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The composite of bone marrow concentrate and PRP as an alternative to autologous bone grafting.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
One possible alternative to the application of autologous bone grafts represents the use of autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the potency of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in combination with BMC. In 32 mini-pigs a metaphyseal critical-size defect was surgically created at the proximal tibia. The animals were allocated to four treatment groups of eight animals each (1. BMC+CPG group, 2. BMC+CPG+PRP group, 3. autograft group, 4. CPG group). In the BMC+CPG group the defect was filled with autologous BMC in combination with calcium phosphate granules (CPG), whereas in the BMC+CPG+PRP group the defect was filled with the composite of autologous BMC, CPG and autologous PRP. In the autograft group the defect was filled with autologous cancellous graft, whereas in the CPG group the defect was filled with CPG solely. After 6 weeks radiological and histomorphometrical analysis showed significantly more new bone formation in the BMC+CPG+PRP group compared to the BMC+CPG group and the CPG group. There were no significant differences between the BMC+CPG+PRP group and the autograft group. In the PRP platelets were enriched significantly about 4.7-fold compared to native blood. In BMC the count of mononuclear cells increased significantly (3.5-fold) compared to the bone marrow aspirate. This study demonstrates that the composite of BMC+CPG+PRP leads to a significantly higher bone regeneration of critical-size defects at the proximal tibia in mini-pigs than the use of BMC+CPG without PRP. Furthermore, within the limits of the present study the composite BMC+CPG+PRP represents a comparable alternative to autologous bone grafting.
Implant-associated infection is becoming more and more challenging to the healthcare industry worldwide due to increasing antibiotic resistance, transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria between animals and humans, and the high cost of treating infections. In this study, we disclose a new strategy that may be effective in preventing implant-associated infection based on the potential antimicrobial properties of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Due to its well-studied properties for promoting healing, PRP (a biological product) has been increasingly used for clinical applications including orthopaedic surgeries, periodontal and oral surgeries, maxillofacial surgeries, plastic surgeries, sports medicine, etc. PRP could be an advanced alternative to conventional antibiotic treatments in preventing implant-associated infections. The use of PRP may be advantageous compared to conventional antibiotic treatments since PRP is less likely to induce antibiotic resistance and PRP's antimicrobial and healing-promoting properties may have a synergistic effect on infection prevention. It is well known that pathogens and human cells are racing for implant surfaces, and PRP's properties of promoting healing could improve human cell attachment thereby reducing the odds for infection. In addition, PRP is inherently biocompatible, and safe and free from the risk of transmissible diseases. For our study, we have selected several clinical bacterial strains that are commonly found in orthopaedic infections and examined whether PRP has in vitro antimicrobial properties against these bacteria. We have prepared PRP using a twice centrifugation approach which allows the same platelet concentration to be obtained for all samples. We have achieved consistent antimicrobial findings and found that PRP has strong in vitro antimicrobial properties against bacteria like methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Group A Streptococcus, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Therefore, the use of PRP may have the potential to prevent infection and to reduce the need for costly post-operative treatment of implant-associated infections.
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Treatment of Osteochondral Defects in the Rabbit's Knee Joint by Implantation of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Fibrin Clots
Authors: Markus T. Berninger, Gabriele Wexel, Ernst J. Rummeny, Andreas B. Imhoff, Martina Anton, Tobias D. Henning, Stephan Vogt.
Institutions: Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Uniklinik Köln.
The treatment of osteochondral articular defects has been challenging physicians for many years. The better understanding of interactions of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in recent years led to increased attention to restoration of the entire osteochondral unit. In comparison to chondral lesions the regeneration of osteochondral defects is much more complex and a far greater surgical and therapeutic challenge. The damaged tissue does not only include the superficial cartilage layer but also the subchondral bone. For deep, osteochondral damage, as it occurs for example with osteochondrosis dissecans, the full thickness of the defect needs to be replaced to restore the joint surface 1. Eligible therapeutic procedures have to consider these two different tissues with their different intrinsic healing potential 2. In the last decades, several surgical treatment options have emerged and have already been clinically established 3-6. Autologous or allogeneic osteochondral transplants consist of articular cartilage and subchondral bone and allow the replacement of the entire osteochondral unit. The defects are filled with cylindrical osteochondral grafts that aim to provide a congruent hyaline cartilage covered surface 3,7,8. Disadvantages are the limited amount of available grafts, donor site morbidity (for autologous transplants) and the incongruence of the surface; thereby the application of this method is especially limited for large defects. New approaches in the field of tissue engineering opened up promising possibilities for regenerative osteochondral therapy. The implantation of autologous chondrocytes marked the first cell based biological approach for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage lesions and is now worldwide established with good clinical results even 10 to 20 years after implantation 9,10. However, to date, this technique is not suitable for the treatment of all types of lesions such as deep defects involving the subchondral bone 11. The sandwich-technique combines bone grafting with current approaches in Tissue Engineering 5,6. This combination seems to be able to overcome the limitations seen in osteochondral grafts alone. After autologous bone grafting to the subchondral defect area, a membrane seeded with autologous chondrocytes is sutured above and facilitates to match the topology of the graft with the injured site. Of course, the previous bone reconstruction needs additional surgical time and often even an additional surgery. Moreover, to date, long-term data is missing 12. Tissue Engineering without additional bone grafting aims to restore the complex structure and properties of native articular cartilage by chondrogenic and osteogenic potential of the transplanted cells. However, again, it is usually only the cartilage tissue that is more or less regenerated. Additional osteochondral damage needs a specific further treatment. In order to achieve a regeneration of the multilayered structure of osteochondral defects, three-dimensional tissue engineered products seeded with autologous/allogeneic cells might provide a good regeneration capacity 11. Beside autologous chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) seem to be an attractive alternative for the development of a full-thickness cartilage tissue. In numerous preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, mesenchymal stem cells have displayed excellent tissue regeneration potential 13,14. The important advantage of mesenchymal stem cells especially for the treatment of osteochondral defects is that they have the capacity to differentiate in osteocytes as well as chondrocytes. Therefore, they potentially allow a multilayered regeneration of the defect. In recent years, several scaffolds with osteochondral regenerative potential have therefore been developed and evaluated with promising preliminary results 1,15-18. Furthermore, fibrin glue as a cell carrier became one of the preferred techniques in experimental cartilage repair and has already successfully been used in several animal studies 19-21 and even first human trials 22. The following protocol will demonstrate an experimental technique for isolating mesenchymal stem cells from a rabbit's bone marrow, for subsequent proliferation in cell culture and for preparing a standardized in vitro-model for fibrin-cell-clots. Finally, a technique for the implantation of pre-established fibrin-cell-clots into artificial osteochondral defects of the rabbit's knee joint will be described.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 75, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Stem Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering, Surgery, Mesenchymal stem cells, fibrin clot, cartilage, osteochondral defect, rabbit, experimental, subchondral bone, knee injury, bone grafting, regenerative therapy, chondrocytes, cell culture, isolation, transplantation, animal model
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High Sensitivity 5-hydroxymethylcytosine Detection in Balb/C Brain Tissue
Authors: Theodore Davis, Romualdas Vaisvila.
Institutions: New England Biolabs.
DNA hydroxymethylation is a long known modification of DNA, but has recently become a focus in epigenetic research. Mammalian DNA is enzymatically modified at the 5th carbon position of cytosine (C) residues to 5-mC, predominately in the context of CpG dinucleotides. 5-mC is amenable to enzymatic oxidation to 5-hmC by the Tet family of enzymes, which are believed to be involved in development and disease. Currently, the biological role of 5-hmC is not fully understood, but is generating a lot of interest due to its potential as a biomarker. This is due to several groundbreaking studies identifying 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mouse embryonic stem (ES) and neuronal cells. Research techniques, including bisulfite sequencing methods, are unable to easily distinguish between 5-mC and 5-hmC . A few protocols exist that can measure global amounts of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in the genome, including liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis or thin layer chromatography of single nucleosides digested from genomic DNA. Antibodies that target 5-hydroxymethylcytosine also exist, which can be used for dot blot analysis, immunofluorescence, or precipitation of hydroxymethylated DNA, but these antibodies do not have single base resolution.In addition, resolution depends on the size of the immunoprecipitated DNA and for microarray experiments, depends on probe design. Since it is unknown exactly where 5-hydroxymethylcytosine exists in the genome or its role in epigenetic regulation, new techniques are required that can identify locus specific hydroxymethylation. The EpiMark 5-hmC and 5-mC Analysis Kit provides a solution for distinguishing between these two modifications at specific loci. The EpiMark 5-hmC and 5-mC Analysis Kit is a simple and robust method for the identification and quantitation of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine within a specific DNA locus. This enzymatic approach utilizes the differential methylation sensitivity of the isoschizomers MspI and HpaII in a simple 3-step protocol. Genomic DNA of interest is treated with T4-BGT, adding a glucose moeity to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. This reaction is sequence-independent, therefore all 5-hmC will be glucosylated; unmodified or 5-mC containing DNA will not be affected. This glucosylation is then followed by restriction endonuclease digestion. MspI and HpaII recognize the same sequence (CCGG) but are sensitive to different methylation states. HpaII cleaves only a completely unmodified site: any modification (5-mC, 5-hmC or 5-ghmC) at either cytosine blocks cleavage. MspI recognizes and cleaves 5-mC and 5-hmC, but not 5-ghmC. The third part of the protocol is interrogation of the locus by PCR. As little as 20 ng of input DNA can be used. Amplification of the experimental (glucosylated and digested) and control (mock glucosylated and digested) target DNA with primers flanking a CCGG site of interest (100-200 bp) is performed. If the CpG site contains 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, a band is detected after glucosylation and digestion, but not in the non-glucosylated control reaction. Real time PCR will give an approximation of how much hydroxymethylcytosine is in this particular site. In this experiment, we will analyze the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine amount in a mouse Babl/C brain sample by end point PCR.
Neuroscience, Issue 48, EpiMark, Epigenetics, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-methylcytosine, methylation, hydroxymethylation
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Procedures for Identifying Infectious Prions After Passage Through the Digestive System of an Avian Species
Authors: Justin W Fischer, Tracy A Nichols, Gregory E Phillips, Kurt C VerCauteren.
Institutions: USDA.
Infectious prion (PrPRes) material is likely the cause of fatal, neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases1. Transmission of TSE diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD), is presumed to be from animal to animal2,3 as well as from environmental sources4-6. Scavengers and carnivores have potential to translocate PrPRes material through consumption and excretion of CWD-contaminated carrion. Recent work has documented passage of PrPRes material through the digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a common North American scavenger7. We describe procedures used to document passage of PrPRes material through American crows. Crows were gavaged with RML-strain mouse-adapted scrapie and their feces were collected 4 hr post gavage. Crow feces were then pooled and injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were monitored daily until they expressed clinical signs of mouse scrapie and were thereafter euthanized. Asymptomatic mice were monitored until 365 days post inoculation. Western blot analysis was conducted to confirm disease status. Results revealed that prions remain infectious after traveling through the digestive system of crows and are present in the feces, causing disease in test mice.
Infection, Issue 81, American crows, feces, mouse model, prion detection, PrPRes, scrapie, TSE transmission
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Differentiating Functional Roles of Gene Expression from Immune and Non-immune Cells in Mouse Colitis by Bone Marrow Transplantation
Authors: Hon Wai Koon, Samantha Ho, Michelle Cheng, Ryan Ichikawa, Charalabos Pothoulakis.
Institutions: The University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles.
To understand the role of a gene in the development of colitis, we compared the responses of wild-type mice and gene-of-interest deficient knockout mice to colitis. If the gene-of-interest is expressed in both bone marrow derived cells and non-bone marrow derived cells of the host; however, it is possible to differentiate the role of a gene of interest in bone marrow derived cells and non- bone marrow derived cells by bone marrow transplantation technique. To change the bone marrow derived cell genotype of mice, the original bone marrow of recipient mice were destroyed by irradiation and then replaced by new donor bone marrow of different genotype. When wild-type mice donor bone marrow was transplanted to knockout mice, we could generate knockout mice with wild-type gene expression in bone marrow derived cells. Alternatively, when knockout mice donor bone marrow was transplanted to wild-type recipient mice, wild-type mice without gene-of-interest expressing from bone marrow derived cells were produced. However, bone marrow transplantation may not be 100% complete. Therefore, we utilized cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules (CD45.1 and CD45.2) as markers of donor and recipient cells to track the proportion of donor bone marrow derived cells in recipient mice and success of bone marrow transplantation. Wild-type mice with CD45.1 genotype and knockout mice with CD45.2 genotype were used. After irradiation of recipient mice, the donor bone marrow cells of different genotypes were infused into the recipient mice. When the new bone marrow regenerated to take over its immunity, the mice were challenged by chemical agent (dextran sodium sulfate, DSS 5%) to induce colitis. Here we also showed the method to induce colitis in mice and evaluate the role of the gene of interest expressed from bone-marrow derived cells. If the gene-of-interest from the bone derived cells plays an important role in the development of the disease (such as colitis), the phenotype of the recipient mice with bone marrow transplantation can be significantly altered. At the end of colitis experiments, the bone marrow derived cells in blood and bone marrow were labeled with antibodies against CD45.1 and CD45.2 and their quantitative ratio of existence could be used to evaluate the success of bone marrow transplantation by flow cytometry. Successful bone marrow transplantation should show a vast majority of donor genotype (in term of CD molecule marker) over recipient genotype in both the bone marrow and blood of recipient mice.
Immunology, Issue 68, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Bone marrow transplantation, colitis, mice, irradiation
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Isolation, Purification and Labeling of Mouse Bone Marrow Neutrophils for Functional Studies and Adoptive Transfer Experiments
Authors: Muthulekha Swamydas, Michail S. Lionakis.
Institutions: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH.
Neutrophils are critical effector cells of the innate immune system. They are rapidly recruited at sites of acute inflammation and exert protective or pathogenic effects depending on the inflammatory milieu. Nonetheless, despite the indispensable role of neutrophils in immunity, detailed understanding of the molecular factors that mediate neutrophils' effector and immunopathogenic effects in different infectious diseases and inflammatory conditions is still lacking, partly because of their short half life, the difficulties with handling of these cells and the lack of reliable experimental protocols for obtaining sufficient numbers of neutrophils for downstream functional studies and adoptive transfer experiments. Therefore, simple, fast, economical and reliable methods are highly desirable for harvesting sufficient numbers of mouse neutrophils for assessing functions such as phagocytosis, killing, cytokine production, degranulation and trafficking. To that end, we present a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol, which can be adapted in any laboratory to isolate large numbers of neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice with high purity and viability. Moreover, we present a simple protocol that uses CellTracker dyes to label the isolated neutrophils, which can then be adoptively transferred into recipient mice and tracked in several tissues for at least 4 hr post-transfer using flow cytometry. Using this approach, differential labeling of neutrophils from wild-type and gene-deficient mice with different CellTracker dyes can be successfully employed to perform competitive repopulation studies for evaluating the direct role of specific genes in trafficking of neutrophils from the blood into target tissues in vivo.
Immunology, Issue 77, Cellular Biology, Infection, Infectious Diseases, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Neutrophils, Adoptive Transfer, immunology, Neutrophils, mouse, bone marrow, adoptive transfer, density gradient, labeling, CellTracker, cell, isolation, flow cytometry, animal model
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In vivo Clonal Tracking of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Marked by Five Fluorescent Proteins using Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy
Authors: Daniela Malide, Jean-Yves Métais, Cynthia E. Dunbar.
Institutions: NHLBI/NIH, NHLBI/NIH.
We developed and validated a fluorescent marking methodology for clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with high spatial and temporal resolution to study in vivo hematopoiesis using the murine bone marrow transplant experimental model. Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. Vectors encoding five different FPs: Cerulean, EGFP, Venus, tdTomato, and mCherry were used to concurrently transduce HSPCs, creating a diverse palette of color marked cells. Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. Volumetric analyses over large areas reveal that spectrally coded HSPC-derived cells can be detected non-invasively in various intact tissues, including the bone marrow (BM), for extensive periods of time following transplantation. Live studies combining video-rate multiphoton and confocal time-lapse imaging in 4D demonstrate the possibility of dynamic cellular and clonal tracking in a quantitative manner.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 90, LeGO imaging, clonal tracking, fluorescent proteins, confocal microscopy, multiphoton microscopy, hematopoiesis, lentiviral vectors, hematopoietic stem cells
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In Vivo 4-Dimensional Tracking of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Adult Mouse Calvarial Bone Marrow
Authors: Mark K. Scott, Olufolake Akinduro, Cristina Lo Celso.
Institutions: Imperial College London, Imperial College London.
Through a delicate balance between quiescence and proliferation, self renewal and production of differentiated progeny, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain the turnover of all mature blood cell lineages. The coordination of the complex signals leading to specific HSC fates relies upon the interaction between HSCs and the intricate bone marrow microenvironment, which is still poorly understood[1-2]. We describe how by combining a newly developed specimen holder for stable animal positioning with multi-step confocal and two-photon in vivo imaging techniques, it is possible to obtain high-resolution 3D stacks containing HSPCs and their surrounding niches and to monitor them over time through multi-point time-lapse imaging. High definition imaging allows detecting ex vivo labeled hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) residing within the bone marrow. Moreover, multi-point time-lapse 3D imaging, obtained with faster acquisition settings, provides accurate information about HSPC movement and the reciprocal interactions between HSPCs and stroma cells. Tracking of HSPCs in relation to GFP positive osteoblastic cells is shown as an exemplary application of this method. This technique can be utilized to track any appropriately labeled hematopoietic or stromal cell of interest within the mouse calvarium bone marrow space.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, hematopoietic stem cell, multiphoton microscopy, cell tracking, bone marrow niche, calvarium, intra-vital confocal microscopy, time-lapse imaging, multi-modal microscopy
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Intravital Imaging of Axonal Interactions with Microglia and Macrophages in a Mouse Dorsal Column Crush Injury
Authors: Teresa A. Evans, Deborah S. Barkauskas, Jay T. Myers, Alex Y. Huang.
Institutions: Case Western Reserve University, Case Western Reserve University, Case Western Reserve University.
Traumatic spinal cord injury causes an inflammatory reaction involving blood-derived macrophages and central nervous system (CNS)-resident microglia. Intra-vital two-photon microscopy enables the study of macrophages and microglia in the spinal cord lesion in the living animal. This can be performed in adult animals with a traumatic injury to the dorsal column. Here, we describe methods for distinguishing macrophages from microglia in the CNS using an irradiation bone marrow chimera to obtain animals in which only macrophages or microglia are labeled with a genetically encoded green fluorescent protein. We also describe a injury model that crushes the dorsal column of the spinal cord, thereby producing a simple, easily accessible, rectangular lesion that is easily visualized in an animal through a laminectomy. Furthermore, we will outline procedures to sequentially image the animals at the anatomical site of injury for the study of cellular interactions during the first few days to weeks after injury.
Cellular Biology, Issue 93, Intravital, spinal cord crush injury, chimera, microglia, macrophages, dorsal column crush, axonal dieback
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A Modified Heterotopic Swine Hind Limb Transplant Model for Translational Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) Research
Authors: Zuhaib Ibrahim, Damon S. Cooney, Jaimie T. Shores, Justin M. Sacks, Eric G. Wimmers, Steven C. Bonawitz, Chad Gordon, Dawn Ruben, Stefan Schneeberger, W. P. Andrew Lee, Gerald Brandacher.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) such as hand and face transplants represent a viable treatment option for complex musculoskeletal trauma and devastating tissue loss. Despite favorable and highly encouraging early and intermediate functional outcomes, rejection of the highly immunogenic skin component of a VCA and potential adverse effects of chronic multi-drug immunosuppression continue to hamper widespread clinical application of VCA. Therefore, research in this novel field needs to focus on translational studies related to unique immunologic features of VCA and to develop novel immunomodulatory strategies for immunomodulation and tolerance induction following VCA without the need for long term immunosuppression. This article describes a reliable and reproducible translational large animal model of VCA that is comprised of an osteomyocutaneous flap in a MHC-defined swine heterotopic hind limb allotransplantation. Briefly, a well-vascularized skin paddle is identified in the anteromedial thigh region using near infrared laser angiography. The underlying muscles, knee joint, distal femur, and proximal tibia are harvested on a femoral vascular pedicle. This allograft can be considered both a VCA and a vascularized bone marrow transplant with its unique immune privileged features. The graft is transplanted to a subcutaneous abdominal pocket in the recipient animal with a skin component exteriorized to the dorsolateral region for immune monitoring. Three surgical teams work simultaneously in a well-coordinated manner to reduce anesthesia and ischemia times, thereby improving efficiency of this model and reducing potential confounders in experimental protocols. This model serves as the groundwork for future therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing and potentially eliminating the need for chronic multi-drug immunosuppression in VCA.
Medicine, Issue 80, Upper Extremity, Swine, Microsurgery, Tissue Transplantation, Transplantation Immunology, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Vascularized Composite Allografts, reconstructive transplantation, translational research, swine, hind limb allotransplantation, bone marrow, osteomyocutaneous, microvascular anastomosis, immunomodulation
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Toxoplasma gondii Cyst Wall Formation in Activated Bone Marrow-derived Macrophages and Bradyzoite Conditions
Authors: Crystal Tobin, Angela Pollard, Laura Knoll.
Institutions: University of Wisconsin.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can invade any nucleated cell of warm-blooded animals. During infection, T. gondii disseminates as a fast replicating form called the tachyzoite. Tachyzoites convert into a slow-growing encysted form called the bradyzoite by a signaling process that is not well characterized. Within animals, bradyzoite cysts are found in the central nervous system and muscle tissue and represent the chronic stage of infection. Conversion to bradyzoites can be simulated in tissue culture by CO2 starvation, using medium with high a pH, or the addition of interferon gamma (IFNγ). Bradyzoites are characterized by the presence of a cyst wall, to which the lectin Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) binds. Fluorescently labeled DBA is used to visualize the cyst wall in parasites grown in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) that have been exposed to low CO2 and high pH medium. Similarly, parasites residing in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) display a cyst wall detectable by DBA after the BMMs are activated with IFNγ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This protocol will demonstrate how to induce conversion of T. gondii to bradyzoites using a high pH growth medium with low CO2 and activation of BMMs. Host cells will be cultured on coverslips, infected with tachyzoites and either activated with addition of IFNγ and LPS (BMMs) or exposed to a high pH growth medium (HFFs) for three days. Upon completion of infections, host cells will be fixed, permeabilized, and blocked. Cyst walls will be visualized using rhodamine DBA with fluorescence microscopy.
Microbiology, Issue 42, bone marrow-derived macrophages, fluorescence microscopy, parasitology, Toxoplasma gondii, bradyzoite development, cell culture, cyst wall
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Culture of myeloid dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors
Authors: Jeanette Boudreau, Sandeep Koshy, Derek Cummings, Yonghong Wan.
Institutions: McMaster University, McMaster University, University of Waterloo.
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are frequently used to study the interactions between innate and adaptive immune mechanisms and the early response to infection. Because these are the most potent antigen presenting cells, DCs are being increasingly used as a vaccine vector to study the induction of antigen-specific immune responses. In this video, we demonstrate the procedure for harvesting tibias and femurs from a donor mouse, processing the bone marrow and differentiating DCs in vitro. The properties of DCs change following stimulation: immature dendritic cells are potent phagocytes, whereas mature DCs are capable of antigen presentation and interaction with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This change in functional activity corresponds with the upregulation of cell surface markers and cytokine production. Many agents can be used to mature DCs, including cytokines and toll-like receptor ligands. In this video, we demonstrate flow cytometric comparisons of expression of two co-stimulatory molecules, CD86 and CD40, and the cytokine, IL-12, following overnight stimulation with CpG or mock treatment. After differentiation, DCs can be further manipulated for use as a vaccine vector or to generate antigen-specific immune responses by in vitro pulsing using peptides or proteins, or transduced using recombinant viral vectors.
Immunology, Issue 17, dendritic cells, GM-CSF, culture, bone marrow
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Optimized Analysis of DNA Methylation and Gene Expression from Small, Anatomically-defined Areas of the Brain
Authors: Marc Bettscheider, Arleta Kuczynska, Osborne Almeida, Dietmar Spengler.
Institutions: Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry.
Exposure to diet, drugs and early life adversity during sensitive windows of life 1,2 can lead to lasting changes in gene expression that contribute to the display of physiological and behavioural phenotypes. Such environmental programming is likely to increase the susceptibility to metabolic, cardiovascular and mental diseases 3,4. DNA methylation and histone modifications are considered key processes in the mediation of the gene-environment dialogue and appear also to underlay environmental programming 5. In mammals, DNA methylation typically comprises the covalent addition of a methyl group at the 5-position of cytosine within the context of CpG dinucleotides. CpG methylation occurs in a highly tissue- and cell-specific manner making it a challenge to study discrete, small regions of the brain where cellular heterogeneity is high and tissue quantity limited. Moreover, because gene expression and methylation are closely linked events, increased value can be gained by comparing both parameters in the same sample. Here, a step-by-step protocol (Figure 1) for the investigation of epigenetic programming in the brain is presented using the 'maternal separation' paradigm of early life adversity for illustrative purposes. The protocol describes the preparation of micropunches from differentially-aged mouse brains from which DNA and RNA can be simultaneously isolated, thus allowing DNA methylation and gene expression analyses in the same sample.
Neuroscience, Issue 65, Genetics, Physiology, Epigenetics, DNA methylation, early-life stress, maternal separation, bisulfite sequencing
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DNA Methylation: Bisulphite Modification and Analysis
Authors: Kate Patterson, Laura Molloy, Wenjia Qu, Susan Clark.
Institutions: Garvan Institute of Medical Research, University of NSW.
Epigenetics describes the heritable changes in gene function that occur independently to the DNA sequence. The molecular basis of epigenetic gene regulation is complex, but essentially involves modifications to the DNA itself or the proteins with which DNA associates. The predominant epigenetic modification of DNA in mammalian genomes is methylation of cytosine nucleotides (5-MeC). DNA methylation provides instruction to gene expression machinery as to where and when the gene should be expressed. The primary target sequence for DNA methylation in mammals is 5'-CpG-3' dinucleotides (Figure 1). CpG dinucleotides are not uniformly distributed throughout the genome, but are concentrated in regions of repetitive genomic sequences and CpG "islands" commonly associated with gene promoters (Figure 1). DNA methylation patterns are established early in development, modulated during tissue specific differentiation and disrupted in many disease states including cancer. To understand the biological role of DNA methylation and its role in human disease, precise, efficient and reproducible methods are required to detect and quantify individual 5-MeCs. This protocol for bisulphite conversion is the "gold standard" for DNA methylation analysis and facilitates identification and quantification of DNA methylation at single nucleotide resolution. The chemistry of cytosine deamination by sodium bisulphite involves three steps (Figure 2). (1) Sulphonation: The addition of bisulphite to the 5-6 double bond of cytosine (2) Hydrolic Deamination: hydrolytic deamination of the resulting cytosine-bisulphite derivative to give a uracil-bisulphite derivative (3) Alkali Desulphonation: Removal of the sulphonate group by an alkali treatment, to give uracil. Bisulphite preferentially deaminates cytosine to uracil in single stranded DNA, whereas 5-MeC, is refractory to bisulphite-mediated deamination. Upon PCR amplification, uracil is amplified as thymine while 5-MeC residues remain as cytosines, allowing methylated CpGs to be distinguished from unmethylated CpGs by presence of a cytosine "C" versus thymine "T" residue during sequencing. DNA modification by bisulphite conversion is a well-established protocol that can be exploited for many methods of DNA methylation analysis. Since the detection of 5-MeC by bisulphite conversion was first demonstrated by Frommer et al.1 and Clark et al.2, methods based around bisulphite conversion of genomic DNA account for the majority of new data on DNA methylation. Different methods of post PCR analysis may be utilized, depending on the degree of specificity and resolution of methylation required. Cloning and sequencing is still the most readily available method that can give single nucleotide resolution for methylation across the DNA molecule.
Genetics, Issue 56, epigenetics, DNA methylation, Bisulphite, 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC), PCR
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Preparation of Pooled Human Platelet Lysate (pHPL) as an Efficient Supplement for Animal Serum-Free Human Stem Cell Cultures
Authors: Katharina Schallmoser, Dirk Strunk.
Institutions: Medical University of Graz, Austria.
Platelet derived growth factors have been shown to stimulate cell proliferation efficiently in vivo1,2 and in vitro. This effect has been reported for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), fibroblasts and endothelial colony-forming cells with platelets activated by thrombin3-5 or lysed by freeze/thaw cycles6-14 before the platelet releasate is added to the cell culture medium. The trophic effect of platelet derived growth factors has already been tested in several trials for tissue engineering and regenerative therapy.1,15-17 Varying efficiency is considered to be at least in part due to individually divergent concentrations of growth factors18,19 and a current lack of standardized protocols for platelet preparation.15,16 This protocol presents a practicable procedure to generate a pool of human platelet lysate (pHPL) derived from routinely produced platelet rich plasma (PRP) of forty to fifty single blood donations. By several freeze/thaw cycles the platelet membranes are damaged and growth factors are efficiently released into the plasma. Finally, the platelet fragments are removed by centrifugation to avoid extensive aggregate formation and deplete potential antigens. The implementation of pHPL into standard culture protocols represents a promising tool for further development of cell therapeutics propagated in an animal protein-free system.
Cellular Biology, Issue 32, Pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL), platelet derived growth factors (PDGFs), cell culture, stem cells
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Isolation of Soluble and Insoluble PrP Oligomers in the Normal Human Brain
Authors: Xiangzhu Xiao, Jue Yuan, Wen-Quan Zou.
Institutions: Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.
The central event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases involves a conversion of the host-encoded cellular prion protein PrPC into its pathogenic isoform PrPSc 1. PrPC is detergent-soluble and sensitive to proteinase K (PK)-digestion, whereas PrPSc forms detergent-insoluble aggregates and is partially resistant to PK2-6. The conversion of PrPC to PrPSc is known to involve a conformational transition of α-helical to β-sheet structures of the protein. However, the in vivo pathway is still poorly understood. A tentative endogenous PrPSc, intermediate PrP* or "silent prion", has yet to be identified in the uninfected brain7. Using a combination of biophysical and biochemical approaches, we identified insoluble PrPC aggregates (designated iPrPC) from uninfected mammalian brains and cultured neuronal cells8, 9. Here, we describe detailed procedures of these methods, including ultracentrifugation in detergent buffer, sucrose step gradient sedimentation, size exclusion chromatography, iPrP enrichment by gene 5 protein (g5p) that specifically bind to structurally altered PrP forms10, and PK-treatment. The combination of these approaches isolates not only insoluble PrPSc and PrPC aggregates but also soluble PrPC oligomers from the normal human brain. Since the protocols described here have been used to isolate both PrPSc from infected brains and iPrPC from uninfected brains, they provide us with an opportunity to compare differences in physicochemical features, neurotoxicity, and infectivity between the two isoforms. Such a study will greatly improve our understanding of the infectious proteinaceous pathogens. The physiology and pathophysiology of iPrPC are unclear at present. Notably, in a newly-identified human prion disease termed variably protease-sensitive prionopathy, we found a new PrPSc that shares the immunoreactive behavior and fragmentation with iPrPC 11, 12. Moreover, we recently demonstrated that iPrPC is the main species that interacts with amyloid-β protein in Alzheimer disease13. In the same study, these methods were used to isolate Abeta aggregates and oligomers in Alzheimer's disease13, suggesting their application to non-prion protein aggregates involved in other neurodegenerative disorders.
Medicine, Issue 68, Neuroscience, Physiology, Anatomy, Prion protein, brain, prion disease, insoluble prion protein, oligomer, ultracentrifugation, Western blotting, Sucrose gradient sedimentation, gel filtration
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Intramyocardial Cell Delivery: Observations in Murine Hearts
Authors: Tommaso Poggioli, Padmini Sarathchandra, Nadia Rosenthal, Maria P. Santini.
Institutions: Imperial College London, Imperial College London, Monash University.
Previous studies showed that cell delivery promotes cardiac function amelioration by release of cytokines and factors that increase cardiac tissue revascularization and cell survival. In addition, further observations revealed that specific stem cells, such as cardiac stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and cardiospheres have the ability to integrate within the surrounding myocardium by differentiating into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Here, we present the materials and methods to reliably deliver noncontractile cells into the left ventricular wall of immunodepleted mice. The salient steps of this microsurgical procedure involve anesthesia and analgesia injection, intratracheal intubation, incision to open the chest and expose the heart and delivery of cells by a sterile 30-gauge needle and a precision microliter syringe. Tissue processing consisting of heart harvesting, embedding, sectioning and histological staining showed that intramyocardial cell injection produced a small damage in the epicardial area, as well as in the ventricular wall. Noncontractile cells were retained into the myocardial wall of immunocompromised mice and were surrounded by a layer of fibrotic tissue, likely to protect from cardiac pressure and mechanical load.
Medicine, Issue 83, intramyocardial cell injection, heart, grafting, cell therapy, stem cells, fibrotic tissue
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Characterizing the Composition of Molecular Motors on Moving Axonal Cargo Using "Cargo Mapping" Analysis
Authors: Sylvia Neumann, George E. Campbell, Lukasz Szpankowski, Lawrence S.B. Goldstein, Sandra E. Encalada.
Institutions: The Scripps Research Institute, University of California San Diego, University of California San Diego, University of California San Diego School of Medicine.
Understanding the mechanisms by which molecular motors coordinate their activities to transport vesicular cargoes within neurons requires the quantitative analysis of motor/cargo associations at the single vesicle level. The goal of this protocol is to use quantitative fluorescence microscopy to correlate (“map”) the position and directionality of movement of live cargo to the composition and relative amounts of motors associated with the same cargo. “Cargo mapping” consists of live imaging of fluorescently labeled cargoes moving in axons cultured on microfluidic devices, followed by chemical fixation during recording of live movement, and subsequent immunofluorescence (IF) staining of the exact same axonal regions with antibodies against motors. Colocalization between cargoes and their associated motors is assessed by assigning sub-pixel position coordinates to motor and cargo channels, by fitting Gaussian functions to the diffraction-limited point spread functions representing individual fluorescent point sources. Fixed cargo and motor images are subsequently superimposed to plots of cargo movement, to “map” them to their tracked trajectories. The strength of this protocol is the combination of live and IF data to record both the transport of vesicular cargoes in live cells and to determine the motors associated to these exact same vesicles. This technique overcomes previous challenges that use biochemical methods to determine the average motor composition of purified heterogeneous bulk vesicle populations, as these methods do not reveal compositions on single moving cargoes. Furthermore, this protocol can be adapted for the analysis of other transport and/or trafficking pathways in other cell types to correlate the movement of individual intracellular structures with their protein composition. Limitations of this protocol are the relatively low throughput due to low transfection efficiencies of cultured primary neurons and a limited field of view available for high-resolution imaging. Future applications could include methods to increase the number of neurons expressing fluorescently labeled cargoes.
Neuroscience, Issue 92, kinesin, dynein, single vesicle, axonal transport, microfluidic devices, primary hippocampal neurons, quantitative fluorescence microscopy
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A Simple Protocol for Platelet-mediated Clumping of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes in a Resource Poor Setting
Authors: Dumizulu L. Tembo, Jacqui Montgomery, Alister G. Craig, Samuel C. Wassmer.
Institutions: Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, New York University School of Medicine.
P. falciparum causes the majority of severe malarial infections. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cerebral malaria (CM) are not fully understood and several hypotheses have been put forward, including mechanical obstruction of microvessels by P. falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (pRBC). Indeed, during the intra-erythrocytic stage of its life cycle, P. falciparum has the unique ability to modify the surface of the infected erythrocyte by exporting surface antigens with varying adhesive properties onto the RBC membrane. This allows the sequestration of pRBC in multiple tissues and organs by adhesion to endothelial cells lining the microvasculature of post-capillary venules 1. By doing so, the mature forms of the parasite avoid splenic clearance of the deformed infected erythrocytes 2 and restrict their environment to a more favorable low oxygen pressure 3. As a consequence of this sequestration, it is only immature asexual parasites and gametocytes that can be detected in peripheral blood. Cytoadherence and sequestration of mature pRBC to the numerous host receptors expressed on microvascular beds occurs in severe and uncomplicated disease. However, several lines of evidence suggest that only specific adhesive phenotypes are likely to be associated with severe pathological outcomes of malaria. One example of such specific host-parasite interactions has been demonstrated in vitro, where the ability of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 to support binding of pRBC with particular adhesive properties has been linked to development of cerebral malaria 4,5. The placenta has also been recognized as a site of preferential pRBC accumulation in malaria-infected pregnant women, with chondrotin sulphate A expressed on syncytiotrophoblasts that line the placental intervillous space as the main receptor 6. Rosetting of pRBC to uninfected erythrocytes via the complement receptor 1 (CD35)7,8 has also been associated with severe disease 9. One of the most recently described P. falciparum cytoadherence phenotypes is the ability of the pRBC to form platelet-mediated clumps in vitro. The formation of such pRBC clumps requires CD36, a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of platelets. Another human receptor, gC1qR/HABP1/p32, expressed on diverse cell types including endothelial cells and platelets, has also been shown to facilitate pRBC adhesion on platelets to form clumps 10. Whether clumping occurs in vivo remains unclear, but it may account for the significant accumulation of platelets described in brain microvasculature of Malawian children who died from CM 11. In addition, the ability of clinical isolate cultures to clump in vitro was directly linked to the severity of disease in Malawian 12 and Mozambican patients 13, (although not in Malian 14). With several aspects of the pRBC clumping phenotype poorly characterized, current studies on this subject have not followed a standardized procedure. This is an important issue because of the known high variability inherent in the assay 15. Here, we present a method for in vitro platelet-mediated clumping of P. falciparum with hopes that it will provide a platform for a consistent method for other groups and raise awareness of the limitations in investigating this phenotype in future studies. Being based in Malawi, we provide a protocol specifically designed for a limited resource setting, with the advantage that freshly collected clinical isolates can be examined for phenotype without need for cryopreservation.
Infection, Issue 75, Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Medicine, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Parasitology, Clumping, platelets, Plasmodium falciparum, CD36, malaria, malarial infections, parasites, red blood cells, plasma, limited resources, clinical techniques, assay
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Adjustable Stiffness, External Fixator for the Rat Femur Osteotomy and Segmental Bone Defect Models
Authors: Vaida Glatt, Romano Matthys.
Institutions: Queensland University of Technology, RISystem AG.
The mechanical environment around the healing of broken bone is very important as it determines the way the fracture will heal. Over the past decade there has been great clinical interest in improving bone healing by altering the mechanical environment through the fixation stability around the lesion. One constraint of preclinical animal research in this area is the lack of experimental control over the local mechanical environment within a large segmental defect as well as osteotomies as they heal. In this paper we report on the design and use of an external fixator to study the healing of large segmental bone defects or osteotomies. This device not only allows for controlled axial stiffness on the bone lesion as it heals, but it also enables the change of stiffness during the healing process in vivo. The conducted experiments have shown that the fixators were able to maintain a 5 mm femoral defect gap in rats in vivo during unrestricted cage activity for at least 8 weeks. Likewise, we observed no distortion or infections, including pin infections during the entire healing period. These results demonstrate that our newly developed external fixator was able to achieve reproducible and standardized stabilization, and the alteration of the mechanical environment of in vivo rat large bone defects and various size osteotomies. This confirms that the external fixation device is well suited for preclinical research investigations using a rat model in the field of bone regeneration and repair.
Medicine, Issue 92, external fixator, bone healing, small animal model, large bone defect and osteotomy model, rat model, mechanical environment, mechanobiology.
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Assessing the Development of Murine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Peyer's Patches Using Adoptive Transfer of Hematopoietic Progenitors
Authors: Haiyan S. Li, Stephanie S. Watowich.
Institutions: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.
This protocol details a method to analyze the ability of purified hematopoietic progenitors to generate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in intestinal Peyer's patch (PP). Common dendritic cell progenitors (CDPs, lin- c-kitlo CD115+ Flt3+) were purified from the bone marrow of C57BL6 mice by FACS and transferred to recipient mice that lack a significant pDC population in PP; in this case, Ifnar-/- mice were used as the transfer recipients. In some mice, overexpression of the dendritic cell growth factor Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) was enforced prior to adoptive transfer of CDPs, using hydrodynamic gene transfer (HGT) of Flt3L-encoding plasmid. Flt3L overexpression expands DC populations originating from transferred (or endogenous) hematopoietic progenitors. At 7-10 days after progenitor transfer, pDCs that arise from the adoptively transferred progenitors were distinguished from recipient cells on the basis of CD45 marker expression, with pDCs from transferred CDPs being CD45.1+ and recipients being CD45.2+. The ability of transferred CDPs to contribute to the pDC population in PP and to respond to Flt3L was evaluated by flow cytometry of PP single cell suspensions from recipient mice. This method may be used to test whether other progenitor populations are capable of generating PP pDCs. In addition, this approach could be used to examine the role of factors that are predicted to affect pDC development in PP, by transferring progenitor subsets with an appropriate knockdown, knockout or overexpression of the putative developmental factor and/or by manipulating circulating cytokines via HGT. This method may also allow analysis of how PP pDCs affect the frequency or function of other immune subsets in PPs. A unique feature of this method is the use of Ifnar-/- mice, which show severely depleted PP pDCs relative to wild type animals, thus allowing reconstitution of PP pDCs in the absence of confounding effects from lethal irradiation.
Immunology, Issue 85, hematopoiesis, dendritic cells, Peyer's patch, cytokines, adoptive transfer
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