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Memory T cells generated by prior exposure to influenza cross react with the novel H7N9 influenza virus and confer protective heterosubtypic immunity.
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PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2015
Influenza virus is a source of significant health and economic burden from yearly epidemics and sporadic pandemics. Given the potential for the emerging H7N9 influenza virus to cause severe respiratory infections and the lack of exposure to H7 and N9 influenza viruses in the human population, we aimed to quantify the H7N9 cross-reactive memory T cell reservoir in humans and mice previously exposed to common circulating influenza viruses. We identified significant cross-reactive T cell populations in humans and mice; we also found that cross-reactive memory T cells afforded heterosubtypic protection by reducing morbidity and mortality upon lethal H7N9 challenge. In context with our observation that PR8-primed mice have limited humoral cross-reactivity with H7N9, our data suggest protection from H7N9 challenge is indeed mediated by cross-reactive T cell populations established upon previous priming with another influenza virus. Thus, pre-existing cross-reactive memory T cells may limit disease severity in the event of an H7N9 influenza virus pandemic.
ABSTRACT
The baculovirus expression system is a powerful tool for expression of recombinant proteins. Here we use it to produce correctly folded and glycosylated versions of the influenza A virus surface glycoproteins - the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). As an example, we chose the HA and NA proteins expressed by the novel H7N9 virus that recently emerged in China. However the protocol can be easily adapted for HA and NA proteins expressed by any other influenza A and B virus strains. Recombinant HA (rHA) and NA (rNA) proteins are important reagents for immunological assays such as ELISPOT and ELISA, and are also in wide use for vaccine standardization, antibody discovery, isolation and characterization. Furthermore, recombinant NA molecules can be used to screen for small molecule inhibitors and are useful for characterization of the enzymatic function of the NA, as well as its sensitivity to antivirals. Recombinant HA proteins are also being tested as experimental vaccines in animal models, and a vaccine based on recombinant HA was recently licensed by the FDA for use in humans. The method we describe here to produce these molecules is straight forward and can facilitate research in influenza laboratories, since it allows for production of large amounts of proteins fast and at a low cost. Although here we focus on influenza virus surface glycoproteins, this method can also be used to produce other viral and cellular surface proteins.
16 Related JoVE Articles!
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High-throughput Detection Method for Influenza Virus
Authors: Pawan Kumar, Allison E. Bartoszek, Thomas M. Moran, Jack Gorski, Sanjib Bhattacharyya, Jose F. Navidad, Monica S. Thakar, Subramaniam Malarkannan.
Institutions: Blood Research Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine , Blood Research Institute, City of Milwaukee Health Department Laboratory, Medical College of Wisconsin , Medical College of Wisconsin .
Influenza virus is a respiratory pathogen that causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality every year in multiple parts of the world. Therefore, precise diagnosis of the infecting strain and rapid high-throughput screening of vast numbers of clinical samples is paramount to control the spread of pandemic infections. Current clinical diagnoses of influenza infections are based on serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction, direct specimen immunofluorescence and cell culture 1,2. Here, we report the development of a novel diagnostic technique used to detect live influenza viruses. We used the mouse-adapted human A/PR/8/34 (PR8, H1N1) virus 3 to test the efficacy of this technique using MDCK cells 4. MDCK cells (104 or 5 x 103 per well) were cultured in 96- or 384-well plates, infected with PR8 and viral proteins were detected using anti-M2 followed by an IR dye-conjugated secondary antibody. M2 5 and hemagglutinin 1 are two major marker proteins used in many different diagnostic assays. Employing IR-dye-conjugated secondary antibodies minimized the autofluorescence associated with other fluorescent dyes. The use of anti-M2 antibody allowed us to use the antigen-specific fluorescence intensity as a direct metric of viral quantity. To enumerate the fluorescence intensity, we used the LI-COR Odyssey-based IR scanner. This system uses two channel laser-based IR detections to identify fluorophores and differentiate them from background noise. The first channel excites at 680 nm and emits at 700 nm to help quantify the background. The second channel detects fluorophores that excite at 780 nm and emit at 800 nm. Scanning of PR8-infected MDCK cells in the IR scanner indicated a viral titer-dependent bright fluorescence. A positive correlation of fluorescence intensity to virus titer starting from 102-105 PFU could be consistently observed. Minimal but detectable positivity consistently seen with 102-103 PFU PR8 viral titers demonstrated the high sensitivity of the near-IR dyes. The signal-to-noise ratio was determined by comparing the mock-infected or isotype antibody-treated MDCK cells. Using the fluorescence intensities from 96- or 384-well plate formats, we constructed standard titration curves. In these calculations, the first variable is the viral titer while the second variable is the fluorescence intensity. Therefore, we used the exponential distribution to generate a curve-fit to determine the polynomial relationship between the viral titers and fluorescence intensities. Collectively, we conclude that IR dye-based protein detection system can help diagnose infecting viral strains and precisely enumerate the titer of the infecting pathogens.
Immunology, Issue 60, Influenza virus, Virus titer, Epithelial cells
3623
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Quantitative Analyses of all Influenza Type A Viral Hemagglutinins and Neuraminidases using Universal Antibodies in Simple Slot Blot Assays
Authors: Caroline Gravel, Changgui Li, Junzhi Wang, Anwar M Hashem, Bozena Jaentschke, Gary Van Domselaar, Runtao He, Xuguang Li.
Institutions: Health canada, The State Food and Drug Administration, Beijing, University of Ottawa, King Abdulaziz University, Public Health Agency of Canada.
Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are two surface proteins of influenza viruses which are known to play important roles in the viral life cycle and the induction of protective immune responses1,2. As the main target for neutralizing antibodies, HA is currently used as the influenza vaccine potency marker and is measured by single radial immunodiffusion (SRID)3. However, the dependence of SRID on the availability of the corresponding subtype-specific antisera causes a minimum of 2-3 months delay for the release of every new vaccine. Moreover, despite evidence that NA also induces protective immunity4, the amount of NA in influenza vaccines is not yet standardized due to a lack of appropriate reagents or analytical method5. Thus, simple alternative methods capable of quantifying HA and NA antigens are desirable for rapid release and better quality control of influenza vaccines. Universally conserved regions in all available influenza A HA and NA sequences were identified by bioinformatics analyses6-7. One sequence (designated as Uni-1) was identified in the only universally conserved epitope of HA, the fusion peptide6, while two conserved sequences were identified in neuraminidases, one close to the enzymatic active site (designated as HCA-2) and the other close to the N-terminus (designated as HCA-3)7. Peptides with these amino acid sequences were synthesized and used to immunize rabbits for the production of antibodies. The antibody against the Uni-1 epitope of HA was able to bind to 13 subtypes of influenza A HA (H1-H13) while the antibodies against the HCA-2 and HCA-3 regions of NA were capable of binding all 9 NA subtypes. All antibodies showed remarkable specificity against the viral sequences as evidenced by the observation that no cross-reactivity to allantoic proteins was detected. These universal antibodies were then used to develop slot blot assays to quantify HA and NA in influenza A vaccines without the need for specific antisera7,8. Vaccine samples were applied onto a PVDF membrane using a slot blot apparatus along with reference standards diluted to various concentrations. For the detection of HA, samples and standard were first diluted in Tris-buffered saline (TBS) containing 4M urea while for the measurement of NA they were diluted in TBS containing 0.01% Zwittergent as these conditions significantly improved the detection sensitivity. Following the detection of the HA and NA antigens by immunoblotting with their respective universal antibodies, signal intensities were quantified by densitometry. Amounts of HA and NA in the vaccines were then calculated using a standard curve established with the signal intensities of the various concentrations of the references used. Given that these antibodies bind to universal epitopes in HA or NA, interested investigators could use them as research tools in immunoassays other than the slot blot only.
Immunology, Issue 50, Virology, influenza, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, quantification, universal antibody
2784
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Phenotyping Mouse Pulmonary Function In Vivo with the Lung Diffusing Capacity
Authors: Nathachit Limjunyawong, Jonathan Fallica, Amritha Ramakrishnan, Kausik Datta, Matthew Gabrielson, Maureen Horton, Wayne Mitzner.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
The mouse is now the primary animal used to model a variety of lung diseases. To study the mechanisms that underlie such pathologies, phenotypic methods are needed that can quantify the pathologic changes. Furthermore, to provide translational relevance to the mouse models, such measurements should be tests that can easily be done in both humans and mice. Unfortunately, in the present literature few phenotypic measurements of lung function have direct application to humans. One exception is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, which is a measurement that is routinely done in humans. In the present report, we describe a means to quickly and simply measure this diffusing capacity in mice. The procedure involves brief lung inflation with tracer gases in an anesthetized mouse, followed by a 1 min gas analysis time. We have tested the ability of this method to detect several lung pathologies, including emphysema, fibrosis, acute lung injury, and influenza and fungal lung infections, as well as monitoring lung maturation in young pups. Results show significant decreases in all the lung pathologies, as well as an increase in the diffusing capacity with lung maturation. This measurement of lung diffusing capacity thus provides a pulmonary function test that has broad application with its ability to detect phenotypic structural changes with most of the existing pathologic lung models.
Genetics, Issue 95, Pulmonary function tests, Airway resistance, Lung compliance, DLCO, Gas diffusion, Emphysema, Fibrosis
52216
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Influenza Virus Propagation in Embryonated Chicken Eggs
Authors: Rena Brauer, Peter Chen.
Institutions: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
Influenza infection is associated with about 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. The continuous emergence of new influenza virus strains due to mutation and re-assortment complicates the control of the virus and necessitates the permanent development of novel drugs and vaccines. The laboratory-based study of influenza requires a reliable and cost-effective method for the propagation of the virus. Here, a comprehensive protocol is provided for influenza A virus propagation in fertile chicken eggs, which consistently yields high titer viral stocks. In brief, serum pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized chicken eggs are incubated at 37 °C and 55-60% humidity for 10 – 11 days. Over this period, embryo development can be easily monitored using an egg candler. Virus inoculation is carried out by injection of virus stock into the allantoic cavity using a needle. After 2 days of incubation at 37 °C, the eggs are chilled for at least 4 hr at 4 °C. The eggshell above the air sac and the chorioallantoic membrane are then carefully opened, and the allantoic fluid containing the virus is harvested. The fluid is cleared from debris by centrifugation, aliquoted and transferred to -80 °C for long-term storage. The large amount (5-10 ml of virus-containing fluid per egg) and high virus titer which is usually achieved with this protocol has made the usage of eggs for virus preparation our favorable method, in particular for in vitro studies which require large quantities of virus in which high dosages of the same virus stock are needed.
Infection, Issue 97, Influenza, A/PR/8/34, chicken eggs, allantoic fluid, virus growth, influenza virus propagation
52421
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Intranasal Administration of Recombinant Influenza Vaccines in Chimeric Mouse Models to Study Mucosal Immunity
Authors: José Vicente Pérez-Girón, Sergio Gómez-Medina, Anja Lüdtke, Cesar Munoz-Fontela.
Institutions: Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology.
Vaccines are one of the greatest achievements of mankind, and have saved millions of lives over the last century. Paradoxically, little is known about the physiological mechanisms that mediate immune responses to vaccines perhaps due to the overall success of vaccination, which has reduced interest into the molecular and physiological mechanisms of vaccine immunity. However, several important human pathogens including influenza virus still pose a challenge for vaccination, and may benefit from immune-based strategies. Although influenza reverse genetics has been successfully applied to the generation of live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs), the addition of molecular tools in vaccine preparations such as tracer components to follow up the kinetics of vaccination in vivo, has not been addressed. In addition, the recent generation of mouse models that allow specific depletion of leukocytes during kinetic studies has opened a window of opportunity to understand the basic immune mechanisms underlying vaccine-elicited protection. Here, we describe how the combination of reverse genetics and chimeric mouse models may help to provide new insights into how vaccines work at physiological and molecular levels, using as example a recombinant, cold-adapted, live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). We utilized laboratory-generated LAIVs harboring cell tracers as well as competitive bone marrow chimeras (BMCs) to determine the early kinetics of vaccine immunity and the main physiological mechanisms responsible for the initiation of vaccine-specific adaptive immunity. In addition, we show how this technique may facilitate gene function studies in single animals during immune responses to vaccines. We propose that this technique can be applied to improve current prophylactic strategies against pathogens for which urgent medical countermeasures are needed, for example influenza, HIV, Plasmodium, and hemorrhagic fever viruses such as Ebola virus.
Immunology, Issue 100, Mouse models, vaccines, immunity, dendritic cells, influenza, T cells
52803
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Sublingual Immunotherapy as an Alternative to Induce Protection Against Acute Respiratory Infections
Authors: Natalia Muñoz-Wolf, Analía Rial, José M. Saavedra, José A. Chabalgoity.
Institutions: Universidad de la República, Trinity College Dublin.
Sublingual route has been widely used to deliver small molecules into the bloodstream and to modulate the immune response at different sites. It has been shown to effectively induce humoral and cellular responses at systemic and mucosal sites, namely the lungs and urogenital tract. Sublingual vaccination can promote protection against infections at the lower and upper respiratory tract; it can also promote tolerance to allergens and ameliorate asthma symptoms. Modulation of lung’s immune response by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is safer than direct administration of formulations by intranasal route because it does not require delivery of potentially harmful molecules directly into the airways. In contrast to intranasal delivery, side effects involving brain toxicity or facial paralysis are not promoted by SLIT. The immune mechanisms underlying SLIT remain elusive and its use for the treatment of acute lung infections has not yet been explored. Thus, development of appropriate animal models of SLIT is needed to further explore its potential advantages. This work shows how to perform sublingual administration of therapeutic agents in mice to evaluate their ability to protect against acute pneumococcal pneumonia. Technical aspects of mouse handling during sublingual inoculation, precise identification of sublingual mucosa, draining lymph nodes and isolation of tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs are illustrated. Protocols for single cell suspension preparation for FACS analysis are described in detail. Other downstream applications for the analysis of the immune response are discussed. Technical aspects of the preparation of Streptococcus pneumoniae inoculum and intranasal challenge of mice are also explained. SLIT is a simple technique that allows screening of candidate molecules to modulate lungs’ immune response. Parameters affecting the success of SLIT are related to molecular size, susceptibility to degradation and stability of highly concentrated formulations.
Medicine, Issue 90, Sublingual immunotherapy, Pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lungs, Flagellin, TLR5, NLRC4
52036
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Activation and Measurement of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Using IL-1β in Human Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells
Authors: Melissa V. Fernandez, Elizabeth A. Miller, Nina Bhardwaj.
Institutions: New York University School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Mount Sinai Medical Center.
Inflammatory processes resulting from the secretion of Interleukin (IL)-1 family cytokines by immune cells lead to local or systemic inflammation, tissue remodeling and repair, and virologic control1,2 . Interleukin-1β is an essential element of the innate immune response and contributes to eliminate invading pathogens while preventing the establishment of persistent infection1-5. Inflammasomes are the key signaling platform for the activation of interleukin 1 converting enzyme (ICE or Caspase-1). The NLRP3 inflammasome requires at least two signals in DCs to cause IL-1β secretion6. Pro-IL-1β protein expression is limited in resting cells; therefore a priming signal is required for IL-1β transcription and protein expression. A second signal sensed by NLRP3 results in the formation of the multi-protein NLRP3 inflammasome. The ability of dendritic cells to respond to the signals required for IL-1β secretion can be tested using a synthetic purine, R848, which is sensed by TLR8 in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) to prime cells, followed by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the bacterial toxin and potassium ionophore, nigericin. Monocyte derived DCs are easily produced in culture and provide significantly more cells than purified human myeloid DCs. The method presented here differs from other inflammasome assays in that it uses in vitro human, instead of mouse derived, DCs thus allowing for the study of the inflammasome in human disease and infection.
Immunology, Issue 87, NLRP3, inflammasome, IL-1beta, Interleukin-1 beta, dendritic, cell, Nigericin, Toll-Like Receptor 8, TLR8, R848, Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells
51284
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Optimization and Utilization of Agrobacterium-mediated Transient Protein Production in Nicotiana
Authors: Moneim Shamloul, Jason Trusa, Vadim Mett, Vidadi Yusibov.
Institutions: Fraunhofer USA Center for Molecular Biotechnology.
Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in plants is a promising approach to produce vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins within a short period of time. However, this technology is only just beginning to be applied to large-scale production as many technological obstacles to scale up are now being overcome. Here, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for industrial-scale transient protein production based on vacuum infiltration of Nicotiana plants with Agrobacteria carrying launch vectors. Optimization of Agrobacterium cultivation in AB medium allows direct dilution of the bacterial culture in Milli-Q water, simplifying the infiltration process. Among three tested species of Nicotiana, N. excelsiana (N. benthamiana × N. excelsior) was selected as the most promising host due to the ease of infiltration, high level of reporter protein production, and about two-fold higher biomass production under controlled environmental conditions. Induction of Agrobacterium harboring pBID4-GFP (Tobacco mosaic virus-based) using chemicals such as acetosyringone and monosaccharide had no effect on the protein production level. Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration with Agrobacterium laboratory strain GV3101 showed the highest protein production compared to Agrobacteria laboratory strains LBA4404 and C58C1 and wild-type Agrobacteria strains at6, at10, at77 and A4. Co-expression of a viral RNA silencing suppressor, p23 or p19, in N. benthamiana resulted in earlier accumulation and increased production (15-25%) of target protein (influenza virus hemagglutinin).
Plant Biology, Issue 86, Agroinfiltration, Nicotiana benthamiana, transient protein production, plant-based expression, viral vector, Agrobacteria
51204
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Building a Better Mosquito: Identifying the Genes Enabling Malaria and Dengue Fever Resistance in A. gambiae and A. aegypti Mosquitoes
Authors: George Dimopoulos.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University.
In this interview, George Dimopoulos focuses on the physiological mechanisms used by mosquitoes to combat Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infections. Explanation is given for how key refractory genes, those genes conferring resistance to vector pathogens, are identified in the mosquito and how this knowledge can be used to generate transgenic mosquitoes that are unable to carry the malaria parasite or dengue virus.
Cellular Biology, Issue 5, Translational Research, mosquito, malaria, virus, dengue, genetics, injection, RNAi, transgenesis, transgenic
233
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Rescue of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus from cDNA
Authors: Juan Ayllon, Adolfo García-Sastre, Luis Martínez-Sobrido.
Institutions: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, University of Rochester.
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the prototype member of the Avulavirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae1, is a non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus (Figure 1) with potential applications as a vector for vaccination and treatment of human diseases. In-depth exploration of these applications has only become possible after the establishment of reverse genetics techniques to rescue recombinant viruses from plasmids encoding their complete genomes as cDNA2-5. Viral cDNA can be conveniently modified in vitro by using standard cloning procedures to alter the genotype of the virus and/or to include new transcriptional units. Rescue of such genetically modified viruses provides a valuable tool to understand factors affecting multiple stages of infection, as well as allows for the development and improvement of vectors for the expression and delivery of antigens for vaccination and therapy. Here we describe a protocol for the rescue of recombinant NDVs.
Immunology, Issue 80, Paramyxoviridae, Vaccines, Oncolytic Virotherapy, Immunity, Innate, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), MVA-T7, reverse genetics techniques, plasmid transfection, recombinant virus, HA assay
50830
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High-throughput, Automated Extraction of DNA and RNA from Clinical Samples using TruTip Technology on Common Liquid Handling Robots
Authors: Rebecca C. Holmberg, Alissa Gindlesperger, Tinsley Stokes, Dane Brady, Nitu Thakore, Philip Belgrader, Christopher G. Cooney, Darrell P. Chandler.
Institutions: Akonni Biosystems, Inc., Akonni Biosystems, Inc., Akonni Biosystems, Inc., Akonni Biosystems, Inc..
TruTip is a simple nucleic acid extraction technology whereby a porous, monolithic binding matrix is inserted into a pipette tip. The geometry of the monolith can be adapted for specific pipette tips ranging in volume from 1.0 to 5.0 ml. The large porosity of the monolith enables viscous or complex samples to readily pass through it with minimal fluidic backpressure. Bi-directional flow maximizes residence time between the monolith and sample, and enables large sample volumes to be processed within a single TruTip. The fundamental steps, irrespective of sample volume or TruTip geometry, include cell lysis, nucleic acid binding to the inner pores of the TruTip monolith, washing away unbound sample components and lysis buffers, and eluting purified and concentrated nucleic acids into an appropriate buffer. The attributes and adaptability of TruTip are demonstrated in three automated clinical sample processing protocols using an Eppendorf epMotion 5070, Hamilton STAR and STARplus liquid handling robots, including RNA isolation from nasopharyngeal aspirate, genomic DNA isolation from whole blood, and fetal DNA extraction and enrichment from large volumes of maternal plasma (respectively).
Genetics, Issue 76, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Automation, Laboratory, Clinical Laboratory Techniques, Molecular Diagnostic Techniques, Analytic Sample Preparation Methods, Clinical Laboratory Techniques, Molecular Diagnostic Techniques, Genetic Techniques, Molecular Diagnostic Techniques, Automation, Laboratory, Chemistry, Clinical, DNA/RNA extraction, automation, nucleic acid isolation, sample preparation, nasopharyngeal aspirate, blood, plasma, high-throughput, sequencing
50356
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Affinity Purification of Influenza Virus Ribonucleoprotein Complexes from the Chromatin of Infected Cells
Authors: Geoffrey P. Chase, Martin Schwemmle.
Institutions: Universitätsklinikum Freiburg.
Like all negative-strand RNA viruses, the genome of influenza viruses is packaged in the form of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNP), in which the single-stranded genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (NP), and associated with the trimeric polymerase complex consisting of the PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits. However, in contrast to most RNA viruses, influenza viruses perform viral RNA synthesis in the nuclei of infected cells. Interestingly, viral mRNA synthesis uses cellular pre-mRNAs as primers, and it has been proposed that this process takes place on chromatin1. Interactions between the viral polymerase and the host RNA polymerase II, as well as between NP and host nucleosomes have also been characterized1,2. Recently, the generation of recombinant influenza viruses encoding a One-Strep-Tag genetically fused to the C-terminus of the PB2 subunit of the viral polymerase (rWSN-PB2-Strep3) has been described. These recombinant viruses allow the purification of PB2-containing complexes, including vRNPs, from infected cells. To obtain purified vRNPs, cell cultures are infected, and vRNPs are affinity purified from lysates derived from these cells. However, the lysis procedures used to date have been based on one-step detergent lysis, which, despite the presence of a general nuclease, often extract chromatin-bound material only inefficiently. Our preliminary work suggested that a large portion of nuclear vRNPs were not extracted during traditional cell lysis, and therefore could not be affinity purified. To increase this extraction efficiency, and to separate chromatin-bound from non-chromatin-bound nuclear vRNPs, we adapted a step-wise subcellular extraction protocol to influenza virus-infected cells. Briefly, this procedure first separates the nuclei from the cell and then extracts soluble nuclear proteins (here termed the "nucleoplasmic" fraction). The remaining insoluble nuclear material is then digested with Benzonase, an unspecific DNA/RNA nuclease, followed by two salt extraction steps: first using 150 mM NaCl (termed "ch150"), then 500 mM NaCl ("ch500") (Fig. 1). These salt extraction steps were chosen based on our observation that 500 mM NaCl was sufficient to solubilize over 85% of nuclear vRNPs yet still allow binding of tagged vRNPs to the affinity matrix. After subcellular fractionation of infected cells, it is possible to affinity purify PB2-tagged vRNPs from each individual fraction and analyze their protein and RNA components using Western Blot and primer extension, respectively. Recently, we utilized this method to discover that vRNP export complexes form during late points after infection on the chromatin fraction extracted with 500 mM NaCl (ch500)3.
Virology, Issue 64, Immunology, Molecular Biology, Influenza A virus, affinity purification, subcellular fractionation, chromatin, vRNP complexes, polymerase
4028
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Using a Pan-Viral Microarray Assay (Virochip) to Screen Clinical Samples for Viral Pathogens
Authors: Eunice C. Chen, Steve A. Miller, Joseph L. DeRisi, Charles Y. Chiu.
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco.
The diagnosis of viral causes of many infectious diseases is difficult due to the inherent sequence diversity of viruses as well as the ongoing emergence of novel viral pathogens, such as SARS coronavirus and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, that are not detectable by traditional methods. To address these challenges, we have previously developed and validated a pan-viral microarray platform called the Virochip with the capacity to detect all known viruses as well as novel variants on the basis of conserved sequence homology1. Using the Virochip, we have identified the full spectrum of viruses associated with respiratory infections, including cases of unexplained critical illness in hospitalized patients, with a sensitivity equivalent to or superior to conventional clinical testing2-5. The Virochip has also been used to identify novel viruses, including the SARS coronavirus6,7, a novel rhinovirus clade5, XMRV (a retrovirus linked to prostate cancer)8, avian bornavirus (the cause of a wasting disease in parrots)9, and a novel cardiovirus in children with respiratory and diarrheal illness10. The current version of the Virochip has been ported to an Agilent microarray platform and consists of ~36,000 probes derived from over ~1,500 viruses in GenBank as of December of 2009. Here we demonstrate the steps involved in processing a Virochip assay from start to finish (~24 hour turnaround time), including sample nucleic acid extraction, PCR amplification using random primers, fluorescent dye incorporation, and microarray hybridization, scanning, and analysis.
Immunology, Issue 50, virus, microarray, Virochip, viral detection, genomics, clinical diagnostics, viral discovery, metagenomics, novel pathogen discovery
2536
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Generation of Recombinant Influenza Virus from Plasmid DNA
Authors: Luis Martínez-Sobrido, Adolfo García-Sastre.
Institutions: University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine .
Efforts by a number of influenza research groups have been pivotal in the development and improvement of influenza A virus reverse genetics. Originally established in 1999 1,2 plasmid-based reverse genetic techniques to generate recombinant viruses have revolutionized the influenza research field because specific questions have been answered by genetically engineered, infectious, recombinant influenza viruses. Such studies include virus replication, function of viral proteins, the contribution of specific mutations in viral proteins in viral replication and/or pathogenesis and, also, viral vectors using recombinant influenza viruses expressing foreign proteins 3.
Microbiology, Issue 42, influenza viruses, plasmid transfection, recombinant virus, reverse genetics techniques, HA assay
2057
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Purification and Visualization of Influenza A Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complexes
Authors: Winco W.H. Wu, Lindsay L. Weaver, Nelly Panté.
Institutions: University of British Columbia - UBC.
The influenza A viral genome consists of eight negative-sense, single stranded RNA molecules, individually packed with multiple copies of the influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) into viral ribonulceoprotein particles (vRNPs). The influenza vRNPs are enclosed within the viral envelope. During cell entry, however, these vRNP complexes are released into the cytoplasm, where they gain access to the host nuclear transport machinery. In order to study the nuclear import of influenza vRNPs and the replication of the influenza genome, it is useful to work with isolated vRNPs so that other components of the virus do not interfere with these processes. Here, we describe a procedure to purify these vRNPs from the influenza A virus. The procedure starts with the disruption of the influenza A virion with detergents in order to release the vRNP complexes from the enveloped virion. The vRNPs are then separated from the other components of the influenza A virion on a 33-70% discontinuous glycerol gradient by velocity sedimentation. The fractions obtained from the glycerol gradient are then analyzed on via SDS-PAGE after staining with Coomassie blue. The peak fractions containing NP are then pooled together and concentrated by centrifugation. After concentration, the integrity of the vRNPs is verified by visualization of the vRNPs by transmission electron microscopy after negative staining. The glycerol gradient purification is a modification of that from Kemler et al. (1994)1, and the negative staining has been performed by Wu et al. (2007).2
Immunology, Issue 24, influenza A virus, viral ribonucleoprotein, vRNP, glycerol gradient, negative staining, transmission electron microscopy
1105
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Co-immunoprecipitation of the Mouse Mx1 Protein with the Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein
Authors: Judith Verhelst, Dorien De Vlieger, Xavier Saelens.
Institutions: VIB, Ghent University.
Studying the interaction between proteins is key in understanding their function(s). A very powerful method that is frequently used to study interactions of proteins with other macromolecules in a complex sample is called co-immunoprecipitation. The described co-immunoprecipitation protocol allows to demonstrate and further investigate the interaction between the antiviral myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1) and one of its viral targets, the influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP). The protocol starts with transfected mammalian cells, but it is also possible to use influenza A virus infected cells as starting material. After cell lysis, the viral NP protein is pulled-down with a specific antibody and the resulting immune-complexes are precipitated with protein G beads. The successful pull-down of NP and the co-immunoprecipitation of the antiviral Mx1 protein are subsequently revealed by western blotting. A prerequisite for successful co-immunoprecipitation of Mx1 with NP is the presence of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) in the cell lysis buffer. NEM alkylates free thiol groups. Presumably this reaction stabilizes the weak and/or transient NP–Mx1 interaction by preserving a specific conformation of Mx1, its viral target or an unknown third component. An important limitation of co-immunoprecipitation experiments is the inadvertent pull-down of contaminating proteins, caused by nonspecific binding of proteins to the protein G beads or antibodies. Therefore, it is very important to include control settings to exclude false positive results. The described co-immunoprecipitation protocol can be used to study the interaction of Mx proteins from different vertebrate species with viral proteins, any pair of proteins, or of a protein with other macromolecules. The beneficial role of NEM to stabilize weak and/or transient interactions needs to be tested for each interaction pair individually.
Immunology, Issue 98, Influenza A virus, nucleoprotein, Mx1, co-immunoprecipitation, N-ethylmaleimide, plasmid transfection, viral infection, antiviral host defense
52871
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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