There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can initiate the hair shaft during early anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle, as well as pluripotent stem cells that play a role in hair follicle growth but have the potential to differentiate to non-follicle cells such as neurons. These properties of the hair follicle are discussed. The various cell types of the hair follicle are potential targets for gene therapy. Gene delivery system for the hair follicle using viral vectors or liposomes for gene targeting to the various cell types in the hair follicle and the results obtained are also discussed.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Human Neutrophil Flow Chamber Adhesion Assay
Institutions: University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Neutrophil firm adhesion to endothelial cells plays a critical role in inflammation in both health and disease. The process of neutrophil firm adhesion involves many different adhesion molecules including members of the β2
integrin family and their counter-receptors of the ICAM family. Recently, naturally occurring genetic variants in both β2
integrins and ICAMs are reported to be associated with autoimmune disease. Thus, the quantitative adhesive capacity of neutrophils from individuals with varying allelic forms of these adhesion molecules is important to study in relation to mechanisms underlying development of autoimmunity. Adhesion studies in flow chamber systems can create an environment with fluid shear stress similar to that observed in the blood vessel environment in vivo
. Here, we present a method using a flow chamber assay system to study the quantitative adhesive properties of human peripheral blood neutrophils to human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and to purified ligand substrates. With this method, the neutrophil adhesive capacities from donors with different allelic variants in adhesion receptors can be assessed and compared. This method can also be modified to assess adhesion of other primary cell types or cell lines.
Immunology, Issue 89, neutrophil adhesion, flow chamber, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), purified ligand
A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro
. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro
replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag
gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag
gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro
replication of chronically derived gag-pro
sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 90, HIV-1, Gag, viral replication, replication capacity, viral fitness, MJ4, CEM, GXR25
Combining Magnetic Sorting of Mother Cells and Fluctuation Tests to Analyze Genome Instability During Mitotic Cell Aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Institutions: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
has been an excellent model system for examining mechanisms and consequences of genome instability. Information gained from this yeast model is relevant to many organisms, including humans, since DNA repair and DNA damage response factors are well conserved across diverse species. However, S. cerevisiae
has not yet been used to fully address whether the rate of accumulating mutations changes with increasing replicative (mitotic) age due to technical constraints. For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. Variations of this basic protocol provide the means to investigate the influence of alterations in specific gene functions or specific environmental conditions on mutation accumulation to address mechanisms underlying genome instability during replicative aging.
Microbiology, Issue 92, Aging, mutations, genome instability, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fluctuation test, magnetic sorting, mother cell, replicative aging
Measuring Local Anaphylaxis in Mice
Institutions: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.
Allergic responses are the result of the activation of mast cells and basophils, and the subsequent release of vasoactive and proinflammatory mediators. Exposure to an allergen in a sensitized individual can result in clinical symptoms that vary from minor erythema to life threatening anaphylaxis. In the laboratory, various animal models have been developed to understand the mechanisms driving allergic responses. Herein, we describe a detailed method for measuring changes in vascular permeability to quantify localized allergic responses. The local anaphylaxis assay was first reported in the 1920s, and has been adapted from the technique published by Kojima et al
. in 20071
. In this assay, mice sensitized to OVA are challenged in the left ear with vehicle and in the right ear with OVA. This is followed by an intravenous injection of Evans Blue dye. Ten min after injecting Evans Blue, the animal is euthanized and the dye that has extravasated into the ears is extracted overnight in formamide. The absorbance of the extracted dye is then quantified with a spectrophotometer. This method reliably results in a visual and quantifiable manifestation of a local allergic response.
Immunology, Issue 92, Allergy, sensitization, hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, mouse, IgE, mast cell, activation, vascular permeability
Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression
Institutions: McMaster University, McMaster University, University of Calgary, McMaster University.
Ruminative brooding is associated with increased vulnerability to major depression. Individuals who regularly ruminate will often try to reduce the frequency of their negative thoughts by actively suppressing them. We aim to identify the neural correlates underlying thought suppression in at-risk and depressed individuals. Three groups of women were studied; a major depressive disorder group, an at-risk group (having a first degree relative with depression) and controls. Participants performed a mixed block-event fMRI paradigm involving thought suppression, free thought and motor control periods. Participants identified the re-emergence of “to-be-suppressed” thoughts (“popping” back into conscious awareness) with a button press. During thought suppression the control group showed the greatest activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, followed by the at-risk, then depressed group. During the re-emergence of intrusive thoughts compared to successful re-suppression of those thoughts, the control group showed the greatest activation of the anterior cingulate cortices, followed by the at-risk, then depressed group. At-risk participants displayed anomalies in the neural regulation of thought suppression resembling the dysregulation found in depressed individuals. The predictive value of these changes in the onset of depression remains to be determined.
Behavior, Issue 99, Major Depressive Disorder, Risk, Thought Suppression, fMRI, Women, Rumination, Thought Intrusion
Development of an in vitro model system for studying the interaction of Equus caballus IgE with its high-affinity receptor FcεRI
Institutions: King Abdulaziz University, The University of Sheffield.
The interaction of IgE with its high-affinity Fc receptor (FcεRI) followed by an antigenic challenge is the principal pathway in IgE mediated allergic reactions. As a consequence of the high affinity binding between IgE and FcεRI, along with the continuous production of IgE by B cells, allergies usually persist throughout life, with currently no permanent cure available. Horses, especially race horses, which are commonly inbred, are a species of mammals that are very prone to the development of hypersensitivity responses, which can seriously affect their performance. Physiological responses to allergic sensitization in horses mirror that observed in humans and dogs. In this paper we describe the development of an in situ
assay system for the quantitative assessment of the release of mediators of the allergic response pertaining to the equine system. To this end, the gene encoding equine FcεRIα was transfected into and expressed onto the surface of parental Rat Basophil Leukemia (RBL-2H3.1) cells. The gene product of the transfected equine α-chain formed a functional receptor complex with the endogenous rat β- and γ-chains 1
. The resultant assay system facilitated an assessment of the quantity of mediator secreted from equine FcεRIα transfected RBL-2H3.1 cells following sensitization with equine IgE and antigenic challenge using β-hexosaminidase release as a readout 2, 3
. Mediator release peaked at 36.68% ± 4.88% at 100 ng ml-1
of antigen. This assay was modified from previous assays used to study human and canine allergic responses 4, 5
. We have also shown that this type of assay system has multiple applications for the development of diagnostic tools and the safety assessment of potential therapeutic intervention strategies in allergic disease 6, 2, 3
Immunology, Issue 93, Allergy, Immunology, IgE, Fcε, RI, horse (Equus caballus), Immunoassay
A Multi-detection Assay for Malaria Transmitting Mosquitoes
Institutions: School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California - Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis.
The Anopheles gambiae
species complex includes the major malaria transmitting mosquitoes in Africa. Because these species are of such medical importance, several traits are typically characterized using molecular assays to aid in epidemiological studies. These traits include species identification, insecticide resistance, parasite infection status, and host preference. Since populations of the Anopheles gambiae
complex are morphologically indistinguishable, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is traditionally used to identify species. Once the species is known, several downstream assays are routinely performed to elucidate further characteristics. For instance, mutations known as KDR in a para gene confer resistance against DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or Plasmodium
parasite DNA detection PCR assays are used to detect parasites present in mosquito tissues. Lastly, a combination of PCR and restriction enzyme digests can be used to elucidate host preference (e.g.
, human vs. animal blood) by screening the mosquito bloodmeal for host-specific DNA. We have developed a multi-detection assay (MDA) that combines all of the aforementioned assays into a single multiplex reaction genotyping 33SNPs for 96 or 384 samples at a time. Because the MDA includes multiple markers for species, Plasmodium
detection, and host blood identification, the likelihood of generating false positives or negatives is greatly reduced from previous assays that include only one marker per trait. This robust and simple assay can detect these key mosquito traits cost-effectively and in a fraction of the time of existing assays.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 96, Mosquito, SNP genotyping, multiplex assay, iPLEX, MALDI-TOF, insecticide resistance, speciation islands, species diagnosis, parasite detection, blood source detection, host preference, infection status
Investigating Mast Cell Secretory Granules; from Biosynthesis to Exocytosis
Institutions: Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University.
Mast Cells (MC) are secretory cells of the immune system that accomplish their physiological and pathological functions by releasing pre-formed and newly synthesized allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory mediators. MCs’ mediators affect multiple tissues and organs culminating in allergic and immune responses. The synthesis, storage and release of the MC mediators are highly regulated. The pre-formed mediators are packed in cytoplasmic secretory granules (SG) that fuse with the plasma membrane and release their content by regulated exocytosis. We present a protocol, based on the co-expression of a gene of interest with a reporter gene that is targeted to the SGs and is released in a regulated fashion alongside the endogenous SG mediators. The protocol enables high resolution four dimensional confocal analyses of the MC SGs and monitoring their timeline from biogenesis to triggered exocytosis. Thus, using this protocol for screening genes of interest for their phenotypic and functional impact allows deciphering the molecular mechanisms that govern the biogenesis and exocytosis of the MC SGs and identifying the regulators involved. Thereby, further insights into the cellular mechanisms that account for MCs function in health and disease should be provided.
Immunology, Issue 95, Mast cells, exocytosis, secretory granules, live cell imaging, Rab5, reporter gene, confocal imaging, transfection
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG35-55) Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 Mice
Institutions: University of Münster, Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research (IZKF), Münster, University of Münster.
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neuroinflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with a strong neurodegenerative component. While the exact etiology of the disease is yet unclear, autoreactive T lymphocytes are thought to play a central role in its pathophysiology. MS therapy is only partially effective so far and research efforts continue to expand our knowledge on the pathophysiology of the disease and to develop novel treatment strategies. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most common animal model for MS sharing many clinical and pathophysiological features. There is a broad diversity of EAE models which reflect different clinical, immunological and histological aspects of human MS. Actively-induced EAE in mice is the easiest inducible model with robust and replicable results. It is especially suited for investigating the effects of drugs or of particular genes by using transgenic mice challenged by autoimmune neuroinflammation. Therefore, mice are immunized with CNS homogenates or peptides of myelin proteins. Due to the low immunogenic potential of these peptides, strong adjuvants are used. EAE susceptibility and phenotype depends on the chosen antigen and rodent strain. C57BL/6 mice are the commonly used strain for transgenic mouse construction and respond among others to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). The immunogenic epitope MOG35-55
is suspended in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) prior to immunization and pertussis toxin is applied on the day of immunization and two days later. Mice develop a "classic" self-limited monophasic EAE with ascending flaccid paralysis within 9-14 days after immunization. Mice are evaluated daily using a clinical scoring system for 25-50 days. Special considerations for care taking of animals with EAE as well as potential applications and limitations of this model are discussed.
Immunology, Issue 86, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, EAE, multiple sclerosis, MS, animal model, Autoimmunity, neuroinflammation, central nervous system, pertussis
In Vitro Assay to Evaluate the Impact of Immunoregulatory Pathways on HIV-specific CD4 T Cell Effector Function
Institutions: The Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM).
T cell exhaustion is a major factor in failed pathogen clearance during chronic viral infections. Immunoregulatory pathways, such as PD-1 and IL-10, are upregulated upon this ongoing antigen exposure and contribute to loss of proliferation, reduced cytolytic function, and impaired cytokine production by CD4 and CD8 T cells. In the murine model of LCMV infection, administration of blocking antibodies against these two pathways augmented T cell responses. However, there is currently no in vitro
assay to measure the impact of such blockade on cytokine secretion in cells from human samples. Our protocol and experimental approach enable us to accurately and efficiently quantify the restoration of cytokine production by HIV-specific CD4 T cells from HIV infected subjects.
Here, we depict an in vitro
experimental design that enables measurements of cytokine secretion by HIV-specific CD4 T cells and their impact on other cell subsets. CD8 T cells were depleted from whole blood and remaining PBMCs were isolated via Ficoll separation method. CD8-depleted PBMCs were then incubated with blocking antibodies against PD-L1 and/or IL-10Rα and, after stimulation with an HIV-1 Gag peptide pool, cells were incubated at 37 °C, 5% CO2
. After 48 hr, supernatant was collected for cytokine analysis by beads arrays and cell pellets were collected for either phenotypic analysis using flow cytometry or transcriptional analysis using qRT-PCR. For more detailed analysis, different cell populations were obtained by selective subset depletion from PBMCs or by sorting using flow cytometry before being assessed in the same assays. These methods provide a highly sensitive and specific approach to determine the modulation of cytokine production by antigen-specific T-helper cells and to determine functional interactions between different populations of immune cells.
Immunology, Issue 80, Virus Diseases, Immune System Diseases, HIV, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, antigen-presenting cell, Cytokines, immunoregulatory networks, PD-1: IL-10, exhaustion, monocytes
Isolation and Th17 Differentiation of Naïve CD4 T Lymphocytes
Institutions: The University of Florida.
Th17 cells are a distinct subset of T cells that have been found to produce interleukin 17 (IL-17), and differ in function from the other T cell subsets including Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cells. Th17 cells have emerged as a central culprit in overzealous inflammatory immune responses associated with many autoimmune disorders. In this method we purify T lymphocytes from the spleen and lymph nodes of C57BL/6 mice, and stimulate purified CD4+ T cells under control and Th17-inducing environments. The Th17-inducing environment includes stimulation in the presence of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, IL-6, and TGF-β. After incubation for at least 72 hours and for up to five days at 37 °C, cells are subsequently analyzed for the capability to produce IL-17 through flow cytometry, qPCR, and ELISAs. Th17 differentiated CD4+CD25- T cells can be utilized to further elucidate the role that Th17 cells play in the onset and progression of autoimmunity and host defense. Moreover, Th17 differentiation of CD4+CD25- lymphocytes from distinct murine knockout/disease models can contribute to our understanding of cell fate plasticity.
Immunology, Issue 79, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Infection, Th17 cells, IL-17, Th17 differentiation, T cells, autoimmunity, cell, isolation, culture
Preparation of Mouse Pituitary Immunogen for the Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Hypophysitis
Institutions: The Johns Hopkins University.
Autoimmune hypophysitis is a chronic inflammation of the pituitary gland caused or accompanied by autoimmunity1
. It has traditionally been considered a rare disease but reporting has increased markedly in recent years. Hypophysitis, in fact, develops not uncommonly as a "side effect" in cancer patients treated with antibodies that block inhibitory receptors expressed on T lymphocytes, such as CTLA-42
and PD-1 receptors. Autoimmune hypophysitis can be induced experimentally by injecting mice with pituitary proteins mixed with an adjuvant3
. In this video article we demonstrate how to extract proteins from mouse pituitary glands and how to prepare them in a form suitable for inducing autoimmune hypophysitis in SJL mice.
Immunology, Issue 46, Autoimmunity, hypophysitis, mouse model, immunization
Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Hypophysitis in SJL Mice
Institutions: The Johns Hopkins University.
Autoimmune hypophysitis can be reproduced experimentally by the injection of pituitary proteins mixed with an adjuvant into susceptible mice1
. Mouse models allow us to study how diseases unfold, often providing a good replica of the same processes occurring in humans. For some autoimmune diseases, like type 1A diabetes, there are models (the NOD mouse) that spontaneously develop a disease similar to the human counterpart. For many other autoimmune diseases, however, the model needs to be induced experimentally. A common approach in this regard is to inject the mouse with a dominant antigen derived from the organ being studied. For example, investigators interested in autoimmune thyroiditis inject mice with thyroglobulin2
, and those interested in myasthenia gravis inject them with the acetylcholine receptor3
. If the autoantigen for a particular autoimmune disease is not known, investigators inject a crude protein extract from the organ targeted by the autoimmune reaction. For autoimmune hypophysitis, the pathogenic autoantigen(s) remain to be identified4
, and thus a crude pituitary protein preparation is used. In this video article we demonstrate how to induce experimental autoimmune hypophysitis in SJL mice.
Immunology, Issue 46, autoimmunity, hypophysitis, immunization, SJL mice, Freund's adjuvant
Isolation of Brain and Spinal Cord Mononuclear Cells Using Percoll Gradients
Institutions: University of Texas at San Antonio - UTSA.
Isolation of immune cells that infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) during infection, trauma, autoimmunity or neurodegeneration, is often required to define their phenotype and effector functions. Histochemical approaches are instrumental to determine the location of the infiltrating cells and to analyze the associated CNS pathology. However, in-situ histochemistry and immunofluorescent staining techniques are limited by the number of antibodies that can be used at a single time to characterize immune cell subtypes in a particular tissue. Therefore, histological approaches in conjunction with immune-phenotyping by flow cytometry are critical to fully characterize the composition of local CNS infiltration. This protocol is based on the separation of CNS cellular suspensions over discontinous percoll gradients. The current article describes a rapid protocol to efficiently isolate mononuclear cells from brain and spinal cord tissues that can be effectively utilized for identification of various immune cell populations in a single sample by flow cytometry.
Immunology, Issue 48, Microglia, monocytes/macrophages, CNS, inflammation, EAE, chemokines, mouse, flow cytometry
Analysis of Pulmonary Dendritic Cell Maturation and Migration during Allergic Airway Inflammation
Institutions: McMaster University, Hamilton, University of Toronto.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the key players involved in initiation of adaptive immune response by activating antigen-specific T cells. DCs are present in peripheral tissues in steady state; however in response to antigen stimulation, DCs take up the antigen and rapidly migrate to the draining lymph nodes where they initiate T cell response against the antigen1,2
. Additionally, DCs also play a key role in initiating autoimmune as well as allergic immune response3
DCs play an essential role in both initiation of immune response and induction of tolerance in the setting of lung environment4
. Lung environment is largely tolerogenic, owing to the exposure to vast array of environmental antigens5
. However, in some individuals there is a break in tolerance, which leads to induction of allergy and asthma. In this study, we describe a strategy, which can be used to monitor airway DC maturation and migration in response to the antigen used for sensitization. The measurement of airway DC maturation and migration allows for assessment of the kinetics of immune response during airway allergic inflammation and also assists in understanding the magnitude of the subsequent immune response along with the underlying mechanisms.
Our strategy is based on the use of ovalbumin as a sensitizing agent. Ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma is a widely used model to reproduce the airway eosinophilia, pulmonary inflammation and elevated IgE levels found during asthma6,7
. After sensitization, mice are challenged by intranasal delivery of FITC labeled ovalbumin, which allows for specific labeling of airway DCs which uptake ovalbumin. Next, using several DC specific markers, we can assess the maturation of these DCs and can also assess their migration to the draining lymph nodes by employing flow cytometry.
Immunology, Issue 65, Medicine, Physiology, Dendritic Cells, allergic airway inflammation, ovalbumin, lymph nodes, lungs, dendritic cell maturation, dendritic cell migration, mediastinal lymph nodes
Granulocyte-dependent Autoantibody-induced Skin Blistering
Institutions: University of Freiburg , Kepler High School Freiburg, University of Freiburg .
Autoimmune phenomena occur in healthy individuals, but when self-tolerance fails, the autoimmune response may result in specific pathology. According to Witebsky's postulates, one of the criteria in diagnosing a disease as autoimmune is the reproduction of the disease in experimental animals by the passive transfer of autoantibodies. For epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), a prototypic organ-specific autoimmune disease of skin and mucous membranes, several experimental models were recently established. In the animal model described in our present work, purified IgG antibodies against a stretch of 200 amino acids (aa 757-967) of collagen VII are injected repeatedly into mice reproducing the blistering phenotype as well as the histo- and immunopathological features characteristic to human EBA 1
. Full-blown widespread disease is usually seen 5-6 days after the first injection and the extent of the disease correlates with the dose of the administered collagen VII-specific IgG. The tissue damage (blister formation) in the experimental EBA is depending on the recruitment and activation of granulocytes by tissue-bound autoantibodies 2,-4
. Therefore, this model allows for the dissection of the granulocyte-dependent inflammatory pathway involved in the autoimmune tissue damage, as the model reproduces only the T cell-independent phase of the efferent autoimmune response. Furthermore, its value is underlined by a number of studies demonstrating the blister-inducing potential of autoantibodies in vivo
and investigating the mechanism of the blister formation in EBA 1,3,-6
. Finally, this model will greatly facilitate the development of new anti-inflammatory therapies in autoantibody-induced diseases. Overall, the passive transfer animal model of EBA is an accessible and instructive disease model and will help researchers to analyze not only EBA pathogenesis but to answer fundamental biologically and clinically essential autoimmunity questions.
Immunology, Issue 68, Medicine, Physiology, Anatomy, Dermatology, autoimmunity, collagen VII, inflammation, extracellular matrix, Fc receptor, complement, granulocyte, antibody
Measurement of Tactile Allodynia in a Murine Model of Bacterial Prostatitis
Institutions: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
(UPEC) are pathogens that play an important role in urinary tract infections and bacterial prostatitis1
. We have recently shown that UPEC have an important role in the initiation of chronic pelvic pain2
, a feature of Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS)3,4
. Infection of the prostate by clinically relevant UPEC can initiate and establish chronic pain through mechanisms that may involve tissue damage and the initiation of mechanisms of autoimmunity5
A challenge to understanding the pathogenesis of UPEC in the prostate is the relative inaccessibility of the prostate gland to manipulation. We utilized a previously described intraurethral infection method6
to deliver a clinical strain of UPEC into male mice thereby establishing an ascending infection of the prostate. Here, we describe our protocols for standardizing the bacterial inoculum7
as well as the procedure for catheterizing anesthetized male mice for instillation of bacteria.
CP/CPPS is primarily characterized by the presence of tactile allodynia4
. Behavior testing was based on the concept of cutaneous hyperalgesia resulting from referred visceral pain8-10
. An irritable focus in visceral tissues reduces cutaneous pain thresholds allowing for an exaggerated response to normally non-painful stimuli (allodynia). Application of normal force to the skin result in abnormal responses that tend to increase with the intensity of the underlying visceral pain. We describe methodology in NOD/ShiLtJ mice that utilize von Frey fibers to quantify tactile allodynia over time in response to a single infection with UPEC bacteria.
Infection, Issue 71, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, Medicine, Urology, Pathology, Autoimmune Diseases, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Male Urogenital Diseases, Bacterial pathogenesis, pain, autoimmunity, prostatitis, catheterization, mice, animal model
Adenoviral Transduction of Naive CD4 T Cells to Study Treg Differentiation
Institutions: Helmholtz Zentrum München.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential to provide immune tolerance to self as well as to certain foreign antigens. Tregs can be generated from naive CD4 T cells in vitro
with TCR- and co-stimulation in the presence of TGFβ and IL-2. This bears enormous potential for future therapies, however, the molecules and signaling pathways that control differentiation are largely unknown.
Primary T cells can be manipulated through ectopic gene expression, but common methods fail to target the most important naive state of the T cell prior to primary antigen recognition. Here, we provide a protocol to express ectopic genes in naive CD4 T cells in vitro
before inducing Treg differentiation. It applies transduction with the replication-deficient adenovirus and explains its generation and production. The adenovirus can take up large inserts (up to 7 kb) and can be equipped with promoters to achieve high and transient overexpression in T cells. It effectively transduces naive mouse T cells if they express a transgenic Coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR). Importantly, after infection the T cells remain naive (CD44low
) and resting (CD25-
) and can be activated and differentiated into Tregs similar to non-infected cells. Thus, this method enables manipulation of CD4 T cell differentiation from its very beginning. It ensures that ectopic gene expression is already in place when early signaling events of the initial TCR stimulation induces cellular changes that eventually lead into Treg differentiation.
Immunology, Issue 78, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Infection, Genetics, Microbiology, Virology, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, Adenoviruses, Human, MicroRNAs, Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte, Gene Transfer Techniques, Transduction, Genetic, Transfection, Adenovirus, gene transfer, microRNA, overexpression, knock down, CD4 T cells, in vitro differentiation, regulatory T cell, virus, cell, flow cytometry
Genetic Manipulation in Δku80 Strains for Functional Genomic Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii
Institutions: The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth.
Targeted genetic manipulation using homologous recombination is the method of choice for functional genomic analysis to obtain a detailed view of gene function and phenotype(s). The development of mutant strains with targeted gene deletions, targeted mutations, complemented gene function, and/or tagged genes provides powerful strategies to address gene function, particularly if these genetic manipulations can be efficiently targeted to the gene locus of interest using integration mediated by double cross over homologous recombination.
Due to very high rates of nonhomologous recombination, functional genomic analysis of Toxoplasma gondii
has been previously limited by the absence of efficient methods for targeting gene deletions and gene replacements to specific genetic loci. Recently, we abolished the major pathway of nonhomologous recombination in type I and type II strains of T. gondii
by deleting the gene encoding the KU80 protein1,2
. The Δku80
strains behave normally during tachyzoite (acute) and bradyzoite (chronic) stages in vitro
and in vivo
and exhibit essentially a 100% frequency of homologous recombination. The Δku80
strains make functional genomic studies feasible on the single gene as well as on the genome scale1-4
Here, we report methods for using type I and type II Δku80Δhxgprt
strains to advance gene targeting approaches in T. gondii
. We outline efficient methods for generating gene deletions, gene replacements, and tagged genes by targeted insertion or deletion of the hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HXGPRT
) selectable marker. The described gene targeting protocol can be used in a variety of ways in Δku80
strains to advance functional analysis of the parasite genome and to develop single strains that carry multiple targeted genetic manipulations. The application of this genetic method and subsequent phenotypic assays will reveal fundamental and unique aspects of the biology of T. gondii
and related significant human pathogens that cause malaria (Plasmodium
sp.) and cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium
Infectious Diseases, Issue 77, Genetics, Microbiology, Infection, Medicine, Immunology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Genomics, Parasitology, Pathology, Apicomplexa, Coccidia, Toxoplasma, Genetic Techniques, Gene Targeting, Eukaryota, Toxoplasma gondii, genetic manipulation, gene targeting, gene deletion, gene replacement, gene tagging, homologous recombination, DNA, sequencing
A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an Organic Solvent
Institutions: University of Maine, Orono, University of Maine, Orono.
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g.
by an allergen), they degranulate, a process that results in the exocytosis of allergic mediators. Modulation of mast cell degranulation by drugs and toxicants may have positive or adverse effects on human health. Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells3-5
. Mast cell granule component and the allergic mediator β-hexosaminidase, which is released linearly in tandem with histamine from mast cells6
, can easily and reliably be measured through reaction with a fluorogenic substrate, yielding measurable fluorescence intensity in a microplate assay that is amenable to high-throughput studies1
. Originally published by Naal et al.1
, we have adapted this degranulation assay for the screening of drugs and toxicants and demonstrate its use here.
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is present in many consumer products and has been found to be a therapeutic aid in human allergic skin disease7-11
, although the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate an assay for the effect of triclosan on mast cell degranulation. We recently showed that triclosan strongly affects mast cell function2
. In an effort to avoid use of an organic solvent, triclosan is dissolved directly into aqueous buffer with heat and stirring, and resultant concentration is confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (using ε280
= 4,200 L/M/cm)12
. This protocol has the potential to be used with a variety of chemicals to determine their effects on mast cell degranulation, and more broadly, their allergic potential.
Immunology, Issue 81, mast cell, basophil, degranulation, RBL-2H3, triclosan, irgasan, antibacterial, β-hexosaminidase, allergy, Asthma, toxicants, ionophore, antigen, fluorescence, microplate, UV-Vis
Analyzing the Functions of Mast Cells In Vivo Using 'Mast Cell Knock-in' Mice
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Mast cells (MCs) are hematopoietic cells which reside in various tissues, and are especially abundant at sites exposed to the external environment, such as skin, airways and gastrointestinal tract. Best known for their detrimental role in IgE-dependent allergic reactions, MCs have also emerged as important players in host defense against venom and invading bacteria and parasites. MC phenotype and function can be influenced by microenvironmental factors that may differ according to anatomic location and/or based on the type or stage of development of immune responses. For this reason, we and others have favored in vivo
approaches over in vitro
methods to gain insight into MC functions. Here, we describe methods for the generation of mouse bone marrow-derived cultured MCs (BMCMCs), their adoptive transfer into genetically MC-deficient mice, and the analysis of the numbers and distribution of adoptively transferred MCs at different anatomical sites. This method, named the ‘mast cell knock-in’
approach, has been extensively used over the past 30 years to assess the functions of MCs and MC-derived products in vivo
. We discuss the advantages and limitations of this method, in light of alternative approaches that have been developed in recent years.
Immunology, Issue 99, c-kit, stem cell factor, FcεRI, immunoglobulin E, mouse model, adoptive transfer, immunology, allergy