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Theory to predict shear stress on cells in turbulent blood flow.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Shear stress on blood cells and platelets transported in a turbulent flow dictates the fate and biological activity of these cells. We present a theoretical link between energy dissipation in turbulent flows to the shear stress that cells experience and show that for the case of physiological turbulent blood flow: (a) the Newtonian assumption is valid, (b) turbulent eddies are universal for the most complex of blood flow problems, and (c) shear stress distribution on turbulent blood flows is possibly universal. Further we resolve a long standing inconsistency in hemolysis between laminar and turbulent flow using the theoretical framework. This work demonstrates that energy dissipation as opposed to bulk shear stress in laminar or turbulent blood flow dictates local mechanical environment of blood cells and platelets universally.
Authors: Whitney O. Lane, Alexandra E. Jantzen, Tim A. Carlon, Ryan M. Jamiolkowski, Justin E. Grenet, Melissa M. Ley, Justin M. Haseltine, Lauren J. Galinat, Fu-Hsiung Lin, Jason D. Allen, George A. Truskey, Hardean E. Achneck.
Published: 01-17-2012
The overall goal of this method is to describe a technique to subject adherent cells to laminar flow conditions and evaluate their response to well quantifiable fluid shear stresses1. Our flow chamber design and flow circuit (Fig. 1) contains a transparent viewing region that enables testing of cell adhesion and imaging of cell morphology immediately before flow (Fig. 11A, B), at various time points during flow (Fig. 11C), and after flow (Fig. 11D). These experiments are illustrated with human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and porcine EPCs2,3. This method is also applicable to other adherent cell types, e.g. smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or fibroblasts. The chamber and all parts of the circuit are easily sterilized with steam autoclaving. In contrast to other chambers, e.g. microfluidic chambers, large numbers of cells (> 1 million depending on cell size) can be recovered after the flow experiment under sterile conditions for cell culture or other experiments, e.g. DNA or RNA extraction, or immunohistochemistry (Fig. 11E), or scanning electron microscopy5. The shear stress can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of the perfusate, the fluid viscosity, or the channel height and width. The latter can reduce fluid volume or cell needs while ensuring that one-dimensional flow is maintained. It is not necessary to measure chamber height between experiments, since the chamber height does not depend on the use of gaskets, which greatly increases the ease of multiple experiments. Furthermore, the circuit design easily enables the collection of perfusate samples for analysis and/or quantification of metabolites secreted by cells under fluid shear stress exposure, e.g. nitric oxide (Fig. 12)6.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
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Investigating the Three-dimensional Flow Separation Induced by a Model Vocal Fold Polyp
Authors: Kelley C. Stewart, Byron D. Erath, Michael W. Plesniak.
Institutions: The George Washington University, Clarkson University.
The fluid-structure energy exchange process for normal speech has been studied extensively, but it is not well understood for pathological conditions. Polyps and nodules, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, can disrupt vocal fold dynamics and thus can have devastating consequences on a patient's ability to communicate. Our laboratory has reported particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, within an investigation of a model polyp located on the medial surface of an in vitro driven vocal fold model, which show that such a geometric abnormality considerably disrupts the glottal jet behavior. This flow field adjustment is a likely reason for the severe degradation of the vocal quality in patients with polyps. A more complete understanding of the formation and propagation of vortical structures from a geometric protuberance, such as a vocal fold polyp, and the resulting influence on the aerodynamic loadings that drive the vocal fold dynamics, is necessary for advancing the treatment of this pathological condition. The present investigation concerns the three-dimensional flow separation induced by a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, i.e. a model vocal fold polyp, using an oil-film visualization technique. Unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation and its impact of the wall pressure loading are examined using skin friction line visualization and wall pressure measurements.
Bioengineering, Issue 84, oil-flow visualization, vocal fold polyp, three-dimensional flow separation, aerodynamic pressure loadings
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Measuring Material Microstructure Under Flow Using 1-2 Plane Flow-Small Angle Neutron Scattering
Authors: A. Kate Gurnon, P. Douglas Godfrin, Norman J. Wagner, Aaron P. R. Eberle, Paul Butler, Lionel Porcar.
Institutions: University of Delaware, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Institut Laue-Langevin.
A new small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) sample environment optimized for studying the microstructure of complex fluids under simple shear flow is presented. The SANS shear cell consists of a concentric cylinder Couette geometry that is sealed and rotating about a horizontal axis so that the vorticity direction of the flow field is aligned with the neutron beam enabling scattering from the 1-2 plane of shear (velocity-velocity gradient, respectively). This approach is an advance over previous shear cell sample environments as there is a strong coupling between the bulk rheology and microstructural features in the 1-2 plane of shear. Flow-instabilities, such as shear banding, can also be studied by spatially resolved measurements. This is accomplished in this sample environment by using a narrow aperture for the neutron beam and scanning along the velocity gradient direction. Time resolved experiments, such as flow start-ups and large amplitude oscillatory shear flow are also possible by synchronization of the shear motion and time-resolved detection of scattered neutrons. Representative results using the methods outlined here demonstrate the useful nature of spatial resolution for measuring the microstructure of a wormlike micelle solution that exhibits shear banding, a phenomenon that can only be investigated by resolving the structure along the velocity gradient direction. Finally, potential improvements to the current design are discussed along with suggestions for supplementary experiments as motivation for future experiments on a broad range of complex fluids in a variety of shear motions.
Physics, Issue 84, Surfactants, Rheology, Shear Banding, Nanostructure, Neutron Scattering, Complex Fluids, Flow-induced Structure
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Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Authors: Yves Molino, Françoise Jabès, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Nicolas Gaudin, Michel Khrestchatisky.
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2 on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3 cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
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Human Neutrophil Flow Chamber Adhesion Assay
Authors: Yebin Zhou, Dennis F. Kucik, Alexander J. Szalai, Jeffrey C. Edberg.
Institutions: University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Neutrophil firm adhesion to endothelial cells plays a critical role in inflammation in both health and disease. The process of neutrophil firm adhesion involves many different adhesion molecules including members of the β2 integrin family and their counter-receptors of the ICAM family. Recently, naturally occurring genetic variants in both β2 integrins and ICAMs are reported to be associated with autoimmune disease. Thus, the quantitative adhesive capacity of neutrophils from individuals with varying allelic forms of these adhesion molecules is important to study in relation to mechanisms underlying development of autoimmunity. Adhesion studies in flow chamber systems can create an environment with fluid shear stress similar to that observed in the blood vessel environment in vivo. Here, we present a method using a flow chamber assay system to study the quantitative adhesive properties of human peripheral blood neutrophils to human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and to purified ligand substrates. With this method, the neutrophil adhesive capacities from donors with different allelic variants in adhesion receptors can be assessed and compared. This method can also be modified to assess adhesion of other primary cell types or cell lines.
Immunology, Issue 89, neutrophil adhesion, flow chamber, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), purified ligand
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Chemotactic Response of Marine Micro-Organisms to Micro-Scale Nutrient Layers
Authors: Justin R. Seymour, Marcos, Roman Stocker.
Institutions: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The degree to which planktonic microbes can exploit microscale resource patches will have considerable implications for oceanic trophodynamics and biogeochemical flux. However, to take advantage of nutrient patches in the ocean, swimming microbes must overcome the influences of physical forces including molecular diffusion and turbulent shear, which will limit the availability of patches and the ability of bacteria to locate them. Until recently, methodological limitations have precluded direct examinations of microbial behaviour within patchy habitats and realistic small-scale flow conditions. Hence, much of our current knowledge regarding microbial behaviour in the ocean has been procured from theoretical predictions. To obtain new information on microbial foraging behaviour in the ocean we have applied soft lithographic fabrication techniques to develop 2 microfluidic devices, which we have used to create (i) microscale nutrient patches with dimensions and diffusive characteristics relevant to oceanic processes and (ii) microscale vortices, with shear rates corresponding to those expected in the ocean. These microfluidic devices have permitted a first direct examination of microbial swimming and chemotactic behaviour within a heterogeneous and dynamic seascape. The combined use of epifluorescence and phase contrast microscopy allow direct examinations of the physical dimensions and diffusive characteristics of nutrient patches, while observing the population-level aggregative response, in addition to the swimming behaviour of individual microbes. These experiments have revealed that some species of phytoplankton, heterotrophic bacteria and phagotrophic protists are adept at locating and exploiting diffusing microscale resource patches within very short time frames. We have also shown that up to moderate shear rates, marine bacteria are able to fight the flow and swim through their environment at their own accord. However, beyond a threshold high shear level, bacteria are aligned in the shear flow and are less capable of swimming without disturbance from the flow. Microfluidics represents a novel and inexpensive approach for studying aquatic microbial ecology, and due to its suitability for accurately creating realistic flow fields and substrate gradients at the microscale, is ideally applicable to examinations of microbial behaviour at the smallest scales of interaction. We therefore suggest that microfluidics represents a valuable tool for obtaining a better understanding of the ecology of microorganisms in the ocean.
Microbiology, issue 4, microbial community, chemotaxis, microfluidics
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Confocal Imaging of Confined Quiescent and Flowing Colloid-polymer Mixtures
Authors: Rahul Pandey, Melissa Spannuth, Jacinta C. Conrad.
Institutions: University of Houston.
The behavior of confined colloidal suspensions with attractive interparticle interactions is critical to the rational design of materials for directed assembly1-3, drug delivery4, improved hydrocarbon recovery5-7, and flowable electrodes for energy storage8. Suspensions containing fluorescent colloids and non-adsorbing polymers are appealing model systems, as the ratio of the polymer radius of gyration to the particle radius and concentration of polymer control the range and strength of the interparticle attraction, respectively. By tuning the polymer properties and the volume fraction of the colloids, colloid fluids, fluids of clusters, gels, crystals, and glasses can be obtained9. Confocal microscopy, a variant of fluorescence microscopy, allows an optically transparent and fluorescent sample to be imaged with high spatial and temporal resolution in three dimensions. In this technique, a small pinhole or slit blocks the emitted fluorescent light from regions of the sample that are outside the focal volume of the microscope optical system. As a result, only a thin section of the sample in the focal plane is imaged. This technique is particularly well suited to probe the structure and dynamics in dense colloidal suspensions at the single-particle scale: the particles are large enough to be resolved using visible light and diffuse slowly enough to be captured at typical scan speeds of commercial confocal systems10. Improvements in scan speeds and analysis algorithms have also enabled quantitative confocal imaging of flowing suspensions11-16,37. In this paper, we demonstrate confocal microscopy experiments to probe the confined phase behavior and flow properties of colloid-polymer mixtures. We first prepare colloid-polymer mixtures that are density- and refractive-index matched. Next, we report a standard protocol for imaging quiescent dense colloid-polymer mixtures under varying confinement in thin wedge-shaped cells. Finally, we demonstrate a protocol for imaging colloid-polymer mixtures during microchannel flow.
Chemistry, Issue 87, confocal microscopy, particle tracking, colloids, suspensions, confinement, gelation, microfluidics, image correlation, dynamics, suspension flow
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In vitro Method to Observe E-selectin-mediated Interactions Between Prostate Circulating Tumor Cells Derived From Patients and Human Endothelial Cells
Authors: Gunjan Gakhar, Neil H. Bander, David M. Nanus.
Institutions: Weill Cornell Medical College, Weill Cornell Medical College.
Metastasis is a process in which tumor cells shed from the primary tumor intravasate blood vascular and lymphatic system, thereby, gaining access to extravasate and form a secondary niche. The extravasation of tumor cells from the blood vascular system can be studied using endothelial cells (ECs) and tumor cells obtained from different cell lines. Initial studies were conducted using static conditions but it has been well documented that ECs behave differently under physiological flow conditions. Therefore, different flow chamber assemblies are currently being used to studying cancer cell interactions with ECs. Current flow chamber assemblies offer reproducible results using either different cell lines or fluid at different shear stress conditions. However, to observe and study interactions with rare cells such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), certain changes are required to be made to the conventional flow chamber assembly. CTCs are a rare cell population among millions of blood cells. Consequently, it is difficult to obtain a pure population of CTCs. Contamination of CTCs with different types of cells normally found in the circulation is inevitable using present enrichment or depletion techniques. In the present report, we describe a unique method to fluorescently label circulating prostate cancer cells and study their interactions with ECs in a self-assembled flow chamber system. This technique can be further applied to observe interactions between prostate CTCs and any protein of interest.
Medicine, Issue 87, E-selectin, Metastasis, Microslides, Circulating tumor cells, PSMA, Prostate cancer, rolling velocity, immunostaining, HUVECs, flow chambers
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The Preparation of Electrohydrodynamic Bridges from Polar Dielectric Liquids
Authors: Adam D. Wexler, Mónica López Sáenz, Oliver Schreer, Jakob Woisetschläger, Elmar C. Fuchs.
Institutions: Wetsus - Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, IRCAM GmbH, Graz University of Technology.
Horizontal and vertical liquid bridges are simple and powerful tools for exploring the interaction of high intensity electric fields (8-20 kV/cm) and polar dielectric liquids. These bridges are unique from capillary bridges in that they exhibit extensibility beyond a few millimeters, have complex bi-directional mass transfer patterns, and emit non-Planck infrared radiation. A number of common solvents can form such bridges as well as low conductivity solutions and colloidal suspensions. The macroscopic behavior is governed by electrohydrodynamics and provides a means of studying fluid flow phenomena without the presence of rigid walls. Prior to the onset of a liquid bridge several important phenomena can be observed including advancing meniscus height (electrowetting), bulk fluid circulation (the Sumoto effect), and the ejection of charged droplets (electrospray). The interaction between surface, polarization, and displacement forces can be directly examined by varying applied voltage and bridge length. The electric field, assisted by gravity, stabilizes the liquid bridge against Rayleigh-Plateau instabilities. Construction of basic apparatus for both vertical and horizontal orientation along with operational examples, including thermographic images, for three liquids (e.g., water, DMSO, and glycerol) is presented.
Physics, Issue 91, floating water bridge, polar dielectric liquids, liquid bridge, electrohydrodynamics, thermography, dielectrophoresis, electrowetting, Sumoto effect, Armstrong effect
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Ultrasound Assessment of Endothelial-Dependent Flow-Mediated Vasodilation of the Brachial Artery in Clinical Research
Authors: Hugh Alley, Christopher D. Owens, Warren J. Gasper, S. Marlene Grenon.
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco.
The vascular endothelium is a monolayer of cells that cover the interior of blood vessels and provide both structural and functional roles. The endothelium acts as a barrier, preventing leukocyte adhesion and aggregation, as well as controlling permeability to plasma components. Functionally, the endothelium affects vessel tone. Endothelial dysfunction is an imbalance between the chemical species which regulate vessel tone, thombroresistance, cellular proliferation and mitosis. It is the first step in atherosclerosis and is associated with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. The first demonstration of endothelial dysfunction involved direct infusion of acetylcholine and quantitative coronary angiography. Acetylcholine binds to muscarinic receptors on the endothelial cell surface, leading to an increase of intracellular calcium and increased nitric oxide (NO) production. In subjects with an intact endothelium, vasodilation was observed while subjects with endothelial damage experienced paradoxical vasoconstriction. There exists a non-invasive, in vivo method for measuring endothelial function in peripheral arteries using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. The endothelial function of peripheral arteries is closely related to coronary artery function. This technique measures the percent diameter change in the brachial artery during a period of reactive hyperemia following limb ischemia. This technique, known as endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) has value in clinical research settings. However, a number of physiological and technical issues can affect the accuracy of the results and appropriate guidelines for the technique have been published. Despite the guidelines, FMD remains heavily operator dependent and presents a steep learning curve. This article presents a standardized method for measuring FMD in the brachial artery on the upper arm and offers suggestions to reduce intra-operator variability.
Medicine, Issue 92, endothelial function, endothelial dysfunction, brachial artery, peripheral artery disease, ultrasound, vascular, endothelium, cardiovascular disease.
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Generation of Shear Adhesion Map Using SynVivo Synthetic Microvascular Networks
Authors: Ashley M. Smith, Balabhaskar Prabhakarpandian, Kapil Pant.
Institutions: CFD Research Corporation.
Cell/particle adhesion assays are critical to understanding the biochemical interactions involved in disease pathophysiology and have important applications in the quest for the development of novel therapeutics. Assays using static conditions fail to capture the dependence of adhesion on shear, limiting their correlation with in vivo environment. Parallel plate flow chambers that quantify adhesion under physiological fluid flow need multiple experiments for the generation of a shear adhesion map. In addition, they do not represent the in vivo scale and morphology and require large volumes (~ml) of reagents for experiments. In this study, we demonstrate the generation of shear adhesion map from a single experiment using a microvascular network based microfluidic device, SynVivo-SMN. This device recreates the complex in vivo vasculature including geometric scale, morphological elements, flow features and cellular interactions in an in vitro format, thereby providing a biologically realistic environment for basic and applied research in cellular behavior, drug delivery, and drug discovery. The assay was demonstrated by studying the interaction of the 2 µm biotin-coated particles with avidin-coated surfaces of the microchip. The entire range of shear observed in the microvasculature is obtained in a single assay enabling adhesion vs. shear map for the particles under physiological conditions.
Bioengineering, Issue 87, particle, adhesion, shear, microfluidics, vasculature, networks
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A Novel Three-dimensional Flow Chamber Device to Study Chemokine-directed Extravasation of Cells Circulating under Physiological Flow Conditions
Authors: Valentina Goncharova, Sophia K. Khaldoyanidi.
Institutions: Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Cascade LifeSciences Inc..
Extravasation of circulating cells from the bloodstream plays a central role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including stem cell homing and tumor metastasis. The three-dimensional flow chamber device (hereafter the 3D device) is a novel in vitro technology that recreates physiological shear stress and allows each step of the cell extravasation cascade to be quantified. The 3D device consists of an upper compartment in which the cells of interest circulate under shear stress, and a lower compartment of static wells that contain the chemoattractants of interest. The two compartments are separated by porous inserts coated with a monolayer of endothelial cells (EC). An optional second insert with microenvironmental cells of interest can be placed immediately beneath the EC layer. A gas exchange unit allows the optimal CO2 tension to be maintained and provides an access point to add or withdraw cells or compounds during the experiment. The test cells circulate in the upper compartment at the desired shear stress (flow rate) controlled by a peristaltic pump. At the end of the experiment, the circulating and migrated cells are collected for further analyses. The 3D device can be used to examine cell rolling on and adhesion to EC under shear stress, transmigration in response to chemokine gradients, resistance to shear stress, cluster formation, and cell survival. In addition, the optional second insert allows the effects of crosstalk between EC and microenvironmental cells to be examined. The translational applications of the 3D device include testing of drug candidates that target cell migration and predicting the in vivo behavior of cells after intravenous injection. Thus, the novel 3D device is a versatile and inexpensive tool to study the molecular mechanisms that mediate cellular extravasation.
Bioengineering, Issue 77, Cellular Biology, Biophysics, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Immunology, Cells, Biological Factors, Equipment and Supplies, Cell Physiological Phenomena, Natural Science Disciplines, Life Sciences (General), circulating cells, extravasation, physiological shear stress, endothelial cells, microenvironment, chemokine gradient, flow, chamber, cell culture, assay
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Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation Under Flow using Microfluidic Flow Cells
Authors: Carolyn G. Conant, Michael A. Schwartz, Tanner Nevill, Cristian Ionescu-Zanetti.
Institutions: Fluxion Biosciences, Inc..
Platelet aggregation occurs in response to vascular injury where the extracellular matrix below the endothelium has been exposed. The platelet adhesion cascade takes place in the presence of shear flow, a factor not accounted for in conventional (static) well-plate assays. This article reports on a platelet-aggregation assay utilizing a microfluidic well-plate format to emulate physiological shear flow conditions. Extracellular proteins, collagen I or von Willebrand factor are deposited within the microfluidic channel using active perfusion with a pneumatic pump. The matrix proteins are then washed with buffer and blocked to prepare the microfluidic channel for platelet interactions. Whole blood labeled with fluorescent dye is perfused through the channel at various flow rates in order to achieve platelet activation and aggregation. Inhibitors of platelet aggregation can be added prior to the flow cell experiment to generate IC50 dose response data.
Medicine, Issue 32, thrombus formation, anti-thrombotic, microfluidic, whole blood assay, IC50, drug screening, platelet, adhesion
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Introducing Shear Stress in the Study of Bacterial Adhesion
Authors: Magali Soyer, Guillaume Duménil.
Institutions: INSERM U970.
During bacterial infections a sequence of interactions occur between the pathogen and its host. Bacterial adhesion to the host cell surface is often the initial and determining step of the pathogenesis. Although experimentally adhesion is mostly studied in static conditions adhesion actually takes place in the presence of flowing liquid. First encounters between bacteria and their host often occur at the mucosal level, mouth, lung, gut, eye, etc. where mucus flows along the surface of epithelial cells. Later in infection, pathogens occasionally access the blood circulation causing life-threatening illnesses such as septicemia, sepsis and meningitis. A defining feature of these infections is the ability of these pathogens to interact with endothelial cells in presence of circulating blood. The presence of flowing liquid, mucus or blood for instance, determines adhesion because it generates a mechanical force on the pathogen. To characterize the effect of flowing liquid one usually refers to the notion of shear stress, which is the tangential force exerted per unit area by a fluid moving near a stationary wall, expressed in dynes/cm2. Intensities of shear stress vary widely according to the different vessels type, size, organ, location etc. (0-100 dynes/cm2). Circulation in capillaries can reach very low shear stress values and even temporarily stop during periods ranging between a few seconds to several minutes 1. On the other end of the spectrum shear stress in arterioles can reach 100 dynes/cm2 2. The impact of shear stress on different biological processes has been clearly demonstrated as for instance during the interaction of leukocytes with the endothelium 3. To take into account this mechanical parameter in the process of bacterial adhesion we took advantage of an experimental procedure based on the use of a disposable flow chamber 4. Host cells are grown in the flow chamber and fluorescent bacteria are introduced in the flow controlled by a syringe pump. We initially focused our investigations on the bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for septicemia and meningitis. The procedure described here allowed us to study the impact of shear stress on the ability of the bacteria to: adhere to cells 1, to proliferate on the cell surface 5and to detach to colonize new sites 6 (Figure 1). Complementary technical information can be found in reference 7. Shear stress values presented here were chosen based on our previous experience1 and to represent values found in the literature. The protocol should be applicable to a wide range of pathogens with specific adjustments depending on the objectives of the study.
Immunology, Issue 55, microbiology, blood vessel, shear stress, blood flow, adhesion, infectious disease, meningitis, brain, septicemia, sepsis
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Implantation of a Carotid Cuff for Triggering Shear-stress Induced Atherosclerosis in Mice
Authors: Michael T. Kuhlmann, Simon Cuhlmann, Irmgard Hoppe, Rob Krams, Paul C. Evans, Gustav J. Strijkers, Klaas Nicolay, Sven Hermann, Michael Schäfers.
Institutions: Westfälische Wilhelms-University Münster, Imperial College London , Imperial College London , Eindhoven University of Technology.
It is widely accepted that alterations in vascular shear stress trigger the expression of inflammatory genes in endothelial cells and thereby induce atherosclerosis (reviewed in 1 and 2). The role of shear stress has been extensively studied in vitro investigating the influence of flow dynamics on cultured endothelial cells 1,3,4 and in vivo in larger animals and humans 1,5,6,7,8. However, highly reproducible small animal models allowing systematic investigation of the influence of shear stress on plaque development are rare. Recently, Nam et al. 9 introduced a mouse model in which the ligation of branches of the carotid artery creates a region of low and oscillatory flow. Although this model causes endothelial dysfunction and rapid formation of atherosclerotic lesions in hyperlipidemic mice, it cannot be excluded that the observed inflammatory response is, at least in part, a consequence of endothelial and/or vessel damage due to ligation. In order to avoid such limitations, a shear stress modifying cuff has been developed based upon calculated fluid dynamics, whose cone shaped inner lumen was selected to create defined regions of low, high and oscillatory shear stress within the common carotid artery 10. By applying this model in Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed a high cholesterol western type diet, vascular lesions develop upstream and downstream from the cuff. Their phenotype is correlated with the regional flow dynamics 11 as confirmed by in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 12: Low and laminar shear stress upstream of the cuff causes the formation of extensive plaques of a more vulnerable phenotype, whereas oscillatory shear stress downstream of the cuff induces stable atherosclerotic lesions 11. In those regions of high shear stress and high laminar flow within the cuff, typically no atherosclerotic plaques are observed. In conclusion, the shear stress-modifying cuff procedure is a reliable surgical approach to produce phenotypically different atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-deficient mice.
Medicine, Issue 59, atherosclerosis, mouse, cardiovascular disease, shear stress
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On-Chip Endothelial Inflammatory Phenotyping
Authors: J. Sherrod DeVerse, Keith A. Bailey, Greg A. Foster, Vaishali Mittal, Stuart M. Altman, Scott I. Simon, Anthony G. Passerini.
Institutions: University of California, Davis .
Atherogenesis is potentiated by metabolic abnormalities that contribute to a heightened state of systemic inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction. However, early functional changes in endothelium that signify an individual's level of risk are not directly assessed clinically to help guide therapeutic strategy. Moreover, the regulation of inflammation by local hemodynamics contributes to the non-random spatial distribution of atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms are difficult to delineate in vivo. We describe a lab-on-a-chip based approach to quantitatively assay metabolic perturbation of inflammatory events in human endothelial cells (EC) and monocytes under precise flow conditions. Standard methods of soft lithography are used to microfabricate vascular mimetic microfluidic chambers (VMMC), which are bound directly to cultured EC monolayers.1 These devices have the advantage of using small volumes of reagents while providing a platform for directly imaging the inflammatory events at the membrane of EC exposed to a well-defined shear field. We have successfully applied these devices to investigate cytokine-,2 lipid-3, 4 and RAGE-induced5 inflammation in human aortic EC (HAEC). Here we document the use of the VMMC to assay monocytic cell (THP-1) rolling and arrest on HAEC monolayers that are conditioned under differential shear characteristics and activated by the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Studies such as these are providing mechanistic insight into atherosusceptibility under metabolic risk factors.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 65, Bioengineering, Immunology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, endothelial cell, monocyte arrest, microfluidics, shear stress, cytokine, atherosclerosis, inflammation
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Micro-particle Image Velocimetry for Velocity Profile Measurements of Micro Blood Flows
Authors: Katie L. Pitts, Marianne Fenech.
Institutions: University of Ottawa , University of Ottawa.
Micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV) is used to visualize paired images of micro particles seeded in blood flows. The images are cross-correlated to give an accurate velocity profile. A protocol is presented for μPIV measurements of blood flows in microchannels. At the scale of the microcirculation, blood cannot be considered a homogeneous fluid, as it is a suspension of flexible particles suspended in plasma, a Newtonian fluid. Shear rate, maximum velocity, velocity profile shape, and flow rate can be derived from these measurements. Several key parameters such as focal depth, particle concentration, and system compliance, are presented in order to ensure accurate, useful data along with examples and representative results for various hematocrits and flow conditions.
Bioengineering, Issue 74, Biophysics, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Hematology, Blood Physiological Phenomena, Hemorheology, Hematocrit, flow characteristics, flow measurement, flow visualization, rheology, Red blood cells, cross correlation, micro blood flows, microfluidics, microhemorheology, microcirculation, velocimetry, visualization, imaging
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High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry Near Surfaces
Authors: Louise Lu, Volker Sick.
Institutions: University of Michigan.
Multi-dimensional and transient flows play a key role in many areas of science, engineering, and health sciences but are often not well understood. The complex nature of these flows may be studied using particle image velocimetry (PIV), a laser-based imaging technique for optically accessible flows. Though many forms of PIV exist that extend the technique beyond the original planar two-component velocity measurement capabilities, the basic PIV system consists of a light source (laser), a camera, tracer particles, and analysis algorithms. The imaging and recording parameters, the light source, and the algorithms are adjusted to optimize the recording for the flow of interest and obtain valid velocity data. Common PIV investigations measure two-component velocities in a plane at a few frames per second. However, recent developments in instrumentation have facilitated high-frame rate (> 1 kHz) measurements capable of resolving transient flows with high temporal resolution. Therefore, high-frame rate measurements have enabled investigations on the evolution of the structure and dynamics of highly transient flows. These investigations play a critical role in understanding the fundamental physics of complex flows. A detailed description for performing high-resolution, high-speed planar PIV to study a transient flow near the surface of a flat plate is presented here. Details for adjusting the parameter constraints such as image and recording properties, the laser sheet properties, and processing algorithms to adapt PIV for any flow of interest are included.
Physics, Issue 76, Mechanical Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, flow measurement, fluid heat transfer, internal flow in turbomachinery (applications), boundary layer flow (general), flow visualization (instrumentation), laser instruments (design and operation), Boundary layer, micro-PIV, optical laser diagnostics, internal combustion engines, flow, fluids, particle, velocimetry, visualization
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Systematic Analysis of In Vitro Cell Rolling Using a Multi-well Plate Microfluidic System
Authors: Oren Levy, Priya Anandakumaran, Jessica Ngai, Rohit Karnik, Jeffrey M. Karp.
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard University, Harvard University, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A major challenge for cell-based therapy is the inability to systemically target a large quantity of viable cells with high efficiency to tissues of interest following intravenous or intraarterial infusion. Consequently, increasing cell homing is currently studied as a strategy to improve cell therapy. Cell rolling on the vascular endothelium is an important step in the process of cell homing and can be probed in-vitro using a parallel plate flow chamber (PPFC). However, this is an extremely tedious, low throughput assay, with poorly controlled flow conditions. Instead, we used a multi-well plate microfluidic system that enables study of cellular rolling properties in a higher throughput under precisely controlled, physiologically relevant shear flow1,2. In this paper, we show how the rolling properties of HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cells on P- and E-selectin-coated surfaces as well as on cell monolayer-coated surfaces can be readily examined. To better simulate inflammatory conditions, the microfluidic channel surface was coated with endothelial cells (ECs), which were then activated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), significantly increasing interactions with HL-60 cells under dynamic conditions. The enhanced throughput and integrated multi-parameter software analysis platform, that permits rapid analysis of parameters such as rolling velocities and rolling path, are important advantages for assessing cell rolling properties in-vitro. Allowing rapid and accurate analysis of engineering approaches designed to impact cell rolling and homing, this platform may help advance exogenous cell-based therapy.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Microfluidics, Endothelial Cells, Leukocyte Rolling, HL-60 cells, TNF-α, P-selectin, E-selectin
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Procedure for Human Saphenous Veins Ex Vivo Perfusion and External Reinforcement
Authors: Alban Longchamp, Florent Allagnat, Xavier Berard, Florian Alonso, Jacques-Antoine Haefliger, Sébastien Deglise, Jean-Marc Corpataux.
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, CHUV University Hospital, University of Bordeaux, CHUV University Hospital.
The mainstay of contemporary therapies for extensive occlusive arterial disease is venous bypass graft. However, its durability is threatened by intimal hyperplasia (IH) that eventually leads to vessel occlusion and graft failure. Mechanical forces, particularly low shear stress and high wall tension, are thought to initiate and to sustain these cellular and molecular changes, but their exact contribution remains to be unraveled. To selectively evaluate the role of pressure and shear stress on the biology of IH, an ex vivo perfusion system (EVPS) was created to perfuse segments of human saphenous veins under arterial regimen (high shear stress and high pressure). Further technical innovations allowed the simultaneous perfusion of two segments from the same vein, one reinforced with an external mesh. Veins were harvested using a no-touch technique and immediately transferred to the laboratory for assembly in the EVPS. One segment of the freshly isolated vein was not perfused (control, day 0). The two others segments were perfused for up to 7 days, one being completely sheltered with a 4 mm (diameter) external mesh. The pressure, flow velocity, and pulse rate were continuously monitored and adjusted to mimic the hemodynamic conditions prevailing in the femoral artery. Upon completion of the perfusion, veins were dismounted and used for histological and molecular analysis. Under ex vivo conditions, high pressure perfusion (arterial, mean = 100 mm Hg) is sufficient to generate IH and remodeling of human veins. These alterations are reduced in the presence of an external polyester mesh.
Medicine, Issue 92, vein, human, intimal hyperplasia, neointima, perfusion, mesh, pressure, ex vivo
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Studying Cell Rolling Trajectories on Asymmetric Receptor Patterns
Authors: Chia-Hua Lee, Suman Bose, Krystyn J. Van Vliet, Jeffrey M. Karp, Rohit Karnik.
Institutions: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School.
Lateral displacement of cells orthogonal to a flow stream by rolling on asymmetric receptor patterns presents an opportunity for development of new devices for label-free separation and analysis of cells1. Such devices may use lateral displacement for continuous-flow separation, or receptor patterns that modulate adhesion to distinguish between different cell phenotypes or levels of receptor expression. Understanding the nature of cell rolling trajectories on receptor-patterned substrates is necessary for engineering of the substrates and design of such devices. Here, we demonstrate a protocol for studying cell rolling trajectories on asymmetric receptor patterns that support cell rolling adhesion2. Well-defined, μm-scale patterns of P-selectin receptors were fabricated using microcontact printing on gold-coated slides that were incorporated in a flow chamber. HL60 cells expressing the PSGL-1 ligand 3were flowed across a field of patterned lines and visualized on an inverted bright field microscope. The cells rolled and tracked along the inclined edges of the patterns, resulting in lateral deflection1. Each cell typically rolled for a certain distance along the pattern edges (defined as the edge tracking length), detached from the edge, and reattached to a downstream pattern. Although this detachment makes it difficult to track the entire trajectory of a cell from entrance to exit in the flow chamber, particle-tracking software was used to analyze and yield the rolling trajectories of the cells during the time when they were moving on a single receptor-patterned line. The trajectories were then examined to obtain distributions of cell rolling velocities and the edge tracking lengths for each cell for different patterns. This protocol is useful for quantifying cell rolling trajectories on receptor patterns and relating these to engineering parameters such as pattern angle and shear stress. Such data will be useful for design of microfluidic devices for label-free cell separation and analysis.
Bioengineering, Issue 48, cell rolling, microcontact printing, cell adhesion, cell analysis, cell separation, P-selectin
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