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Prostatic inflammation induces urinary frequency in adult mice.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2015
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) including urinary frequency and nocturia are common in aging men. Recent studies have revealed a strong association of prostatic inflammation with LUTS. We developed an animal model of bacterial induced, isolated prostatic inflammation and examined the effect of prostatic inflammation on voiding behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice. Prostatic inflammation was induced by transurethral inoculation of uropathogenic E. coli-1677. Bacterial cystitis was prevented by continuous administration of nitrofurantoin. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and bacterial culture were preformed to validate our animal model. Voiding behavior was examined by metabolic cage testing on post-instillation day 1 (PID 1), PID 4, PID 7 and PID 14 and both voiding frequency and volume per void were determined. Mice with prostatic inflammation showed significantly increased voiding frequency at PID 1, 7 and 14, and decreased volume per void at all time points, as compared to mice instilled with saline and receiving nitrofurantoin (NTF). Linked analysis of voiding frequency and voided volumes revealed an overwhelming preponderance of high frequency, low volume voiding in mice with prostatic inflammation. These observations suggest that prostatic inflammation may be causal for symptoms of urinary frequency and nocturia.
Authors: Marsha L Quick, Joseph D Done, Praveen Thumbikat.
Published: 01-16-2013
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are pathogens that play an important role in urinary tract infections and bacterial prostatitis1. We have recently shown that UPEC have an important role in the initiation of chronic pelvic pain2, a feature of Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS)3,4. Infection of the prostate by clinically relevant UPEC can initiate and establish chronic pain through mechanisms that may involve tissue damage and the initiation of mechanisms of autoimmunity5. A challenge to understanding the pathogenesis of UPEC in the prostate is the relative inaccessibility of the prostate gland to manipulation. We utilized a previously described intraurethral infection method6 to deliver a clinical strain of UPEC into male mice thereby establishing an ascending infection of the prostate. Here, we describe our protocols for standardizing the bacterial inoculum7 as well as the procedure for catheterizing anesthetized male mice for instillation of bacteria. CP/CPPS is primarily characterized by the presence of tactile allodynia4. Behavior testing was based on the concept of cutaneous hyperalgesia resulting from referred visceral pain8-10. An irritable focus in visceral tissues reduces cutaneous pain thresholds allowing for an exaggerated response to normally non-painful stimuli (allodynia). Application of normal force to the skin result in abnormal responses that tend to increase with the intensity of the underlying visceral pain. We describe methodology in NOD/ShiLtJ mice that utilize von Frey fibers to quantify tactile allodynia over time in response to a single infection with UPEC bacteria.
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Renal Capsule Xenografting and Subcutaneous Pellet Implantation for the Evaluation of Prostate Carcinogenesis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Authors: Tristan M. Nicholson, Kristen S. Uchtmann, Conrad D. Valdez, Ashleigh B. Theberge, Tihomir Miralem, William A. Ricke.
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
New therapies for two common prostate diseases, prostate cancer (PrCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), depend critically on experiments evaluating their hormonal regulation. Sex steroid hormones (notably androgens and estrogens) are important in PrCa and BPH; we probe their respective roles in inducing prostate growth and carcinogenesis in mice with experiments using compressed hormone pellets. Hormone and/or drug pellets are easily manufactured with a pellet press, and surgically implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of the male mouse host. We also describe a protocol for the evaluation of hormonal carcinogenesis by combining subcutaneous hormone pellet implantation with xenografting of prostate cell recombinants under the renal capsule of immunocompromised mice. Moreover, subcutaneous hormone pellet implantation, in combination with renal capsule xenografting of BPH tissue, is useful to better understand hormonal regulation of benign prostate growth, and to test new therapies targeting sex steroid hormone pathways.
Medicine, Issue 78, Cancer Biology, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Neoplasms, Neoplastic Processes, Estradiol, Testosterone, Transplantation, Heterologous, Growth, Xenotransplantation, Heterologous Transplantation, Hormones, Prostate, Testosterone, 17beta-Estradiol, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Prostate Cancer, animal model
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Evaluation of Biomaterials for Bladder Augmentation using Cystometric Analyses in Various Rodent Models
Authors: Duong D. Tu, Abhishek Seth, Eun Seok Gil, David L. Kaplan, Joshua R. Mauney, Carlos R. Estrada Jr..
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, Tufts University.
Renal function and continence of urine are critically dependent on the proper function of the urinary bladder, which stores urine at low pressure and expels it with a precisely orchestrated contraction. A number of congenital and acquired urological anomalies including posterior urethral valves, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and neurogenic bladder secondary to spina bifida/spinal cord injury can result in pathologic tissue remodeling leading to impaired compliance and reduced capacity1. Functional or anatomical obstruction of the urinary tract is frequently associated with these conditions, and can lead to urinary incontinence and kidney damage from increased storage and voiding pressures2. Surgical implantation of gastrointestinal segments to expand organ capacity and reduce intravesical pressures represents the primary surgical treatment option for these disorders when medical management fails3. However, this approach is hampered by the limitation of available donor tissue, and is associated with significant complications including chronic urinary tract infection, metabolic perturbation, urinary stone formation, and secondary malignancy4,5. Current research in bladder tissue engineering is heavily focused on identifying biomaterial configurations which can support regeneration of tissues at defect sites. Conventional 3-D scaffolds derived from natural and synthetic polymers such as small intestinal submucosa and poly-glycolic acid have shown some short-term success in supporting urothelial and smooth muscle regeneration as well as facilitating increased organ storage capacity in both animal models and in the clinic6,7. However, deficiencies in scaffold mechanical integrity and biocompatibility often result in deleterious fibrosis8, graft contracture9, and calcification10, thus increasing the risk of implant failure and need for secondary surgical procedures. In addition, restoration of normal voiding characteristics utilizing standard biomaterial constructs for augmentation cystoplasty has yet to be achieved, and therefore research and development of novel matrices which can fulfill this role is needed. In order to successfully develop and evaluate optimal biomaterials for clinical bladder augmentation, efficacy research must first be performed in standardized animal models using detailed surgical methods and functional outcome assessments. We have previously reported the use of a bladder augmentation model in mice to determine the potential of silk fibroin-based scaffolds to mediate tissue regeneration and functional voiding characteristics.11,12 Cystometric analyses of this model have shown that variations in structural and mechanical implant properties can influence the resulting urodynamic features of the tissue engineered bladders11,12. Positive correlations between the degree of matrix-mediated tissue regeneration determined histologically and functional compliance and capacity evaluated by cystometry were demonstrated in this model11,12. These results therefore suggest that functional evaluations of biomaterial configurations in rodent bladder augmentation systems may be a useful format for assessing scaffold properties and establishing in vivo feasibility prior to large animal studies and clinical deployment. In the current study, we will present various surgical stages of bladder augmentation in both mice and rats using silk scaffolds and demonstrate techniques for awake and anesthetized cystometry.
Bioengineering, Issue 66, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Physiology, Silk, bladder tissue engineering, biomaterial, scaffold, matrix, augmentation, cystometry
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Bladder Smooth Muscle Strip Contractility as a Method to Evaluate Lower Urinary Tract Pharmacology
Authors: F. Aura Kullmann, Stephanie L. Daugherty, William C. de Groat, Lori A. Birder.
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
We describe an in vitro method to measure bladder smooth muscle contractility, and its use for investigating physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscle as well as changes induced by pathology. This method provides critical information for understanding bladder function while overcoming major methodological difficulties encountered in in vivo experiments, such as surgical and pharmacological manipulations that affect stability and survival of the preparations, the use of human tissue, and/or the use of expensive chemicals. It also provides a way to investigate the properties of each bladder component (i.e. smooth muscle, mucosa, nerves) in healthy and pathological conditions. The urinary bladder is removed from an anesthetized animal, placed in Krebs solution and cut into strips. Strips are placed into a chamber filled with warm Krebs solution. One end is attached to an isometric tension transducer to measure contraction force, the other end is attached to a fixed rod. Tissue is stimulated by directly adding compounds to the bath or by electric field stimulation electrodes that activate nerves, similar to triggering bladder contractions in vivo. We demonstrate the use of this method to evaluate spontaneous smooth muscle contractility during development and after an experimental spinal cord injury, the nature of neurotransmission (transmitters and receptors involved), factors involved in modulation of smooth muscle activity, the role of individual bladder components, and species and organ differences in response to pharmacological agents. Additionally, it could be used for investigating intracellular pathways involved in contraction and/or relaxation of the smooth muscle, drug structure-activity relationships and evaluation of transmitter release. The in vitro smooth muscle contractility method has been used extensively for over 50 years, and has provided data that significantly contributed to our understanding of bladder function as well as to pharmaceutical development of compounds currently used clinically for bladder management.
Medicine, Issue 90, Krebs, species differences, in vitro, smooth muscle contractility, neural stimulation
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induced Lung Injury Model
Authors: Varsha Suresh Kumar, Ruxana T. Sadikot, Jeanette E. Purcell, Asrar B. Malik, Yuru Liu.
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago, Emory University, University of Illinois at Chicago.
In order to study human acute lung injury and pneumonia, it is important to develop animal models to mimic various pathological features of this disease. Here we have developed a mouse lung injury model by intra-tracheal injection of bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa or PA). Using this model, we were able to show lung inflammation at the early phase of injury. In addition, alveolar epithelial barrier leakiness was observed by analyzing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); and alveolar cell death was observed by Tunel assay using tissue prepared from injured lungs. At a later phase following injury, we observed cell proliferation required for the repair process. The injury was resolved 7 days from the initiation of P. aeruginosa injection. This model mimics the sequential course of lung inflammation, injury and repair during pneumonia. This clinically relevant animal model is suitable for studying pathology, mechanism of repair, following acute lung injury, and also can be used to test potential therapeutic agents for this disease.
Immunology, Issue 92, Lung, injury, pseudomonas, pneumonia, mouse model, alveoli
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Chronic Salmonella Infected Mouse Model
Authors: Shaoping Wu, Rong Lu, Yong-guo Zhang, Jun Sun.
Institutions: University of Rochester.
The bacterial infected mouse model is a powerful model system for studying areas such as infection, inflammation, immunology, signal transduction, and tumorigenesis. Many researchers have taken advantage of the colitis induced by Salmonella typhimurium for the studies on the early phase of inflammation and infection. However, only few reports are on the chronic infection in vivo. Mice with Salmonella persistent existence in the gastrointestinal tract allow us to explore the long-term host-bacterial interaction, signal transduction, and tumorigenesis. We have established a chronic bacterial infected mouse model with Salmonella typhimurium colonization in the mouse intestine over 6 months. To use this system, it is necessary for the researcher to learn how to prepare the bacterial culture and gavage the animals. We detail a methodology for prepare bacterial culture and gavage mice. We also show how to detect the Salmonella persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. Overall, this protocol will aid researchers using the bacterial infected mouse model to address fundamentally important biological and microbiological questions.
Microbiology, Issue 39, Salmonella, intestine, colitis, chronic infection, mouse model
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Th17 Inflammation Model of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Immunodeficient Mice
Authors: Natarajan Bhaskaran, Aaron Weinberg, Pushpa Pandiyan.
Institutions: Case Western Reserve University.
Oropharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC) disease is caused not only due to the lack of host immune resistance, but also the absence of appropriate regulation of infection-induced immunopathology. Although Th17 cells are implicated in antifungal defense, their role in immunopathology is unclear. This study presents a method for establishing oral Th17 immunopathology associated with oral candidal infection in immunodeficient mice. The method is based on reconstituting lymphopenic mice with in vitro cultured Th17 cells, followed by oral infection with Candida albicans (C. albicans). Results show that unrestrained Th17 cells result in inflammation and pathology, and is associated with several measurable read-outs including weight loss, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, tongue histopathology and mortality, showing that this model may be valuable in studying OPC immunopathology. Adoptive transfer of regulatory cells (Tregs) controls and reduces the inflammatory response, showing that this model can be used to test new strategies to counteract oral inflammation. This model may also be applicable in studying oral Th17 immunopathology in general in the context of other oral diseases.
Medicine, Issue 96, Th17, Treg, mouse model, oral inflammation, Candida, oral infection and immunopathology
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A Murine Model of Irreversible and Reversible Unilateral Ureteric Obstruction
Authors: Emily E. Hesketh, Madeleine A. Vernon, Peng Ding, Spike Clay, Gary Borthwick, Bryan Conway, Jeremy Hughes.
Institutions: University of Edinburgh.
Obstruction of the kidney may affect native or transplanted kidneys and results in kidney injury and scarring. Presented here is a model of obstructive nephropathy induced by unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO), which can either be irreversible (UUO) or reversible (R-UUO). In the irreversible UUO model, the ureter may be obstructed for variable periods of time in order to induce increasingly severe renal inflammation and interstitial fibrotic scarring. In the reversible R-UUO model the ureter is obstructed to induce hydronephrosis, tubular dilation and inflammation. After a suitable period of time the ureteric obstruction is then surgically reversed by anastomosis of the severed previously obstructed ureter to the bladder in order to allow complete decompression of the kidney and restoration of urinary flow to the bladder. The irreversible UUO model has been used to investigate various aspects of renal inflammation and scarring including the pathogenesis of disease and the testing of potential anti-inflammatory or anti-fibrotic therapies. The more challenging model of R-UUO has been used by some investigators and does offer significant research potential as it allows the study of inflammatory and immune processes and tissue remodeling in an injured and scarred kidney following the removal of the injurious stimulus. As a result, the R-UUO model offers investigators the opportunity to explore the resolution of kidney inflammation together with key aspects of tissue repair. These experimental models are of relevance to human disease as patients often present with obstruction of the renal tract that requires decompression and are commonly left with significant residual kidney impairment that has no current treatment options and may lead to eventual end stage kidney failure.
Medicine, Issue 94, Mouse, Unilateral Ureteric Obstruction, Irreversible, Reversible, Kidney, Hydronephrosis, Inflammation, Fibrosis
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Quantification of Neurovascular Protection Following Repetitive Hypoxic Preconditioning and Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice
Authors: Katherine Poinsatte, Uma Maheswari Selvaraj, Sterling B. Ortega, Erik J. Plautz, Xiangmei Kong, Jeffrey M. Gidday, Ann M. Stowe.
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Washington University School of Medicine.
Experimental animal models of stroke are invaluable tools for understanding stroke pathology and developing more effective treatment strategies. A 2 week protocol for repetitive hypoxic preconditioning (RHP) induces long-term protection against central nervous system (CNS) injury in a mouse model of focal ischemic stroke. RHP consists of 9 stochastic exposures to hypoxia that vary in both duration (2 or 4 hr) and intensity (8% and 11% O2). RHP reduces infarct volumes, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and the post-stroke inflammatory response for weeks following the last exposure to hypoxia, suggesting a long-term induction of an endogenous CNS-protective phenotype. The methodology for the dual quantification of infarct volume and BBB disruption is effective in assessing neurovascular protection in mice with RHP or other putative neuroprotectants. Adult male Swiss Webster mice were preconditioned by RHP or duration-equivalent exposures to 21% O2 (i.e. room air). A 60 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) was induced 2 weeks following the last hypoxic exposure. Both the occlusion and reperfusion were confirmed by transcranial laser Doppler flowmetry. Twenty-two hr after reperfusion, Evans Blue (EB) was intravenously administered through a tail vein injection. 2 hr later, animals were sacrificed by isoflurane overdose and brain sections were stained with 2,3,5- triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). Infarcts volumes were then quantified. Next, EB was extracted from the tissue over 48 hr to determine BBB disruption after tMCAo. In summary, RHP is a simple protocol that can be replicated, with minimal cost, to induce long-term endogenous neurovascular protection from stroke injury in mice, with the translational potential for other CNS-based and systemic pro-inflammatory disease states.
Medicine, Issue 99, Hypoxia, preconditioning, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, stroke, neuroprotection, blood-brain barrier disruption
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A Mouse Model for Pathogen-induced Chronic Inflammation at Local and Systemic Sites
Authors: George Papadopoulos, Carolyn D. Kramer, Connie S. Slocum, Ellen O. Weinberg, Ning Hua, Cynthia V. Gudino, James A. Hamilton, Caroline A. Genco.
Institutions: Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine.
Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccination and pharmacological intervention.
Immunology, Issue 90, Pathogen-Induced Chronic Inflammation; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Oral Bone Loss; Periodontal Disease; Atherosclerosis; Chronic Inflammation; Host-Pathogen Interaction; microCT; MRI
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Urinary Bladder Distention Evoked Visceromotor Responses as a Model for Bladder Pain in Mice
Authors: Katelyn E. Sadler, Jarred M. Stratton, Benedict J. Kolber.
Institutions: Duquesne University.
Approximately 3-8 million people in the United States suffer from interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a debilitating condition characterized by increased urgency and frequency of urination, as well as nocturia and general pelvic pain, especially upon bladder filling or voiding. Despite years of research, the cause of IC/BPS remains elusive and treatment strategies are unable to provide complete relief to patients. In order to study nervous system contributions to the condition, many animal models have been developed to mimic the pain and symptoms associated with IC/BPS. One such murine model is urinary bladder distension (UBD). In this model, compressed air of a specific pressure is delivered to the bladder of a lightly anesthetized animal over a set period of time. Throughout the procedure, wires in the superior oblique abdominal muscles record electrical activity from the muscle. This activity is known as the visceromotor response (VMR) and is a reliable and reproducible measure of nociception. Here, we describe the steps necessary to perform this technique in mice including surgical manipulations, physiological recording, and data analysis. With the use of this model, the coordination between primary sensory neurons, spinal cord secondary afferents, and higher central nervous system areas involved in bladder pain can be unraveled. This basic science knowledge can then be clinically translated to treat patients suffering from IC/BPS.
Medicine, Issue 86, Bladder pain, electromyogram (EMG), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), urinary bladder distension (UBD), visceromotor response (VMR)
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Induction of Invasive Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinoma in Immune Intact Human MUC1 Transgenic Mice: A Model for Immunotherapy Development
Authors: Daniel P. Vang, Gregory T. Wurz, Stephen M. Griffey, Chiao-Jung Kao, Audrey M. Gutierrez, Gregory K. Hanson, Michael Wolf, Michael W. DeGregorio.
Institutions: University of California, Davis, University of California, Davis, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.
A preclinical model of invasive bladder cancer was developed in human mucin 1 (MUC1) transgenic (MUC1.Tg) mice for the purpose of evaluating immunotherapy and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy. To induce bladder cancer, C57BL/6 mice (MUC1.Tg and wild type) were treated orally with the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) at 3.0 mg/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. To assess the effects of OH-BBN on serum cytokine profile during tumor development, whole blood was collected via submandibular bleeds prior to treatment and every four weeks. In addition, a MUC1-targeted peptide vaccine and placebo were administered to groups of mice weekly for eight weeks. Multiplex fluorometric microbead immunoanalyses of serum cytokines during tumor development and following vaccination were performed. At termination, interferon gamma (IFN-γ)/interleukin-4 (IL-4) ELISpot analysis for MUC1 specific T-cell immune response and histopathological evaluations of tumor type and grade were performed. The results showed that: (1) the incidence of bladder cancer in both MUC1.Tg and wild type mice was 67%; (2) transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) developed at a 2:1 ratio compared to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); (3) inflammatory cytokines increased with time during tumor development; and (4) administration of the peptide vaccine induces a Th1-polarized serum cytokine profile and a MUC1 specific T-cell response. All tumors in MUC1.Tg mice were positive for MUC1 expression, and half of all tumors in MUC1.Tg and wild type mice were invasive. In conclusion, using a team approach through the coordination of the efforts of pharmacologists, immunologists, pathologists and molecular biologists, we have developed an immune intact transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer that expresses hMUC1.
Medicine, Issue 80, Urinary Bladder, Animals, Genetically Modified, Cancer Vaccines, Immunotherapy, Animal Experimentation, Models, Neoplasms Bladder Cancer, C57BL/6 Mouse, MUC1, Immunotherapy, Preclinical Model
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Formation of Human Prostate Epithelium Using Tissue Recombination of Rodent Urogenital Sinus Mesenchyme and Human Stem Cells
Authors: Yi Cai, Steven Kregel, Donald J. Vander Griend.
Institutions: University of Chicago, University of Chicago.
Progress in prostate cancer research is severely limited by the availability of human-derived and hormone-naïve model systems, which limit our ability to understand genetic and molecular events underlying prostate disease initiation. Toward developing better model systems for studying human prostate carcinogenesis, we and others have taken advantage of the unique pro-prostatic inductive potential of embryonic rodent prostate stroma, termed urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGSM). When recombined with certain pluripotent cell populations such as embryonic stem cells, UGSM induces the formation of normal human prostate epithelia in a testosterone-dependent manner. Such a human model system can be used to investigate and experimentally test the ability of candidate prostate cancer susceptibility genes at an accelerated pace compared to typical rodent transgenic studies. Since Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be genetically modified in culture using inducible gene expression or siRNA knock-down vectors prior to tissue recombination, such a model facilitates testing the functional consequences of genes, or combinations of genes, which are thought to promote or prevent carcinogenesis. The technique of isolating pure populations of UGSM cells, however, is challenging and learning often requires someone with previous expertise to personally teach. Moreover, inoculation of cell mixtures under the renal capsule of an immunocompromised host can be technically challenging. Here we outline and illustrate proper isolation of UGSM from rodent embryos and renal capsule implantation of tissue mixtures to form human prostate epithelium. Such an approach, at its current stage, requires in vivo xenografting of embryonic stem cells; future applications could potentially include in vitro gland formation or the use of induced pluripotent stem cell populations (iPSCs).
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 76, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cancer Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Embryonic Stem Cells, ESCs, Disease Models, Animal, Cell Differentiation, Urogenital System, Prostate, Urogenital Sinus, Mesenchyme, Stem Cells, animal model
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The Use of Cystometry in Small Rodents: A Study of Bladder Chemosensation
Authors: Pieter Uvin, Wouter Everaerts, Silvia Pinto, Yeranddy A. Alpízar, Mathieu Boudes, Thomas Gevaert, Thomas Voets, Bernd Nilius, Karel Talavera, Dirk De Ridder.
Institutions: KU Leuven, Belgium, KU Leuven, Belgium, KU Leuven, Belgium.
The lower urinary tract (LUT) functions as a dynamic reservoir that is able to store urine and to efficiently expel it at a convenient time. While storing urine, however, the bladder is exposed for prolonged periods to waste products. By acting as a tight barrier, the epithelial lining of the LUT, the urothelium, avoids re-absorption of harmful substances. Moreover, noxious chemicals stimulate the bladder's nociceptive innervation and initiate voiding contractions that expel the bladder's contents. Interestingly, the bladder's sensitivity to noxious chemicals has been used successfully in clinical practice, by intravesically infusing the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin to treat neurogenic bladder overactivity1. This underscores the advantage of viewing the bladder as a chemosensory organ and prompts for further clinical research. However, ethical issues severely limit the possibilities to perform, in human subjects, the invasive measurements that are necessary to unravel the molecular bases of LUT clinical pharmacology. A way to overcome this limitation is the use of several animal models2. Here we describe the implementation of cystometry in mice and rats, a technique that allows measuring the intravesical pressure in conditions of controlled bladder perfusion. After laparotomy, a catheter is implanted in the bladder dome and tunneled subcutaneously to the interscapular region. Then the bladder can be filled at a controlled rate, while the urethra is left free for micturition. During the repetitive cycles of filling and voiding, intravesical pressure can be measured via the implanted catheter. As such, the pressure changes can be quantified and analyzed. Moreover, simultaneous measurement of the voided volume allows distinguishing voiding contractions from non-voiding contractions3. Importantly, due to the differences in micturition control between rodents and humans, cystometric measurements in these animals have only limited translational value4. Nevertheless, they are quite instrumental in the study of bladder pathophysiology and pharmacology in experimental pre-clinical settings. Recent research using this technique has revealed the key role of novel molecular players in the mechano- and chemo-sensory properties of the bladder.
Medicine, Issue 66, Physiology, Chemistry, cystometry, urodynamics, bladder function, bladder chemosensation, animal model, urinary tract
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Transurethral Induction of Mouse Urinary Tract Infection
Authors: Kim H. Thai, Anuradha Thathireddy, Michael H. Hsieh.
Institutions: Stanford University , Stanford University School of Medicine.
Uropathogenic bacterial strains of interest are grown on agar. Generally, uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and other strains can be grown overnight on Luria-Bertani (LB) agar at 37°C in ambient air. UPEC strains grow as yellowish-white translucent colonies on LB agar. Following confirmation of appropriate colony morphology, single colonies are then picked to be cultured in broth. LB broth can be used for most uropathogenic bacterial strains. Two serial, overnight LB broth cultures can be employed to enhance expression of type I pili, a well-defined virulence factor for uropathogenic bacteria. Broth cultures are diluted to the desired concentration in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Eight to 12 week old female mice are placed under isoflurane anesthesia and transurethrally inoculated with bacteria using polyethylene tubing-covered 30 gauge syringes. Typical inocula, which must be empirically determined for each bacterial/mouse strain combination, are 106 to 108 cfu per mouse in 10 to 50 microliters of PBS. After the desired infection period (one day to several weeks), urine samples and the bladder and both kidneys are harvested. Each organ is minced, placed in PBS, and homogenized in a Blue Bullet homogenizer. Urine and tissue homogenates are serially diluted in PBS and cultured on appropriate agar. The following day, colony forming units are counted.
Microbiology, Issue 42, UTI, urinary tract infection, urethra, mice, bacterial, cystitis, pyelonephritis, mouse, bacteria, urethral
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Establishment and Characterization of UTI and CAUTI in a Mouse Model
Authors: Matt S. Conover, Ana L. Flores-Mireles, Michael E. Hibbing, Karen Dodson, Scott J. Hultgren.
Institutions: Washington University School of Medicine.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are highly prevalent, a significant cause of morbidity and are increasingly resistant to treatment with antibiotics. Females are disproportionately afflicted by UTI: 50% of all women will have a UTI in their lifetime. Additionally, 20-40% of these women who have an initial UTI will suffer a recurrence with some suffering frequent recurrences with serious deterioration in the quality of life, pain and discomfort, disruption of daily activities, increased healthcare costs, and few treatment options other than long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary causative agent of community acquired UTI. Catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) is the most common hospital acquired infection accounting for a million occurrences in the US annually and dramatic healthcare costs. While UPEC is also the primary cause of CAUTI, other causative agents are of increased significance including Enterococcus faecalis. Here we utilize two well-established mouse models that recapitulate many of the clinical characteristics of these human diseases. For UTI, a C3H/HeN model recapitulates many of the features of UPEC virulence observed in humans including host responses, IBC formation and filamentation. For CAUTI, a model using C57BL/6 mice, which retain catheter bladder implants, has been shown to be susceptible to E. faecalis bladder infection. These representative models are being used to gain striking new insights into the pathogenesis of UTI disease, which is leading to the development of novel therapeutics and management or prevention strategies.
Medicine, Issue 100, Escherichia coli, UPEC, Enterococcus faecalis, uropathogenic, catheter, urinary tract infection, IBC, chronic cystitis
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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