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Pubmed Article
Changes in refractive errors related to spectacle correction of hyperopia.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Hyperopic undercorrection is a common clinical practice. However, less is known of its effect on the change in refractive errors and emmetropization throughout the later years of childhood.
Authors: Ming-Hsien Wang.
Published: 11-30-2010
Meatal stenosis is a common urologic complication after circumcision. Children present to their primary care physicians with complaints of deviated urinary stream, difficult-to-aim, painful urination, and urinary frequency. Clinical exam reveals a pinpoint meatus and if the child is asked to urinate, he will usually have an upward, thin, occasionally forceful urinary stream with incomplete bladder emptying. The mainstay of management is meatoplasty (reconstruction of the distal urethra /meatus). This educational video will demonstrate how this is performed.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
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Pre-clinical Evaluation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Treatment of Acute Leukemia
Authors: Sandra Christoph, Alisa B. Lee-Sherick, Susan Sather, Deborah DeRyckere, Douglas K. Graham.
Institutions: University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, University Hospital of Essen.
Receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and progression of many cancers, including both leukemia and solid tumors, and are attractive druggable therapeutic targets. Here we describe an efficient four-step strategy for pre-clinical evaluation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of acute leukemia. Initially, western blot analysis is used to confirm target inhibition in cultured leukemia cells. Functional activity is then evaluated using clonogenic assays in methylcellulose or soft agar cultures. Experimental compounds that demonstrate activity in cell culture assays are evaluated in vivo using NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice transplanted orthotopically with human leukemia cell lines. Initial in vivo pharmacodynamic studies evaluate target inhibition in leukemic blasts isolated from the bone marrow. This approach is used to determine the dose and schedule of administration required for effective target inhibition. Subsequent studies evaluate the efficacy of the TKIs in vivo using luciferase expressing leukemia cells, thereby allowing for non-invasive bioluminescent monitoring of leukemia burden and assessment of therapeutic response using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. This strategy has been effective for evaluation of TKIs in vitro and in vivo and can be applied for identification of molecularly-targeted agents with therapeutic potential or for direct comparison and prioritization of multiple compounds.
Medicine, Issue 79, Leukemia, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Therapeutics, novel small molecule inhibitor, receptor tyrosine kinase, leukemia
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Using Eye Movements to Evaluate the Cognitive Processes Involved in Text Comprehension
Authors: Gary E. Raney, Spencer J. Campbell, Joanna C. Bovee.
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago.
The present article describes how to use eye tracking methodologies to study the cognitive processes involved in text comprehension. Measuring eye movements during reading is one of the most precise methods for measuring moment-by-moment (online) processing demands during text comprehension. Cognitive processing demands are reflected by several aspects of eye movement behavior, such as fixation duration, number of fixations, and number of regressions (returning to prior parts of a text). Important properties of eye tracking equipment that researchers need to consider are described, including how frequently the eye position is measured (sampling rate), accuracy of determining eye position, how much head movement is allowed, and ease of use. Also described are properties of stimuli that influence eye movements that need to be controlled in studies of text comprehension, such as the position, frequency, and length of target words. Procedural recommendations related to preparing the participant, setting up and calibrating the equipment, and running a study are given. Representative results are presented to illustrate how data can be evaluated. Although the methodology is described in terms of reading comprehension, much of the information presented can be applied to any study in which participants read verbal stimuli.
Behavior, Issue 83, Eye movements, Eye tracking, Text comprehension, Reading, Cognition
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Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly
Authors: Joel Ramirez, Christopher J.M. Scott, Alicia A. McNeely, Courtney Berezuk, Fuqiang Gao, Gregory M. Szilagyi, Sandra E. Black.
Institutions: Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto.
Obtaining in vivo human brain tissue volumetrics from MRI is often complicated by various technical and biological issues. These challenges are exacerbated when significant brain atrophy and age-related white matter changes (e.g. Leukoaraiosis) are present. Lesion Explorer (LE) is an accurate and reliable neuroimaging pipeline specifically developed to address such issues commonly observed on MRI of Alzheimer's disease and normal elderly. The pipeline is a complex set of semi-automatic procedures which has been previously validated in a series of internal and external reliability tests1,2. However, LE's accuracy and reliability is highly dependent on properly trained manual operators to execute commands, identify distinct anatomical landmarks, and manually edit/verify various computer-generated segmentation outputs. LE can be divided into 3 main components, each requiring a set of commands and manual operations: 1) Brain-Sizer, 2) SABRE, and 3) Lesion-Seg. Brain-Sizer's manual operations involve editing of the automatic skull-stripped total intracranial vault (TIV) extraction mask, designation of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF), and removal of subtentorial structures. The SABRE component requires checking of image alignment along the anterior and posterior commissure (ACPC) plane, and identification of several anatomical landmarks required for regional parcellation. Finally, the Lesion-Seg component involves manual checking of the automatic lesion segmentation of subcortical hyperintensities (SH) for false positive errors. While on-site training of the LE pipeline is preferable, readily available visual teaching tools with interactive training images are a viable alternative. Developed to ensure a high degree of accuracy and reliability, the following is a step-by-step, video-guided, standardized protocol for LE's manual procedures.
Medicine, Issue 86, Brain, Vascular Diseases, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Neuroimaging, Alzheimer Disease, Aging, Neuroanatomy, brain extraction, ventricles, white matter hyperintensities, cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer disease
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Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color
Authors: Olympia Colizoli, Jaap M. J. Murre, Romke Rouw.
Institutions: University of Amsterdam.
Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure.
Behavior, Issue 84, synesthesia, training, learning, reading, vision, memory, cognition
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Dynamic Visual Tests to Identify and Quantify Visual Damage and Repair Following Demyelination in Optic Neuritis Patients
Authors: Noa Raz, Michal Hallak, Tamir Ben-Hur, Netta Levin.
Institutions: Hadassah Hebrew-University Medical Center.
In order to follow optic neuritis patients and evaluate the effectiveness of their treatment, a handy, accurate and quantifiable tool is required to assess changes in myelination at the central nervous system (CNS). However, standard measurements, including routine visual tests and MRI scans, are not sensitive enough for this purpose. We present two visual tests addressing dynamic monocular and binocular functions which may closely associate with the extent of myelination along visual pathways. These include Object From Motion (OFM) extraction and Time-constrained stereo protocols. In the OFM test, an array of dots compose an object, by moving the dots within the image rightward while moving the dots outside the image leftward or vice versa. The dot pattern generates a camouflaged object that cannot be detected when the dots are stationary or moving as a whole. Importantly, object recognition is critically dependent on motion perception. In the Time-constrained Stereo protocol, spatially disparate images are presented for a limited length of time, challenging binocular 3-dimensional integration in time. Both tests are appropriate for clinical usage and provide a simple, yet powerful, way to identify and quantify processes of demyelination and remyelination along visual pathways. These protocols may be efficient to diagnose and follow optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis patients. In the diagnostic process, these protocols may reveal visual deficits that cannot be identified via current standard visual measurements. Moreover, these protocols sensitively identify the basis of the currently unexplained continued visual complaints of patients following recovery of visual acuity. In the longitudinal follow up course, the protocols can be used as a sensitive marker of demyelinating and remyelinating processes along time. These protocols may therefore be used to evaluate the efficacy of current and evolving therapeutic strategies, targeting myelination of the CNS.
Medicine, Issue 86, Optic neuritis, visual impairment, dynamic visual functions, motion perception, stereopsis, demyelination, remyelination
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Highly Resolved Intravital Striped-illumination Microscopy of Germinal Centers
Authors: Zoltan Cseresnyes, Laura Oehme, Volker Andresen, Anje Sporbert, Anja E. Hauser, Raluca Niesner.
Institutions: Leibniz Institute, Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Leibniz Institute, LaVision Biotec GmbH, Charité - University of Medicine.
Monitoring cellular communication by intravital deep-tissue multi-photon microscopy is the key for understanding the fate of immune cells within thick tissue samples and organs in health and disease. By controlling the scanning pattern in multi-photon microscopy and applying appropriate numerical algorithms, we developed a striped-illumination approach, which enabled us to achieve 3-fold better axial resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, i.e. contrast, in more than 100 µm tissue depth within highly scattering tissue of lymphoid organs as compared to standard multi-photon microscopy. The acquisition speed as well as photobleaching and photodamage effects were similar to standard photo-multiplier-based technique, whereas the imaging depth was slightly lower due to the use of field detectors. By using the striped-illumination approach, we are able to observe the dynamics of immune complex deposits on secondary follicular dendritic cells – on the level of a few protein molecules in germinal centers.
Immunology, Issue 86, two-photon laser scanning microscopy, deep-tissue intravital imaging, germinal center, lymph node, high-resolution, enhanced contrast
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The Multiple Sclerosis Performance Test (MSPT): An iPad-Based Disability Assessment Tool
Authors: Richard A. Rudick, Deborah Miller, Francois Bethoux, Stephen M. Rao, Jar-Chi Lee, Darlene Stough, Christine Reece, David Schindler, Bernadett Mamone, Jay Alberts.
Institutions: Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland Clinic Foundation.
Precise measurement of neurological and neuropsychological impairment and disability in multiple sclerosis is challenging. We report a new test, the Multiple Sclerosis Performance Test (MSPT), which represents a new approach to quantifying MS related disability. The MSPT takes advantage of advances in computer technology, information technology, biomechanics, and clinical measurement science. The resulting MSPT represents a computer-based platform for precise, valid measurement of MS severity. Based on, but extending the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), the MSPT provides precise, quantitative data on walking speed, balance, manual dexterity, visual function, and cognitive processing speed. The MSPT was tested by 51 MS patients and 49 healthy controls (HC). MSPT scores were highly reproducible, correlated strongly with technician-administered test scores, discriminated MS from HC and severe from mild MS, and correlated with patient reported outcomes. Measures of reliability, sensitivity, and clinical meaning for MSPT scores were favorable compared with technician-based testing. The MSPT is a potentially transformative approach for collecting MS disability outcome data for patient care and research. Because the testing is computer-based, test performance can be analyzed in traditional or novel ways and data can be directly entered into research or clinical databases. The MSPT could be widely disseminated to clinicians in practice settings who are not connected to clinical trial performance sites or who are practicing in rural settings, drastically improving access to clinical trials for clinicians and patients. The MSPT could be adapted to out of clinic settings, like the patient’s home, thereby providing more meaningful real world data. The MSPT represents a new paradigm for neuroperformance testing. This method could have the same transformative effect on clinical care and research in MS as standardized computer-adapted testing has had in the education field, with clear potential to accelerate progress in clinical care and research.
Medicine, Issue 88, Multiple Sclerosis, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, computer-based testing, 25-foot walk test, 9-hole peg test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Low Contrast Visual Acuity, Clinical Outcome Measure
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Irrelevant Stimuli and Action Control: Analyzing the Influence of Ignored Stimuli via the Distractor-Response Binding Paradigm
Authors: Birte Moeller, Hartmut Schächinger, Christian Frings.
Institutions: Trier University, Trier University.
Selection tasks in which simple stimuli (e.g. letters) are presented and a target stimulus has to be selected against one or more distractor stimuli are frequently used in the research on human action control. One important question in these settings is how distractor stimuli, competing with the target stimulus for a response, influence actions. The distractor-response binding paradigm can be used to investigate this influence. It is particular useful to separately analyze response retrieval and distractor inhibition effects. Computer-based experiments are used to collect the data (reaction times and error rates). In a number of sequentially presented pairs of stimulus arrays (prime-probe design), participants respond to targets while ignoring distractor stimuli. Importantly, the factors response relation in the arrays of each pair (repetition vs. change) and distractor relation (repetition vs. change) are varied orthogonally. The repetition of the same distractor then has a different effect depending on response relation (repetition vs. change) between arrays. This result pattern can be explained by response retrieval due to distractor repetition. In addition, distractor inhibition effects are indicated by a general advantage due to distractor repetition. The described paradigm has proven useful to determine relevant parameters for response retrieval effects on human action.
Behavior, Issue 87, stimulus-response binding, distractor-response binding, response retrieval, distractor inhibition, event file, action control, selection task
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Cortical Source Analysis of High-Density EEG Recordings in Children
Authors: Joe Bathelt, Helen O'Reilly, Michelle de Haan.
Institutions: UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London.
EEG is traditionally described as a neuroimaging technique with high temporal and low spatial resolution. Recent advances in biophysical modelling and signal processing make it possible to exploit information from other imaging modalities like structural MRI that provide high spatial resolution to overcome this constraint1. This is especially useful for investigations that require high resolution in the temporal as well as spatial domain. In addition, due to the easy application and low cost of EEG recordings, EEG is often the method of choice when working with populations, such as young children, that do not tolerate functional MRI scans well. However, in order to investigate which neural substrates are involved, anatomical information from structural MRI is still needed. Most EEG analysis packages work with standard head models that are based on adult anatomy. The accuracy of these models when used for children is limited2, because the composition and spatial configuration of head tissues changes dramatically over development3.  In the present paper, we provide an overview of our recent work in utilizing head models based on individual structural MRI scans or age specific head models to reconstruct the cortical generators of high density EEG. This article describes how EEG recordings are acquired, processed, and analyzed with pediatric populations at the London Baby Lab, including laboratory setup, task design, EEG preprocessing, MRI processing, and EEG channel level and source analysis. 
Behavior, Issue 88, EEG, electroencephalogram, development, source analysis, pediatric, minimum-norm estimation, cognitive neuroscience, event-related potentials 
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Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy
Authors: Nikki M. Curthoys, Michael J. Mlodzianoski, Dahan Kim, Samuel T. Hess.
Institutions: University of Maine.
Localization-based super resolution microscopy can be applied to obtain a spatial map (image) of the distribution of individual fluorescently labeled single molecules within a sample with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. Using either photoactivatable (PAFP) or photoswitchable (PSFP) fluorescent proteins fused to proteins of interest, or organic dyes conjugated to antibodies or other molecules of interest, fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) can simultaneously image multiple species of molecules within single cells. By using the following approach, populations of large numbers (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of individual molecules are imaged in single cells and localized with a precision of ~10-30 nm. Data obtained can be applied to understanding the nanoscale spatial distributions of multiple protein types within a cell. One primary advantage of this technique is the dramatic increase in spatial resolution: while diffraction limits resolution to ~200-250 nm in conventional light microscopy, FPALM can image length scales more than an order of magnitude smaller. As many biological hypotheses concern the spatial relationships among different biomolecules, the improved resolution of FPALM can provide insight into questions of cellular organization which have previously been inaccessible to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In addition to detailing the methods for sample preparation and data acquisition, we here describe the optical setup for FPALM. One additional consideration for researchers wishing to do super-resolution microscopy is cost: in-house setups are significantly cheaper than most commercially available imaging machines. Limitations of this technique include the need for optimizing the labeling of molecules of interest within cell samples, and the need for post-processing software to visualize results. We here describe the use of PAFP and PSFP expression to image two protein species in fixed cells. Extension of the technique to living cells is also described.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Microscopy, Super-resolution imaging, Multicolor, single molecule, FPALM, Localization microscopy, fluorescent proteins
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Fabrication and Characterization of Disordered Polymer Optical Fibers for Transverse Anderson Localization of Light
Authors: Salman Karbasi, Ryan J. Frazier, Craig R. Mirr, Karl W. Koch, Arash Mafi.
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York.
We develop and characterize a disordered polymer optical fiber that uses transverse Anderson localization as a novel waveguiding mechanism. The developed polymer optical fiber is composed of 80,000 strands of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) that are randomly mixed and drawn into a square cross section optical fiber with a side width of 250 μm. Initially, each strand is 200 μm in diameter and 8-inches long. During the mixing process of the original fiber strands, the fibers cross over each other; however, a large draw ratio guarantees that the refractive index profile is invariant along the length of the fiber for several tens of centimeters. The large refractive index difference of 0.1 between the disordered sites results in a small localized beam radius that is comparable to the beam radius of conventional optical fibers. The input light is launched from a standard single mode optical fiber using the butt-coupling method and the near-field output beam from the disordered fiber is imaged using a 40X objective and a CCD camera. The output beam diameter agrees well with the expected results from the numerical simulations. The disordered optical fiber presented in this work is the first device-level implementation of 2D Anderson localization, and can potentially be used for image transport and short-haul optical communication systems.
Physics, Issue 77, Chemistry, Optics, Physics (General), Transverse Anderson Localization, Polymer Optical Fibers, Scattering, Random Media, Optical Fiber Materials, electromagnetism, optical fibers, optical materials, optical waveguides, photonics, wave propagation (optics), fiber optics
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Acquiring Fluorescence Time-lapse Movies of Budding Yeast and Analyzing Single-cell Dynamics using GRAFTS
Authors: Christopher J. Zopf, Narendra Maheshri.
Institutions: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Fluorescence time-lapse microscopy has become a powerful tool in the study of many biological processes at the single-cell level. In particular, movies depicting the temporal dependence of gene expression provide insight into the dynamics of its regulation; however, there are many technical challenges to obtaining and analyzing fluorescence movies of single cells. We describe here a simple protocol using a commercially available microfluidic culture device to generate such data, and a MATLAB-based, graphical user interface (GUI) -based software package to quantify the fluorescence images. The software segments and tracks cells, enables the user to visually curate errors in the data, and automatically assigns lineage and division times. The GUI further analyzes the time series to produce whole cell traces as well as their first and second time derivatives. While the software was designed for S. cerevisiae, its modularity and versatility should allow it to serve as a platform for studying other cell types with few modifications.
Microbiology, Issue 77, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Biophysics, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Cell Biology, microscopy/fluorescence and time-lapse, budding yeast, gene expression dynamics, segmentation, lineage tracking, image tracking, software, yeast, cells, imaging
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Magnetic Resonance Derived Myocardial Strain Assessment Using Feature Tracking
Authors: Kan N. Hor, Rolf Baumann, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Gianni Tonti, William M. Gottliebson, Michael Taylor, D. Woodrow Benson, Wojciech Mazur.
Institutions: Cincinnati Children Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC), Imaging Systems GmbH, Advanced Medical Imaging Development SRL, The Christ Hospital.
Purpose: An accurate and practical method to measure parameters like strain in myocardial tissue is of great clinical value, since it has been shown, that strain is a more sensitive and earlier marker for contractile dysfunction than the frequently used parameter EF. Current technologies for CMR are time consuming and difficult to implement in clinical practice. Feature tracking is a technology that can lead to more automization and robustness of quantitative analysis of medical images with less time consumption than comparable methods. Methods: An automatic or manual input in a single phase serves as an initialization from which the system starts to track the displacement of individual patterns representing anatomical structures over time. The specialty of this method is that the images do not need to be manipulated in any way beforehand like e.g. tagging of CMR images. Results: The method is very well suited for tracking muscular tissue and with this allowing quantitative elaboration of myocardium and also blood flow. Conclusions: This new method offers a robust and time saving procedure to quantify myocardial tissue and blood with displacement, velocity and deformation parameters on regular sequences of CMR imaging. It therefore can be implemented in clinical practice.
Medicine, Issue 48, feature tracking, strain, displacement, CMR
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Quantitative Autonomic Testing
Authors: Peter Novak.
Institutions: University of Massachusetts Medical School.
Disorders associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system are quite common yet frequently unrecognized. Quantitative autonomic testing can be invaluable tool for evaluation of these disorders, both in clinic and research. There are number of autonomic tests, however, only few were validated clinically or are quantitative. Here, fully quantitative and clinically validated protocol for testing of autonomic functions is presented. As a bare minimum the clinical autonomic laboratory should have a tilt table, ECG monitor, continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitor, respiratory monitor and a mean for evaluation of sudomotor domain. The software for recording and evaluation of autonomic tests is critical for correct evaluation of data. The presented protocol evaluates 3 major autonomic domains: cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor. The tests include deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, head-up tilt, and quantitative sudomotor axon test (QSART). The severity and distribution of dysautonomia is quantitated using Composite Autonomic Severity Scores (CASS). Detailed protocol is provided highlighting essential aspects of testing with emphasis on proper data acquisition, obtaining the relevant parameters and unbiased evaluation of autonomic signals. The normative data and CASS algorithm for interpretation of results are provided as well.
Medicine, Issue 53, Deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, tilt test, sudomotor testing, Composite Autonomic Severity Score, CASS
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A Simple Method for Imaging Arabidopsis Leaves Using Perfluorodecalin as an Infiltrative Imaging Medium
Authors: George R. Littlejohn, John Love.
Institutions: The University of Exeter.
The problem of acquiring high-resolution images deep into biological samples is widely acknowledged1. In air-filled tissue such as the spongy mesophyll of plant leaves or vertebrate lungs further difficulties arise from multiple transitions in refractive index between cellular components, between cells and airspaces and between the biological tissue and the rest of the optical system. Moreover, refractive index mismatches lead to attenuation of fluorophore excitation and signal emission in fluorescence microscopy. We describe here the application of the perfluorocarbon, perfluorodecalin (PFD), as an infiltrative imaging medium which optically improves laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) sample imaging at depth, without resorting to damaging increases in laser power and has minimal physiological impact2. We describe the protocol for use of PFD with Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue, which is optically complex as a result of its structure (Figure 1). PFD has a number of attributes that make it suitable for this use3. The refractive index of PFD (1.313) is comparable with that of water (1.333) and is closer to that of cytosol (approx. 1.4) than air (1.000). In addition, PFD is readily available, non-fluorescent and is non-toxic. The low surface tension of PFD (19 dynes cm-1) is lower than that of water (72 dynes cm-1) and also below the limit (25 - 30 dyne cm-1) for stomatal penetration4, which allows it to flood the spongy mesophyll airspaces without the application of a potentially destructive vacuum or surfactant. Finally and crucially, PFD has a great capacity for dissolving CO2 and O2, which allows gas exchange to be maintained in the flooded tissue, thus minimizing the physiological impact on the sample. These properties have been used in various applications which include partial liquid breathing and lung inflation5,6, surgery7, artificial blood8, oxygenation of growth media9, and studies of ice crystal formation in plants10. Currently, it is common to mount tissue in water or aqueous buffer for live confocal imaging. We consider that the use of PFD as a mounting medium represents an improvement on existing practice and allows the simple preparation of live whole leaf samples for imaging.
Plant Biology, Issue 59, Arabidopsis, leaf, confocal, microscopy, perfluorocarbon, perfluorodecalin, PFD, mesophyll, imaging depth
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The Measurement and Treatment of Suppression in Amblyopia
Authors: Joanna M. Black, Robert F. Hess, Jeremy R. Cooperstock, Long To, Benjamin Thompson.
Institutions: University of Auckland, McGill University , McGill University .
Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of the visual cortex, is one of the leading causes of visual dysfunction in the working age population. Current estimates put the prevalence of amblyopia at approximately 1-3%1-3, the majority of cases being monocular2. Amblyopia is most frequently caused by ocular misalignment (strabismus), blur induced by unequal refractive error (anisometropia), and in some cases by form deprivation. Although amblyopia is initially caused by abnormal visual input in infancy, once established, the visual deficit often remains when normal visual input has been restored using surgery and/or refractive correction. This is because amblyopia is the result of abnormal visual cortex development rather than a problem with the amblyopic eye itself4,5 . Amblyopia is characterized by both monocular and binocular deficits6,7 which include impaired visual acuity and poor or absent stereopsis respectively. The visual dysfunction in amblyopia is often associated with a strong suppression of the inputs from the amblyopic eye under binocular viewing conditions8. Recent work has indicated that suppression may play a central role in both the monocular and binocular deficits associated with amblyopia9,10 . Current clinical tests for suppression tend to verify the presence or absence of suppression rather than giving a quantitative measurement of the degree of suppression. Here we describe a technique for measuring amblyopic suppression with a compact, portable device11,12 . The device consists of a laptop computer connected to a pair of virtual reality goggles. The novelty of the technique lies in the way we present visual stimuli to measure suppression. Stimuli are shown to the amblyopic eye at high contrast while the contrast of the stimuli shown to the non-amblyopic eye are varied. Patients perform a simple signal/noise task that allows for a precise measurement of the strength of excitatory binocular interactions. The contrast offset at which neither eye has a performance advantage is a measure of the "balance point" and is a direct measure of suppression. This technique has been validated psychophysically both in control13,14 and patient6,9,11 populations. In addition to measuring suppression this technique also forms the basis of a novel form of treatment to decrease suppression over time and improve binocular and often monocular function in adult patients with amblyopia12,15,16 . This new treatment approach can be deployed either on the goggle system described above or on a specially modified iPod touch device15.
Medicine, Issue 70, Ophthalmology, Neuroscience, Anatomy, Physiology, Amblyopia, suppression, visual cortex, binocular vision, plasticity, strabismus, anisometropia
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Terahertz Microfluidic Sensing Using a Parallel-plate Waveguide Sensor
Authors: Victoria Astley, Kimberly Reichel, Rajind Mendis, Daniel M. Mittleman.
Institutions: Rice University .
Refractive index (RI) sensing is a powerful noninvasive and label-free sensing technique for the identification, detection and monitoring of microfluidic samples with a wide range of possible sensor designs such as interferometers and resonators 1,2. Most of the existing RI sensing applications focus on biological materials in aqueous solutions in visible and IR frequencies, such as DNA hybridization and genome sequencing. At terahertz frequencies, applications include quality control, monitoring of industrial processes and sensing and detection applications involving nonpolar materials. Several potential designs for refractive index sensors in the terahertz regime exist, including photonic crystal waveguides 3, asymmetric split-ring resonators 4, and photonic band gap structures integrated into parallel-plate waveguides 5. Many of these designs are based on optical resonators such as rings or cavities. The resonant frequencies of these structures are dependent on the refractive index of the material in or around the resonator. By monitoring the shifts in resonant frequency the refractive index of a sample can be accurately measured and this in turn can be used to identify a material, monitor contamination or dilution, etc. The sensor design we use here is based on a simple parallel-plate waveguide 6,7. A rectangular groove machined into one face acts as a resonant cavity (Figures 1 and 2). When terahertz radiation is coupled into the waveguide and propagates in the lowest-order transverse-electric (TE1) mode, the result is a single strong resonant feature with a tunable resonant frequency that is dependent on the geometry of the groove 6,8. This groove can be filled with nonpolar liquid microfluidic samples which cause a shift in the observed resonant frequency that depends on the amount of liquid in the groove and its refractive index 9. Our technique has an advantage over other terahertz techniques in its simplicity, both in fabrication and implementation, since the procedure can be accomplished with standard laboratory equipment without the need for a clean room or any special fabrication or experimental techniques. It can also be easily expanded to multichannel operation by the incorporation of multiple grooves 10. In this video we will describe our complete experimental procedure, from the design of the sensor to the data analysis and determination of the sample refractive index.
Physics, Issue 66, Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Terahertz radiation, sensing, microfluidic, refractive index sensor, waveguide, optical sensing
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A Lightweight, Headphones-based System for Manipulating Auditory Feedback in Songbirds
Authors: Lukas A. Hoffmann, Conor W. Kelly, David A. Nicholson, Samuel J. Sober.
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University, Emory University.
Experimental manipulations of sensory feedback during complex behavior have provided valuable insights into the computations underlying motor control and sensorimotor plasticity1. Consistent sensory perturbations result in compensatory changes in motor output, reflecting changes in feedforward motor control that reduce the experienced feedback error. By quantifying how different sensory feedback errors affect human behavior, prior studies have explored how visual signals are used to recalibrate arm movements2,3 and auditory feedback is used to modify speech production4-7. The strength of this approach rests on the ability to mimic naturalistic errors in behavior, allowing the experimenter to observe how experienced errors in production are used to recalibrate motor output. Songbirds provide an excellent animal model for investigating the neural basis of sensorimotor control and plasticity8,9. The songbird brain provides a well-defined circuit in which the areas necessary for song learning are spatially separated from those required for song production, and neural recording and lesion studies have made significant advances in understanding how different brain areas contribute to vocal behavior9-12. However, the lack of a naturalistic error-correction paradigm - in which a known acoustic parameter is perturbed by the experimenter and then corrected by the songbird - has made it difficult to understand the computations underlying vocal learning or how different elements of the neural circuit contribute to the correction of vocal errors13. The technique described here gives the experimenter precise control over auditory feedback errors in singing birds, allowing the introduction of arbitrary sensory errors that can be used to drive vocal learning. Online sound-processing equipment is used to introduce a known perturbation to the acoustics of song, and a miniaturized headphones apparatus is used to replace a songbird's natural auditory feedback with the perturbed signal in real time. We have used this paradigm to perturb the fundamental frequency (pitch) of auditory feedback in adult songbirds, providing the first demonstration that adult birds maintain vocal performance using error correction14. The present protocol can be used to implement a wide range of sensory feedback perturbations (including but not limited to pitch shifts) to investigate the computational and neurophysiological basis of vocal learning.
Neuroscience, Issue 69, Anatomy, Physiology, Zoology, Behavior, Songbird, psychophysics, auditory feedback, biology, sensorimotor learning
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Movement Retraining using Real-time Feedback of Performance
Authors: Michael Anthony Hunt.
Institutions: University of British Columbia .
Any modification of movement - especially movement patterns that have been honed over a number of years - requires re-organization of the neuromuscular patterns responsible for governing the movement performance. This motor learning can be enhanced through a number of methods that are utilized in research and clinical settings alike. In general, verbal feedback of performance in real-time or knowledge of results following movement is commonly used clinically as a preliminary means of instilling motor learning. Depending on patient preference and learning style, visual feedback (e.g. through use of a mirror or different types of video) or proprioceptive guidance utilizing therapist touch, are used to supplement verbal instructions from the therapist. Indeed, a combination of these forms of feedback is commonplace in the clinical setting to facilitate motor learning and optimize outcomes. Laboratory-based, quantitative motion analysis has been a mainstay in research settings to provide accurate and objective analysis of a variety of movements in healthy and injured populations. While the actual mechanisms of capturing the movements may differ, all current motion analysis systems rely on the ability to track the movement of body segments and joints and to use established equations of motion to quantify key movement patterns. Due to limitations in acquisition and processing speed, analysis and description of the movements has traditionally occurred offline after completion of a given testing session. This paper will highlight a new supplement to standard motion analysis techniques that relies on the near instantaneous assessment and quantification of movement patterns and the display of specific movement characteristics to the patient during a movement analysis session. As a result, this novel technique can provide a new method of feedback delivery that has advantages over currently used feedback methods.
Medicine, Issue 71, Biophysics, Anatomy, Physiology, Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Behavior, Psychology, Kinesiology, Physical Therapy, Musculoskeletal System, Biofeedback, biomechanics, gait, movement, walking, rehabilitation, clinical, training
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Synthesis and Operation of Fluorescent-core Microcavities for Refractometric Sensing
Authors: Shalon McFarlane, C.P.K. Manchee, Joshua W. Silverstone, Jonathan Veinot, Al Meldrum.
Institutions: University of Alberta.
This paper discusses fluorescent core microcavity-based sensors that can operate in a microfluidic analysis setup. These structures are based on the formation of a fluorescent quantum-dot (QD) coating on the channel surface of a conventional microcapillary. Silicon QDs are especially attractive for this application, owing in part to their negligible toxicity compared to the II-VI and II-VI compound QDs, which are legislatively controlled substances in many countries. While the ensemble emission spectrum is broad and featureless, an Si-QD film on the channel wall of a capillary features a set of sharp, narrow peaks in the fluorescence spectrum, corresponding to the electromagnetic resonances for light trapped within the film. The peak wavelength of these resonances is sensitive to the external medium, thus permitting the device to function as a refractometric sensor in which the QDs never come into physical contact with the analyte. The experimental methods associated with the fabrication of the fluorescent-core microcapillaries are discussed in detail, as well as the analysis methods. Finally, a comparison is made between these structures and the more widely investigated liquid-core optical ring resonators, in terms of microfluidic sensing capabilities.
Physics, Issue 73, Microfluidics, Optics, Quantum Dots, Optics and Photonics, fluid flow sensors (general), luminescence (optics), optical waveguides, photonics, condensed matter physics, microcavities, whispering gallery modes, refractometric sensor, fluorescence, microcapillary, quantum dots
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Community-based Adapted Tango Dancing for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease and Older Adults
Authors: Madeleine E. Hackney, Kathleen McKee.
Institutions: Emory University School of Medicine, Brigham and Woman‘s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital.
Adapted tango dancing improves mobility and balance in older adults and additional populations with balance impairments. It is composed of very simple step elements. Adapted tango involves movement initiation and cessation, multi-directional perturbations, varied speeds and rhythms. Focus on foot placement, whole body coordination, and attention to partner, path of movement, and aesthetics likely underlie adapted tango’s demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. In this paper, we describe the methodology to disseminate the adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and to implement the adapted tango by the trainees in the community for older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Efficacy in improving mobility (measured with the Timed Up and Go, Tandem stance, Berg Balance Scale, Gait Speed and 30 sec chair stand), safety and fidelity of the program is maximized through targeted instructor and volunteer training and a structured detailed syllabus outlining class practices and progression.
Behavior, Issue 94, Dance, tango, balance, pedagogy, dissemination, exercise, older adults, Parkinson's Disease, mobility impairments, falls
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Improving IV Insulin Administration in a Community Hospital
Authors: Michael C. Magee.
Institutions: Wyoming Medical Center.
Diabetes mellitus is a major independent risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in the hospitalized patient, and elevated blood glucose concentrations, even in non-diabetic patients, predicts poor outcomes.1-4 The 2008 consensus statement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) states that "hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients, irrespective of its cause, is unequivocally associated with adverse outcomes."5 It is important to recognize that hyperglycemia occurs in patients with known or undiagnosed diabetes as well as during acute illness in those with previously normal glucose tolerance. The Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation-Survival Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR) study involved over six thousand adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were randomized to intensive glucose control or conventional glucose control.6 Surprisingly, this trial found that intensive glucose control increased the risk of mortality by 14% (odds ratio, 1.14; p=0.02). In addition, there was an increased prevalence of severe hypoglycemia in the intensive control group compared with the conventional control group (6.8% vs. 0.5%, respectively; p<0.001). From this pivotal trial and two others,7,8 Wyoming Medical Center (WMC) realized the importance of controlling hyperglycemia in the hospitalized patient while avoiding the negative impact of resultant hypoglycemia. Despite multiple revisions of an IV insulin paper protocol, analysis of data from usage of the paper protocol at WMC shows that in terms of achieving normoglycemia while minimizing hypoglycemia, results were suboptimal. Therefore, through a systematical implementation plan, monitoring of patient blood glucose levels was switched from using a paper IV insulin protocol to a computerized glucose management system. By comparing blood glucose levels using the paper protocol to that of the computerized system, it was determined, that overall, the computerized glucose management system resulted in more rapid and tighter glucose control than the traditional paper protocol. Specifically, a substantial increase in the time spent within the target blood glucose concentration range, as well as a decrease in the prevalence of severe hypoglycemia (BG < 40 mg/dL), clinical hypoglycemia (BG < 70 mg/dL), and hyperglycemia (BG > 180 mg/dL), was witnessed in the first five months after implementation of the computerized glucose management system. The computerized system achieved target concentrations in greater than 75% of all readings while minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia. The prevalence of hypoglycemia (BG < 70 mg/dL) with the use of the computer glucose management system was well under 1%.
Medicine, Issue 64, Physiology, Computerized glucose management, Endotool, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, IV insulin, paper protocol, glucose control
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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