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A novel p. Gly630Ser mutation of COL2A1 in a Chinese family with presentations of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease or avascular necrosis of the femoral head.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Mutations in the type II collagen gene are associated with certain human disorders, collectively termed type II collagenopathies. They include Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). These two diseases are skeletal dysplasias, inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, characterized by groin pain, dislocation of the hip and diminished joint mobility. Coxa vara and elevation of the greater trochanter of the femur comprise the typical phenotype of LCPD, but do not occur in ANFH. Lack of synthesis of type II collagen and structural defects are responsible for the major clinical outcomes, because collagen is the essential matrix protein of all connective tissues. Type II collagen, encoded by the COL2A1 gene, contains N- and C- terminal regions that are cleaved after secretion into the extracellular matrix, and the core area is composed of a triple helical (Gly-X-Y) domain. If the Gly in this specific region is replaced by other amino acids, the structure of type II collagen will be destroyed.
Authors: Yang Li, Catherine A. Foss, Martin G. Pomper, S. Michael Yu.
Published: 01-31-2014
Collagen is a major structural component of the extracellular matrix that supports tissue formation and maintenance. Although collagen remodeling is an integral part of normal tissue renewal, excessive amount of remodeling activity is involved in tumors, arthritis, and many other pathological conditions. During collagen remodeling, the triple helical structure of collagen molecules is disrupted by proteases in the extracellular environment. In addition, collagens present in many histological tissue samples are partially denatured by the fixation and preservation processes. Therefore, these denatured collagen strands can serve as effective targets for biological imaging. We previously developed a caged collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) that can be photo-triggered to hybridize with denatured collagen strands by forming triple helical structure, which is unique to collagens. The overall goals of this procedure are i) to image denatured collagen strands resulting from normal remodeling activities in vivo, and ii) to visualize collagens in ex vivo tissue sections using the photo-triggered caged CMPs. To achieve effective hybridization and successful in vivo and ex vivo imaging, fluorescently labeled caged CMPs are either photo-activated immediately before intravenous injection, or are directly activated on tissue sections. Normal skeletal collagen remolding in nude mice and collagens in prefixed mouse cornea tissue sections are imaged in this procedure. The imaging method based on the CMP-collagen hybridization technology presented here could lead to deeper understanding of the tissue remodeling process, as well as allow development of new diagnostics for diseases associated with high collagen remodeling activity.
24 Related JoVE Articles!
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Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation Under Flow using Microfluidic Flow Cells
Authors: Carolyn G. Conant, Michael A. Schwartz, Tanner Nevill, Cristian Ionescu-Zanetti.
Institutions: Fluxion Biosciences, Inc..
Platelet aggregation occurs in response to vascular injury where the extracellular matrix below the endothelium has been exposed. The platelet adhesion cascade takes place in the presence of shear flow, a factor not accounted for in conventional (static) well-plate assays. This article reports on a platelet-aggregation assay utilizing a microfluidic well-plate format to emulate physiological shear flow conditions. Extracellular proteins, collagen I or von Willebrand factor are deposited within the microfluidic channel using active perfusion with a pneumatic pump. The matrix proteins are then washed with buffer and blocked to prepare the microfluidic channel for platelet interactions. Whole blood labeled with fluorescent dye is perfused through the channel at various flow rates in order to achieve platelet activation and aggregation. Inhibitors of platelet aggregation can be added prior to the flow cell experiment to generate IC50 dose response data.
Medicine, Issue 32, thrombus formation, anti-thrombotic, microfluidic, whole blood assay, IC50, drug screening, platelet, adhesion
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Engineering Fibrin-based Tissue Constructs from Myofibroblasts and Application of Constraints and Strain to Induce Cell and Collagen Reorganization
Authors: Nicky de Jonge, Frank P. T. Baaijens, Carlijn V. C. Bouten.
Institutions: Eindhoven University of Technology.
Collagen content and organization in developing collagenous tissues can be influenced by local tissue strains and tissue constraint. Tissue engineers aim to use these principles to create tissues with predefined collagen architectures. A full understanding of the exact underlying processes of collagen remodeling to control the final tissue architecture, however, is lacking. In particular, little is known about the (re)orientation of collagen fibers in response to changes in tissue mechanical loading conditions. We developed an in vitro model system, consisting of biaxially-constrained myofibroblast-seeded fibrin constructs, to further elucidate collagen (re)orientation in response to i) reverting biaxial to uniaxial static loading conditions and ii) cyclic uniaxial loading of the biaxially-constrained constructs before and after a change in loading direction, with use of the Flexcell FX4000T loading device. Time-lapse confocal imaging is used to visualize collagen (re)orientation in a nondestructive manner. Cell and collagen organization in the constructs can be visualized in real-time, and an internal reference system allows us to relocate cells and collagen structures for time-lapse analysis. Various aspects of the model system can be adjusted, like cell source or use of healthy and diseased cells. Additives can be used to further elucidate mechanisms underlying collagen remodeling, by for example adding MMPs or blocking integrins. Shape and size of the construct can be easily adapted to specific needs, resulting in a highly tunable model system to study cell and collagen (re)organization.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Connective Tissue, Myofibroblasts, Heart Valves, Heart Valve Diseases, Mechanotransduction, Cellular, Adaptation, Biological, Cellular Microenvironment, collagen remodeling, fibrin-based tissues, tissue engineering, cardiovascular
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Isolation and Culture of Avian Embryonic Valvular Progenitor Cells
Authors: Gretchen Mahler, Russell Gould, Johnathan Butcher.
Institutions: Cornell University.
Proper formation and function of embryonic heart valves is critical for developmental progression. The early embryonic heart is a U-shaped tube of endocardium surrounded by myocardium. The myocardium secretes cardiac jelly, a hyaluronan-rich gelatinous matrix, into the atrioventricular (AV) junction and outflow tract (OFT) lumen. At stage HH14 valvulogenesis begins when a subset of endocardial cells receive signals from the myocardium, undergo endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT), and invade the cardiac jelly. At stage HH25 the valvular cushions are fully mesenchymalized, and it is this mesenchyme that eventually forms the valvular and septal apparatus of the heart. Understanding the mechanisms that initiate and modulate the process of EMT and cell differentiation are important because of their connection to serious congenital heart defects. In this study we present methods to isolate pre-EMT endocardial and post-EMT mesenchymal cells, which are the two different cell phenotypes of the prevalvular cushion. Pre-EMT endocardial cells can be cultured with or without the myocardium. Post-EMT AV cushion mesenchymal cells can be cultured inside mechanically constrained or stress-free collagen gels. These 3D in vitro models mimic key valvular morphogenic events and are useful for deconstructing the mechanisms of early and late stage valvulogenesis.
Developmental Biology, Issue 44, quail, chicken, HH14-, HH25, endocardial, explant, mesenchymal, cushion, valve progenitor
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Peptides from Phage Display Library Modulate Gene Expression in Mesenchymal Cells and Potentiate Osteogenesis in Unicortical Bone Defects
Authors: Gary Balian, Gina Beck, Vedavathi Madhu, Robert Sikes, Quanjun Cui, Haixiang Liang, Joshua Bush.
Institutions: University of Virginia, University of Delaware, University of Virginia.
Two novel synthetic peptides accelerate bone formation and can be delivered using a collagen matrix. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on bone repair in a unicortical defect model. Treatment of mesenchymal cells produced an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, showed nodule formation by the cells, and increased the expression of genes for runx2, osterix, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin. A collagen sponge soaked with peptide promoted repair of bone defects, whereas the control was less effective. The results from this study demonstrated that mesenchymal cells treated with peptide in vitro differentiate towards osteogenesis, and, that peptides delivered in vivo using a collagen sponge promote the repair of unicortical defects.
Cellular Biology, Issue 46, osteogenesis, peptide, bone repair, anabolic effect
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Measuring Ascending Aortic Stiffness In Vivo in Mice Using Ultrasound
Authors: Maggie M. Kuo, Viachaslau Barodka, Theodore P. Abraham, Jochen Steppan, Artin A. Shoukas, Mark Butlin, Alberto Avolio, Dan E. Berkowitz, Lakshmi Santhanam.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins University, Macquarie University.
We present a protocol for measuring in vivo aortic stiffness in mice using high-resolution ultrasound imaging. Aortic diameter is measured by ultrasound and aortic blood pressure is measured invasively with a solid-state pressure catheter. Blood pressure is raised then lowered incrementally by intravenous infusion of vasoactive drugs phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Aortic diameter is measured for each pressure step to characterize the pressure-diameter relationship of the ascending aorta. Stiffness indices derived from the pressure-diameter relationship can be calculated from the data collected. Calculation of arterial compliance is described in this protocol. This technique can be used to investigate mechanisms underlying increased aortic stiffness associated with cardiovascular disease and aging. The technique produces a physiologically relevant measure of stiffness compared to ex vivo approaches because physiological influences on aortic stiffness are incorporated in the measurement. The primary limitation of this technique is the measurement error introduced from the movement of the aorta during the cardiac cycle. This motion can be compensated by adjusting the location of the probe with the aortic movement as well as making multiple measurements of the aortic pressure-diameter relationship and expanding the experimental group size.
Medicine, Issue 94, Aortic stiffness, ultrasound, in vivo, aortic compliance, elastic modulus, mouse model, cardiovascular disease
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Behavioral Determination of Stimulus Pair Discrimination of Auditory Acoustic and Electrical Stimuli Using a Classical Conditioning and Heart-rate Approach
Authors: Simeon J. Morgan, Antonio G. Paolini.
Institutions: La Trobe University.
Acute animal preparations have been used in research prospectively investigating electrode designs and stimulation techniques for integration into neural auditory prostheses, such as auditory brainstem implants1-3 and auditory midbrain implants4,5. While acute experiments can give initial insight to the effectiveness of the implant, testing the chronically implanted and awake animals provides the advantage of examining the psychophysical properties of the sensations induced using implanted devices6,7. Several techniques such as reward-based operant conditioning6-8, conditioned avoidance9-11, or classical fear conditioning12 have been used to provide behavioral confirmation of detection of a relevant stimulus attribute. Selection of a technique involves balancing aspects including time efficiency (often poor in reward-based approaches), the ability to test a plurality of stimulus attributes simultaneously (limited in conditioned avoidance), and measure reliability of repeated stimuli (a potential constraint when physiological measures are employed). Here, a classical fear conditioning behavioral method is presented which may be used to simultaneously test both detection of a stimulus, and discrimination between two stimuli. Heart-rate is used as a measure of fear response, which reduces or eliminates the requirement for time-consuming video coding for freeze behaviour or other such measures (although such measures could be included to provide convergent evidence). Animals were conditioned using these techniques in three 2-hour conditioning sessions, each providing 48 stimulus trials. Subsequent 48-trial testing sessions were then used to test for detection of each stimulus in presented pairs, and test discrimination between the member stimuli of each pair. This behavioral method is presented in the context of its utilisation in auditory prosthetic research. The implantation of electrocardiogram telemetry devices is shown. Subsequent implantation of brain electrodes into the Cochlear Nucleus, guided by the monitoring of neural responses to acoustic stimuli, and the fixation of the electrode into place for chronic use is likewise shown.
Neuroscience, Issue 64, Physiology, auditory, hearing, brainstem, stimulation, rat, abi
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Femoral Bone Marrow Aspiration in Live Mice
Authors: Young Rock Chung, Eunhee Kim, Omar Abdel-Wahab.
Institutions: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Serial sampling of the cellular composition of bone marrow (BM) is a routine procedure critical to clinical hematology. This protocol describes a detailed step-by-step technical procedure for an analogous procedure in live mice which allows for serial characterization of cells present in the BM. This procedure facilitates studies aimed to detect the presence of exogenously administered cells within the BM of mice as would be done in xenograft studies for instance. Moreover, this procedure allows for the retrieval and characterization of cells enriched in the BM such as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) without sacrifice of mice. Given that the cellular composition of peripheral blood is not necessarily reflective of proportions and types of stem and progenitor cells present in the marrow, procedures which provide access to this compartment without requiring termination of the mice are very helpful. The use of femoral bone marrow aspiration is illustrated here for cytological analysis of marrow cells, flow cytometric characterization of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor compartment, and culture of sorted HSPCs obtained by femoral BM aspiration compared with conventional marrow harvest.
Medicine, Issue 89, Bone marrow, Leukemia, Hematopoiesis, Aspiration, Mouse Model, Hematopoietic Stem Cell
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Isolation of Fidelity Variants of RNA Viruses and Characterization of Virus Mutation Frequency
Authors: Stéphanie Beaucourt, Antonio V. Bordería, Lark L. Coffey, Nina F. Gnädig, Marta Sanz-Ramos, Yasnee Beeharry, Marco Vignuzzi.
Institutions: Institut Pasteur .
RNA viruses use RNA dependent RNA polymerases to replicate their genomes. The intrinsically high error rate of these enzymes is a large contributor to the generation of extreme population diversity that facilitates virus adaptation and evolution. Increasing evidence shows that the intrinsic error rates, and the resulting mutation frequencies, of RNA viruses can be modulated by subtle amino acid changes to the viral polymerase. Although biochemical assays exist for some viral RNA polymerases that permit quantitative measure of incorporation fidelity, here we describe a simple method of measuring mutation frequencies of RNA viruses that has proven to be as accurate as biochemical approaches in identifying fidelity altering mutations. The approach uses conventional virological and sequencing techniques that can be performed in most biology laboratories. Based on our experience with a number of different viruses, we have identified the key steps that must be optimized to increase the likelihood of isolating fidelity variants and generating data of statistical significance. The isolation and characterization of fidelity altering mutations can provide new insights into polymerase structure and function1-3. Furthermore, these fidelity variants can be useful tools in characterizing mechanisms of virus adaptation and evolution4-7.
Immunology, Issue 52, Polymerase fidelity, RNA virus, mutation frequency, mutagen, RNA polymerase, viral evolution
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Isolation and Kv Channel Recordings in Murine Atrial and Ventricular Cardiomyocytes
Authors: Clemens Köhncke, Ulrike Lisewski, Leonhard Schleußner, Carolin Gaertner, Saskia Reichert, Torsten K. Roepke.
Institutions: Charité Medical Faculty and Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
KCNE genes encode for a small family of Kv channel ancillary subunits that form heteromeric complexes with Kv channel alpha subunits to modify their functional properties. Mutations in KCNE genes have been found in patients with cardiac arrhythmias such as the long QT syndrome and/or atrial fibrillation. However, the precise molecular pathophysiology that leads to these diseases remains elusive. In previous studies the electrophysiological properties of the disease causing mutations in these genes have mostly been studied in heterologous expression systems and we cannot be sure if the reported effects can directly be translated into native cardiomyocytes. In our laboratory we therefore use a different approach. We directly study the effects of KCNE gene deletion in isolated cardiomyocytes from knockout mice by cellular electrophysiology - a unique technique that we describe in this issue of the Journal of Visualized Experiments. The hearts from genetically engineered KCNE mice are rapidly excised and mounted onto a Langendorff apparatus by aortic cannulation. Free Ca2+ in the myocardium is bound by EGTA, and dissociation of cardiac myocytes is then achieved by retrograde perfusion of the coronary arteries with a specialized low Ca2+ buffer containing collagenase. Atria, free right ventricular wall and the left ventricle can then be separated by microsurgical techniques. Calcium is then slowly added back to isolated cardiomyocytes in a multiple step comprising washing procedure. Atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes of healthy appearance with no spontaneous contractions are then immediately subjected to electrophysiological analyses by patch clamp technique or other biochemical analyses within the first 6 hours following isolation.
Physiology, Issue 73, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Cardiology, Cardiac Output, Low, Cardiomyopathies, Heart Failure, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Ventricular Dysfunction, Cardiomyocytes, Kv channel, cardiac arrythmia, electrophysiology, patch clamp, mouse, animal model
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How to Detect Amygdala Activity with Magnetoencephalography using Source Imaging
Authors: Nicholas L. Balderston, Douglas H. Schultz, Sylvain Baillet, Fred J. Helmstetter.
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Medical College of Wisconsin .
In trace fear conditioning a conditional stimulus (CS) predicts the occurrence of the unconditional stimulus (UCS), which is presented after a brief stimulus free period (trace interval)1. Because the CS and UCS do not co-occur temporally, the subject must maintain a representation of that CS during the trace interval. In humans, this type of learning requires awareness of the stimulus contingencies in order to bridge the trace interval2-4. However when a face is used as a CS, subjects can implicitly learn to fear the face even in the absence of explicit awareness*. This suggests that there may be additional neural mechanisms capable of maintaining certain types of "biologically-relevant" stimuli during a brief trace interval. Given that the amygdala is involved in trace conditioning, and is sensitive to faces, it is possible that this structure can maintain a representation of a face CS during a brief trace interval. It is challenging to understand how the brain can associate an unperceived face with an aversive outcome, even though the two stimuli are separated in time. Furthermore investigations of this phenomenon are made difficult by two specific challenges. First, it is difficult to manipulate the subject's awareness of the visual stimuli. One common way to manipulate visual awareness is to use backward masking. In backward masking, a target stimulus is briefly presented (< 30 msec) and immediately followed by a presentation of an overlapping masking stimulus5. The presentation of the mask renders the target invisible6-8. Second, masking requires very rapid and precise timing making it difficult to investigate neural responses evoked by masked stimuli using many common approaches. Blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses resolve at a timescale too slow for this type of methodology, and real time recording techniques like electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have difficulties recovering signal from deep sources. However, there have been recent advances in the methods used to localize the neural sources of the MEG signal9-11. By collecting high-resolution MRI images of the subject's brain, it is possible to create a source model based on individual neural anatomy. Using this model to "image" the sources of the MEG signal, it is possible to recover signal from deep subcortical structures, like the amygdala and the hippocampus*.
Behavior, Issue 76, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Physiology, Anatomy, Psychology, Amygdala, Magnetoencephalography, Fear, awareness, masking, source imaging, conditional stimulus, unconditional stimulus, hippocampus, brain, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, fMRI, imaging, clinical techniques
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Organotypic Collagen I Assay: A Malleable Platform to Assess Cell Behaviour in a 3-Dimensional Context
Authors: Paul Timpson, Ewan J. Mcghee, Zahra Erami, Max Nobis, Jean A. Quinn, Mike Edward, Kurt I. Anderson.
Institutions: University of Glasgow, University of Glasgow.
Cell migration is fundamental to many aspects of biology, including development, wound healing, the cellular responses of the immune system, and metastasis of tumor cells. Migration has been studied on glass coverslips in order to make cellular dynamics amenable to investigation by light microscopy. However, it has become clear that many aspects of cell migration depend on features of the local environment including its elasticity, protein composition, and pore size, which are not faithfully represented by rigid two dimensional substrates such as glass and plastic 1. Furthermore, interaction with other cell types, including stromal fibroblasts 2 and immune cells 3, has been shown to play a critical role in promoting the invasion of cancer cells. Investigation at the molecular level has increasingly shown that molecular dynamics, including response to drug treatment, of identical cells are significantly different when compared in vitro and in vivo 4. Ideally, it would be best to study cell migration in its naturally occurring context in living organisms, however this is not always possible. Intermediate tissue culture systems, such as cell derived matrix, matrigel, organotypic culture (described here) tissue explants, organoids, and xenografts, are therefore important experimental intermediates. These systems approximate certain aspects of an in vivo environment but are more amenable to experimental manipulation such as use of stably transfected cell lines, drug treatment regimes, long term and high-resolution imaging. Such intermediate systems are especially useful as proving grounds to validate probes and establish parameters required to image the dynamic response of cells and fluorescent reporters prior to undertaking imaging in vivo 5. As such, they can serve an important role in reducing the need for experiments on living animals.
Bioengineering, Issue 56, Organotypic culture, cell migration, invasion, 3-dimensional matrix, Collagen I, second harmonic generation, host-tumor interaction, microenvironment
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Matrix-assisted Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation for Remodeling and Repair of Chondral Defects in a Rabbit Model
Authors: Markus T. Berninger, Gabriele Wexel, Ernst J. Rummeny, Andreas B. Imhoff, Martina Anton, Tobias D. Henning, Stephan Vogt.
Institutions: Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Uniklinik Köln.
Articular cartilage defects are considered a major health problem because articular cartilage has a limited capacity for self-regeneration 1. Untreated cartilage lesions lead to ongoing pain, negatively affect the quality of life and predispose for osteoarthritis. During the last decades, several surgical techniques have been developed to treat such lesions. However, until now it was not possible to achieve a full repair in terms of covering the defect with hyaline articular cartilage or of providing satisfactory long-term recovery 2-4. Therefore, articular cartilage injuries remain a prime target for regenerative techniques such as Tissue Engineering. In contrast to other surgical techniques, which often lead to the formation of fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue, Tissue Engineering aims at fully restoring the complex structure and properties of the original articular cartilage by using the chondrogenic potential of transplanted cells. Recent developments opened up promising possibilities for regenerative cartilage therapies. The first cell based approach for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage or osteochondral lesions was performed in 1994 by Lars Peterson and Mats Brittberg who pioneered clinical autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) 5. Today, the technique is clinically well-established for the treatment of large hyaline cartilage defects of the knee, maintaining good clinical results even 10 to 20 years after implantation 6. In recent years, the implantation of autologous chondrocytes underwent a rapid progression. The use of an artificial three-dimensional collagen-matrix on which cells are subsequently replanted became more and more popular 7-9. MACT comprises of two surgical procedures: First, in order to collect chondrocytes, a cartilage biopsy needs to be performed from a non weight-bearing cartilage area of the knee joint. Then, chondrocytes are being extracted, purified and expanded to a sufficient cell number in vitro. Chondrocytes are then seeded onto a three-dimensional matrix and can subsequently be re-implanted. When preparing a tissue-engineered implant, proliferation rate and differentiation capacity are crucial for a successful tissue regeneration 10. The use of a three-dimensional matrix as a cell carrier is thought to support these cellular characteristics 11. The following protocol will summarize and demonstrate a technique for the isolation of chondrocytes from cartilage biopsies, their proliferation in vitro and their seeding onto a 3D-matrix (Chondro-Gide, Geistlich Biomaterials, Wollhusen, Switzerland). Finally, the implantation of the cell-matrix-constructs into artificially created chondral defects of a rabbit's knee joint will be described. This technique can be used as an experimental setting for further experiments of cartilage repair.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 75, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Tissue Engineering, Surgery, Autologous chondrocyte implantation, matrix-assisted, matrix, collagen scaffold, chondral lesion, cartilage, rabbit, experimental, cartilage defects, cartilage repair, regenerative therapy, chondrocytes, cell culture, isolation, transplantation, animal model
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MAME Models for 4D Live-cell Imaging of Tumor: Microenvironment Interactions that Impact Malignant Progression
Authors: Mansoureh Sameni, Arulselvi Anbalagan, Mary B. Olive, Kamiar Moin, Raymond R. Mattingly, Bonnie F. Sloane.
Institutions: Wayne State University , Wayne State University .
We have developed 3D coculture models, which we term MAME (mammary architecture and microenvironment engineering), and used them for live-cell imaging in real-time of cell:cell interactions. Our overall goal was to develop models that recapitulate the architecture of preinvasive breast lesions to study their progression to an invasive phenotype. Specifically, we developed models to analyze interactions among pre-malignant breast epithelial cell variants and other cell types of the tumor microenvironment that have been implicated in enhancing or reducing the progression of preinvasive breast epithelial cells to invasive ductal carcinomas. Other cell types studied to date are myoepithelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages and blood and lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells. In addition to the MAME models, which are designed to recapitulate the cellular interactions within the breast during cancer progression, we have developed comparable models for the progression of prostate cancers. Here we illustrate the procedures for establishing the 3D cocultures along with the use of live-cell imaging and a functional proteolysis assay to follow the transition of cocultures of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cells and fibroblasts to an invasive phenotype over time, in this case over twenty-three days in culture. The MAME cocultures consist of multiple layers. Fibroblasts are embedded in the bottom layer of type I collagen. On that is placed a layer of reconstituted basement membrane (rBM) on which DCIS cells are seeded. A final top layer of 2% rBM is included and replenished with every change of media. To image proteolysis associated with the progression to an invasive phenotype, we use dye-quenched (DQ) fluorescent matrix proteins (DQ-collagen I mixed with the layer of collagen I and DQ-collagen IV mixed with the middle layer of rBM) and observe live cultures using confocal microscopy. Optical sections are captured, processed and reconstructed in 3D with Volocity visualization software. Over the course of 23 days in MAME cocultures, the DCIS cells proliferate and coalesce into large invasive structures. Fibroblasts migrate and become incorporated into these invasive structures. Fluorescent proteolytic fragments of the collagens are found in association with the surface of DCIS structures, intracellularly, and also dispersed throughout the surrounding matrix. Drugs that target proteolytic, chemokine/cytokine and kinase pathways or modifications in the cellular composition of the cocultures can reduce the invasiveness, suggesting that MAME models can be used as preclinical screens for novel therapeutic approaches.
Medicine, Issue 60, Immunology, Breast, cancer, extracellular matrix, invasion, proteolysis, tumor microenvironment
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In vitro Synthesis of Native, Fibrous Long Spacing and Segmental Long Spacing Collagen
Authors: Richard W. Loo, Jane Betty Goh, Calvin C.H. Cheng, Ning Su, M. Cynthia Goh.
Institutions: University of Toronto, University of Toronto.
Collagen fibrils are present in the extracellular matrix of animal tissue to provide structural scaffolding and mechanical strength. These native collagen fibrils have a characteristic banding periodicity of ~67 nm and are formed in vivo through the hierarchical assembly of Type I collagen monomers, which are 300 nm in length and 1.4 nm in diameter. In vitro, by varying the conditions to which the monomer building blocks are exposed, unique structures ranging in length scales up to 50 microns can be constructed, including not only native type fibrils, but also fibrous long spacing and segmental long spacing collagen. Herein, we present procedures for forming the three different collagen structures from a common commercially available collagen monomer. Using the protocols that we and others have published in the past to make these three types typically lead to mixtures of structures. In particular, unbanded fibrils were commonly found when making native collagen, and native fibrils were often present when making fibrous long spacing collagen. These new procedures have the advantage of producing the desired collagen fibril type almost exclusively. The formation of the desired structures is verified by imaging using an atomic force microscope.
Bioengineering, Issue 67, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Tissue Engineering, Collagen, Self-assembly, Native, Fibrous long spacing, Segmental long spacing, AFM, atomic force microscopy
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Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Authors: Kristen K. McCampbell, Kristin N. Springer, Rebecca A. Wingert.
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90, zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
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Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules
Authors: James Smadbeck, Meghan B. Peterson, George A. Khoury, Martin S. Taylor, Christodoulos A. Floudas.
Institutions: Princeton University.
The aim of de novo protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. Protein design lies at the center of current advances drug design and discovery. Not only does protein design provide predictions for potentially useful drug targets, but it also enhances our understanding of the protein folding process and protein-protein interactions. Experimental methods such as directed evolution have shown success in protein design. However, such methods are restricted by the limited sequence space that can be searched tractably. In contrast, computational design strategies allow for the screening of a much larger set of sequences covering a wide variety of properties and functionality. We have developed a range of computational de novo protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. These include the design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity. To disseminate these methods for broader use we present Protein WISDOM (, a tool that provides automated methods for a variety of protein design problems. Structural templates are submitted to initialize the design process. The first stage of design is an optimization sequence selection stage that aims at improving stability through minimization of potential energy in the sequence space. Selected sequences are then run through a fold specificity stage and a binding affinity stage. A rank-ordered list of the sequences for each step of the process, along with relevant designed structures, provides the user with a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the design. Here we provide the details of each design method, as well as several notable experimental successes attained through the use of the methods.
Genetics, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
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In Vivo Modeling of the Morbid Human Genome using Danio rerio
Authors: Adrienne R. Niederriter, Erica E. Davis, Christelle Golzio, Edwin C. Oh, I-Chun Tsai, Nicholas Katsanis.
Institutions: Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Duke University Medical Center.
Here, we present methods for the development of assays to query potentially clinically significant nonsynonymous changes using in vivo complementation in zebrafish. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a useful animal system due to their experimental tractability; embryos are transparent to enable facile viewing, undergo rapid development ex vivo, and can be genetically manipulated.1 These aspects have allowed for significant advances in the analysis of embryogenesis, molecular processes, and morphogenetic signaling. Taken together, the advantages of this vertebrate model make zebrafish highly amenable to modeling the developmental defects in pediatric disease, and in some cases, adult-onset disorders. Because the zebrafish genome is highly conserved with that of humans (~70% orthologous), it is possible to recapitulate human disease states in zebrafish. This is accomplished either through the injection of mutant human mRNA to induce dominant negative or gain of function alleles, or utilization of morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides to suppress genes to mimic loss of function variants. Through complementation of MO-induced phenotypes with capped human mRNA, our approach enables the interpretation of the deleterious effect of mutations on human protein sequence based on the ability of mutant mRNA to rescue a measurable, physiologically relevant phenotype. Modeling of the human disease alleles occurs through microinjection of zebrafish embryos with MO and/or human mRNA at the 1-4 cell stage, and phenotyping up to seven days post fertilization (dpf). This general strategy can be extended to a wide range of disease phenotypes, as demonstrated in the following protocol. We present our established models for morphogenetic signaling, craniofacial, cardiac, vascular integrity, renal function, and skeletal muscle disorder phenotypes, as well as others.
Molecular Biology, Issue 78, Genetics, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Developmental Biology, Biochemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, Bioengineering, Genomics, Medical, zebrafish, in vivo, morpholino, human disease modeling, transcription, PCR, mRNA, DNA, Danio rerio, animal model
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Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Authors: Yves Molino, Françoise Jabès, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Nicolas Gaudin, Michel Khrestchatisky.
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2 on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3 cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
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Microwave-assisted Functionalization of Poly(ethylene glycol) and On-resin Peptides for Use in Chain Polymerizations and Hydrogel Formation
Authors: Amy H. Van Hove, Brandon D. Wilson, Danielle S. W. Benoit.
Institutions: University of Rochester, University of Rochester, University of Rochester Medical Center.
One of the main benefits to using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) macromers in hydrogel formation is synthetic versatility. The ability to draw from a large variety of PEG molecular weights and configurations (arm number, arm length, and branching pattern) affords researchers tight control over resulting hydrogel structures and properties, including Young’s modulus and mesh size. This video will illustrate a rapid, efficient, solvent-free, microwave-assisted method to methacrylate PEG precursors into poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDM). This synthetic method provides much-needed starting materials for applications in drug delivery and regenerative medicine. The demonstrated method is superior to traditional methacrylation methods as it is significantly faster and simpler, as well as more economical and environmentally friendly, using smaller amounts of reagents and solvents. We will also demonstrate an adaptation of this technique for on-resin methacrylamide functionalization of peptides. This on-resin method allows the N-terminus of peptides to be functionalized with methacrylamide groups prior to deprotection and cleavage from resin. This allows for selective addition of methacrylamide groups to the N-termini of the peptides while amino acids with reactive side groups (e.g. primary amine of lysine, primary alcohol of serine, secondary alcohols of threonine, and phenol of tyrosine) remain protected, preventing functionalization at multiple sites. This article will detail common analytical methods (proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (;H-NMR) and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF)) to assess the efficiency of the functionalizations. Common pitfalls and suggested troubleshooting methods will be addressed, as will modifications of the technique which can be used to further tune macromer functionality and resulting hydrogel physical and chemical properties. Use of synthesized products for the formation of hydrogels for drug delivery and cell-material interaction studies will be demonstrated, with particular attention paid to modifying hydrogel composition to affect mesh size, controlling hydrogel stiffness and drug release.
Chemistry, Issue 80, Poly(ethylene glycol), peptides, polymerization, polymers, methacrylation, peptide functionalization, 1H-NMR, MALDI-ToF, hydrogels, macromer synthesis
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Engineering a Bilayered Hydrogel to Control ASC Differentiation
Authors: Shanmugasundaram Natesan, David O. Zamora, Laura J. Suggs, Robert J. Christy.
Institutions: United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, The University of Texas at Austin.
Natural polymers over the years have gained more importance because of their host biocompatibility and ability to interact with cells in vitro and in vivo. An area of research that holds promise in regenerative medicine is the combinatorial use of novel biomaterials and stem cells. A fundamental strategy in the field of tissue engineering is the use of three-dimensional scaffold (e.g., decellularized extracellular matrix, hydrogels, micro/nano particles) for directing cell function. This technology has evolved from the discovery that cells need a substrate upon which they can adhere, proliferate, and express their differentiated cellular phenotype and function 2-3. More recently, it has also been determined that cells not only use these substrates for adherence, but also interact and take cues from the matrix substrate (e.g., extracellular matrix, ECM)4. Therefore, the cells and scaffolds have a reciprocal connection that serves to control tissue development, organization, and ultimate function. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal, non-hematopoetic stem cells present in adipose tissue that can exhibit multi-lineage differentiation and serve as a readily available source of cells (i.e. pre-vascular endothelia and pericytes). Our hypothesis is that adipose-derived stem cells can be directed toward differing phenotypes simultaneously by simply co-culturing them in bilayered matrices1. Our laboratory is focused on dermal wound healing. To this end, we created a single composite matrix from the natural biomaterials, fibrin, collagen, and chitosan that can mimic the characteristics and functions of a dermal-specific wound healing ECM environment.
Bioengineering, Issue 63, Biomedical Engineering, Tissue Engineering, chitosan, microspheres, collagen, hydrogel, PEG fibrin, cell delivery, adipose-derived stem cells, ASC, CSM
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Analysis of Cell Migration within a Three-dimensional Collagen Matrix
Authors: Nadine Rommerswinkel, Bernd Niggemann, Silvia Keil, Kurt S. Zänker, Thomas Dittmar.
Institutions: Witten/Herdecke University.
The ability to migrate is a hallmark of various cell types and plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. However, cell migration is also a key mechanism in cancer enabling these cancer cells to detach from the primary tumor to start metastatic spreading. Within the past years various cell migration assays have been developed to analyze the migratory behavior of different cell types. Because the locomotory behavior of cells markedly differs between a two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environment it can be assumed that the analysis of the migration of cells that are embedded within a 3D environment would yield in more significant cell migration data. The advantage of the described 3D collagen matrix migration assay is that cells are embedded within a physiological 3D network of collagen fibers representing the major component of the extracellular matrix. Due to time-lapse video microscopy real cell migration is measured allowing the determination of several migration parameters as well as their alterations in response to pro-migratory factors or inhibitors. Various cell types could be analyzed using this technique, including lymphocytes/leukocytes, stem cells, and tumor cells. Likewise, also cell clusters or spheroids could be embedded within the collagen matrix concomitant with analysis of the emigration of single cells from the cell cluster/ spheroid into the collagen lattice. We conclude that the 3D collagen matrix migration assay is a versatile method to analyze the migration of cells within a physiological-like 3D environment.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cell migration, 3D collagen matrix, cell tracking
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Adjustable Stiffness, External Fixator for the Rat Femur Osteotomy and Segmental Bone Defect Models
Authors: Vaida Glatt, Romano Matthys.
Institutions: Queensland University of Technology, RISystem AG.
The mechanical environment around the healing of broken bone is very important as it determines the way the fracture will heal. Over the past decade there has been great clinical interest in improving bone healing by altering the mechanical environment through the fixation stability around the lesion. One constraint of preclinical animal research in this area is the lack of experimental control over the local mechanical environment within a large segmental defect as well as osteotomies as they heal. In this paper we report on the design and use of an external fixator to study the healing of large segmental bone defects or osteotomies. This device not only allows for controlled axial stiffness on the bone lesion as it heals, but it also enables the change of stiffness during the healing process in vivo. The conducted experiments have shown that the fixators were able to maintain a 5 mm femoral defect gap in rats in vivo during unrestricted cage activity for at least 8 weeks. Likewise, we observed no distortion or infections, including pin infections during the entire healing period. These results demonstrate that our newly developed external fixator was able to achieve reproducible and standardized stabilization, and the alteration of the mechanical environment of in vivo rat large bone defects and various size osteotomies. This confirms that the external fixation device is well suited for preclinical research investigations using a rat model in the field of bone regeneration and repair.
Medicine, Issue 92, external fixator, bone healing, small animal model, large bone defect and osteotomy model, rat model, mechanical environment, mechanobiology.
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Evisceration of Mouse Vitreous and Retina for Proteomic Analyses
Authors: Jessica M. Skeie, Stephen H. Tsang, Vinit B. Mahajan.
Institutions: University of Iowa, University of Iowa, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.
While the mouse retina has emerged as an important genetic model for inherited retinal disease, the mouse vitreous remains to be explored. The vitreous is a highly aqueous extracellular matrix overlying the retina where intraocular as well as extraocular proteins accumulate during disease.1-3 Abnormal interactions between vitreous and retina underlie several diseases such as retinal detachment, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy.1,4 The relative mouse vitreous volume is significantly smaller than the human vitreous (Figure 1), since the mouse lens occupies nearly 75% of its eye.5 This has made biochemical studies of mouse vitreous challenging. In this video article, we present a technique to dissect and isolate the mouse vitreous from the retina, which will allow use of transgenic mouse models to more clearly define the role of this extracellular matrix in the development of vitreoretinal diseases.
Cellular Biology, Issue 50, mouse, vitreous, retina, proteomics, superoxide dismutase
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Ischemic Tissue Injury in the Dorsal Skinfold Chamber of the Mouse: A Skin Flap Model to Investigate Acute Persistent Ischemia
Authors: Yves Harder, Daniel Schmauss, Reto Wettstein, José T. Egaña, Fabian Weiss, Andrea Weinzierl, Anna Schuldt, Hans-Günther Machens, Michael D. Menger, Farid Rezaeian.
Institutions: Technische Universität München, University Hospital of Basel, University of Saarland, University Hospital Zurich.
Despite profound expertise and advanced surgical techniques, ischemia-induced complications ranging from wound breakdown to extensive tissue necrosis are still occurring, particularly in reconstructive flap surgery. Multiple experimental flap models have been developed to analyze underlying causes and mechanisms and to investigate treatment strategies to prevent ischemic complications. The limiting factor of most models is the lacking possibility to directly and repetitively visualize microvascular architecture and hemodynamics. The goal of the protocol was to present a well-established mouse model affiliating these before mentioned lacking elements. Harder et al. have developed a model of a musculocutaneous flap with a random perfusion pattern that undergoes acute persistent ischemia and results in ~50% necrosis after 10 days if kept untreated. With the aid of intravital epi-fluorescence microscopy, this chamber model allows repetitive visualization of morphology and hemodynamics in different regions of interest over time. Associated processes such as apoptosis, inflammation, microvascular leakage and angiogenesis can be investigated and correlated to immunohistochemical and molecular protein assays. To date, the model has proven feasibility and reproducibility in several published experimental studies investigating the effect of pre-, peri- and postconditioning of ischemically challenged tissue.
Medicine, Issue 93, flap, ischemia, microcirculation, angiogenesis, skin, necrosis, inflammation, apoptosis, preconditioning, persistent ischemia, in vivo model, muscle.
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