Traditionally in neuroscience, in vivo two photon imaging of the murine central nervous system has either involved the use of open-skull1,2 or thinned-skull 3 preparations. While the open-skull technique is very versatile, it is not optimal for studying microglia because it is invasive and can cause microglial activation. Even though the thinned-skull approach is minimally invasive, the repeated re-thinning of skull required for chronic imaging increases the risks of tissue injury and microglial activation and allows for a limited number of imaging sessions. Here we present a chronic thin-skull window method for monitoring murine microglia in vivo over an extended period of time using two-photon microscopy. We demonstrate how to prepare a stable, accessible, thinned-skull cortical window (TSCW) with an apposed glass coverslip that remains translucent over the course of three weeks of intermittent observation. This TSCW preparation is far more immunologically inert with respect to microglial activation than open craniotomy or repeated skull thinning and allows an arbitrary number of imaging sessions during a time period of weeks. We prepare TSCW in CX3CR1 GFP/+ mice 4 to visualize microglia with enhanced green fluorescent protein to ≤150 μm beneath the pial surface. We also show that this preparation can be used in conjunction with stereotactic brain injections of the HIV-1 neurotoxic protein Tat, adjacent to the TSCW, which is capable of inducing durable microgliosis. Therefore, this method is extremely useful for examining changes in microglial morphology and motility over time in the living brain in models of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) and other neurodegenerative diseases with a neuroinflammatory component.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
Isolation of Cortical Microglia with Preserved Immunophenotype and Functionality From Murine Neonates
Institutions: Georgetown University Medical Center.
Isolation of microglia from CNS tissue is a powerful investigative tool used to study microglial biology ex vivo
. The present method details a procedure for isolation of microglia from neonatal murine cortices by mechanical agitation with a rotary shaker. This microglia isolation method yields highly pure cortical microglia that exhibit morphological and functional characteristics indicative of quiescent microglia in normal, nonpathological conditions in vivo
. This procedure also preserves the microglial immunophenotype and biochemical functionality as demonstrated by the induction of morphological changes, nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB (p65), and secretion of the hallmark proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3
(Pam) challenges. Therefore, the present isolation procedure preserves the immunophenotype of both quiescent and activated microglia, providing an experimental method of investigating microglia biology in ex vivo
Immunology, Issue 83, neuroinflammation, Cytokines, neurodegeneration, LPS, Pam3CSK4, TLRs, PAMPs, DAMPs
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
An In Vitro Model for the Study of Cellular Pathophysiology in Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy
Institutions: University of Connecticut Health Center, University of Illinois at Chicago.
The precise function of multi-nucleated microglia, called globoid cells, that are uniquely abundant in the central nervous system of globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) is unclear. This gap in knowledge has been hindered by the lack of an appropriate in vitro
model for study. Herein, we describe a primary murine glial culture system in which treatment with psychosine results in multinucleation of microglia resembling the characteristic globoid cells found in GLD. Using this novel system, we defined the conditions and modes of analysis for study of globoid cells. The potential use of this model system was validated in our previous study, which identified a potential role for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 in GLD. This novel in vitro
system may be a useful model in which to study the formation and function, but also the potential therapeutic manipulation, of these unique cells.
Cellular Biology, Issue 92, globoid cells, psychosine, microglia, multinucleation, leukodystrophy, Krabbe disease, pathogenesis, phagocytic activity
Stereological and Flow Cytometry Characterization of Leukocyte Subpopulations in Models of Transient or Permanent Cerebral Ischemia
Institutions: Universidad Complutense de Madrid y Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid.
Microglia activation, as well as extravasation of haematogenous macrophages and neutrophils, is believed to play a pivotal role in brain injury after stroke. These myeloid cell subpopulations can display different phenotypes and functions and need to be distinguished and characterized to study their regulation and contribution to tissue damage. This protocol provides two different methodologies for brain immune cell characterization: a precise stereological approach and a flow cytometric analysis. The stereological approach is based on the optical fractionator method, which calculates the total number of cells in an area of interest (infarcted brain) estimated by a systematic random sampling. The second characterization approach provides a simple way to isolate brain leukocyte suspensions and to characterize them by flow cytometry, allowing for the characterization of microglia, infiltrated monocytes and neutrophils of the ischemic tissue. In addition, it also details a cerebral ischemia model in mice that exclusively affects brain cortex, generating highly reproducible infarcts with a low rate of mortality, and the procedure for histological brain processing to characterize infarct volume by the Cavalieri method.
Medicine, Issue 94, Brain ischemia, myeloid cells, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), stereology, optical fractionator, flow cytometry, infiltration
Image-based Flow Cytometry Technique to Evaluate Changes in Granulocyte Function In Vitro
Institutions: University of North Texas.
Granulocytes play a key role in the body’s innate immune response to bacterial and viral infections. While methods exist to measure granulocyte function, in general these are limited in terms of the information they can provide. For example, most existing assays merely provide a percentage of how many granulocytes are activated following a single, fixed length incubation. Complicating matters, most assays focus on only one aspect of function due to limitations in detection technology. This report demonstrates a technique for simultaneous measurement of granulocyte phagocytosis of bacteria and oxidative burst. By measuring both of these functions at the same time, three unique phenotypes of activated granulocytes were identified: 1) Low Activation (minimal phagocytosis, no oxidative burst), 2) Moderate Activation (moderate phagocytosis, some oxidative burst, but no co-localization of the two functional events), and 3) High Activation (high phagocytosis, high oxidative burst, co-localization of phagocytosis and oxidative burst). A fourth population that consisted of inactivated granulocytes was also identified. Using assay incubations of 10, 20, and 40-min the effect of assay incubation duration on the redistribution of activated granulocyte phenotypes was assessed. A fourth incubation was completed on ice as a control. By using serial time incubations, the assay may be able to able to detect how a treatment spatially affects granulocyte function. All samples were measured using an image-based flow cytometer equipped with a quantitative imaging (QI) option, autosampler, and multiple lasers (488, 642, and 785 nm).
Immunology, Issue 94, Imaging Flow Cytometry, Phagocytosis, Oxidative Burst, Granulocyte Activity, Innate Immunity, FlowSight, Amnis
Intravital Imaging of Axonal Interactions with Microglia and Macrophages in a Mouse Dorsal Column Crush Injury
Institutions: Case Western Reserve University, Case Western Reserve University, Case Western Reserve University.
Traumatic spinal cord injury causes an inflammatory reaction involving blood-derived macrophages and central nervous system (CNS)-resident microglia. Intra-vital two-photon microscopy enables the study of macrophages and microglia in the spinal cord lesion in the living animal. This can be performed in adult animals with a traumatic injury to the dorsal column. Here, we describe methods for distinguishing macrophages from microglia in the CNS using an irradiation bone marrow chimera to obtain animals in which only macrophages or microglia are labeled with a genetically encoded green fluorescent protein. We also describe a injury model that crushes the dorsal column of the spinal cord, thereby producing a simple, easily accessible, rectangular lesion that is easily visualized in an animal through a laminectomy. Furthermore, we will outline procedures to sequentially image the animals at the anatomical site of injury for the study of cellular interactions during the first few days to weeks after injury.
Cellular Biology, Issue 93, Intravital, spinal cord crush injury, chimera, microglia, macrophages, dorsal column crush, axonal dieback
Using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting to Examine Cell-Type-Specific Gene Expression in Rat Brain Tissue
Institutions: University of Delaware.
The brain is comprised of four primary cell types including neurons, astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes. Though they are not the most abundant cell type in the brain, neurons are the most widely studied of these cell types given their direct role in impacting behaviors. Other cell types in the brain also impact neuronal function and behavior via the signaling molecules they produce. Neuroscientists must understand the interactions between the cell types in the brain to better understand how these interactions impact neural function and disease. To date, the most common method of analyzing protein or gene expression utilizes the homogenization of whole tissue samples, usually with blood, and without regard for cell type. This approach is an informative approach for examining general changes in gene or protein expression that may influence neural function and behavior; however, this method of analysis does not lend itself to a greater understanding of cell-type-specific gene expression and the effect of cell-to-cell communication on neural function. Analysis of behavioral epigenetics has been an area of growing focus which examines how modifications of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) structure impact long-term gene expression and behavior; however, this information may only be relevant if analyzed in a cell-type-specific manner given the differential lineage and thus epigenetic markers that may be present on certain genes of individual neural cell types. The Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) technique described below provides a simple and effective way to isolate individual neural cells for the subsequent analysis of gene expression, protein expression, or epigenetic modifications of DNA. This technique can also be modified to isolate more specific neural cell types in the brain for subsequent cell-type-specific analysis.
Neuroscience, Issue 99, Fluorescence activated cell sorting, GLT-1, Thy1, CD11b, real-time PCR, gene expression
In Vivo Dynamics of Retinal Microglial Activation During Neurodegeneration: Confocal Ophthalmoscopic Imaging and Cell Morphometry in Mouse Glaucoma
Institutions: University of Utah, University of Utah.
Microglia, which are CNS-resident neuroimmune cells, transform their morphology and size in response to CNS damage, switching to an activated state with distinct functions and gene expression profiles. The roles of microglial activation in health, injury and disease remain incompletely understood due to their dynamic and complex regulation in response to changes in their microenvironment. Thus, it is critical to non-invasively monitor and analyze changes in microglial activation over time in the intact organism. In vivo studies of microglial activation have been delayed by technical limitations to tracking microglial behavior without altering the CNS environment. This has been particularly challenging during chronic neurodegeneration, where long-term changes must be tracked. The retina, a CNS organ amenable to non-invasive live imaging, offers a powerful system to visualize and characterize the dynamics of microglia activation during chronic disorders.
This protocol outlines methods for long-term, in vivo
imaging of retinal microglia, using confocal ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) and CX3CR1GFP/+
reporter mice, to visualize microglia with cellular resolution. Also, we describe methods to quantify monthly changes in cell activation and density in large cell subsets (200-300 cells per retina). We confirm the use of somal area as a useful metric for live tracking of microglial activation in the retina by applying automated threshold-based morphometric analysis of in vivo
images. We use these live image acquisition and analyses strategies to monitor the dynamic changes in microglial activation and microgliosis during early stages of retinal neurodegeneration in a mouse model of chronic glaucoma. This approach should be useful to investigate the contributions of microglia to neuronal and axonal decline in chronic CNS disorders that affect the retina and optic nerve.
Medicine, Issue 99, Neuroscience, microglia, neurodegeneration, glaucoma, retina, optic nerve head, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, live image analysis, segmentation by thresholding, cell morphometry CX3CR1, DBA/2J
Gene-environment Interaction Models to Unmask Susceptibility Mechanisms in Parkinson's Disease
Institutions: SRI International, University of California-Santa Cruz.
Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, but its effects in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis are less understood. Gene-environment interaction models have utility in unmasking the impact of specific cellular pathways in toxicity that may not be observed using a solely genetic or toxicant disease model alone. To evaluate if distinct LOX isozymes selectively contribute to PD-related neurodegeneration, transgenic (i.e.
5-LOX and 12/15-LOX deficient) mice can be challenged with a toxin that mimics cell injury and death in the disorder. Here we describe the use of a neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which produces a nigrostriatal lesion to elucidate the distinct contributions of LOX isozymes to neurodegeneration related to PD. The use of MPTP in mouse, and nonhuman primate, is well-established to recapitulate the nigrostriatal damage in PD. The extent of MPTP-induced lesioning is measured by HPLC analysis of dopamine and its metabolites and semi-quantitative Western blot analysis of striatum for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of dopamine. To assess inflammatory markers, which may demonstrate LOX isozyme-selective sensitivity, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1 immunohistochemistry are performed on brain sections containing substantia nigra, and GFAP Western blot analysis is performed on striatal homogenates. This experimental approach can provide novel insights into gene-environment interactions underlying nigrostriatal degeneration and PD.
Medicine, Issue 83, MPTP, dopamine, Iba1, TH, GFAP, lipoxygenase, transgenic, gene-environment interactions, mouse, Parkinson's disease, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation
Novel Whole-tissue Quantitative Assay of Nitric Oxide Levels in Drosophila Neuroinflammatory Response
Institutions: University of Alabama.
Neuroinflammation is a complex innate immune response vital to the healthy function of the central nervous system (CNS). Under normal conditions, an intricate network of inducers, detectors, and activators rapidly responds to neuron damage, infection or other immune infractions. This inflammation of immune cells is intimately associated with the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease and ALS. Under compromised disease states, chronic inflammation, intended to minimize neuron damage, may lead to an over-excitation of the immune cells, ultimately resulting in the exacerbation of disease progression. For example, loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, a hallmark of PD, is accelerated by the excessive activation of the inflammatory response. Though the cause of PD is largely unknown, exposure to environmental toxins has been implicated in the onset of sporadic cases. The herbicide paraquat, for example, has been shown to induce Parkinsonian-like pathology in several animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster.
Here, we have used the conserved innate immune response in Drosophila
to develop an assay capable of detecting varying levels of nitric oxide, a cell-signaling molecule critical to the activation of the inflammatory response cascade and targeted neuron death. Using paraquat-induced neuronal damage, we assess the impact of these immune insults on neuroinflammatory stimulation through the use of a novel, quantitative assay. Whole brains are fully extracted from flies either exposed to neurotoxins or of genotypes that elevate susceptibility to neurodegeneration then incubated in cell-culture media. Then, using the principles of the Griess reagent reaction, we are able to detect minor changes in the secretion of nitric oxide into cell-culture media, essentially creating a primary live-tissue model in a simple procedure. The utility of this model is amplified by the robust genetic and molecular complexity of Drosophila melanogaster,
and this assay can be modified to be applicable to other Drosophila
tissues or even other small, whole-organism inflammation models.
Immunology, Issue 82, biology (general), environmental effects (biological, animal and plant), immunology, animal models, Immune System Diseases, Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms, Life Sciences (General), Neuroinflammation, inflammation, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, Drosophila, neurodegeneration, brain, Griess assay, nitrite detection, innate immunity, Parkinson disease, tissue culture
Detecting, Visualizing and Quantitating the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in an Amoeba Model System
Institutions: University of Geneva.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) comprise a range of reactive and short-lived, oxygen-containing molecules, which are dynamically interconverted or eliminated either catalytically or spontaneously. Due to the short life spans of most ROS and the diversity of their sources and subcellular localizations, a complete picture can be obtained only by careful measurements using a combination of protocols. Here, we present a set of three different protocols using OxyBurst Green (OBG)-coated beads, or dihydroethidium (DHE) and Amplex UltraRed (AUR), to monitor qualitatively and quantitatively various ROS in professional phagocytes such as Dictyostelium
. We optimised the beads coating procedures and used OBG-coated beads and live microscopy to dynamically visualize intraphagosomal ROS generation at the single cell level. We identified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli
as a potent stimulator for ROS generation in Dictyostelium
. In addition, we developed real time, medium-throughput assays using DHE and AUR to quantitatively measure intracellular superoxide and extracellular H2
Microbiology, Issue 81, Biology (general), Biochemistry, Reactive oxygen species, Superoxide, Hydrogen peroxide, OxyBurst Green, Carboxylated beads, Dihydroethidium, Amplex UltraRed, Phagocytosis, Dictyostelium discoideum
Strategies for Study of Neuroprotection from Cold-preconditioning
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for therapeutics development to protect brain before injury onset. Low-level pro-inflammatory mediator signaling changes over time are essential for cold-preconditioning neuroprotection. This signaling is consistent with the basic tenets of physiological conditioning hormesis, which require that irritative stimuli reach a threshold magnitude with sufficient time for adaptation to the stimuli for protection to become evident.
Accordingly, delineation of the immune signaling involved in cold-preconditioning neuroprotection requires that biological systems and experimental manipulations plus technical capacities are highly reproducible and sensitive. Our approach is to use hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro
model that closely reflects their in vivo
counterparts with multi-synaptic neural networks influenced by mature and quiescent macroglia / microglia. This glial state is particularly important for microglia since they are the principal source of cytokines, which are operative in the femtomolar range. Also, slice cultures can be maintained in vitro
for several weeks, which is sufficient time to evoke activating stimuli and assess adaptive responses. Finally, environmental conditions can be accurately controlled using slice cultures so that cytokine signaling of cold-preconditioning can be measured, mimicked, and modulated to dissect the critical node aspects. Cytokine signaling system analyses require the use of sensitive and reproducible multiplexed techniques. We use quantitative PCR for TNF-α to screen for microglial activation followed by quantitative real-time qPCR array screening to assess tissue-wide cytokine changes. The latter is a most sensitive and reproducible means to measure multiple cytokine system signaling changes simultaneously. Significant changes are confirmed with targeted qPCR and then protein detection. We probe for tissue-based cytokine protein changes using multiplexed microsphere flow cytometric assays using Luminex technology. Cell-specific cytokine production is determined with double-label immunohistochemistry. Taken together, this brain tissue preparation and style of use, coupled to the suggested investigative strategies, may be an optimal approach for identifying potential targets for the development of novel therapeutics that could mimic the advantages of cold-preconditioning.
Neuroscience, Issue 43, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, hippocampus, slice culture, immunohistochemistry, neural-immune, gene expression, real-time PCR
Isolation of Brain and Spinal Cord Mononuclear Cells Using Percoll Gradients
Institutions: University of Texas at San Antonio - UTSA.
Isolation of immune cells that infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) during infection, trauma, autoimmunity or neurodegeneration, is often required to define their phenotype and effector functions. Histochemical approaches are instrumental to determine the location of the infiltrating cells and to analyze the associated CNS pathology. However, in-situ histochemistry and immunofluorescent staining techniques are limited by the number of antibodies that can be used at a single time to characterize immune cell subtypes in a particular tissue. Therefore, histological approaches in conjunction with immune-phenotyping by flow cytometry are critical to fully characterize the composition of local CNS infiltration. This protocol is based on the separation of CNS cellular suspensions over discontinous percoll gradients. The current article describes a rapid protocol to efficiently isolate mononuclear cells from brain and spinal cord tissues that can be effectively utilized for identification of various immune cell populations in a single sample by flow cytometry.
Immunology, Issue 48, Microglia, monocytes/macrophages, CNS, inflammation, EAE, chemokines, mouse, flow cytometry
Modeling Neural Immune Signaling of Episodic and Chronic Migraine Using Spreading Depression In Vitro
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center, The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Migraine and its transformation to chronic migraine are healthcare burdens in need of improved treatment options. We seek to define how neural immune signaling modulates the susceptibility to migraine, modeled in vitro
using spreading depression (SD), as a means to develop novel therapeutic targets for episodic and chronic migraine. SD is the likely cause of migraine aura and migraine pain. It is a paroxysmal loss of neuronal function triggered by initially increased neuronal activity, which slowly propagates within susceptible brain regions. Normal brain function is exquisitely sensitive to, and relies on, coincident low-level immune signaling. Thus, neural immune signaling likely affects electrical activity of SD, and therefore migraine. Pain perception studies of SD in whole animals are fraught with difficulties, but whole animals are well suited to examine systems biology aspects of migraine since SD activates trigeminal nociceptive pathways. However, whole animal studies alone cannot be used to decipher the cellular and neural circuit mechanisms of SD. Instead, in vitro
preparations where environmental conditions can be controlled are necessary. Here, it is important to recognize limitations of acute slices and distinct advantages of hippocampal slice cultures. Acute brain slices cannot reveal subtle changes in immune signaling since preparing the slices alone triggers: pro-inflammatory changes that last days, epileptiform behavior due to high levels of oxygen tension needed to vitalize the slices, and irreversible cell injury at anoxic slice centers.
In contrast, we examine immune signaling in mature hippocampal slice cultures since the cultures closely parallel their in vivo
counterpart with mature trisynaptic function; show quiescent astrocytes, microglia, and cytokine levels; and SD is easily induced in an unanesthetized preparation. Furthermore, the slices are long-lived and SD can be induced on consecutive days without injury, making this preparation the sole means to-date capable of modeling the neuroimmune consequences of chronic SD, and thus perhaps chronic migraine. We use electrophysiological techniques and non-invasive imaging to measure
neuronal cell and circuit functions coincident with SD. Neural immune gene expression variables are measured with qPCR screening, qPCR arrays, and, importantly, use of cDNA preamplification for detection of ultra-low level targets such as interferon-gamma using whole, regional, or specific cell enhanced (via laser dissection microscopy) sampling. Cytokine cascade signaling is further assessed with multiplexed phosphoprotein related targets with gene expression and phosphoprotein changes confirmed via cell-specific immunostaining. Pharmacological and siRNA strategies are used to mimic
SD immune signaling.
Neuroscience, Issue 52, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, T-cells, hippocampus, slice culture, gene expression, laser dissection microscopy, real-time qPCR, interferon-gamma
Primary Microglia Isolation from Mixed Glial Cell Cultures of Neonatal Rat Brain Tissue
Institutions: Uniformed Services University, Uniformed Services University, Uniformed Services University.
Microglia account for approximately 12% of the total cellular population in the mammalian brain. While neurons and astrocytes are considered the major cell types of the nervous system, microglia play a significant role in normal brain physiology by monitoring tissue for debris and pathogens and maintaining homeostasis in the parenchyma via phagocytic activity 1,2
. Microglia are activated during a number of injury and disease conditions, including neurodegenerative disease, traumatic brain injury, and nervous system infection 3
. Under these activating conditions, microglia increase their phagocytic activity, undergo morpohological and proliferative change, and actively secrete reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, often activating a paracrine or autocrine loop 4-6
. As these microglial responses contribute to disease pathogenesis in neurological conditions, research focused on microglia is warranted.
Due to the cellular heterogeneity of the brain, it is technically difficult to obtain sufficient microglial sample material with high purity during in vivo
experiments. Current research on the neuroprotective and neurotoxic functions of microglia require a routine technical method to consistently generate pure and healthy microglia with sufficient yield for study. We present, in text and video, a protocol to isolate pure primary microglia from mixed glia cultures for a variety of downstream applications. Briefly, this technique utilizes dissociated brain tissue from neonatal rat pups to produce mixed glial cell cultures. After the mixed glial cultures reach confluency, primary microglia are mechanically isolated from the culture by a brief duration of shaking. The microglia are then plated at high purity for experimental study.
The principle and protocol of this methodology have been described in the literature 7,8
. Additionally, alternate methodologies to isolate primary microglia are well described 9-12
. Homogenized brain tissue may be separated by density gradient centrifugation to yield primary microglia 12
. However, the centrifugation is of moderate length (45 min) and may cause cellular damage and activation, as well as, cause enriched microglia and other cellular populations. Another protocol has been utilized to isolate primary microglia in a variety of organisms by prolonged (16 hr) shaking while in culture 9-11
. After shaking, the media supernatant is centrifuged to isolate microglia. This longer two-step isolation method may also perturb microglial function and activation. We chiefly utilize the following microglia isolation protocol in our laboratory for a number of reasons: (1) primary microglia simulate in vivo
biology more faithfully than immortalized rodent microglia cell lines, (2) nominal mechanical disruption minimizes potential cellular dysfunction or activation, and (3) sufficient yield can be obtained without passage of the mixed glial cell cultures.
It is important to note that this protocol uses brain tissue from neonatal rat pups to isolate microglia and that using older rats to isolate microglia can significantly impact the yield, activation status, and functional properties of isolated microglia. There is evidence that aging is linked with microglia dysfunction, increased neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative pathologies, so previous studies have used ex vivo
adult microglia to better understand the role of microglia in neurodegenerative diseases where aging is important parameter. However, ex vivo
microglia cannot be kept in culture for prolonged periods of time. Therefore, while this protocol extends the life of primary microglia in culture, it should be noted that the microglia behave differently from adult microglia and in vitro
studies should be carefully considered when translated to an in vivo
Immunology, Issue 66, Neuroscience, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cell Culture, isolation, microglia, mixed glial cell, traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease
Detection of MicroRNAs in Microglia by Real-time PCR in Normal CNS and During Neuroinflammation
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
Microglia are cells of the myeloid lineage that reside in the central nervous system (CNS)1
. These cells play an important role in pathologies of many diseases associated with neuroinflammation such as multiple sclerosis (MS)2
. Microglia in a normal CNS express macrophage marker CD11b and exhibit a resting phenotype by expressing low levels of activation markers such as CD45. During pathological events in the CNS, microglia become activated as determined by upregulation of CD45 and other markers3
. The factors that affect microglia phenotype and functions in the CNS are not well studied. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a growing family of conserved molecules (~22 nucleotides long) that are involved in many normal physiological processes such as cell growth and differentiation4
and pathologies such as inflammation5
. MiRNAs downregulate the expression of certain target genes by binding complementary sequences of their mRNAs and play an important role in the activation of innate immune cells including macrophages6
. In order to investigate miRNA-mediated pathways that define the microglial phenotype, biological function, and to distinguish microglia from other types of macrophages, it is important to quantitatively assess the expression of particular microRNAs in distinct subsets of CNS-resident microglia. Common methods for measuring the expression of miRNAs in the CNS include quantitative PCR from whole neuronal tissue and in situ
hybridization. However, quantitative PCR from whole tissue homogenate does not allow the assessment of the expression of miRNA in microglia, which represent only 5-15% of the cells of neuronal tissue. Hybridization in situ
allows the assessment of the expression of microRNA in specific cell types in the tissue sections, but this method is not entirely quantitative. In this report we describe a quantitative and sensitive method for the detection of miRNA by real-time PCR in microglia isolated from normal CNS or during neuroinflammation using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for MS. The described method will be useful to measure the level of expression of microRNAs in microglia in normal CNS or during neuroinflammation associated with various pathologies including MS, stroke, traumatic injury, Alzheimer's disease and brain tumors.
Immunology, Issue 65, Neuroscience, Genetics, microglia, macrophages, microRNA, brain, mouse, real-time PCR, neuroinflammation
Three-dimensional Confocal Analysis of Microglia/macrophage Markers of Polarization in Experimental Brain Injury
Institutions: IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri.
After brain stroke microglia/macrophages (M/M) undergo rapid activation with dramatic morphological and phenotypic changes that include expression of novel surface antigens and production of mediators that build up and maintain the inflammatory response. Emerging evidence indicates that M/M are highly plastic cells that can assume classic pro-inflammatory (M1) or alternative anti-inflammatory (M2) activation after acute brain injury. However a complete characterization of M/M phenotype marker expression, their colocalization and temporal evolution in the injured brain is still missing.
Immunofluorescence protocols specifically staining relevant markers of M/M activation can be performed in the ischemic brain. Here we present immunofluorescence-based protocols followed by three-dimensional confocal analysis as a powerful approach to investigate the pattern of localization and co-expression of M/M phenotype markers such as CD11b, CD68, Ym1, in mouse model of focal ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO). Two-dimensional analysis of the stained area reveals that each marker is associated to a defined M/M morphology and has a given localization in the ischemic lesion. Patterns of M/M phenotype marker co-expression can be assessed by three-dimensional confocal imaging in the ischemic area. Images can be acquired over a defined volume (10 μm z-axis and a 0.23 μm step size, corresponding to a 180 x 135 x 10 μm volume) with a sequential scanning mode to minimize bleed-through effects and avoid wavelength overlapping. Images are then processed to obtain three-dimensional renderings by means of Imaris software. Solid view of three dimensional renderings allows the definition of marker expression in clusters of cells. We show that M/M have the ability to differentiate towards a multitude of phenotypes, depending on the location in the lesion site and time after injury.
Neurobiology, Issue 79, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Central Nervous System Diseases, Neurodegenerative Diseases, biology (general), immunology, life sciences, animal models, Inflammation, stroke, alternative activation, brain injury, brain, imaging, confocal microscopy, three-dimensional imaging, clinical techniques, mouse, animal model
Culturing Microglia from the Neonatal and Adult Central Nervous System
Institutions: Stony Brook University, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook University.
Microglia are the resident macrophage-like cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and, as such, have critically important roles in physiological and pathological processes such as CNS maturation in development, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury. Microglia can be activated and recruited to action by neuronal injury or stimulation, such as axonal damage seen in MS or ischemic brain trauma resulting from stroke. These immunocompetent members of the CNS are also thought to have roles in synaptic plasticity under non-pathological conditions. We employ protocols for culturing microglia from the neonatal and adult tissues that are aimed to maximize the viable cell numbers while minimizing confounding variables, such as the presence of other CNS cell types and cell culture debris. We utilize large and easily discernable CNS components (e.g.
cortex, spinal cord segments), which makes the entire process feasible and reproducible. The use of adult cells is a suitable alternative to the use of neonatal brain microglia, as many pathologies studied mainly affect the postnatal spinal cord. These culture systems are also useful for directly testing the effect of compounds that may either inhibit or promote microglial activation. Since microglial activation can shape the outcomes of disease in the adult CNS, there is a need for in vitro systems in which neonatal and adult microglia can be cultured and studied.
Immunology, Issue 78, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Anatomy, Physiology, immunosuppression, life sciences, animal biology, animal models, biochemistry, microglia, cortex, mouse, neonatal, cell culture, spinal cord, adult, tissue culture, animal model
A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an Organic Solvent
Institutions: University of Maine, Orono, University of Maine, Orono.
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g.
by an allergen), they degranulate, a process that results in the exocytosis of allergic mediators. Modulation of mast cell degranulation by drugs and toxicants may have positive or adverse effects on human health. Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells3-5
. Mast cell granule component and the allergic mediator β-hexosaminidase, which is released linearly in tandem with histamine from mast cells6
, can easily and reliably be measured through reaction with a fluorogenic substrate, yielding measurable fluorescence intensity in a microplate assay that is amenable to high-throughput studies1
. Originally published by Naal et al.1
, we have adapted this degranulation assay for the screening of drugs and toxicants and demonstrate its use here.
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is present in many consumer products and has been found to be a therapeutic aid in human allergic skin disease7-11
, although the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate an assay for the effect of triclosan on mast cell degranulation. We recently showed that triclosan strongly affects mast cell function2
. In an effort to avoid use of an organic solvent, triclosan is dissolved directly into aqueous buffer with heat and stirring, and resultant concentration is confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (using ε280
= 4,200 L/M/cm)12
. This protocol has the potential to be used with a variety of chemicals to determine their effects on mast cell degranulation, and more broadly, their allergic potential.
Immunology, Issue 81, mast cell, basophil, degranulation, RBL-2H3, triclosan, irgasan, antibacterial, β-hexosaminidase, allergy, Asthma, toxicants, ionophore, antigen, fluorescence, microplate, UV-Vis
Selective Depletion of Microglia from Cerebellar Granule Cell Cultures Using L-leucine Methyl Ester
Institutions: University of Washington, University College London, University College London.
Microglia, the resident immunocompetent cells of the CNS, play multifaceted roles in modulating and controlling neuronal function, as well as mediating innate immunity. Primary rodent cell culture models have greatly advanced our understanding of neuronal-glial interactions, but only recently have methods to specifically eliminate microglia from mixed cultures been utilized. One such technique – described here – is the use of L-leucine methyl ester, a lysomotropic agent that is internalized by macrophages and microglia, wherein it causes lysosomal disruption and subsequent apoptosis13,14
. Experiments using L-leucine methyl ester have the power to identify the contribution of microglia to the surrounding cellular environment under diverse culture conditions. Using a protocol optimized in our laboratory, we describe how to eliminate microglia from P5 rodent cerebellar granule cell culture. This approach allows one to assess the relative impact of microglia on experimental data, as well as determine whether microglia are playing a neuroprotective or neurotoxic role in culture models of neurological conditions, such as stroke, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease.
Neurobiology, Issue 101, Cell biology, microglia, cerebellar granule cells, L-leucine methyl ester, primary cell culture, neuron-glia biology, neuroinflammation