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PiZ mouse liver accumulates polyubiquitin conjugates that associate with catalytically active 26S proteasomes.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Accumulation of aggregation-prone human alpha 1 antitrypsin mutant Z (AT-Z) protein in PiZ mouse liver stimulates features of liver injury typical of human alpha 1 antitrypsin type ZZ deficiency, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the 26S proteasome counteracts AT-Z accumulation and plays other roles that, when inhibited, could exacerbate the injury. However, it is unknown how the conditions of AT-Z mediated liver injury affect the 26S proteasome. To address this question, we developed a rapid extraction strategy that preserves polyubiquitin conjugates in the presence of catalytically active 26S proteasomes and allows their separation from deposits of insoluble AT-Z. Compared to WT, PiZ extracts had about 4-fold more polyubiquitin conjugates with no apparent change in the levels of the 26S and 20S proteasomes, and unassembled subunits. The polyubiquitin conjugates had similar affinities to ubiquitin-binding domain of Psmd4 and co-purified with similar amounts of catalytically active 26S complexes. These data show that polyubiquitin conjugates were accumulating despite normal recruitment to catalytically active 26S proteasomes that were available in excess, and suggest that a defect at the 26S proteasome other than compromised binding to polyubiquitin chain or peptidase activity played a role in the accumulation. In support of this idea, PiZ extracts were characterized by high molecular weight, reduction-sensitive forms of selected subunits, including ATPase subunits that unfold substrates and regulate access to proteolytic core. Older WT mice acquired similar alterations, implying that they result from common aspects of oxidative stress. The changes were most pronounced on unassembled subunits, but some subunits were altered even in the 26S proteasomes co-purified with polyubiquitin conjugates. Thus, AT-Z protein aggregates indirectly impair degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins at the level of the 26S proteasome, possibly by inducing oxidative stress-mediated modifications that compromise substrate delivery to proteolytic core.
Authors: Elena García-Cano, Adi Zaltsman, Vitaly Citovsky.
Published: 03-26-2014
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway for protein degradation has emerged as one of the most important mechanisms for regulation of a wide spectrum of cellular functions in virtually all eukaryotic organisms. Specifically, in plants, the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (UPS) regulates protein degradation and contributes significantly to development of a wide range of processes, including immune response, development and programmed cell death. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that numerous plant pathogens, such as Agrobacterium, exploit the host UPS for efficient infection, emphasizing the importance of UPS in plant-pathogen interactions. The substrate specificity of UPS is achieved by the E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts in concert with the E1 and E2 ligases to recognize and mark specific protein molecules destined for degradation by attaching to them chains of ubiquitin molecules. One class of the E3 ligases is the SCF (Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein) complex, which specifically recognizes the UPS substrates and targets them for ubiquitination via its F-box protein component. To investigate a potential role of UPS in a biological process of interest, it is important to devise a simple and reliable assay for UPS-mediated protein degradation. Here, we describe one such assay using a plant cell-free system. This assay can be adapted for studies of the roles of regulated protein degradation in diverse cellular processes, with a special focus on the F-box protein-substrate interactions.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
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Biochemical Assays for Analyzing Activities of ATP-dependent Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes
Authors: Lu Chen, Soon-Keat Ooi, Joan W. Conaway, Ronald C. Conaway.
Institutions: Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas University Medical Center.
Members of the SNF2 family of ATPases often function as components of multi-subunit chromatin remodeling complexes that regulate nucleosome dynamics and DNA accessibility by catalyzing ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling. Biochemically dissecting the contributions of individual subunits of such complexes to the multi-step ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling reaction requires the use of assays that monitor the production of reaction products and measure the formation of reaction intermediates. This JOVE protocol describes assays that allow one to measure the biochemical activities of chromatin remodeling complexes or subcomplexes containing various combinations of subunits. Chromatin remodeling is measured using an ATP-dependent nucleosome sliding assay, which monitors the movement of a nucleosome on a DNA molecule using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)-based method. Nucleosome binding activity is measured by monitoring the formation of remodeling complex-bound mononucleosomes using a similar EMSA-based method, and DNA- or nucleosome-dependent ATPase activity is assayed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) to measure the rate of conversion of ATP to ADP and phosphate in the presence of either DNA or nucleosomes. Using these assays, one can examine the functions of subunits of a chromatin remodeling complex by comparing the activities of the complete complex to those lacking one or more subunits. The human INO80 chromatin remodeling complex is used as an example; however, the methods described here can be adapted to the study of other chromatin remodeling complexes.
Biochemistry, Issue 92, chromatin remodeling, INO80, SNF2 family ATPase, biochemical assays, ATPase, nucleosome remodeling, nucleosome binding
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Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors
Authors: Laura E. Brown, Celine Fuchs, Martin W. Nicholson, F. Anne Stephenson, Alex M. Thomson, Jasmina N. Jovanovic.
Institutions: University College London.
Inhibitory neurons act in the central nervous system to regulate the dynamics and spatio-temporal co-ordination of neuronal networks. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is released from the presynaptic terminals of inhibitory neurons within highly specialized intercellular junctions known as synapses, where it binds to GABAA receptors (GABAARs) present at the plasma membrane of the synapse-receiving, postsynaptic neurons. Activation of these GABA-gated ion channels leads to influx of chloride resulting in postsynaptic potential changes that decrease the probability that these neurons will generate action potentials. During development, diverse types of inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological, electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics have the ability to recognize their target neurons and form synapses which incorporate specific GABAARs subtypes. This principle of selective innervation of neuronal targets raises the question as to how the appropriate synaptic partners identify each other. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABAAR subtypes. Synapses form rapidly, efficiently and selectively in this system, and are easily accessible for quantification. Our results indicate that various GABAAR subtypes differ in their ability to promote synapse formation, suggesting that this reduced in vitro model system can be used to reproduce, at least in part, the in vivo conditions required for the recognition of the appropriate synaptic partners and formation of specific synapses. Here the protocols for culturing the medium spiny neurons and generating HEK293 cells lines expressing GABAARs are first described, followed by detailed instructions on how to combine these two cell types in co-culture and analyze the formation of synaptic contacts.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
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Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish Embryos
Authors: Vera Mugoni, Annalisa Camporeale, Massimo M. Santoro.
Institutions: University of Torino, Vesalius Research Center, VIB.
High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause a change of cellular redox state towards oxidative stress condition. This situation causes oxidation of molecules (lipid, DNA, protein) and leads to cell death. Oxidative stress also impacts the progression of several pathological conditions such as diabetes, retinopathies, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Thus, it is important to define tools to investigate oxidative stress conditions not only at the level of single cells but also in the context of whole organisms. Here, we consider the zebrafish embryo as a useful in vivo system to perform such studies and present a protocol to measure in vivo oxidative stress. Taking advantage of fluorescent ROS probes and zebrafish transgenic fluorescent lines, we develop two different methods to measure oxidative stress in vivo: i) a “whole embryo ROS-detection method” for qualitative measurement of oxidative stress and ii) a “single-cell ROS detection method” for quantitative measurements of oxidative stress. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of these procedures by increasing oxidative stress in tissues by oxidant agents and physiological or genetic methods. This protocol is amenable for forward genetic screens and it will help address cause-effect relationships of ROS in animal models of oxidative stress-related pathologies such as neurological disorders and cancer.
Developmental Biology, Issue 89, Danio rerio, zebrafish embryos, endothelial cells, redox state analysis, oxidative stress detection, in vivo ROS measurements, FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorter), molecular probes
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Technique of Subnormothermic Ex Vivo Liver Perfusion for the Storage, Assessment, and Repair of Marginal Liver Grafts
Authors: Jan M. Knaak, Vinzent N. Spetzler, Nicolas Goldaracena, Kristine S. Louis, Nazia Selzner, Markus Selzner.
Institutions: Toronto General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital.
The success of liver transplantation has resulted in a dramatic organ shortage. In most transplant regions 20-30% of patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation die without receiving an organ transplant or are delisted for disease progression. One strategy to increase the donor pool is the utilization of marginal grafts, such as fatty livers, grafts from older donors, or donation after cardiac death (DCD). The current preservation technique of cold static storage is only poorly tolerated by marginal livers resulting in significant organ damage. In addition, cold static organ storage does not allow graft assessment or repair prior to transplantation. These shortcomings of cold static preservation have triggered an interest in warm perfused organ preservation to reduce cold ischemic injury, assess liver grafts during preservation, and explore the opportunity to repair marginal livers prior to transplantation. The optimal pressure and flow conditions, perfusion temperature, composition of the perfusion solution and the need for an oxygen carrier has been controversial in the past. In spite of promising results in several animal studies, the complexity and the costs have prevented a broader clinical application so far. Recently, with enhanced technology and a better understanding of liver physiology during ex vivo perfusion the outcome of warm liver perfusion has improved and consistently good results can be achieved. This paper will provide information about liver retrieval, storage techniques, and isolated liver perfusion in pigs. We will illustrate a) the requirements to ensure sufficient oxygen supply to the organ, b) technical considerations about the perfusion machine and the perfusion solution, and c) biochemical aspects of isolated organs.
Medicine, Issue 90, ex vivo liver perfusion, marginal grafts, DCD
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Mizoroki-Heck Cross-coupling Reactions Catalyzed by Dichloro{bis[1,1',1''-(phosphinetriyl)tripiperidine]}palladium Under Mild Reaction Conditions
Authors: Miriam Oberholzer, Christian M. Frech.
Institutions: University of Zürich, Zürich University of Applied Sciences.
Dichloro-bis(aminophosphine) complexes of palladium with the general formula of [(P{(NC5H10)3-n(C6H11)n})2Pd(Cl)2] (where n = 0-2), belong to a new family of easy accessible, very cheap, and air stable, but highly active and universally applicable C-C cross-coupling catalysts with an excellent functional group tolerance. Dichloro{bis[1,1',1''-(phosphinetriyl)tripiperidine]}palladium [(P(NC5H10)3)2Pd(Cl)2] (1), the least stable complex within this series towards protons; e.g. in the form of water, allows an eased nanoparticle formation and hence, proved to be the most active Heck catalyst within this series at 100 °C and is a very rare example of an effective and versatile catalyst system that efficiently operates under mild reaction conditions. Rapid and complete catalyst degradation under work-up conditions into phosphonates, piperidinium salts and other, palladium-containing decomposition products assure an easy separation of the coupling products from catalyst and ligands. The facile, cheap, and rapid synthesis of 1,1',1"-(phosphinetriyl)tripiperidine and 1 respectively, the simple and convenient use as well as its excellent catalytic performance in the Heck reaction at 100 °C make 1 to one of the most attractive and greenest Heck catalysts available. We provide here the visualized protocols for the ligand and catalyst syntheses as well as the reaction protocol for Heck reactions performed at 10 mmol scale at 100 °C and show that this catalyst is suitable for its use in organic syntheses.
Chemistry, Issue 85, Heck reaction, C-C cross-coupling, Catalysis, Catalysts, green chemistry, Palladium, Aminophosphines, Palladium nanoparticles, Reaction mechanism, water-induced ligand degradation
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Generation and Purification of Human INO80 Chromatin Remodeling Complexes and Subcomplexes
Authors: Lu Chen, Soon-Keat Ooi, Ronald C. Conaway, Joan W. Conaway.
Institutions: Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas University Medical Center.
INO80 chromatin remodeling complexes regulate nucleosome dynamics and DNA accessibility by catalyzing ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling. Human INO80 complexes consist of 14 protein subunits including Ino80, a SNF2-like ATPase, which serves both as the catalytic subunit and the scaffold for assembly of the complexes. Functions of the other subunits and the mechanisms by which they contribute to the INO80 complex's chromatin remodeling activity remain poorly understood, in part due to the challenge of generating INO80 subassemblies in human cells or heterologous expression systems. This JOVE protocol describes a procedure that allows purification of human INO80 chromatin remodeling subcomplexes that are lacking a subunit or a subset of subunits. N-terminally FLAG epitope tagged Ino80 cDNA are stably introduced into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell lines using Flp-mediated recombination. In the event that a subset of subunits of the INO80 complex is to be deleted, one expresses instead mutant Ino80 proteins that lack the platform needed for assembly of those subunits. In the event an individual subunit is to be depleted, one transfects siRNAs targeting this subunit into an HEK 293 cell line stably expressing FLAG tagged Ino80 ATPase. Nuclear extracts are prepared, and FLAG immunoprecipitation is performed to enrich protein fractions containing Ino80 derivatives. The compositions of purified INO80 subcomplexes can then be analyzed using methods such as immunoblotting, silver staining, and mass spectrometry. The INO80 and INO80 subcomplexes generated according to this protocol can be further analyzed using various biochemical assays, which are described in the accompanying JOVE protocol. The methods described here can be adapted for studies of the structural and functional properties of any mammalian multi-subunit chromatin remodeling and modifying complexes.
Biochemistry, Issue 92, chromatin remodeling, INO80, SNF2 family ATPase, structure-function, enzyme purification
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Combining Magnetic Sorting of Mother Cells and Fluctuation Tests to Analyze Genome Instability During Mitotic Cell Aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Authors: Melissa N. Patterson, Patrick H. Maxwell.
Institutions: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an excellent model system for examining mechanisms and consequences of genome instability. Information gained from this yeast model is relevant to many organisms, including humans, since DNA repair and DNA damage response factors are well conserved across diverse species. However, S. cerevisiae has not yet been used to fully address whether the rate of accumulating mutations changes with increasing replicative (mitotic) age due to technical constraints. For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. Variations of this basic protocol provide the means to investigate the influence of alterations in specific gene functions or specific environmental conditions on mutation accumulation to address mechanisms underlying genome instability during replicative aging.
Microbiology, Issue 92, Aging, mutations, genome instability, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fluctuation test, magnetic sorting, mother cell, replicative aging
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Immunodetection of Outer Membrane Proteins by Flow Cytometry of Isolated Mitochondria
Authors: Sarah Pickles, Nathalie Arbour, Christine Vande Velde.
Institutions: Université de Montréal, CRCHUM, Université de Montréal, CRCHUM.
Methods to detect and monitor mitochondrial outer membrane protein components in animal tissues are vital to study mitochondrial physiology and pathophysiology. This protocol describes a technique where mitochondria isolated from rodent tissue are immunolabeled and analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondria are isolated from rodent spinal cords and subjected to a rapid enrichment step so as to remove myelin, a major contaminant of mitochondrial fractions prepared from nervous tissue. Isolated mitochondria are then labeled with an antibody of choice and a fluorescently conjugated secondary antibody. Analysis by flow cytometry verifies the relative purity of mitochondrial preparations by staining with a mitochondrial specific dye, followed by detection and quantification of immunolabeled protein. This technique is rapid, quantifiable and high-throughput, allowing for the analysis of hundreds of thousands of mitochondria per sample. It is applicable to assess novel proteins at the mitochondrial surface under normal physiological conditions as well as the proteins that may become mislocalized to this organelle during pathology. Importantly, this method can be coupled to fluorescent indicator dyes to report on certain activities of mitochondrial subpopulations and is feasible for mitochondria from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) as well as liver.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, Mitochondria, flow cytometry, organelle isolation, immunolabeling, spinal cord, TMRM
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Reporter-based Growth Assay for Systematic Analysis of Protein Degradation
Authors: Itamar Cohen, Yifat Geffen, Guy Ravid, Tommer Ravid.
Institutions: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a major regulatory mechanism for protein homeostasis in all eukaryotes. The standard approach to determining intracellular protein degradation relies on biochemical assays for following the kinetics of protein decline. Such methods are often laborious and time consuming and therefore not amenable to experiments aimed at assessing multiple substrates and degradation conditions. As an alternative, cell growth-based assays have been developed, that are, in their conventional format, end-point assays that cannot quantitatively determine relative changes in protein levels. Here we describe a method that faithfully determines changes in protein degradation rates by coupling them to yeast cell-growth kinetics. The method is based on an established selection system where uracil auxotrophy of URA3-deleted yeast cells is rescued by an exogenously expressed reporter protein, comprised of a fusion between the essential URA3 gene and a degradation determinant (degron). The reporter protein is designed so that its synthesis rate is constant whilst its degradation rate is determined by the degron. As cell growth in uracil-deficient medium is proportional to the relative levels of Ura3, growth kinetics are entirely dependent on the reporter protein degradation. This method accurately measures changes in intracellular protein degradation kinetics. It was applied to: (a) Assessing the relative contribution of known ubiquitin-conjugating factors to proteolysis (b) E2 conjugating enzyme structure-function analyses (c) Identification and characterization of novel degrons. Application of the degron-URA3-based system transcends the protein degradation field, as it can also be adapted to monitoring changes of protein levels associated with functions of other cellular pathways.
Cellular Biology, Issue 93, Protein Degradation, Ubiquitin, Proteasome, Baker's Yeast, Growth kinetics, Doubling time
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Analysis of Translation Initiation During Stress Conditions by Polysome Profiling
Authors: Laëtitia Coudert, Pauline Adjibade, Rachid Mazroui.
Institutions: Laval University, CHU de Quebec Research Center.
Precise control of mRNA translation is fundamental for eukaryotic cell homeostasis, particularly in response to physiological and pathological stress. Alterations of this program can lead to the growth of damaged cells, a hallmark of cancer development, or to premature cell death such as seen in neurodegenerative diseases. Much of what is known concerning the molecular basis for translational control has been obtained from polysome analysis using a density gradient fractionation system. This technique relies on ultracentrifugation of cytoplasmic extracts on a linear sucrose gradient. Once the spin is completed, the system allows fractionation and quantification of centrifuged zones corresponding to different translating ribosomes populations, thus resulting in a polysome profile. Changes in the polysome profile are indicative of changes or defects in translation initiation that occur in response to various types of stress. This technique also allows to assess the role of specific proteins on translation initiation, and to measure translational activity of specific mRNAs. Here we describe our protocol to perform polysome profiles in order to assess translation initiation of eukaryotic cells and tissues under either normal or stress growth conditions.
Cellular Biology, Issue 87, Translation initiation, polysome profile, sucrose gradient, protein and RNA isolation, stress conditions
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A New Approach for the Comparative Analysis of Multiprotein Complexes Based on 15N Metabolic Labeling and Quantitative Mass Spectrometry
Authors: Kerstin Trompelt, Janina Steinbeck, Mia Terashima, Michael Hippler.
Institutions: University of Münster, Carnegie Institution for Science.
The introduced protocol provides a tool for the analysis of multiprotein complexes in the thylakoid membrane, by revealing insights into complex composition under different conditions. In this protocol the approach is demonstrated by comparing the composition of the protein complex responsible for cyclic electron flow (CEF) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, isolated from genetically different strains. The procedure comprises the isolation of thylakoid membranes, followed by their separation into multiprotein complexes by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, SDS-PAGE, immunodetection and comparative, quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) based on differential metabolic labeling (14N/15N) of the analyzed strains. Detergent solubilized thylakoid membranes are loaded on sucrose density gradients at equal chlorophyll concentration. After ultracentrifugation, the gradients are separated into fractions, which are analyzed by mass-spectrometry based on equal volume. This approach allows the investigation of the composition within the gradient fractions and moreover to analyze the migration behavior of different proteins, especially focusing on ANR1, CAS, and PGRL1. Furthermore, this method is demonstrated by confirming the results with immunoblotting and additionally by supporting the findings from previous studies (the identification and PSI-dependent migration of proteins that were previously described to be part of the CEF-supercomplex such as PGRL1, FNR, and cyt f). Notably, this approach is applicable to address a broad range of questions for which this protocol can be adopted and e.g. used for comparative analyses of multiprotein complex composition isolated from distinct environmental conditions.
Microbiology, Issue 85, Sucrose density gradients, Chlamydomonas, multiprotein complexes, 15N metabolic labeling, thylakoids
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Measuring Bacterial Load and Immune Responses in Mice Infected with Listeria monocytogenes
Authors: Nancy Wang, Richard Strugnell, Odilia Wijburg, Thomas Brodnicki.
Institutions: The University of Melbourne, The University of Melbourne.
Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen1. Mouse studies typically employ intravenous injection of Listeria, which results in systemic infection2. After injection, Listeria quickly disseminates to the spleen and liver due to uptake by CD8α+ dendritic cells and Kupffer cells3,4. Once phagocytosed, various bacterial proteins enable Listeria to escape the phagosome, survive within the cytosol, and infect neighboring cells5. During the first three days of infection, different innate immune cells (e.g. monocytes, neutrophils, NK cells, dendritic cells) mediate bactericidal mechanisms that minimize Listeria proliferation. CD8+ T cells are subsequently recruited and responsible for the eventual clearance of Listeria from the host, typically within 10 days of infection6. Successful clearance of Listeria from infected mice depends on the appropriate onset of host immune responses6 . There is a broad range of sensitivities amongst inbred mouse strains7,8. Generally, mice with increased susceptibility to Listeria infection are less able to control bacterial proliferation, demonstrating increased bacterial load and/or delayed clearance compared to resistant mice. Genetic studies, including linkage analyses and knockout mouse strains, have identified various genes for which sequence variation affects host responses to Listeria infection6,8-14. Determination and comparison of infection kinetics between different mouse strains is therefore an important method for identifying host genetic factors that contribute to immune responses against Listeria. Comparison of host responses to different Listeria strains is also an effective way to identify bacterial virulence factors that may serve as potential targets for antibiotic therapy or vaccine design. We describe here a straightforward method for measuring bacterial load (colony forming units [CFU] per tissue) and preparing single-cell suspensions of the liver and spleen for FACS analysis of immune responses in Listeria-infected mice. This method is particularly useful for initial characterization of Listeria infection in novel mouse strains, as well as comparison of immune responses between different mouse strains infected with Listeria. We use the Listeria monocytogenes EGD strain15 that, when cultured on blood agar, exhibits a characteristic halo zone around each colony due to β-hemolysis1 (Figure 1). Bacterial load and immune responses can be determined at any time-point after infection by culturing tissue homogenate on blood agar plates and preparing tissue cell suspensions for FACS analysis using the protocols described below. We would note that individuals who are immunocompromised or pregnant should not handle Listeria, and the relevant institutional biosafety committee and animal facility management should be consulted before work commences.
Immunology, Issue 54, Listeria, intracellular bacteria, genetic susceptibility, liver, spleen, blood, FACS analysis, T cells
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Basophil Activation Test for Investigation of IgE-Mediated Mechanisms in Drug Hypersensitivity
Authors: Markus Steiner, Andrea Harrer, Roland Lang, Michael Schneider, Fátima Ferreira, Thomas Hawranek, Martin Himly.
Institutions: University of Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University, Paracelsus Medical University, Bühlmann Laboratories, University of Salzburg.
Hypersensitivity reactions against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like propyphenazone (PP) and diclofenac (DF) can manifest as Type I-like allergic reactions 1. In clinical practice, diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity is mainly performed by patient history, as skin testing is not reliable and oral provocation testing bears life-threatening risks for the patient 2. Hence, evidence for an underlying IgE-mediated pathomechanism is hard to obtain. Here, we present an in vitro method based on the use of human basophils derived from drug-hypersensitive patients that mimics the allergic effector reaction in vivo. As basophils of drug-allergic patients carry IgE molecules specific for the culprit drug, they become activated upon IgE receptor crosslinking and release allergic effector molecules. The activation of basophils can be monitored by the determination of the upregulation of CD63 surface expression using flow cytometry 3. In the case of low molecular weight drugs, conjugates are designed to enable IgE receptor crosslinking on basophils. As depicted in Figure 1, two representatives of NSAIDs, PP and DF, are covalently bound to human serum albumin (HSA) via a carboxyl group reacting with the primary amino group of lysine residues. DF carries an intrinsic carboxyl group and, thus, can be used directly 4, whereas a carboxyl group-containing derivative of PP had to be organochemically synthesized prior to the study 1. The coupling degree of the low molecular weight compounds on the protein carrier molecule and their spatial distribution is important to guarantee crosslinking of two IgE receptor molecules. The here described protocol applies high performance-size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) equipped with a sequential refractive index (RI) and ultra violet (UV) detection system for determination of the coupling degree. As the described methodology may be applied for other drugs, the basophil activation test (BAT) bears the potential to be used for the determination of IgE-mediated mechanisms in drug hypersensitivity. Here, we determine PP hypersensitivity as IgE-mediated and DF hypersensitivity as non-IgE-mediated by BAT.
Immunology, Issue 55, NSAIDs, hypersensitivity, propyphenazone, diclofenac, drug conjugates, basophil activation test
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Monitoring of Ubiquitin-proteasome Activity in Living Cells Using a Degron (dgn)-destabilized Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-based Reporter Protein
Authors: Ruth Greussing, Hermann Unterluggauer, Rafal Koziel, Andrea B. Maier, Pidder Jansen-Dürr.
Institutions: Institute for Biomedical Aging Research, Leiden University Medical Center.
Proteasome is the main intracellular organelle involved in the proteolytic degradation of abnormal, misfolded, damaged or oxidized proteins 1, 2. Maintenance of proteasome activity was implicated in many key cellular processes, like cell's stress response 3, cell cycle regulation and cellular differentiation 4 or in immune system response 5. The dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system has been related to the development of tumors and neurodegenerative diseases 4, 6. Additionally, a decrease in proteasome activity was found as a feature of cellular senescence and organismal aging 7, 8, 9, 10. Here, we present a method to measure ubiquitin-proteasome activity in living cells using a GFP-dgn fusion protein. To be able to monitor ubiquitin-proteasome activity in living primary cells, complementary DNA constructs coding for a green fluorescent protein (GFP)–dgn fusion protein (GFP–dgn, unstable) and a variant carrying a frameshift mutation (GFP–dgnFS, stable 11) are inserted in lentiviral expression vectors. We prefer this technique over traditional transfection techniques because it guarantees a very high transfection efficiency independent of the cell type or the age of the donor. The difference between fluorescence displayed by the GFP–dgnFS (stable) protein and the destabilized protein (GFP-dgn) in the absence or presence of proteasome inhibitor can be used to estimate ubiquitin-proteasome activity in each particular cell strain. These differences can be monitored by epifluorescence microscopy or can be measured by flow cytometry.
Cellular Biology, Issue 69, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Virology, proteasome activity, lentiviral particles, GFP-dgn, GFP-dgnFS, GFP, human diploid fibroblasts, flow cytometry, plasmid, vector
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Surgical Procedures for a Rat Model of Partial Orthotopic Liver Transplantation with Hepatic Arterial Reconstruction
Authors: Kazuyuki Nagai, Shintaro Yagi, Shinji Uemoto, Rene H. Tolba.
Institutions: RWTH-Aachen University, Kyoto University .
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats using a whole or partial graft is an indispensable experimental model for transplantation research, such as studies on graft preservation and ischemia-reperfusion injury 1,2, immunological responses 3,4, hemodynamics 5,6, and small-for-size syndrome 7. The rat OLT is among the most difficult animal models in experimental surgery and demands advanced microsurgical skills that take a long time to learn. Consequently, the use of this model has been limited. Since the reliability and reproducibility of results are key components of the experiments in which such complex animal models are used, it is essential for surgeons who are involved in rat OLT to be trained in well-standardized and sophisticated procedures for this model. While various techniques and modifications of OLT in rats have been reported 8 since the first model was described by Lee et al. 9 in 1973, the elimination of the hepatic arterial reconstruction 10 and the introduction of the cuff anastomosis technique by Kamada et al. 11 were a major advancement in this model, because they simplified the reconstruction procedures to a great degree. In the model by Kamada et al., the hepatic rearterialization was also eliminated. Since rats could survive without hepatic arterial flow after liver transplantation, there was considerable controversy over the value of hepatic arterialization. However, the physiological superiority of the arterialized model has been increasingly acknowledged, especially in terms of preserving the bile duct system 8,12 and the liver integrity 8,13,14. In this article, we present detailed surgical procedures for a rat model of OLT with hepatic arterial reconstruction using a 50% partial graft after ex vivo liver resection. The reconstruction procedures for each vessel and the bile duct are performed by the following methods: a 7-0 polypropylene continuous suture for the supra- and infrahepatic vena cava; a cuff technique for the portal vein; and a stent technique for the hepatic artery and the bile duct.
Medicine, Issue 73, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Immunology, Surgery, liver transplantation, liver, hepatic, partial, orthotopic, split, rat, graft, transplantation, microsurgery, procedure, clinical, technique, artery, arterialization, arterialized, anastomosis, reperfusion, rat, animal model
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4D Imaging of Protein Aggregation in Live Cells
Authors: Rachel Spokoini, Maya Shamir, Alma Keness, Daniel Kaganovich.
Institutions: Hebrew University of Jerusalem .
One of the key tasks of any living cell is maintaining the proper folding of newly synthesized proteins in the face of ever-changing environmental conditions and an intracellular environment that is tightly packed, sticky, and hazardous to protein stability1. The ability to dynamically balance protein production, folding and degradation demands highly-specialized quality control machinery, whose absolute necessity is observed best when it malfunctions. Diseases such as ALS, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and certain forms of Cystic Fibrosis have a direct link to protein folding quality control components2, and therefore future therapeutic development requires a basic understanding of underlying processes. Our experimental challenge is to understand how cells integrate damage signals and mount responses that are tailored to diverse circumstances. The primary reason why protein misfolding represents an existential threat to the cell is the propensity of incorrectly folded proteins to aggregate, thus causing a global perturbation of the crowded and delicate intracellular folding environment1. The folding health, or "proteostasis," of the cellular proteome is maintained, even under the duress of aging, stress and oxidative damage, by the coordinated action of different mechanistic units in an elaborate quality control system3,4. A specialized machinery of molecular chaperones can bind non-native polypeptides and promote their folding into the native state1, target them for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system5, or direct them to protective aggregation inclusions6-9. In eukaryotes, the cytosolic aggregation quality control load is partitioned between two compartments8-10: the juxtanuclear quality control compartment (JUNQ) and the insoluble protein deposit (IPOD) (Figure 1 - model). Proteins that are ubiquitinated by the protein folding quality control machinery are delivered to the JUNQ, where they are processed for degradation by the proteasome. Misfolded proteins that are not ubiquitinated are diverted to the IPOD, where they are actively aggregated in a protective compartment. Up until this point, the methodological paradigm of live-cell fluorescence microscopy has largely been to label proteins and track their locations in the cell at specific time-points and usually in two dimensions. As new technologies have begun to grant experimenters unprecedented access to the submicron scale in living cells, the dynamic architecture of the cytosol has come into view as a challenging new frontier for experimental characterization. We present a method for rapidly monitoring the 3D spatial distributions of multiple fluorescently labeled proteins in the yeast cytosol over time. 3D timelapse (4D imaging) is not merely a technical challenge; rather, it also facilitates a dramatic shift in the conceptual framework used to analyze cellular structure. We utilize a cytosolic folding sensor protein in live yeast to visualize distinct fates for misfolded proteins in cellular aggregation quality control, using rapid 4D fluorescent imaging. The temperature sensitive mutant of the Ubc9 protein10-12 (Ubc9ts) is extremely effective both as a sensor of cellular proteostasis, and a physiological model for tracking aggregation quality control. As with most ts proteins, Ubc9ts is fully folded and functional at permissive temperatures due to active cellular chaperones. Above 30 °C, or when the cell faces misfolding stress, Ubc9ts misfolds and follows the fate of a native globular protein that has been misfolded due to mutation, heat denaturation, or oxidative damage. By fusing it to GFP or other fluorophores, it can be tracked in 3D as it forms Stress Foci, or is directed to JUNQ or IPOD.
Cellular Biology, Issue 74, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Proteins, Aggregation quality control, protein folding quality control, GFP, JUNQ (juxtanuclear quality control compartment), IPOD (insoluble protein deposit), proteostasis sensor, 4D live cell imaging, live cells, laser, cell biology, protein folding, Ubc9ts, yeast, assay, cell, imaging
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Generation of Subcutaneous and Intrahepatic Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Xenografts in Immunodeficient Mice
Authors: Sharif U. Ahmed, Murtuza Zair, Kui Chen, Matthew Iu, Feng He, Oyedele Adeyi, Sean P. Cleary, Anand Ghanekar.
Institutions: University Health Network, University Health Network, University Health Network.
In vivo experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that recapitulate the human disease provide a valuable platform for research into disease pathophysiology and for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapies. We present a variety of methods to generate subcutaneous or orthotopic human HCC xenografts in immunodeficient mice that could be utilized in a variety of research applications. With a focus on the use of primary tumor tissue from patients undergoing surgical resection as a starting point, we describe the preparation of cell suspensions or tumor fragments for xenografting. We describe specific techniques to xenograft these tissues i) subcutaneously; or ii) intrahepatically, either by direct implantation of tumor cells or fragments into the liver, or indirectly by injection of cells into the mouse spleen. We also describe the use of partial resection of the native mouse liver at the time of xenografting as a strategy to induce a state of active liver regeneration in the recipient mouse that may facilitate the intrahepatic engraftment of primary human tumor cells. The expected results of these techniques are illustrated. The protocols described have been validated using primary human HCC samples and xenografts, which typically perform less robustly than the well-established human HCC cell lines that are widely used and frequently cited in the literature. In comparison with cell lines, we discuss factors which may contribute to the relatively low chance of primary HCC engraftment in xenotransplantation models and comment on technical issues that may influence the kinetics of xenograft growth. We also suggest methods that should be applied to ensure that xenografts obtained accurately resemble parent HCC tissues.
Medicine, Issue 79, Liver Neoplasms, Hepatectomy, animal models, hepatocellular carcinoma, xenograft, cancer, liver, subcutaneous, intrahepatic, orthotopic, mouse, human, immunodeficient
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Polymalic Acid-based Nano Biopolymers for Targeting of Multiple Tumor Markers: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine?
Authors: Julia Y. Ljubimova, Hui Ding, Jose Portilla-Arias, Rameshwar Patil, Pallavi R. Gangalum, Alexandra Chesnokova, Satoshi Inoue, Arthur Rekechenetskiy, Tala Nassoura, Keith L. Black, Eggehard Holler.
Institutions: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
Tumors with similar grade and morphology often respond differently to the same treatment because of variations in molecular profiling. To account for this diversity, personalized medicine is developed for silencing malignancy associated genes. Nano drugs fit these needs by targeting tumor and delivering antisense oligonucleotides for silencing of genes. As drugs for the treatment are often administered repeatedly, absence of toxicity and negligible immune response are desirable. In the example presented here, a nano medicine is synthesized from the biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic platform polymalic acid by controlled chemical ligation of antisense oligonucleotides and tumor targeting molecules. The synthesis and treatment is exemplified for human Her2-positive breast cancer using an experimental mouse model. The case can be translated towards synthesis and treatment of other tumors.
Chemistry, Issue 88, Cancer treatment, personalized medicine, polymalic acid, nanodrug, biopolymer, targeting, host compatibility, biodegradability
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Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model System to Study Protein Homeostasis in a Multicellular Organism
Authors: Ido Karady, Anna Frumkin, Shiran Dror, Netta Shemesh, Nadav Shai, Anat Ben-Zvi.
Institutions: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
The folding and assembly of proteins is essential for protein function, the long-term health of the cell, and longevity of the organism. Historically, the function and regulation of protein folding was studied in vitro, in isolated tissue culture cells and in unicellular organisms. Recent studies have uncovered links between protein homeostasis (proteostasis), metabolism, development, aging, and temperature-sensing. These findings have led to the development of new tools for monitoring protein folding in the model metazoan organism Caenorhabditis elegans. In our laboratory, we combine behavioral assays, imaging and biochemical approaches using temperature-sensitive or naturally occurring metastable proteins as sensors of the folding environment to monitor protein misfolding. Behavioral assays that are associated with the misfolding of a specific protein provide a simple and powerful readout for protein folding, allowing for the fast screening of genes and conditions that modulate folding. Likewise, such misfolding can be associated with protein mislocalization in the cell. Monitoring protein localization can, therefore, highlight changes in cellular folding capacity occurring in different tissues, at various stages of development and in the face of changing conditions. Finally, using biochemical tools ex vivo, we can directly monitor protein stability and conformation. Thus, by combining behavioral assays, imaging and biochemical techniques, we are able to monitor protein misfolding at the resolution of the organism, the cell, and the protein, respectively.
Biochemistry, Issue 82, aging, Caenorhabditis elegans, heat shock response, neurodegenerative diseases, protein folding homeostasis, proteostasis, stress, temperature-sensitive
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Blue Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) for Analysis of Multiprotein Complexes from Cellular Lysates
Authors: Gina J. Fiala, Wolfgang W. A. Schamel, Britta Blumenthal.
Institutions: University of Freiburg, University of Freiburg, Max-Planck-Institute of Immunology and Epigenetics.
Multiprotein complexes (MPCs) play a crucial role in cell signalling, since most proteins can be found in functional or regulatory complexes with other proteins (Sali, Glaeser et al. 2003). Thus, the study of protein-protein interaction networks requires the detailed characterization of MPCs to gain an integrative understanding of protein function and regulation. For identification and analysis, MPCs must be separated under native conditions. In this video, we describe the analysis of MPCs by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). BN-PAGE is a technique that allows separation of MPCs in a native conformation with a higher resolution than offered by gel filtration or sucrose density ultracentrifugation, and is therefore useful to determine MPC size, composition, and relative abundance (Schägger and von Jagow 1991); (Schägger, Cramer et al. 1994). By this method, proteins are separated according to their hydrodynamic size and shape in a polyacrylamide matrix. Here, we demonstrate the analysis of MPCs of total cellular lysates, pointing out that lysate dialysis is the crucial step to make BN-PAGE applicable to these biological samples. Using a combination of first dimension BN- and second dimension SDS-PAGE, we show that MPCs separated by BN-PAGE can be further subdivided into their individual constituents by SDS-PAGE. Visualization of the MPC components upon gel separation is performed by standard immunoblotting. As an example for MPC analysis by BN-PAGE, we chose the well-characterized eukaryotic 19S, 20S, and 26S proteasomes.
Biochemistry, Issue 48, BN-PAGE, 2D gel electrophoresis, cellular lysate, dialysis, protein complex, multiprotein complex, protein interaction
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Detection of Protein Ubiquitination
Authors: Yeun Su Choo, Zhuohua Zhang.
Institutions: The Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research.
Ubiquitination, the covalent attachment of the polypeptide ubiquitin to target proteins, is a key posttranslational modification carried out by a set of three enzymes. They include ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, and ubiquitin ligase E3. Unlike to E1 and E2, E3 ubiquitin ligases display substrate specificity. On the other hand, numerous deubiquitylating enzymes have roles in processing polyubiquitinated proteins. Ubiquitination can result in change of protein stability, cellular localization, and biological activity. Mutations of genes involved in the ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathway or altered ubiquitin system function are associated with many different human diseases such as various types of cancer, neurodegeneration, and metabolic disorders. The detection of altered or normal ubiquitination of target proteins may provide a better understanding on the pathogenesis of these diseases.  Here, we describe protocols to detect protein ubiquitination in cultured cells in vivo and test tubes in vitro. These protocols are also useful to detect other ubiquitin-like small molecule modification such as sumolyation and neddylation.
Cell Biology, Biochemistry, Issue 30, ubiquitination, cultured cell, in vitro system, immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, ubiquitin, posttranslational modification
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