Muscle Strip Contractility as a Method to Evaluate Lower Urinary Tract Pharmacology
Authors: F. Aura Kullmann, Stephanie L. Daugherty, William C. de Groat, Lori A. Birder.
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
We describe an in vitro method to measure bladder smooth muscle contractility, and its use for investigating physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscle as well as changes induced by pathology. This method provides critical information for understanding bladder function while overcoming major methodological difficulties encountered in in vivo experiments, such as surgical and pharmacological manipulations that affect stability and survival of the preparations, the use of human tissue, and/or the use of expensive chemicals. It also provides a way to investigate the properties of each bladder component (i.e. smooth muscle, mucosa, nerves) in healthy and pathological conditions. The urinary bladder is removed from an anesthetized animal, placed in Krebs solution and cut into strips. Strips are placed into a chamber filled with warm Krebs solution. One end is attached to an isometric tension transducer to measure contraction force, the other end is attached to a fixed rod. Tissue is stimulated by directly adding compounds to the bath or by electric field stimulation electrodes that activate nerves, similar to triggering bladder contractions in vivo. We demonstrate the use of this method to evaluate spontaneous smooth muscle contractility during development and after an experimental spinal cord injury, the nature of neurotransmission (transmitters and receptors involved), factors involved in modulation of smooth muscle activity, the role of individual bladder components, and species and organ differences in response to pharmacological agents. Additionally, it could be used for investigating intracellular pathways involved in contraction and/or relaxation of the smooth muscle, drug structure-activity relationships and evaluation of transmitter release. The in vitro smooth muscle contractility method has been used extensively for over 50 years, and has provided data that significantly contributed to our understanding of bladder function as well as to pharmaceutical development of compounds currently used clinically for bladder management.
Medicine, Issue 90, Krebs, species differences, in vitro, smooth muscle contractility, neural stimulation
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Isolation and Characterization of Dendritic Cells and Macrophages from the Mouse Intestine
Authors: Duke Geem, Oscar Medina-Contreras, Wooki Kim, Clifton S. Huang, Timothy L. Denning.
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
Within the intestine reside unique populations of innate and adaptive immune cells that are involved in promoting tolerance towards commensal flora and food antigens while concomitantly remaining poised to mount inflammatory responses toward invasive pathogens1,2. Antigen presenting cells, particularly DCs and macrophages, play critical roles in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis via their ability to sense and appropriately respond to the microbiota3-14. Efficient isolation of intestinal DCs and macrophages is a critical step in characterizing the phenotype and function of these cells. While many effective methods of isolating intestinal immune cells, including DCs and macrophages, have been described6,10,15-24, many rely upon long digestions times that may negatively influence cell surface antigen expression, cell viability, and/or cell yield. Here, we detail a methodology for the rapid isolation of large numbers of viable, intestinal DCs and macrophages. Phenotypic characterization of intestinal DCs and macrophages is carried out by directly staining isolated intestinal cells with specific fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies for multi-color flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, highly pure DC and macrophage populations are isolated for functional studies utilizing CD11c and CD11b magnetic-activated cell sorting beads followed by cell sorting.
Immunology, Issue 63, intestine, immunology, APCs, dendritic cells, macrophages, cell culture
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A Novel Method for the Culture and Polarized Stimulation of Human Intestinal Mucosa Explants
Authors: Katerina Tsilingiri, Angelica Sonzogni, Flavio Caprioli, Maria Rescigno.
Institutions: European Institute of Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Ospedale Policlinico di Milano.
Few models currently exist to realistically simulate the complex human intestine's micro-environment, where a variety of interactions take place. Proper homeostasis directly depends on these interactions, as they shape an entire immunological response inducing tolerance against food antigens while at the same time mounting effective immune responses against pathogenic microbes accidentally ingested with food. Intestinal homeostasis is preserved also through various complex interactions between the microbiota (including food-associated beneficial bacterial strains) and the host, that regulate the attachment/degradation of mucus, the production of antimicrobial peptides by the epithelial barrier, and the "education" of epithelial cells' that controls the tolerogenic or immunogenic phenotype of unique, gut-resident lymphoid cells' populations. These interactions have been so far very difficult to reproduce with in vitro assays using either cultured cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, mouse models differ substantially in components of the intestinal mucosa (mucus layer organization, commensal bacteria community) with respect to the human gut. Thus, studies of a variety of treatments to be brought in the clinics for important stress-related or pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer have been difficult to carry out. To address these issues, we developed a novel system that enables us to stimulate explants of human intestinal mucosa that retain their in situ conditioning by the host microbiota and immune response, in a polarized fashion. Polarized apical stimulation is of great importance for the outcome of the elicited immune response. It has been repeatedly shown that the same stimuli can produce completely different responses when they bypass the apical face of the intestinal epithelium, stimulating epithelial cells basolaterally or coming into direct contact with lamina propria components, switching the phenotype from tolerogenic to immunogenic and causing unnecessary and excessive inflammation in the area. We achieved polarized stimulation by gluing a cave cylinder which delimited the area of stimulation on the apical face of the mucosa as will be described in the protocol. We used this model to examine, among others, differential effects of three different Lactobacilli strains. We show that this model system is very powerful to assess the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in healthy and disease conditions.
Microbiology, Issue 75, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Bacteria, Tissue Engineering, Tissue culture, intestinal mucosa, polarized stimulation, probiotics, explants, Lactobacilli, microbiota, cell culture
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Isolating Nasal Olfactory Stem Cells from Rodents or Humans
Authors: Stéphane D. Girard, Arnaud Devéze, Emmanuel Nivet, Bruno Gepner, François S. Roman, François Féron.
Institutions: Aix Marseille University, Aix Marseille University, Aix Marseille University, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Aix Marseille University, Aix Marseille University.
The olfactory mucosa, located in the nasal cavity, is in charge of detecting odours. It is also the only nervous tissue that is exposed to the external environment and easily accessible in every living individual. As a result, this tissue is unique for anyone aiming to identify molecular anomalies in the pathological brain or isolate adult stem cells for cell therapy. Molecular abnormalities in brain diseases are often studied using nervous tissue samples collected post-mortem. However, this material has numerous limitations. In contrast, the olfactory mucosa is readily accessible and can be biopsied safely without any loss of sense of smell1. Accordingly, the olfactory mucosa provides an "open window" in the adult human through which one can study developmental (e.g. autism, schizophrenia)2-4 or neurodegenerative (e.g. Parkinson, Alzheimer) diseases4,5. Olfactory mucosa can be used for either comparative molecular studies4,6 or in vitro experiments on neurogenesis3,7. The olfactory epithelium is also a nervous tissue that produces new neurons every day to replace those that are damaged by pollution, bacterial of viral infections. This permanent neurogenesis is sustained by progenitors but also stem cells residing within both compartments of the mucosa, namely the neuroepithelium and the underlying lamina propria8-10. We recently developed a method to purify the adult stem cells located in the lamina propria and, after having demonstrated that they are closely related to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC), we named them olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSC)11. Interestingly, when compared to BM-MSCs, OE-MSCs display a high proliferation rate, an elevated clonogenicity and an inclination to differentiate into neural cells. We took advantage of these characteristics to perform studies dedicated to unveil new candidate genes in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease4. We and others have also shown that OE-MSCs are promising candidates for cell therapy, after a spinal cord trauma12,13, a cochlear damage14 or in an animal models of Parkinson's disease15 or amnesia16. In this study, we present methods to biopsy olfactory mucosa in rats and humans. After collection, the lamina propria is enzymatically separated from the epithelium and stem cells are purified using an enzymatic or a non-enzymatic method. Purified olfactory stem cells can then be either grown in large numbers and banked in liquid nitrogen or induced to form spheres or differentiated into neural cells. These stem cells can also be used for comparative omics (genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, proteomic) studies.
Neuroscience, Issue 54, stem cell, nose, brain, neuron, cell therapy, diagnosis, sphere
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Depletion and Reconstitution of Macrophages in Mice
Authors: Shelley B. Weisser, Nico van Rooijen, Laura M. Sly.
Institutions: University of British Columbia , Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, University of British Columbia .
Macrophages are critical players in the innate immune response to infectious challenge or injury, initiating the innate immune response and directing the acquired immune response. Macrophage dysfunction can lead to an inability to mount an appropriate immune response and as such, has been implicated in many disease processes, including inflammatory bowel diseases. Macrophages display polarized phenotypes that are broadly divided into two categories. Classically activated macrophages, activated by stimulation with IFNγ or LPS, play an essential role in response to bacterial challenge whereas alternatively activated macrophages, activated by IL-4 or IL-13, participate in debris scavenging and tissue remodeling and have been implicated in the resolution phase of inflammation. During an inflammatory response in vivo, macrophages are found amid a complex mixture of infiltrating immune cells and may participate by exacerbating or resolving inflammation. To define the role of macrophages in situ in a whole animal model, it is necessary to examine the effect of depleting macrophages from the complex environment. To ask questions about the role of macrophage phenotype in situ, phenotypically defined polarized macrophages can be derived ex vivo, from bone marrow aspirates and added back to mice, with or without prior depletion of macrophages. In the protocol presented here clodronate-containing liposomes, versus PBS injected controls, were used to deplete colonic macrophages during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In addition, polarized macrophages were derived ex vivo and transferred to mice by intravenous injection. A caveat to this approach is that clodronate-containing liposomes deplete all professional phagocytes, including both dendritic cells and macrophages so to ensure the effect observed by depletion is macrophage-specific, reconstitution of phenotype by adoptive transfer of macrophages is necessary. Systemic macrophage depletion in mice can also be achieved by backcrossing mice onto a CD11b-DTR background, which is an excellent complementary approach. The advantage of clodronate-containing liposome-mediated depletion is that it does not require the time and expense involved in backcrossing mice and it can be used in mice regardless of the background of the mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c, or mixed background).
Immunology, Issue 66, Molecular Biology, macrophages, clodronate-containing liposomes, macrophage depletion, macrophage derivation, macrophage reconstitution
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Synthetic, Multi-Layer, Self-Oscillating Vocal Fold Model Fabrication
Authors: Preston R. Murray, Scott L. Thomson.
Institutions: Brigham Young University.
Sound for the human voice is produced via flow-induced vocal fold vibration. The vocal folds consist of several layers of tissue, each with differing material properties 1. Normal voice production relies on healthy tissue and vocal folds, and occurs as a result of complex coupling between aerodynamic, structural dynamic, and acoustic physical phenomena. Voice disorders affect up to 7.5 million annually in the United States alone 2 and often result in significant financial, social, and other quality-of-life difficulties. Understanding the physics of voice production has the potential to significantly benefit voice care, including clinical prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of voice disorders. Existing methods for studying voice production include in vivo experimentation using human and animal subjects, in vitro experimentation using excised larynges and synthetic models, and computational modeling. Owing to hazardous and difficult instrument access, in vivo experiments are severely limited in scope. Excised larynx experiments have the benefit of anatomical and some physiological realism, but parametric studies involving geometric and material property variables are limited. Further, they are typically only able to be vibrated for relatively short periods of time (typically on the order of minutes). Overcoming some of the limitations of excised larynx experiments, synthetic vocal fold models are emerging as a complementary tool for studying voice production. Synthetic models can be fabricated with systematic changes to geometry and material properties, allowing for the study of healthy and unhealthy human phonatory aerodynamics, structural dynamics, and acoustics. For example, they have been used to study left-right vocal fold asymmetry 3,4, clinical instrument development 5, laryngeal aerodynamics 6-9, vocal fold contact pressure 10, and subglottal acoustics 11 (a more comprehensive list can be found in Kniesburges et al. 12) Existing synthetic vocal fold models, however, have either been homogenous (one-layer models) or have been fabricated using two materials of differing stiffness (two-layer models). This approach does not allow for representation of the actual multi-layer structure of the human vocal folds 1 that plays a central role in governing vocal fold flow-induced vibratory response. Consequently, one- and two-layer synthetic vocal fold models have exhibited disadvantages 3,6,8 such as higher onset pressures than what are typical for human phonation (onset pressure is the minimum lung pressure required to initiate vibration), unnaturally large inferior-superior motion, and lack of a "mucosal wave" (a vertically-traveling wave that is characteristic of healthy human vocal fold vibration). In this paper, fabrication of a model with multiple layers of differing material properties is described. The model layers simulate the multi-layer structure of the human vocal folds, including epithelium, superficial lamina propria (SLP), intermediate and deep lamina propria (i.e., ligament; a fiber is included for anterior-posterior stiffness), and muscle (i.e., body) layers 1. Results are included that show that the model exhibits improved vibratory characteristics over prior one- and two-layer synthetic models, including onset pressure closer to human onset pressure, reduced inferior-superior motion, and evidence of a mucosal wave.
Bioengineering, Issue 58, Vocal folds, larynx, voice, speech, artificial biomechanical models
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