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Pubmed Article
Immunohistochemical analysis of the mechanistic target of rapamycin and hypoxia signalling pathways in basal cell carcinoma and trichoepithelioma.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in Caucasians. Trichoepithelioma (TE) is a benign neoplasm that strongly resembles BCC. Both are hair follicle (HF) tumours. HFs are hypoxic microenvironments, therefore we hypothesized that hypoxia-induced signalling pathways could be involved in BCC and TE as they are in other human malignancies. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) and mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are key players in these pathways.
Authors: Virginia Espina, Kirsten H. Edmiston, Lance A. Liotta.
Published: 11-08-2014
Breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), by definition, is proliferation of neoplastic epithelial cells within the confines of the breast duct, without breaching the collagenous basement membrane. While DCIS is a non-obligate precursor to invasive breast cancers, the molecular mechanisms and cell populations that permit progression to invasive cancer are not fully known. To determine if progenitor cells capable of invasion existed within the DCIS cell population, we developed a methodology for collecting and culturing sterile human breast tissue at the time of surgery, without enzymatic disruption of tissue. Sterile breast tissue containing ductal segments is harvested from surgically excised breast tissue following routine pathological examination. Tissue containing DCIS is placed in nutrient rich, antibiotic-containing, serum free medium, and transported to the tissue culture laboratory. The breast tissue is further dissected to isolate the calcified areas. Multiple breast tissue pieces (organoids) are placed in a minimal volume of serum free medium in a flask with a removable lid and cultured in a humidified CO2 incubator. Epithelial and fibroblast cell populations emerge from the organoid after 10 - 14 days. Mammospheres spontaneously form on and around the epithelial cell monolayer. Specific cell populations can be harvested directly from the flask without disrupting neighboring cells. Our non-enzymatic tissue culture system reliably reveals cytogenetically abnormal, invasive progenitor cells from fresh human DCIS lesions.
23 Related JoVE Articles!
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Cell Population Analyses During Skin Carcinogenesis
Authors: Dongsheng Gu, Qipeng Fan, Jingwu Xie.
Institutions: Indiana University.
Cancer development is a multiple-step process involving many cell types including cancer precursor cells, immune cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Each type of cells undergoes signaling and functional changes during carcinogenesis. The current challenge for many cancer researchers is to dissect these changes in each cell type during the multiple-step process in vivo. In the last few years, the authors have developed a set of procedures to isolate different cell populations during skin cancer development using K14creER/R26-SmoM2YFP mice. The procedure is divided into 6 parts: 1) generating appropriate mice for the study (K14creER+ and R26-SmoM2YFP+ mice in this protocol); 2) inducing SmoM2YFP expression in mouse skin; 3) preparing mouse skin biopsies; 4) isolating epidermis from skin; 5) preparing single cells from epidermis; 6) labeling single cell populations for flow cytometry analysis. Generation of sufficient number of mice with the right genotype is the limiting step in this protocol, which may take up to two months. The rest of steps take a few hours to a few days. Within this protocol, we also include a section for troubleshooting. Although we focus on skin cancer, this protocol may be modified to apply for other animal models of human diseases.
Cancer Biology, Issue 78, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Anatomy, Physiology, Oncology, Cocarcinogenesis, animal models, Skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, hedgehog, smoothened, keratinocyte, cancer, carcinogenesis, cells, cell culture, animal model
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Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)
Authors: Samira Samtleben, Juliane Jaepel, Caroline Fecher, Thomas Andreska, Markus Rehberg, Robert Blum.
Institutions: University of Wuerzburg, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich.
Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca2+ indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca2+ indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca2+ indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+ indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca2+ complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0.
Cellular Biology, Issue 75, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Virology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Endoplasmic Reticulum, ER, Calcium Signaling, calcium store, calcium imaging, calcium indicator, metabotropic signaling, Ca2+, neurons, cells, mouse, animal model, cell culture, targeted esterase induced dye loading, imaging
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Biochemical Titration of Glycogen In vitro
Authors: Joffrey Pelletier, Grégory Bellot, Jacques Pouysségur, Nathalie M. Mazure.
Institutions: University of Nice - Sophia Antipolis.
Glycogen is the main energetic polymer of glucose in vertebrate animals and plays a crucial role in whole body metabolism as well as in cellular metabolism. Many methods to detect glycogen already exist but only a few are quantitative. We describe here a method using the Abcam Glycogen assay kit, which is based on specific degradation of glycogen to glucose by glucoamylase. Glucose is then specifically oxidized to a product that reacts with the OxiRed probe to produce fluorescence. Titration is accurate, sensitive and can be achieved on cell extracts or tissue sections. However, in contrast to other techniques, it does not give information about the distribution of glycogen in the cell. As an example of this technique, we describe here the titration of glycogen in two cell lines, Chinese hamster lung fibroblast CCL39 and human colon carcinoma LS174, incubated in normoxia (21% O2) versus hypoxia (1% O2). We hypothesized that hypoxia is a signal that prepares cells to synthesize and store glycogen in order to survive1.
Basic Protocol, Issue 81, Glycogen, Glucoamylase, Fluorescence, Oxidation, Periodic Acid Shiff staining (PAS)
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Generation of Subcutaneous and Intrahepatic Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Xenografts in Immunodeficient Mice
Authors: Sharif U. Ahmed, Murtuza Zair, Kui Chen, Matthew Iu, Feng He, Oyedele Adeyi, Sean P. Cleary, Anand Ghanekar.
Institutions: University Health Network, University Health Network, University Health Network.
In vivo experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that recapitulate the human disease provide a valuable platform for research into disease pathophysiology and for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapies. We present a variety of methods to generate subcutaneous or orthotopic human HCC xenografts in immunodeficient mice that could be utilized in a variety of research applications. With a focus on the use of primary tumor tissue from patients undergoing surgical resection as a starting point, we describe the preparation of cell suspensions or tumor fragments for xenografting. We describe specific techniques to xenograft these tissues i) subcutaneously; or ii) intrahepatically, either by direct implantation of tumor cells or fragments into the liver, or indirectly by injection of cells into the mouse spleen. We also describe the use of partial resection of the native mouse liver at the time of xenografting as a strategy to induce a state of active liver regeneration in the recipient mouse that may facilitate the intrahepatic engraftment of primary human tumor cells. The expected results of these techniques are illustrated. The protocols described have been validated using primary human HCC samples and xenografts, which typically perform less robustly than the well-established human HCC cell lines that are widely used and frequently cited in the literature. In comparison with cell lines, we discuss factors which may contribute to the relatively low chance of primary HCC engraftment in xenotransplantation models and comment on technical issues that may influence the kinetics of xenograft growth. We also suggest methods that should be applied to ensure that xenografts obtained accurately resemble parent HCC tissues.
Medicine, Issue 79, Liver Neoplasms, Hepatectomy, animal models, hepatocellular carcinoma, xenograft, cancer, liver, subcutaneous, intrahepatic, orthotopic, mouse, human, immunodeficient
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Quantitative and Temporal Control of Oxygen Microenvironment at the Single Islet Level
Authors: Joe Fu-Jiou Lo, Yong Wang, Zidong Li, Zhengtuo Zhao, Di Hu, David T. Eddington, Jose Oberholzer.
Institutions: University of Michigan-Dearborn, University of Illinois at Chicago, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Simultaneous oxygenation and monitoring of glucose stimulus-secretion coupling factors in a single technique is critical for modeling pathophysiological states of islet hypoxia, especially in transplant environments. Standard hypoxic chamber techniques cannot modulate both stimulations at the same time nor provide real-time monitoring of glucose stimulus-secretion coupling factors. To address these difficulties, we applied a multilayered microfluidic technique to integrate both aqueous and gas phase modulations via a diffusion membrane. This creates a stimulation sandwich around the microscaled islets within the transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device, enabling monitoring of the aforementioned coupling factors via fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, the gas input is controlled by a pair of microdispensers, providing quantitative, sub-minute modulations of oxygen between 0-21%. This intermittent hypoxia is applied to investigate a new phenomenon of islet preconditioning. Moreover, armed with multimodal microscopy, we were able to look at detailed calcium and KATP channel dynamics during these hypoxic events. We envision microfluidic hypoxia, especially this simultaneous dual phase technique, as a valuable tool in studying islets as well as many ex vivo tissues.
Bioengineering, Issue 81, Islets of Langerhans, Microfluidics, Microfluidic Analytical Techniques, Microfluidic Analytical Techniques, oxygen, islet, hypoxia, intermittent hypoxia
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Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers
Authors: Rasa Ghaffarian, Silvia Muro.
Institutions: University of Maryland, University of Maryland.
Sub-micrometer carriers (nanocarriers; NCs) enhance efficacy of drugs by improving solubility, stability, circulation time, targeting, and release. Additionally, traversing cellular barriers in the body is crucial for both oral delivery of therapeutic NCs into the circulation and transport from the blood into tissues, where intervention is needed. NC transport across cellular barriers is achieved by: (i) the paracellular route, via transient disruption of the junctions that interlock adjacent cells, or (ii) the transcellular route, where materials are internalized by endocytosis, transported across the cell body, and secreted at the opposite cell surface (transyctosis). Delivery across cellular barriers can be facilitated by coupling therapeutics or their carriers with targeting agents that bind specifically to cell-surface markers involved in transport. Here, we provide methods to measure the extent and mechanism of NC transport across a model cell barrier, which consists of a monolayer of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells grown on a porous membrane located in a transwell insert. Formation of a permeability barrier is confirmed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), transepithelial transport of a control substance, and immunostaining of tight junctions. As an example, ~200 nm polymer NCs are used, which carry a therapeutic cargo and are coated with an antibody that targets a cell-surface determinant. The antibody or therapeutic cargo is labeled with 125I for radioisotope tracing and labeled NCs are added to the upper chamber over the cell monolayer for varying periods of time. NCs associated to the cells and/or transported to the underlying chamber can be detected. Measurement of free 125I allows subtraction of the degraded fraction. The paracellular route is assessed by determining potential changes caused by NC transport to the barrier parameters described above. Transcellular transport is determined by addressing the effect of modulating endocytosis and transcytosis pathways.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Antigens, Enzymes, Biological Therapy, bioengineering (general), Pharmaceutical Preparations, Macromolecular Substances, Therapeutics, Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, drug delivery systems, targeted nanocarriers, transcellular transport, epithelial cells, tight junctions, transepithelial electrical resistance, endocytosis, transcytosis, radioisotope tracing, immunostaining
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Videomorphometric Analysis of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction of Intra-pulmonary Arteries Using Murine Precision Cut Lung Slices
Authors: Renate Paddenberg, Petra Mermer, Anna Goldenberg, Wolfgang Kummer.
Institutions: Justus-Liebig-University.
Acute alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) - also known as von Euler-Liljestrand mechanism - which serves to match lung perfusion to ventilation. Up to now, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The major vascular segment contributing to HPV is the intra-acinar artery. This vessel section is responsible for the blood supply of an individual acinus, which is defined as the portion of lung distal to a terminal bronchiole. Intra-acinar arteries are mostly located in that part of the lung that cannot be selectively reached by a number of commonly used techniques such as measurement of the pulmonary artery pressure in isolated perfused lungs or force recordings from dissected proximal pulmonary artery segments1,2. The analysis of subpleural vessels by real-time confocal laser scanning luminescence microscopy is limited to vessels with up to 50 µm in diameter3. We provide a technique to study HPV of murine intra-pulmonary arteries in the range of 20-100 µm inner diameters. It is based on the videomorphometric analysis of cross-sectioned arteries in precision cut lung slices (PCLS). This method allows the quantitative measurement of vasoreactivity of small intra-acinar arteries with inner diameter between 20-40 µm which are located at gussets of alveolar septa next to alveolar ducts and of larger pre-acinar arteries with inner diameters between 40-100 µm which run adjacent to bronchi and bronchioles. In contrast to real-time imaging of subpleural vessels in anesthetized and ventilated mice, videomorphometric analysis of PCLS occurs under conditions free of shear stress. In our experimental model both arterial segments exhibit a monophasic HPV when exposed to medium gassed with 1% O2 and the response fades after 30-40 min at hypoxia.
Medicine, Issue 83, Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, murine lungs, precision cut lung slices, intra-pulmonary, pre- and intra-acinar arteries, videomorphometry
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Analysis of Global RNA Synthesis at the Single Cell Level following Hypoxia
Authors: John Biddlestone, Jimena Druker, Alena Shmakova, Gus Ferguson, Jason R. Swedlow, Sonia Rocha.
Institutions: University of Dundee, UK.
Hypoxia or lowering of the oxygen availability is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. At the molecular level, cells initiate a particular transcriptional program in order to mount an appropriate and coordinated cellular response. The cell possesses several oxygen sensor enzymes that require molecular oxygen as cofactor for their activity. These range from prolyl-hydroxylases to histone demethylases. The majority of studies analyzing cellular responses to hypoxia are based on cellular populations and average studies, and as such single cell analysis of hypoxic cells are seldom performed. Here we describe a method of analysis of global RNA synthesis at the single cell level in hypoxia by using Click-iT RNA imaging kits in an oxygen controlled workstation, followed by microscopy analysis and quantification.  Using cancer cells exposed to hypoxia for different lengths of time, RNA is labeled and measured in each cell. This analysis allows the visualization of temporal and cell-to-cell changes in global RNA synthesis following hypoxic stress.
Cellular Biology, Issue 87, Cancer, RNA synthesis, Hypoxia, Microscopy, Click-iT, Open Microscopy Environment, OMERO
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Polysome Fractionation and Analysis of Mammalian Translatomes on a Genome-wide Scale
Authors: Valentina Gandin, Kristina Sikström, Tommy Alain, Masahiro Morita, Shannon McLaughlan, Ola Larsson, Ivan Topisirovic.
Institutions: McGill University, Karolinska Institutet, McGill University.
mRNA translation plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression and represents the most energy consuming process in mammalian cells. Accordingly, dysregulation of mRNA translation is considered to play a major role in a variety of pathological states including cancer. Ribosomes also host chaperones, which facilitate folding of nascent polypeptides, thereby modulating function and stability of newly synthesized polypeptides. In addition, emerging data indicate that ribosomes serve as a platform for a repertoire of signaling molecules, which are implicated in a variety of post-translational modifications of newly synthesized polypeptides as they emerge from the ribosome, and/or components of translational machinery. Herein, a well-established method of ribosome fractionation using sucrose density gradient centrifugation is described. In conjunction with the in-house developed “anota” algorithm this method allows direct determination of differential translation of individual mRNAs on a genome-wide scale. Moreover, this versatile protocol can be used for a variety of biochemical studies aiming to dissect the function of ribosome-associated protein complexes, including those that play a central role in folding and degradation of newly synthesized polypeptides.
Biochemistry, Issue 87, Cells, Eukaryota, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases, Neoplasms, Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, translatome, mTOR, eIF4E, 4E-BP1
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siRNA Screening to Identify Ubiquitin and Ubiquitin-like System Regulators of Biological Pathways in Cultured Mammalian Cells
Authors: John S. Bett, Adel F. M. Ibrahim, Amit K. Garg, Sonia Rocha, Ronald T. Hay.
Institutions: University of Dundee, University of Dundee.
Post-translational modification of proteins with ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules (UBLs) is emerging as a dynamic cellular signaling network that regulates diverse biological pathways including the hypoxia response, proteostasis, the DNA damage response and transcription.  To better understand how UBLs regulate pathways relevant to human disease, we have compiled a human siRNA “ubiquitome” library consisting of 1,186 siRNA duplex pools targeting all known and predicted components of UBL system pathways. This library can be screened against a range of cell lines expressing reporters of diverse biological pathways to determine which UBL components act as positive or negative regulators of the pathway in question.  Here, we describe a protocol utilizing this library to identify ubiquitome-regulators of the HIF1A-mediated cellular response to hypoxia using a transcription-based luciferase reporter.  An initial assay development stage is performed to establish suitable screening parameters of the cell line before performing the screen in three stages: primary, secondary and tertiary/deconvolution screening.  The use of targeted over whole genome siRNA libraries is becoming increasingly popular as it offers the advantage of reporting only on members of the pathway with which the investigators are most interested.  Despite inherent limitations of siRNA screening, in particular false-positives caused by siRNA off-target effects, the identification of genuine novel regulators of the pathways in question outweigh these shortcomings, which can be overcome by performing a series of carefully undertaken control experiments.
Biochemistry, Issue 87, siRNA screening, ubiquitin, UBL, ubiquitome, hypoxia, HIF1A, High-throughput, mammalian cells, luciferase reporter
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In vitro Organoid Culture of Primary Mouse Colon Tumors
Authors: Xiang Xue, Yatrik M. Shah.
Institutions: University of Michigan , University of Michigan .
Several human and murine colon cancer cell lines have been established, physiologic integrity of colon tumors such as multiple cell layers, basal-apical polarity, ability to differentiate, and anoikis are not maintained in colon cancer derived cell lines. The present study demonstrates a method for culturing primary mouse colon tumor organoids adapted from Sato T et al. 1, which retains important physiologic features of colon tumors. This method consists of mouse colon tumor tissue collection, adjacent normal colon epithelium dissociation, colon tumor cells digestion into single cells, embedding colon tumor cells into matrigel, and selective culture based on the principle that tumor cells maintain growth on limiting nutrient conditions compared to normal epithelial cells. The primary tumor organoids if isolated from genetically modified mice provide a very useful system to assess tumor autonomous function of specific genes. Moreover, the tumor organoids are amenable to genetic manipulation by virus meditated gene delivery; therefore signaling pathways involved in the colon tumorigenesis could also be extensively investigated by overexpression or knockdown. Primary tumor organoids culture provides a physiologic relevant and feasible means to study the mechanisms and therapeutic modalities for colon tumorigenesis.
Cancer Biology, Issue 75, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Genetics, Oncology, Surgery, Organoids, Tumor Cells, Cultured Colonic Neoplasms, Primary Cell Culture, Colon tumor, chelation, collagenase, matrigel, organoid, EGF, colon cancer, cancer, tumor, cell, isolation, immunohistochemistry, mouse, animal model
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An Orthotopic Bladder Cancer Model for Gene Delivery Studies
Authors: Laura Kasman, Christina Voelkel-Johnson.
Institutions: Medical University of South Carolina.
Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urogenital tract and novel therapeutic approaches that can reduce recurrence and progression are needed. The tumor microenvironment can significantly influence tumor development and therapy response. It is therefore often desirable to grow tumor cells in the organ from which they originated. This protocol describes an orthotopic model of bladder cancer, in which MB49 murine bladder carcinoma cells are instilled into the bladder via catheterization. Successful tumor cell implantation in this model requires disruption of the protective glycosaminoglycan layer, which can be accomplished by physical or chemical means. In our protocol the bladder is treated with trypsin prior to cell instillation. Catheterization of the bladder can also be used to deliver therapeutics once the tumors are established. This protocol describes the delivery of an adenoviral construct that expresses a luciferase reporter gene. While our protocol has been optimized for short-term studies and focuses on gene delivery, the methodology of mouse bladder catheterization has broad applications.
Medicine, Issue 82, Bladder cancer, gene delivery, adenovirus, orthotopic model, catheterization
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The Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy Model of Perinatal Ischemia
Authors: Hidetoshi Taniguchi, Katrin Andreasson.
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine.
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring at birth. Twenty five percent of neonates with HIE develop severe and permanent neuropsychological sequelae, including mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy. The outcomes of HIE are devastating and permanent, making it critical to identify and develop therapeutic strategies to reduce brain injury in newborns with HIE. To that end, the neonatal rat model for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury has been developed to model this human condition. The HIE model was first validated by Vannucci et al 1 and has since been extensively used to identify mechanisms of brain injury resulting from perinatal hypoxia-ischemia 2 and to test potential therapeutic interventions 3,4. The HIE model is a two step process and involves the ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by exposure to a hypoxic environment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligated carotid artery does not decrease because of the collateral blood flow via the circle of Willis; however with lower oxygen tension, the CBF in the ipsilateral hemisphere decreases significantly and results in unilateral ischemic injury. The use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to stain and identify ischemic brain tissue was originally developed for adult models of rodent cerebral ischemia 5, and is used to evaluate the extent of cerebral infarctin at early time points up to 72 hours after the ischemic event 6. In this video, we demonstrate the hypoxic-ischemic injury model in postnatal rat brain and the evaluation of the infarct size using TTC staining.
Neuroscience, Issue 21, Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), 2 3 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), brain infarct
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Electrochemotherapy of Tumours
Authors: Gregor Sersa, Damijan Miklavcic.
Institutions: Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, University of Ljubljana.
Electrochemotherapy is a combined use of certain chemotherapeutic drugs and electric pulses applied to the treated tumour nodule. Local application of electric pulses to the tumour increases drug delivery into cells, specifically at the site of electric pulse application. Drug uptake by delivery of electric pulses is increased for only those chemotherapeutic drugs whose transport through the plasma membrane is impeded. Among many drugs that have been tested so far, bleomycin and cisplatin found their way from preclinical testing to clinical use. Clinical data collected within a number of clinical studies indicate that approximately 80% of the treated cutaneous and subcutaneous tumour nodules of different malignancies are in an objective response, from these, approximately 70% in complete response after a single application of electrochemotherapy. Usually only one treatment is needed, however, electrochemotherapy can be repeated several times every few weeks with equal effectiveness each time. The treatment results in an effective eradication of the treated nodules, with a good cosmetic effect without tissue scarring.
Medicine, Issue 22, electrochemotherapy, electroporation, cisplatin, bleomycin, malignant tumours, cutaneous lesions
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Mouse Models of Periventricular Leukomalacia
Authors: Yan Shen, Jennifer M. Plane, Wenbin Deng.
Institutions: University of California, Davis.
We describe a protocol for establishing mouse models of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). PVL is the predominant form of brain injury in premature infants and the most common antecedent of cerebral palsy. PVL is characterized by periventricular white matter damage with prominent oligodendroglial injury. Hypoxia/ischemia with or without systemic infection/inflammation are the primary causes of PVL. We use P6 mice to create models of neonatal brain injury by the induction of hypoxia/ischemia with or without systemic infection/inflammation with unilateral carotid ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia with or without injection of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immunohistochemistry of myelin basic protein (MBP) or O1 and electron microscopic examination show prominent myelin loss in cerebral white matter with additional damage to the hippocampus and thalamus. Establishment of mouse models of PVL will greatly facilitate the study of disease pathogenesis using available transgenic mouse strains, conduction of drug trials in a relatively high throughput manner to identify candidate therapeutic agents, and testing of stem cell transplantation using immunodeficiency mouse strains.
JoVE Neuroscience, Issue 39, brain, mouse, white matter injury, oligodendrocyte, periventricular leukomalacia
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Strategies for Study of Neuroprotection from Cold-preconditioning
Authors: Heidi M. Mitchell, David M. White, Richard P. Kraig.
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for therapeutics development to protect brain before injury onset. Low-level pro-inflammatory mediator signaling changes over time are essential for cold-preconditioning neuroprotection. This signaling is consistent with the basic tenets of physiological conditioning hormesis, which require that irritative stimuli reach a threshold magnitude with sufficient time for adaptation to the stimuli for protection to become evident. Accordingly, delineation of the immune signaling involved in cold-preconditioning neuroprotection requires that biological systems and experimental manipulations plus technical capacities are highly reproducible and sensitive. Our approach is to use hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro model that closely reflects their in vivo counterparts with multi-synaptic neural networks influenced by mature and quiescent macroglia / microglia. This glial state is particularly important for microglia since they are the principal source of cytokines, which are operative in the femtomolar range. Also, slice cultures can be maintained in vitro for several weeks, which is sufficient time to evoke activating stimuli and assess adaptive responses. Finally, environmental conditions can be accurately controlled using slice cultures so that cytokine signaling of cold-preconditioning can be measured, mimicked, and modulated to dissect the critical node aspects. Cytokine signaling system analyses require the use of sensitive and reproducible multiplexed techniques. We use quantitative PCR for TNF-α to screen for microglial activation followed by quantitative real-time qPCR array screening to assess tissue-wide cytokine changes. The latter is a most sensitive and reproducible means to measure multiple cytokine system signaling changes simultaneously. Significant changes are confirmed with targeted qPCR and then protein detection. We probe for tissue-based cytokine protein changes using multiplexed microsphere flow cytometric assays using Luminex technology. Cell-specific cytokine production is determined with double-label immunohistochemistry. Taken together, this brain tissue preparation and style of use, coupled to the suggested investigative strategies, may be an optimal approach for identifying potential targets for the development of novel therapeutics that could mimic the advantages of cold-preconditioning.
Neuroscience, Issue 43, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, hippocampus, slice culture, immunohistochemistry, neural-immune, gene expression, real-time PCR
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Induction and Testing of Hypoxia in Cell Culture
Authors: Danli Wu, Patricia Yotnda.
Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine.
Hypoxia is defined as the reduction or lack of oxygen in organs, tissues, or cells. This decrease of oxygen tension can be due to a reduced supply in oxygen (causes include insufficient blood vessel network, defective blood vessel, and anemia) or to an increased consumption of oxygen relative to the supply (caused by a sudden higher cell proliferation rate). Hypoxia can be physiologic or pathologic such as in solid cancers 1-3, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis etc… Each tissues and cells have a different ability to adapt to this new condition. During hypoxia, hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF) is stabilized and regulates various genes such as those involved in angiogenesis or transport of oxygen 4. The stabilization of this protein is a hallmark of hypoxia, therefore detecting HIF is routinely used to screen for hypoxia 5-7. In this article, we propose two simple methods to induce hypoxia in mammalian cell cultures and simple tests to evaluate the hypoxic status of these cells.
Cell Biology, Issue 54, mammalian cell, hypoxia, anoxia, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), reoxygenation, normoxia
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In vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Tumor Hypoxia Dynamics of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis in a Mouse Model
Authors: Debabrata Saha, Henry Dunn, Heling Zhou, Hiroshi Harada, Masahiro Hiraoka, Ralph P. Mason, Dawen Zhao.
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine.
It is well recognized that tumor hypoxia plays an important role in promoting malignant progression and affecting therapeutic response negatively. There is little knowledge about in situ, in vivo, tumor hypoxia during intracranial development of malignant brain tumors because of lack of efficient means to monitor it in these deep-seated orthotopic tumors. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI), based on the detection of light emitted by living cells expressing a luciferase gene, has been rapidly adopted for cancer research, in particular, to evaluate tumor growth or tumor size changes in response to treatment in preclinical animal studies. Moreover, by expressing a reporter gene under the control of a promoter sequence, the specific gene expression can be monitored non-invasively by BLI. Under hypoxic stress, signaling responses are mediated mainly via the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to drive transcription of various genes. Therefore, we have used a HIF-1α reporter construct, 5HRE-ODD-luc, stably transfected into human breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells (MDA-MB231/5HRE-ODD-luc). In vitro HIF-1α bioluminescence assay is performed by incubating the transfected cells in a hypoxic chamber (0.1% O2) for 24 hr before BLI, while the cells in normoxia (21% O2) serve as a control. Significantly higher photon flux observed for the cells under hypoxia suggests an increased HIF-1α binding to its promoter (HRE elements), as compared to those in normoxia. Cells are injected directly into the mouse brain to establish a breast cancer brain metastasis model. In vivo bioluminescence imaging of tumor hypoxia dynamics is initiated 2 wks after implantation and repeated once a week. BLI reveals increasing light signals from the brain as the tumor progresses, indicating increased intracranial tumor hypoxia. Histological and immunohistochemical studies are used to confirm the in vivo imaging results. Here, we will introduce approaches of in vitro HIF-1α bioluminescence assay, surgical establishment of a breast cancer brain metastasis in a nude mouse and application of in vivo bioluminescence imaging to monitor intracranial tumor hypoxia.
Medicine, Issue 56, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), tumor hypoxia dynamics, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), breast cancer brain metastasis
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Spatio-Temporal Manipulation of Small GTPase Activity at Subcellular Level and on Timescale of Seconds in Living Cells
Authors: Robert DeRose, Christopher Pohlmeyer, Nobuhiro Umeda, Tasuku Ueno, Tetsuo Nagano, Scot Kuo, Takanari Inoue.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University, University of Tokyo, Johns Hopkins University.
Dynamic regulation of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with great spatiotemporal precision is essential for various cellular functions and events1, 2. Their spatiotemporally dynamic nature has been revealed by visualization of their activity and localization in real time3. In order to gain deeper understanding of their roles in diverse cellular functions at the molecular level, the next step should be perturbation of protein activities at a precise subcellular location and timing. To achieve this goal, we have developed a method for light-induced, spatio-temporally controlled activation of small GTPases by combining two techniques: (1) rapamycin-induced FKBP-FRB heterodimerization and (2) a photo-caging method of rapamycin. With the use of rapamycin-mediated FKBP-FRB heterodimerization, we have developed a method for rapidly inducible activation or inactivation of small GTPases including Rac4, Cdc424, RhoA4 and Ras5, in which rapamycin induces translocation of FKBP-fused GTPases, or their activators, to the plasma membrane where FRB is anchored. For coupling with this heterodimerization system, we have also developed a photo-caging system of rapamycin analogs. A photo-caged compound is a small molecule whose activity is suppressed with a photocleavable protecting group known as a caging group. To suppress heterodimerization activity completely, we designed a caged rapamycin that is tethered to a macromolecule such that the resulting large complex cannot cross the plasma membrane, leading to virtually no background activity as a chemical dimerizer inside cells6. Figure 1 illustrates a scheme of our system. With the combination of these two systems, we locally recruited a Rac activator to the plasma membrane on a timescale of seconds and achieved light-induced Rac activation at the subcellular level6.
Bioengineering, Issue 61, Small GTPase, rapamycin, caged compound, spatiotemporal control, heterodimerization, FKBP, FRB, light irradiation
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Immunohistochemical Staining of B7-H1 (PD-L1) on Paraffin-embedded Slides of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Tissue
Authors: Elaine Bigelow, Katherine M. Bever, Haiying Xu, Allison Yager, Annie Wu, Janis Taube, Lieping Chen, Elizabeth M. Jaffee, Robert A. Anders, Lei Zheng.
Institutions: The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
B7-H1/PD-L1, a member of the B7 family of immune-regulatory cell-surface proteins, plays an important role in the negative regulation of cell-mediated immune responses through its interaction with its receptor, programmed death-1 (PD-1) 1,2. Overexpression of B7-H1 by tumor cells has been noted in a number of human cancers, including melanoma, glioblastoma, and carcinomas of the lung, breast, colon, ovary, and renal cells, and has been shown to impair anti-tumor T-cell immunity3-8. Recently, B7-H1 expression by pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues has been identified as a potential prognostic marker9,10. Additionally, blockade of B7-H1 in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer has been shown to produce an anti-tumor response11. These data suggest the importance of B7-H1 as a potential therapeutic target. Anti-B7-H1 blockade antibodies are therefore being tested in clinical trials for multiple human solid tumors including melanoma and cancers of lung, colon, kidney, stomach and pancreas12. In order to eventually be able to identify the patients who will benefit from B7-H1 targeting therapies, it is critical to investigate the correlation between expression and localization of B7-H1 and patient response to treatment with B7-H1 blockade antibodies. Examining the expression of B7-H1 in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues through immunohistochemistry will give a better understanding of how this co-inhibitory signaling molecule contributes to the suppression of antitumor immunity in the tumor's microenvironment. The anti-B7-H1 monoclonal antibody (clone 5H1) developed by Chen and coworkers has been shown to produce reliable staining results in cryosections of multiple types of human neoplastic tissues4,8, but staining on paraffin-embedded slides had been a challenge until recently13-18. We have developed the B7-H1 staining protocol for paraffin-embedded slides of pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues. The B7-H1 staining protocol described here produces consistent membranous and cytoplasmic staining of B7-H1 with little background.
Cancer Biology, Issue 71, Medicine, Immunology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Chemistry, Oncology, immunohistochemistry, B7-H1 (PD-L1), pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer, pancreas, tumor, T-cell immunity, cancer
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Creating Defined Gaseous Environments to Study the Effects of Hypoxia on C. elegans
Authors: Emily M. Fawcett, Joseph W. Horsman, Dana L. Miller.
Institutions: University of Washington, University of Washington.
Oxygen is essential for all metazoans to survive, with one known exception1. Decreased O2 availability (hypoxia) can arise during states of disease, normal development or changes in environmental conditions2-5. Understanding the cellular signaling pathways that are involved in the response to hypoxia could provide new insight into treatment strategies for diverse human pathologies, from stroke to cancer. This goal has been impeded, at least in part, by technical difficulties associated with controlled hypoxic exposure in genetically amenable model organisms. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is ideally suited as a model organism for the study of hypoxic response, as it is easy to culture and genetically manipulate. Moreover, it is possible to study cellular responses to specific hypoxic O2 concentrations without confounding effects since C. elegans obtain O2 (and other gasses) by diffusion, as opposed to a facilitated respiratory system6. Factors known to be involved in the response to hypoxia are conserved in C. elegans. The actual response to hypoxia depends on the specific concentration of O2 that is available. In C. elegans, exposure to moderate hypoxia elicits a transcriptional response mediated largely by hif-1, the highly-conserved hypoxia-inducible transcription factor6-9. C .elegans embryos require hif-1 to survive in 5,000-20,000 ppm O27,10. Hypoxia is a general term for "less than normal O2". Normoxia (normal O2) can also be difficult to define. We generally consider room air, which is 210,000 ppm O2 to be normoxia. However, it has been shown that C. elegans has a behavioral preference for O2 concentrations from 5-12% (50,000-120,000 ppm O2)11. In larvae and adults, hif-1 acts to prevent hypoxia-induced diapause in 5,000 ppm O212. However, hif-1 does not play a role in the response to lower concentrations of O2 (anoxia, operational definition <10 ppm O2)13. In anoxia, C. elegans enters into a reversible state of suspended animation in which all microscopically observable activity ceases10. The fact that different physiological responses occur in different conditions highlights the importance of having experimental control over the hypoxic concentration of O2. Here, we present a method for the construction and implementation of environmental chambers that produce reliable and reproducible hypoxic conditions with defined concentrations of O2. The continual flow method ensures rapid equilibration of the chamber and increases the stability of the system. Additionally, the transparency and accessibility of the chambers allow for direct visualization of animals being exposed to hypoxia. We further demonstrate an effective method of harvesting C. elegans samples rapidly after exposure to hypoxia, which is necessary to observe many of the rapidly-reversed changes that occur in hypoxia10,14. This method provides a basic foundation that can be easily modified for individual laboratory needs, including different model systems and a variety of gasses.
Biochemistry, Issue 65, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Genetics, Developmental Biology, C. elegans, hypoxia, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (hif-1), anoxia, oxygen
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Right Hemihepatectomy by Suprahilar Intrahepatic Transection of the Right Hemipedicle using a Vascular Stapler
Authors: Ingmar Königsrainer, Silvio Nadalin, Alfred Königsrainer.
Institutions: Tübingen University Hospital.
Successful hepatic resection requires profound anatomical knowledge and delicate surgical technique. Hemihepatectomies are mostly performed after preparing the extrahepatic hilar structures within the hepatoduodenal ligament, even in benign tumours or liver metastasis.1-5. Regional extrahepatic lymphadenectomy is an oncological standard in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, intrahepatic cholangio-cellular carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas lymph node metastases in the hepatic hilus in patients with liver metastasis are rarely occult. Major disadvantages of these procedures are the complex preparation of the hilus with the risk of injuring contralateral structures and the possibility of bleeding from portal vein side-branches or impaired perfusion of bile ducts. We developed a technique of right hemihepatectomy or resection of the left lateral segments with intrahepatic transection of the pedicle that leaves the hepatoduodenal ligament completely untouched. 6 However, if intraoperative visualization or palpation of the ligament is suspicious for tumor infiltration or lymph node metastasis, the hilus should be explored and a lymphadenectomy performed.
Medicine, Issue 35, Liver resection, liver tumour, intrahepatic hilus stapling, right hemipedicle
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Targeted Expression of GFP in the Hair Follicle Using Ex Vivo Viral Transduction
Authors: Robert M. Hoffman, Lingna Li.
Institutions: AntiCancer, Inc..
There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can initiate the hair shaft during early anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle, as well as pluripotent stem cells that play a role in hair follicle growth but have the potential to differentiate to non-follicle cells such as neurons. These properties of the hair follicle are discussed. The various cell types of the hair follicle are potential targets for gene therapy. Gene delivery system for the hair follicle using viral vectors or liposomes for gene targeting to the various cell types in the hair follicle and the results obtained are also discussed.
Cellular Biology, Issue 13, Springer Protocols, hair follicles, liposomes, adenovirus, genes, stem cells
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