During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. This includes differentiation from a stem cell population, mitotic amplification, and meiosis. In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin—the histone-to-protamine switch.
Studying the role of a protein in post-meiotic spermatogenesis using mutagenesis or other genetic tools is often impeded by essential embryonic, pre-meiotic, or meiotic functions of the protein under investigation. The post-meiotic phenotype of a mutant of such a protein could be obscured through an earlier developmental block, or the interpretation of the phenotype could be complicated. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster offers a bypass to this problem: intact testes and even cysts of germ cells dissected from early pupae are able to develop ex vivo in culture medium. Making use of such cultures allows microscopic imaging of living germ cells in testes and of germ-line cysts. Importantly, the cultivated testes and germ cells also become accessible to pharmacological inhibitors, thereby permitting manipulation of enzymatic functions during spermatogenesis, including post-meiotic stages.
The protocol presented describes how to dissect and cultivate pupal testes and germ-line cysts. Information on the development of pupal testes and culture conditions are provided alongside microscope imaging data of live testes and germ-line cysts in culture. We also describe a pharmacological assay to study post-meiotic spermatogenesis, exemplified by an assay targeting the histone-to-protamine switch using the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor anacardic acid. In principle, this cultivation method could be adapted to address many other research questions in pre- and post-meiotic spermatogenesis.
24 Related JoVE Articles!
Isolation and Characterization of RNA-Containing Exosomes
Institutions: University of Gothenburg.
The field of exosome research is rapidly expanding, with a dramatic increase in publications in recent years. These small vesicles (30-100 nm) of endocytic origin were first proposed to function as a way for reticulocytes to eradicate the transferrin receptor while maturing into erythrocytes1
, and were later named exosomes. Exosomes are formed by inward budding of late endosomes, producing multivesicular bodies (MVBs), and are released into the environment by fusion of the MVBs with the plasma membrane2
. Since the first discovery of exosomes, a wide range of cells have been shown to release these vesicles. Exosomes have also been detected in several biological fluids, including plasma, nasal lavage fluid, saliva and breast milk3-6
. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the content and function of exosomes depends on the originating cell and the conditions under which they are produced. A variety of functions have been demonstrated for exosomes, such as induction of tolerance against allergen7,8
, eradication of established tumors in mice9
, inhibition and activation of natural killer cells10-12
, promotion of differentiation into T regulatory cells13
, stimulation of T cell proliferation14
and induction of T cell apoptosis15
. Year 2007 we demonstrated that exosomes released from mast cells contain messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), and that the RNA can be shuttled from one cell to another via exosomes. In the recipient cells, the mRNA shuttled by exosomes was shown to be translated into protein, suggesting a regulatory function of the transferred RNA16
. Further, we have also shown that exosomes derived from cells grown under oxidative stress can induce tolerance against further stress in recipient cells and thus suggest a biological function of the exosomal shuttle RNA17
. Cell culture media and biological fluids contain a mixture of vesicles and shed fragments. A high quality isolation method for exosomes, followed by characterization and identification of the exosomes and their content, is therefore crucial to distinguish exosomes from other vesicles and particles. Here, we present a method for the isolation of exosomes from both cell culture medium and body fluids. This isolation method is based on repeated centrifugation and filtration steps, followed by a final ultracentrifugation step in which the exosomes are pelleted. Important methods to identify the exosomes and characterize the exosomal morphology and protein content are highlighted, including electron microscopy, flow cytometry and Western blot. The purification of the total exosomal RNA is based on spin column chromatography and the exosomal RNA yield and size distribution is analyzed using a Bioanalyzer.
Molecular Biology, Issue 59, Exosomes, microvesicles, mRNA, miRNA, RNA isolation, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, Western blot, Bioanalyzer
Generation and Purification of Human INO80 Chromatin Remodeling Complexes and Subcomplexes
Institutions: Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas University Medical Center.
INO80 chromatin remodeling complexes regulate nucleosome dynamics and DNA accessibility by catalyzing ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling. Human INO80 complexes consist of 14 protein subunits including Ino80, a SNF2-like ATPase, which serves both as the catalytic subunit and the scaffold for assembly of the complexes. Functions of the other subunits and the mechanisms by which they contribute to the INO80 complex's chromatin remodeling activity remain poorly understood, in part due to the challenge of generating INO80 subassemblies in human cells or heterologous expression systems. This JOVE protocol describes a procedure that allows purification of human INO80 chromatin remodeling subcomplexes that are lacking a subunit or a subset of subunits. N-terminally FLAG epitope tagged Ino80 cDNA are stably introduced into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell lines using Flp-mediated recombination. In the event that a subset of subunits of the INO80 complex is to be deleted, one expresses instead mutant Ino80 proteins that lack the platform needed for assembly of those subunits. In the event an individual subunit is to be depleted, one transfects siRNAs targeting this subunit into an HEK 293 cell line stably expressing FLAG tagged Ino80 ATPase. Nuclear extracts are prepared, and FLAG immunoprecipitation is performed to enrich protein fractions containing Ino80 derivatives. The compositions of purified INO80 subcomplexes can then be analyzed using methods such as immunoblotting, silver staining, and mass spectrometry. The INO80 and INO80 subcomplexes generated according to this protocol can be further analyzed using various biochemical assays, which are described in the accompanying JOVE protocol. The methods described here can be adapted for studies of the structural and functional properties of any mammalian multi-subunit chromatin remodeling and modifying complexes.
Biochemistry, Issue 92, chromatin remodeling, INO80, SNF2 family ATPase, structure-function, enzyme purification
Slide Preparation Method to Preserve Three-dimensional Chromatin Architecture of Testicular Germ Cells
Institutions: Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine.
During testicular germ cell differentiation, the structure of nuclear chromatin dynamically changes. The following describes a method designed to preserve the three-dimensional chromatin arrangement of testicular germ cells found in mice; this method has been termed as the three-dimensional (3D) slide method. In this method, testicular tubules are directly treated with a permeabilization step that removes cytoplasmic material, followed by a fixation step that fixes nuclear materials. Tubules are then dissociated, the cell suspension is cytospun, and cells adhere to slides. This method improves sensitivity towards detection of subnuclear structures and is applicable for immunofluorescence, DNA, and RNA fluorescence in situ
hybridization (FISH) and the combination of these detection methods. As an example of a possible application of the 3D slide method, a Cot-1 RNA FISH is shown to detect nascent RNAs. The 3D slide method will facilitate the detailed examination of spatial relationships between chromatin structure, DNA, and RNA during testicular germ cell differentiation.
Basic Protocol, Issue 83, Chromatin, Germ cells, Sex chromosomes, Testis, Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, Postmeiotic sex chromatin
Budding Yeast Protein Extraction and Purification for the Study of Function, Interactions, and Post-translational Modifications
Institutions: The College of William & Mary.
Homogenization by bead beating is a fast and efficient way to release DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites from budding yeast cells, which are notoriously hard to disrupt. Here we describe the use of a bead mill homogenizer for the extraction of proteins into buffers optimized to maintain the functions, interactions and post-translational modifications of proteins. Logarithmically growing cells expressing the protein of interest are grown in a liquid growth media of choice. The growth media may be supplemented with reagents to induce protein expression from inducible promoters (e.g.
galactose), synchronize cell cycle stage (e.g.
nocodazole), or inhibit proteasome function (e.g.
MG132). Cells are then pelleted and resuspended in a suitable buffer containing protease and/or phosphatase inhibitors and are either processed immediately or frozen in liquid nitrogen for later use. Homogenization is accomplished by six cycles of 20 sec bead-beating (5.5 m/sec), each followed by one minute incubation on ice. The resulting homogenate is cleared by centrifugation and small particulates can be removed by filtration. The resulting cleared whole cell extract (WCE) is precipitated using 20% TCA for direct analysis of total proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. Extracts are also suitable for affinity purification of specific proteins, the detection of post-translational modifications, or the analysis of co-purifying proteins. As is the case for most protein purification protocols, some enzymes and proteins may require unique conditions or buffer compositions for their purification and others may be unstable or insoluble under the conditions stated. In the latter case, the protocol presented may provide a useful starting point to empirically determine the best bead-beating strategy for protein extraction and purification. We show the extraction and purification of an epitope-tagged SUMO E3 ligase, Siz1, a cell cycle regulated protein that becomes both sumoylated and phosphorylated, as well as a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase subunit, Slx5.
Basic Protocol, Issue 80, Life Sciences (General), budding yeast, protein extracts, bead beating, sumo, Ubiquitin, post-translational modifications, 6xHis affinity tag
Imaging Centrosomes in Fly Testes
Institutions: University of Toledo.
Centrosomes are conserved microtubule-based organelles whose structure and function change dramatically throughout the cell cycle and cell differentiation. Centrosomes are essential to determine the cell division axis during mitosis and to nucleate cilia during interphase. The identity of the proteins that mediate these dynamic changes remains only partially known, and the function of many of the proteins that have been implicated in these processes is still rudimentary. Recent work has shown that Drosophila
spermatogenesis provides a powerful system to identify new proteins critical for centrosome function and formation as well as to gain insight into the particular function of known players in centrosome-related processes. Drosophila
is an established genetic model organism where mutants in centrosomal genes can be readily obtained and easily analyzed. Furthermore, recent advances in the sensitivity and resolution of light microscopy and the development of robust genetically tagged centrosomal markers have transformed the ability to use Drosophila
testes as a simple and accessible model system to study centrosomes. This paper describes the use of genetically-tagged centrosomal markers to perform genetic screens for new centrosomal mutants and to gain insight into the specific function of newly identified genes.
Developmental Biology, Issue 79, biology (general), genetics (animal and plant), animal biology, animal models, Life Sciences (General), Centrosome, Spermatogenesis, Spermiogenesis, Drosophila, Centriole, Cilium, Mitosis, Meiosis
Isolation of Cellular Lipid Droplets: Two Purification Techniques Starting from Yeast Cells and Human Placentas
Institutions: University of Tennessee, University of Tennessee.
Lipid droplets are dynamic organelles that can be found in most eukaryotic and certain prokaryotic cells. Structurally, the droplets consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer. One of the most useful techniques in determining the cellular roles of droplets has been proteomic identification of bound proteins, which can be isolated along with the droplets. Here, two methods are described to isolate lipid droplets and their bound proteins from two wide-ranging eukaryotes: fission yeast and human placental villous cells. Although both techniques have differences, the main method - density gradient centrifugation - is shared by both preparations. This shows the wide applicability of the presented droplet isolation techniques.
In the first protocol, yeast cells are converted into spheroplasts by enzymatic digestion of their cell walls. The resulting spheroplasts are then gently lysed in a loose-fitting homogenizer. Ficoll is added to the lysate to provide a density gradient, and the mixture is centrifuged three times. After the first spin, the lipid droplets are localized to the white-colored floating layer of the centrifuge tubes along with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the plasma membrane, and vacuoles. Two subsequent spins are used to remove these other three organelles. The result is a layer that has only droplets and bound proteins.
In the second protocol, placental villous cells are isolated from human term placentas by enzymatic digestion with trypsin and DNase I. The cells are homogenized in a loose-fitting homogenizer. Low-speed and medium-speed centrifugation steps are used to remove unbroken cells, cellular debris, nuclei, and mitochondria. Sucrose is added to the homogenate to provide a density gradient and the mixture is centrifuged to separate the lipid droplets from the other cellular fractions.
The purity of the lipid droplets in both protocols is confirmed by Western Blot analysis. The droplet fractions from both preps are suitable for subsequent proteomic and lipidomic analysis.
Bioengineering, Issue 86, Lipid droplet, lipid body, fat body, oil body, Yeast, placenta, placental villous cells, isolation, purification, density gradient centrifugation
Cytological Analysis of Spermatogenesis: Live and Fixed Preparations of Drosophila Testes
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
is a powerful model system that has been widely used to elucidate a variety of biological processes. For example, studies of both the female and male germ lines of Drosophila
have contributed greatly to the current understanding of meiosis as well as stem cell biology. Excellent protocols are available in the literature for the isolation and imaging of Drosophila
ovaries and testes3-12
. Herein, methods for the dissection and preparation of Drosophila
testes for microscopic analysis are described with an accompanying video demonstration. A protocol for isolating testes from the abdomen of adult males and preparing slides of live tissue for analysis by phase-contrast microscopy as well as a protocol for fixing and immunostaining testes for analysis by fluorescence microscopy are presented. These techniques can be applied in the characterization of Drosophila
mutants that exhibit defects in spermatogenesis as well as in the visualization of subcellular localizations of proteins.
Basic Protocol, Issue 83, Drosophila melanogaster, dissection, testes, spermatogenesis, meiosis, germ cells, phase-contrast microscopy, immunofluorescence
Combining Magnetic Sorting of Mother Cells and Fluctuation Tests to Analyze Genome Instability During Mitotic Cell Aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Institutions: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
has been an excellent model system for examining mechanisms and consequences of genome instability. Information gained from this yeast model is relevant to many organisms, including humans, since DNA repair and DNA damage response factors are well conserved across diverse species. However, S. cerevisiae
has not yet been used to fully address whether the rate of accumulating mutations changes with increasing replicative (mitotic) age due to technical constraints. For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. Variations of this basic protocol provide the means to investigate the influence of alterations in specific gene functions or specific environmental conditions on mutation accumulation to address mechanisms underlying genome instability during replicative aging.
Microbiology, Issue 92, Aging, mutations, genome instability, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fluctuation test, magnetic sorting, mother cell, replicative aging
Analysis of RNA Processing Reactions Using Cell Free Systems: 3' End Cleavage of Pre-mRNA Substrates in vitro
Institutions: The Scripps Research Institute, City College of New York.
The 3’ end of mammalian mRNAs is not formed by abrupt termination of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNPII). Instead, RNPII synthesizes precursor mRNA beyond the end of mature RNAs, and an active process of endonuclease activity is required at a specific site. Cleavage of the precursor RNA normally occurs 10-30 nt downstream from the consensus polyA site (AAUAAA) after the CA dinucleotides. Proteins from the cleavage complex, a multifactorial protein complex of approximately 800 kDa, accomplish this specific nuclease activity. Specific RNA sequences upstream and downstream of the polyA site control the recruitment of the cleavage complex. Immediately after cleavage, pre-mRNAs are polyadenylated by the polyA polymerase (PAP) to produce mature stable RNA messages.
Processing of the 3’ end of an RNA transcript may be studied using cellular nuclear extracts with specific radiolabeled RNA substrates. In sum, a long 32
P-labeled uncleaved precursor RNA is incubated with nuclear extracts in vitro
, and cleavage is assessed by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. When proper cleavage occurs, a shorter 5’ cleaved product is detected and quantified. Here, we describe the cleavage assay in detail using, as an example, the 3’ end processing of HIV-1 mRNAs.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 87, Cleavage, Polyadenylation, mRNA processing, Nuclear extracts, 3' Processing Complex
Reconstitution Of β-catenin Degradation In Xenopus Egg Extract
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
egg extract is a well-characterized, robust system for studying the biochemistry of diverse cellular processes. Xenopus
egg extract has been used to study protein turnover in many cellular contexts, including the cell cycle and signal transduction pathways1-3
. Herein, a method is described for isolating Xenopus
egg extract that has been optimized to promote the degradation of the critical Wnt pathway component, β-catenin. Two different methods are described to assess β-catenin protein degradation in Xenopus
egg extract. One method is visually informative ([35
S]-radiolabeled proteins), while the other is more readily scaled for high-throughput assays (firefly luciferase-tagged fusion proteins). The techniques described can be used to, but are not limited to, assess β-catenin protein turnover and identify molecular components contributing to its turnover. Additionally, the ability to purify large volumes of homogenous Xenopus
egg extract combined with the quantitative and facile readout of luciferase-tagged proteins allows this system to be easily adapted for high-throughput screening for modulators of β-catenin degradation.
Molecular Biology, Issue 88, Xenopus laevis, Xenopus egg extracts, protein degradation, radiolabel, luciferase, autoradiography, high-throughput screening
Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90,
zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
Separation of Spermatogenic Cell Types Using STA-PUT Velocity Sedimentation
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania.
Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex differentiation process that occurs in several stages in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. Currently, there is no reliable cell culture system allowing for spermatogenic differentiation in vitro
, and most biological studies of spermatogenic cells require tissue harvest from animal models like the mouse and rat. Because the testis contains numerous cell types - both non-spermatogenic (Leydig, Sertoli, myeloid, and epithelial cells) and spermatogenic (spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, condensing spermatids and spermatozoa) - studies of the biological mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis require the isolation and enrichment of these different cell types. The STA-PUT method allows for the separation of a heterogeneous population of cells - in this case, from the testes - through a linear BSA gradient. Individual cell types sediment with different sedimentation velocity according to cell size, and fractions enriched for different cell types can be collected and utilized in further analyses. While the STA-PUT method does not result in highly pure fractions of cell types, e.g.
as can be obtained with certain cell sorting methods, it does provide a much higher yield of total cells in each fraction (~1 x 108
cells/spermatogenic cell type from a starting population of 7-8 x 108
cells). This high yield method requires only specialized glassware and can be performed in any cold room or large refrigerator, making it an ideal method for labs that have limited access to specialized equipment like a fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) or elutriator.
Cellular Biology, Issue 80, Developmental Biology, Spermatogenesis, STA-PUT, cell separation, Spermatogenesis, spermatids, spermatocytes, spermatogonia, sperm, velocity sedimentation
Ratiometric Biosensors that Measure Mitochondrial Redox State and ATP in Living Yeast Cells
Institutions: Columbia University, Columbia University.
Mitochondria have roles in many cellular processes, from energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis to control of cellular lifespan and programmed cell death. These processes affect and are affected by the redox status of and ATP production by mitochondria. Here, we describe the use of two ratiometric, genetically encoded biosensors that can detect mitochondrial redox state and ATP levels at subcellular resolution in living yeast cells. Mitochondrial redox state is measured using redox-sensitive Green Fluorescent Protein (roGFP) that is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. Mito-roGFP contains cysteines at positions 147 and 204 of GFP, which undergo reversible and environment-dependent oxidation and reduction, which in turn alter the excitation spectrum of the protein. MitGO-ATeam is a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe in which the ε subunit of the Fo
-ATP synthase is sandwiched between FRET donor and acceptor fluorescent proteins. Binding of ATP to the ε subunit results in conformation changes in the protein that bring the FRET donor and acceptor in close proximity and allow for fluorescence resonance energy transfer from the donor to acceptor.
Bioengineering, Issue 77, Microbiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, life sciences, roGFP, redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein, GO-ATeam, ATP, FRET, ROS, mitochondria, biosensors, GFP, ImageJ, microscopy, confocal microscopy, cell, imaging
A high-throughput method to globally study the organelle morphology in S. cerevisiae
Institutions: University of British Columbia - UBC.
High-throughput methods to examine protein localization or organelle morphology is an effective tool for studying protein interactions and can help achieve an comprehensive understanding of molecular pathways. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the development of the non-essential gene deletion array, we can globally study the morphology of different organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria using GFP (or variant)-markers in different gene backgrounds. However, incorporating GFP markers in each single mutant individually is a labor-intensive process. Here, we describe a procedure that is routinely used in our laboratory. By using a robotic system to handle high-density yeast arrays and drug selection techniques, we can significantly shorten the time required and improve reproducibility. In brief, we cross a GFP-tagged mitochondrial marker (Apc1-GFP) to a high-density array of 4,672 nonessential gene deletion mutants by robotic replica pinning. Through diploid selection, sporulation, germination and dual marker selection, we recover both alleles. As a result, each haploid single mutant contains Apc1-GFP incorporated at its genomic locus. Now, we can study the morphology of mitochondria in all non-essential mutant background. Using this high-throughput approach, we can conveniently study and delineate the pathways and genes involved in the inheritance and the formation of organelles in a genome-wide setting.
Microbiology, Issue 25, High throughput, confocal microscopy, Acp1, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Making Gynogenetic Diploid Zebrafish by Early Pressure
Institutions: University of Oregon, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center - FHCRC.
Heterozygosity in diploid eukaryotes often makes genetic studies cumbersome. Methods that produce viable homozygous diploid offspring directly from heterozygous females allow F1 mutagenized females to be screened directly for deleterious mutations in an accelerated forward genetic screen. Streisinger et al.1,2
described methods for making gynogenetic (homozygous) diploid zebrafish by activating zebrafish eggs with ultraviolet light-inactivated sperm and preventing either the second meiotic or the first zygotic cell division using physical treatments (heat or pressure) that deploymerize microtubules. The "early pressure" (EP) method blocks the meiosis II, which occurs shortly after fertilization. The EP method produces a high percentage of viable embryos that can develop to fertile adults of either sex. The method generates embryos that are homozygous at all loci except those that were separated from their centromere by recombination during meiosis I. Homozygous mutations are detected in EP clutches at between 50% for centromeric loci and less than 1% for telomeric loci. This method is reproduced verbatim from the Zebrafish Book3
Developmental Biology, Issue 28, Zebrafish, Early Pressure, Homozygous Diploid, Haploid, Gynogenesis
Single Particle Electron Microscopy Reconstruction of the Exosome Complex Using the Random Conical Tilt Method
Institutions: Yale University.
Single particle electron microscopy (EM) reconstruction has recently become a popular tool to get the three-dimensional (3D) structure of large macromolecular complexes. Compared to X-ray crystallography, it has some unique advantages. First, single particle EM reconstruction does not need to crystallize the protein sample, which is the bottleneck in X-ray crystallography, especially for large macromolecular complexes. Secondly, it does not need large amounts of protein samples. Compared with milligrams of proteins necessary for crystallization, single particle EM reconstruction only needs several micro-liters of protein solution at nano-molar concentrations, using the negative staining EM method. However, despite a few macromolecular assemblies with high symmetry, single particle EM is limited at relatively low resolution (lower than 1 nm resolution) for many specimens especially those without symmetry. This technique is also limited by the size of the molecules under study, i.e. 100 kDa for negatively stained specimens and 300 kDa for frozen-hydrated specimens in general.
For a new sample of unknown structure, we generally use a heavy metal solution to embed the molecules by negative staining. The specimen is then examined in a transmission electron microscope to take two-dimensional (2D) micrographs of the molecules. Ideally, the protein molecules have a homogeneous 3D structure but exhibit different orientations in the micrographs. These micrographs are digitized and processed in computers as "single particles". Using two-dimensional alignment and classification techniques, homogenous molecules in the same views are clustered into classes. Their averages enhance the signal of the molecule's 2D shapes. After we assign the particles with the proper relative orientation (Euler angles), we will be able to reconstruct the 2D particle images into a 3D virtual volume.
In single particle 3D reconstruction, an essential step is to correctly assign the proper orientation of each single particle. There are several methods to assign the view for each particle, including the angular reconstitution1
and random conical tilt (RCT) method2
. In this protocol, we describe our practice in getting the 3D reconstruction of yeast exosome complex using negative staining EM and RCT. It should be noted that our protocol of electron microscopy and image processing follows the basic principle of RCT but is not the only way to perform the method. We first describe how to embed the protein sample into a layer of Uranyl-Formate with a thickness comparable to the protein size, using a holey carbon grid covered with a layer of continuous thin carbon film. Then the specimen is inserted into a transmission electron microscope to collect untilted (0-degree) and tilted (55-degree) pairs of micrographs that will be used later for processing and obtaining an initial 3D model of the yeast exosome. To this end, we perform RCT and then refine the initial 3D model by using the projection matching refinement method3
Structural Biology, Issue 49, Electron microscopy, single particle three-dimensional reconstruction, exosome complex, negative staining
Flow Cytometry Purification of Mouse Meiotic Cells
Institutions: The Scripps Research Institute, The Scripps Research Institute.
The heterogeneous nature of cell types in the testis and the absence of meiotic cell culture models have been significant hurdles to the study of the unique differentiation programs that are manifest during meiosis. Two principal methods have been developed to purify, to varying degrees, various meiotic fractions from both adult and immature animals: elutriation or Staput (sedimentation) using BSA and/or percoll gradients. Both of these methods rely on cell size and density to separate meiotic cells1-5
. Overall, except for few cell populations6
, these protocols fail to yield sufficient purity of the numerous meiotic cell populations that are necessary for detailed molecular analyses. Moreover, with such methods usually one type of meiotic cells can be purified at a given time, which adds an extra level of complexity regarding the reproducibility and homogeneity when comparing meiotic cell samples.
Here, we describe a refined method that allows one to easily visualize, identify, and purify meiotic cells, from germ cells to round spermatids, using FACS combined with Hoechst 33342 staining7,8
. This method provides an overall snapshot of the entire meiotic process and allows one to highly purify viable cells from most stage of meiosis. These purified cells can then be analyzed in detail for molecular changes that accompany progression through meiosis, for example changes in gene expression9,10
and the dynamics of nucleosome occupancy at hotspots of meiotic recombination11
Cellular Biology, Issue 50, meiosis, mouse, FACS, purification, testis
Mouse Oocyte Microinjection, Maturation and Ploidy Assessment
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania.
Mistakes in chromosome segregation lead to aneuploid cells. In somatic cells, aneuploidy is associated with cancer but in gametes, aneuploidy leads to infertility, miscarriages or developmental disorders like Down syndrome. Haploid gametes form through species-specific developmental programs that are coupled to meiosis. The first meiotic division (MI) is unique to meiosis because sister chromatids remain attached while homologous chromosomes are segregated. For reasons not fully understood, this reductional division is prone to errors and is more commonly the source of aneuploidy than errors in meiosis II (MII) or than errors in male meiosis 1,2
In mammals, oocytes arrest at prophase of MI with a large, intact germinal vesicle (GV; nucleus) and only resume meiosis when they receive ovulatory cues. Once meiosis resumes, oocytes complete MI and undergo an asymmetric cell division, arresting again at metaphase of MII. Eggs will not complete MII until they are fertilized by sperm. Oocytes also can undergo meiotic maturation using established in vitro
culture conditions 3
. Because generation of transgenic and gene-targeted mouse mutants is costly and can take long periods of time, manipulation of female gametes in vitro
is a more economical and time-saving strategy.
Here, we describe methods to isolate prophase-arrested oocytes from mice and for microinjection. Any material of choice may be introduced into the oocyte, but because meiotically-competent oocytes are transcriptionally silent 4,5
cRNA, and not DNA, must be injected for ectopic expression studies. To assess ploidy, we describe our conditions for in vitro
maturation of oocytes to MII eggs. Historically, chromosome-spreading techniques are used for counting chromosome number 6
. This method is technically challenging and is limited to only identifying hyperploidies. Here, we describe a method to determine hypo-and hyperploidies using intact eggs 7-8
. This method uses monastrol, a kinesin-5 inhibitor, that collapses the bipolar spindle into a monopolar spindle 9
thus separating chromosomes such that individual kinetochores can readily be detected and counted by using an anti-CREST autoimmune serum. Because this method is performed in intact eggs, chromosomes are not lost due to operator error.
Cell biology, Issue 53, oocyte, microinjection, meiosis, meiotic maturation, aneuploidy
The Green Monster Process for the Generation of Yeast Strains Carrying Multiple Gene Deletions
Institutions: J. Craig Venter Institute, J. Craig Venter Institute, University of Toronto, Mt Sinai Hospital.
Phenotypes for a gene deletion are often revealed only when the mutation is tested in a particular genetic background or environmental condition1,2
. There are examples where many genes need to be deleted to unmask hidden gene functions3,4
. Despite the potential for important discoveries, genetic interactions involving three or more genes are largely unexplored. Exhaustive searches of multi-mutant interactions would be impractical due to the sheer number of possible combinations of deletions. However, studies of selected sets of genes, such as sets of paralogs with a greater a priori
chance of sharing a common function, would be informative.
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
, gene knockout is accomplished by replacing a gene with a selectable marker via homologous recombination. Because the number of markers is limited, methods have been developed for removing and reusing the same marker5,6,7,8,9,10
. However, sequentially engineering multiple mutations using these methods is time-consuming because the time required scales linearly with the number of deletions to be generated.
Here we describe the Green Monster method for routinely engineering multiple deletions in yeast11
. In this method, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter integrated into deletions is used to quantitatively label strains according to the number of deletions contained in each strain (Figure 1
). Repeated rounds of assortment of GFP-marked deletions via yeast mating and meiosis coupled with flow-cytometric enrichment of strains carrying more of these deletions lead to the accumulation of deletions in strains (Figure 2
). Performing multiple processes in parallel, with each process incorporating one or more deletions per round, reduces the time required for strain construction.
The first step is to prepare haploid single-mutants termed 'ProMonsters,' each of which carries a GFP reporter in a deleted locus and one of the 'toolkit' loci—either Green Monster GMToolkit-a
or GMToolkit-α at the can1Δ
locus (Figure 3
). Using strains from the yeast deletion collection12
, GFP-marked deletions can be conveniently generated by replacing the common KanMX4
cassette existing in these strains with a universal GFP
fragment. Each GMToolkit contains: either the a
- or α-mating-type-specific haploid selection marker1
and exactly one of the two markers that, when both GMToolkits are present, collectively allow for selection of diploids.
The second step is to carry out the sexual cycling through which deletion loci can be combined within a single cell by the random assortment and/or meiotic recombination that accompanies each cycle of mating and sporulation.
Microbiology, Issue 70, Genetics, Synthetic Biology, Environmental Genomics, Genomics, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Cellular Biology, Multi-site genomic engineering, genetic interaction, green fluorescent protein, GFP, flow cytometry, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeast, Green Monster
Continuous High-resolution Microscopic Observation of Replicative Aging in Budding Yeast
Institutions: University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, ETH Zurich, ETH Zurich, ETH Zurich.
We demonstrate the use of a simple microfluidic setup, in which single budding yeast cells can be tracked throughout their entire lifespan. The microfluidic chip exploits the size difference between mother and daughter cells using an array of micropads. Upon loading, cells are trapped underneath these micropads, because the distance between the micropad and cover glass is similar to the diameter of a yeast cell (3-4 μm). After the loading procedure, culture medium is continuously flushed through the chip, which not only creates a constant and defined environment throughout the entire experiment, but also flushes out the emerging daughter cells, which are not retained underneath the pads due to their smaller size. The setup retains mother cells so efficiently that in a single experiment up to 50 individual cells can be monitored in a fully automated manner for 5 days or, if necessary, longer. In addition, the excellent optical properties of the chip allow high-resolution imaging of cells during the entire aging process.
Bioengineering, Issue 78, Microbiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Anatomy, Physiology, Lifespan analysis, Live-cell imaging, Microfluidics, Aging, Microscopy, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, microfluidic chip, yeast, cell culture, cells, imaging
Purification and microRNA Profiling of Exosomes Derived from Blood and Culture Media
Institutions: Drexel University College of Medicine.
Stable miRNAs are present in all body fluids and some circulating miRNAs are protected from degradation by sequestration in small vesicles called exosomes. Exosomes can fuse with the plasma membrane resulting in the transfer of RNA and proteins to the target cell. Their biological functions include immune response, antigen presentation, and intracellular communication. Delivery of miRNAs that can regulate gene expression in the recipient cells via blood has opened novel avenues for target intervention. In addition to offering a strategy for delivery of drugs or RNA therapeutic agents, exosomal contents can serve as biomarkers that can aid in diagnosis, determining treatment options and prognosis. Here we will describe the procedure for quantitatively analyzing miRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNA) from exosomes secreted in blood and cell culture media. Purified exosomes will be characterized using western blot analysis for exosomal markers and PCR for mRNAs of interest. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunogold labeling will be used to validate exosomal morphology and integrity. Total RNA will be purified from these exosomes to ensure that we can study both mRNA and miRNA from the same sample. After validating RNA integrity by Bioanalyzer, we will perform a medium throughput quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) to identify the exosomal miRNA using Taqman Low Density Array (TLDA) cards and gene expression studies for transcripts of interest.
These protocols can be used to quantify changes in exosomal miRNAs in patients, rodent models and cell culture media before and after pharmacological intervention. Exosomal contents vary due to the source of origin and the physiological conditions of cells that secrete exosomes. These variations can provide insight on how cells and systems cope with stress or physiological perturbations. Our representative data show variations in miRNAs present in exosomes purified from mouse blood, human blood and human cell culture media.
Here we will describe the procedure for quantitatively analyzing miRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNA) from exosomes secreted in blood and cell culture media. Purified exosomes will be characterized using western blot analysis for exosomal markers and PCR for mRNAs of interest. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunogold labeling will be used to validate exosomal morphology and integrity. Total RNA will be purified from these exosomes to ensure that we can study both mRNA and miRNA from the same sample. After validating RNA integrity by Bioanalyzer, we will perform a medium throughput quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) to identify the exosomal miRNA using Taqman Low Density Array (TLDA) cards and gene expression studies for transcripts of interest.
These protocols can be used to quantify changes in exosomal miRNAs in patients, rodent models and cell culture media before and after pharmacological intervention. Exosomal contents vary due to the source of origin and the physiological conditions of cells that secrete exosomes. These variations can provide insight on how cells and systems cope with stress or physiological perturbations. Our representative data show variations in miRNAs present in exosomes purified from mouse blood, human blood and human cell culture media
Genetics, Issue 76, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Biochemistry, Genomics, Pharmacology, Exosomes, RNA, MicroRNAs, Biomarkers, Pharmacological, Exosomes, microRNA, qPCR, PCR, blood, biomarker, TLDA, profiling, sequencing, cell culture
Acquiring Fluorescence Time-lapse Movies of Budding Yeast and Analyzing Single-cell Dynamics using GRAFTS
Institutions: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Fluorescence time-lapse microscopy has become a powerful tool in the study of many biological processes at the single-cell level. In particular, movies depicting the temporal dependence of gene expression provide insight into the dynamics of its regulation; however, there are many technical challenges to obtaining and analyzing fluorescence movies of single cells. We describe here a simple protocol using a commercially available microfluidic culture device to generate such data, and a MATLAB-based, graphical user interface (GUI) -based software package to quantify the fluorescence images. The software segments and tracks cells, enables the user to visually curate errors in the data, and automatically assigns lineage and division times. The GUI further analyzes the time series to produce whole cell traces as well as their first and second time derivatives. While the software was designed for S. cerevisiae
, its modularity and versatility should allow it to serve as a platform for studying other cell types with few modifications.
Microbiology, Issue 77, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Biophysics, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Cell Biology, microscopy/fluorescence and time-lapse, budding yeast, gene expression dynamics, segmentation, lineage tracking, image tracking, software, yeast, cells, imaging
Differentiation of Newborn Mouse Skin Derived Stem Cells into Germ-like Cells In vitro
Institutions: The University of Western Ontario, Children's Health Research Institute.
Studying germ cell formation and differentiation has traditionally been very difficult due to low cell numbers and their location deep within developing embryos. The availability of a "closed" in vitro
based system could prove invaluable for our understanding of gametogenesis. The formation of oocyte-like cells (OLCs) from somatic stem cells, isolated from newborn mouse skin, has been demonstrated and can be visualized in this video protocol. The resulting OLCs express various markers consistent with oocytes such as Oct4 , Vasa , Bmp15
, and Scp3
. However, they remain unable to undergo maturation or fertilization due to a failure to complete meiosis. This protocol will provide a system that is useful for studying the early stage formation and differentiation of germ cells into more mature gametes. During early differentiation the number of cells expressing Oct4 (potential germ-like cells) reaches ~5%, however currently the formation of OLCs remains relatively inefficient. The protocol is relatively straight forward though special care should be taken to ensure the starting cell population is healthy and at an early passage.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 77, Developmental Biology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Physiology, Adult Stem Cells, Pluripotent Stem Cells, Germ Cells, Oocytes, Reproductive Physiological Processes, Stem cell, skin, germ cell, oocyte, cell, differentiation, cell culture, mouse, animal model
In Vitro Nuclear Assembly Using Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts
Institutions: Emory University.
Nuclear membrane assembly is an essential step in the cell division cycle; this process can be replicated in the test tube by combining Xenopus sperm chromatin, cytosol, and light membrane fractions. Complete nuclei are formed, including nuclear membranes with pore complexes, and these reconstituted nuclei are capable of normal nuclear processes.
Cellular Biology, Issue 19, Current Protocols Wiley, Xenopus Egg Extracts, Nuclear Assembly, Nuclear Membrane