Miniaturization of analytical benchtop procedures into the micro-scale provides significant advantages in regards to reaction time, cost, and integration of pre-processing steps. Utilizing these devices towards the analysis of DNA hybridization events is important because it offers a technology for real time assessment of biomarkers at the point-of-care for various diseases. However, when the device footprint decreases the dominance of various physical phenomena increases. These phenomena influence the fabrication precision and operation reliability of the device. Therefore, there is a great need to accurately fabricate and operate these devices in a reproducible manner in order to improve the overall performance. Here, we describe the protocols and the methods used for the fabrication and the operation of a microfluidic-based electrochemical biochip for accurate analysis of DNA hybridization events. The biochip is composed of two parts: a microfluidic chip with three parallel micro-channels made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and a 3 x 3 arrayed electrochemical micro-chip. The DNA hybridization events are detected using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. The EIS analysis enables monitoring variations of the properties of the electrochemical system that are dominant at these length scales. With the ability to monitor changes of both charge transfer and diffusional resistance with the biosensor, we demonstrate the selectivity to complementary ssDNA targets, a calculated detection limit of 3.8 nM, and a 13% cross-reactivity with other non-complementary ssDNA following 20 min of incubation. This methodology can improve the performance of miniaturized devices by elucidating on the behavior of diffusion at the micro-scale regime and by enabling the study of DNA hybridization events.
26 Related JoVE Articles!
Bacterial Detection & Identification Using Electrochemical Sensors
Institutions: Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, University of California, Los Angeles , GeneFluidics, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, University of California, Los Angeles .
Electrochemical sensors are widely used for rapid and accurate measurement of blood glucose and can be adapted for detection of a wide variety of analytes. Electrochemical sensors operate by transducing a biological recognition event into a useful electrical signal. Signal transduction occurs by coupling the activity of a redox enzyme to an amperometric electrode. Sensor specificity is either an inherent characteristic of the enzyme, glucose oxidase in the case of a glucose sensor, or a product of linkage between the enzyme and an antibody or probe.
Here, we describe an electrochemical sensor assay method to directly detect and identify bacteria. In every case, the probes described here are DNA oligonucleotides. This method is based on sandwich hybridization of capture and detector probes with target ribosomal RNA (rRNA). The capture probe is anchored to the sensor surface, while the detector probe is linked to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). When a substrate such as 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is added to an electrode with capture-target-detector complexes bound to its surface, the substrate is oxidized by HRP and reduced by the working electrode. This redox cycle results in shuttling of electrons by the substrate from the electrode to HRP, producing current flow in the electrode.
Bioengineering, Issue 74, Microbiology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Immunology, Bacteria, Electrochemical sensor, ribosomal RNA, rRNA, 16S RNA, DNA, probe, assay
Terahertz Microfluidic Sensing Using a Parallel-plate Waveguide Sensor
Institutions: Rice University .
Refractive index (RI) sensing is a powerful noninvasive and label-free sensing technique for the identification, detection and monitoring of microfluidic samples with a wide range of possible sensor designs such as interferometers and resonators 1,2
. Most of the existing RI sensing applications focus on biological materials in aqueous solutions in visible and IR frequencies, such as DNA hybridization and genome sequencing. At terahertz frequencies, applications include quality control, monitoring of industrial processes and sensing and detection applications involving nonpolar materials.
Several potential designs for refractive index sensors in the terahertz regime exist, including photonic crystal waveguides 3
, asymmetric split-ring resonators 4
, and photonic band gap structures integrated into parallel-plate waveguides 5
. Many of these designs are based on optical resonators such as rings or cavities. The resonant frequencies of these structures are dependent on the refractive index of the material in or around the resonator. By monitoring the shifts in resonant frequency the refractive index of a sample can be accurately measured and this in turn can be used to identify a material, monitor contamination or dilution, etc.
The sensor design we use here is based on a simple parallel-plate waveguide 6,7
. A rectangular groove machined into one face acts as a resonant cavity (Figures 1 and 2
). When terahertz radiation is coupled into the waveguide and propagates in the lowest-order transverse-electric (TE1
) mode, the result is a single strong resonant feature with a tunable resonant frequency that is dependent on the geometry of the groove 6,8
. This groove can be filled with nonpolar liquid microfluidic samples which cause a shift in the observed resonant frequency that depends on the amount of liquid in the groove and its refractive index 9
Our technique has an advantage over other terahertz techniques in its simplicity, both in fabrication and implementation, since the procedure can be accomplished with standard laboratory equipment without the need for a clean room or any special fabrication or experimental techniques. It can also be easily expanded to multichannel operation by the incorporation of multiple grooves 10
. In this video we will describe our complete experimental procedure, from the design of the sensor to the data analysis and determination of the sample refractive index.
Physics, Issue 66, Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Terahertz radiation, sensing, microfluidic, refractive index sensor, waveguide, optical sensing
Multi-analyte Biochip (MAB) Based on All-solid-state Ion-selective Electrodes (ASSISE) for Physiological Research
Institutions: Purdue University, NASA Ames Research Center, Pennsylvania State University Hazleton, Cooley LLP, NASA Headquarters.
Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications in environmental, biomedical, agricultural, biological, and spaceflight research require an ion-selective electrode (ISE) that can withstand prolonged storage in complex biological media 1-4
. An all-solid-state ion-selective-electrode (ASSISE) is especially attractive for the aforementioned applications. The electrode should have the following favorable characteristics: easy construction, low maintenance, and (potential for) miniaturization, allowing for batch processing. A microfabricated ASSISE intended for quantifying H+
, and CO32-
ions was constructed. It consists of a noble-metal electrode layer (i.e.
Pt), a transduction layer, and an ion-selective membrane (ISM) layer. The transduction layer functions to transduce the concentration-dependent chemical potential of the ion-selective membrane into a measurable electrical signal.
The lifetime of an ASSISE is found to depend on maintaining the potential at the conductive layer/membrane interface 5-7
. To extend the ASSISE working lifetime and thereby maintain stable potentials at the interfacial layers, we utilized the conductive polymer (CP) poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) 7-9
in place of silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) as the transducer layer. We constructed the ASSISE in a lab-on-a-chip format, which we called the multi-analyte biochip (MAB) (Figure 1
Calibrations in test solutions demonstrated that the MAB can monitor pH (operational range pH 4-9), CO32-
(measured range 0.01 mM - 1 mM), and Ca2+
(log-linear range 0.01 mM to 1 mM). The MAB for pH provides a near-Nernstian slope response after almost one month storage in algal medium. The carbonate biochips show a potentiometric profile similar to that of a conventional ion-selective electrode. Physiological measurements were employed to monitor biological activity of the model system, the microalga Chlorella vulgaris
The MAB conveys an advantage in size, versatility, and multiplexed analyte sensing capability, making it applicable to many confined monitoring situations, on Earth or in space.
Biochip Design and Experimental Methods
The biochip is 10 x 11 mm in dimension and has 9 ASSISEs designated as working electrodes (WEs) and 5 Ag/AgCl reference electrodes (REs). Each working electrode (WE) is 240 μm in diameter and is equally spaced at 1.4 mm from the REs, which are 480 μm in diameter. These electrodes are connected to electrical contact pads with a dimension of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm. The schematic is shown in Figure 2
Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic deposition methods are used to electropolymerize the PEDOT films using a Bioanalytical Systems Inc. (BASI) C3 cell stand (Figure 3
). The counter-ion for the PEDOT film is tailored to suit the analyte ion of interest. A PEDOT with poly(styrenesulfonate) counter ion (PEDOT/PSS) is utilized for H+
, while one with sulphate (added to the solution as CaSO4
) is utilized for Ca2+
. The electrochemical properties of the PEDOT-coated WE is analyzed using CVs in redox-active solution (i.e.
2 mM potassium ferricyanide (K3
)). Based on the CV profile, Randles-Sevcik analysis was used to determine the effective surface area 10
. Spin-coating at 1,500 rpm is used to cast ~2 μm thick ion-selective membranes (ISMs) on the MAB working electrodes (WEs).
The MAB is contained in a microfluidic flow-cell chamber filled with a 150 μl volume of algal medium; the contact pads are electrically connected to the BASI system (Figure 4
). The photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris
is monitored in ambient light and dark conditions.
Bioengineering, Issue 74, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, Miniaturization, Microtechnology, Electrochemical Techniques, electrochemical processes, astrobiology, Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment, Investigative Techniques, Technology, Industry, Agriculture, electrochemical sensor, all-solid-state ion-selective electrode (ASSISE), conductive polymer transducer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), lab-on-a-chip, Chlorella vulgaris, photosynthesis, microfluidics
MRI Mapping of Cerebrovascular Reactivity via Gas Inhalation Challenges
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, New York University School of Medicine.
The brain is a spatially heterogeneous and temporally dynamic organ, with different regions requiring different amount of blood supply at different time. Therefore, the ability of the blood vessels to dilate or constrict, known as Cerebral-Vascular-Reactivity (CVR), represents an important domain of vascular function. An imaging marker representing this dynamic property will provide new information of cerebral vessels under normal and diseased conditions such as stroke, dementia, atherosclerosis, small vessel diseases, brain tumor, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. In order to perform this type of measurement in humans, it is necessary to deliver a vasoactive stimulus such as CO2
gas mixture while quantitative brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) are being collected. In this work, we presented a MR compatible gas-delivery system and the associated protocol that allow the delivery of special gas mixtures (e.g.,
, and their combinations) while the subject is lying inside the MRI scanner. This system is relatively simple, economical, and easy to use, and the experimental protocol allows accurate mapping of CVR in both healthy volunteers and patients with neurological disorders. This approach has the potential to be used in broad clinical applications and in better understanding of brain vascular pathophysiology. In the video, we demonstrate how to set up the system inside an MRI suite and how to perform a complete experiment on a human participant.
Medicine, Issue 94, Cerebrovascular reactivity, cerebrovascular diseases, MRI-compatible gas delivery systems, hypercapnia, hyperoxia, CO2, O2.
A Manual Small Molecule Screen Approaching High-throughput Using Zebrafish Embryos
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
Zebrafish have become a widely used model organism to investigate the mechanisms that underlie developmental biology and to study human disease pathology due to their considerable degree of genetic conservation with humans. Chemical genetics entails testing the effect that small molecules have on a biological process and is becoming a popular translational research method to identify therapeutic compounds. Zebrafish are specifically appealing to use for chemical genetics because of their ability to produce large clutches of transparent embryos, which are externally fertilized. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos can be easily drug treated by the simple addition of a compound to the embryo media. Using whole-mount in situ
hybridization (WISH), mRNA expression can be clearly visualized within zebrafish embryos. Together, using chemical genetics and WISH, the zebrafish becomes a potent whole organism context in which to determine the cellular and physiological effects of small molecules. Innovative advances have been made in technologies that utilize machine-based screening procedures, however for many labs such options are not accessible or remain cost-prohibitive. The protocol described here explains how to execute a manual high-throughput chemical genetic screen that requires basic resources and can be accomplished by a single individual or small team in an efficient period of time. Thus, this protocol provides a feasible strategy that can be implemented by research groups to perform chemical genetics in zebrafish, which can be useful for gaining fundamental insights into developmental processes, disease mechanisms, and to identify novel compounds and signaling pathways that have medically relevant applications.
Developmental Biology, Issue 93, zebrafish, chemical genetics, chemical screen, in vivo small molecule screen, drug discovery, whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), high-throughput screening (HTS), high-content screening (HCS)
Formation of Biomembrane Microarrays with a Squeegee-based Assembly Method
Institutions: University of Minnesota, University of Minnesota, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine.
Lipid bilayer membranes form the plasma membranes of cells and define the boundaries of subcellular organelles. In nature, these membranes are heterogeneous mixtures of many types of lipids, contain membrane-bound proteins and are decorated with carbohydrates. In some experiments, it is desirable to decouple the biophysical or biochemical properties of the lipid bilayer from those of the natural membrane. Such cases call for the use of model systems such as giant vesicles, liposomes or supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). Arrays of SLBs are particularly attractive for sensing applications and mimicking cell-cell interactions. Here we describe a new method for forming SLB arrays. Submicron-diameter SiO2
beads are first coated with lipid bilayers to form spherical SLBs (SSLBs). The beads are then deposited into an array of micro-fabricated submicron-diameter microwells. The preparation technique uses a "squeegee" to clean the substrate surface, while leaving behind SSLBs that have settled into microwells. This method requires no chemical modification of the microwell substrate, nor any particular targeting ligands on the SSLB. Microwells are occupied by single beads because the well diameter is tuned to be just larger than the bead diameter. Typically, more 75% of the wells are occupied, while the rest remain empty. In buffer SSLB arrays display long-term stability of greater than one week. Multiple types of SSLBs can be placed in a single array by serial deposition, and the arrays can be used for sensing, which we demonstrate by characterizing the interaction of cholera toxin with ganglioside GM1. We also show that phospholipid vesicles without the bead supports and biomembranes from cellular sources can be arrayed with the same method and cell-specific membrane lipids can be identified.
Bioengineering, Issue 87, supported lipid bilayer, beads, microarray, fluorescence, microfabrication, nanofabrication, atomic layer deposition, myelin, lipid rafts
ScanLag: High-throughput Quantification of Colony Growth and Lag Time
Institutions: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Growth dynamics are fundamental characteristics of microorganisms. Quantifying growth precisely is an important goal in microbiology. Growth dynamics are affected both by the doubling time of the microorganism and by any delay in growth upon transfer from one condition to another, the lag. The ScanLag method enables the characterization of these two independent properties at the level of colonies originating each from a single cell, generating a two-dimensional distribution of the lag time and of the growth time. In ScanLag, measurement of the time it takes for colonies on conventional nutrient agar plates to be detected is automated on an array of commercial scanners controlled by an in house application. Petri dishes are placed on the scanners, and the application acquires images periodically. Automated analysis of colony growth is then done by an application that returns the appearance time and growth rate of each colony. Other parameters, such as the shape, texture and color of the colony, can be extracted for multidimensional mapping of sub-populations of cells. Finally, the method enables the retrieval of rare variants with specific growth phenotypes for further characterization. The technique could be applied in bacteriology for the identification of long lag that can cause persistence to antibiotics, as well as a general low cost technique for phenotypic screens.
Immunology, Issue 89, lag, growth rate, growth delay, single cell, scanners, image analysis, persistence, resistance, rare mutants, phenotypic screens, phenomics
RNA Secondary Structure Prediction Using High-throughput SHAPE
Institutions: Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research.
Understanding the function of RNA involved in biological processes requires a thorough knowledge of RNA structure. Toward this end, the methodology dubbed "high-throughput selective 2' hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension", or SHAPE, allows prediction of RNA secondary structure with single nucleotide resolution. This approach utilizes chemical probing agents that preferentially acylate single stranded or flexible regions of RNA in aqueous solution. Sites of chemical modification are detected by reverse transcription of the modified RNA, and the products of this reaction are fractionated by automated capillary electrophoresis (CE). Since reverse transcriptase pauses at those RNA nucleotides modified by the SHAPE reagents, the resulting cDNA library indirectly maps those ribonucleotides that are single stranded in the context of the folded RNA. Using ShapeFinder software, the electropherograms produced by automated CE are processed and converted into nucleotide reactivity tables that are themselves converted into pseudo-energy constraints used in the RNAStructure (v5.3) prediction algorithm. The two-dimensional RNA structures obtained by combining SHAPE probing with in silico
RNA secondary structure prediction have been found to be far more accurate than structures obtained using either method alone.
Genetics, Issue 75, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Virology, Cancer Biology, Medicine, Genomics, Nucleic Acid Probes, RNA Probes, RNA, High-throughput SHAPE, Capillary electrophoresis, RNA structure, RNA probing, RNA folding, secondary structure, DNA, nucleic acids, electropherogram, synthesis, transcription, high throughput, sequencing
Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube High-Frequency Nanoelectronic Biosensor for Sensing in High Ionic Strength Solutions
Institutions: University of Michigan - Ann Arbor.
The unique electronic properties and high surface-to-volume ratios of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and semiconductor nanowires (NW) 1-4
make them good candidates for high sensitivity biosensors. When a charged molecule binds to such a sensor surface, it alters the carrier density5
in the sensor, resulting in changes in its DC conductance. However, in an ionic solution a charged surface also attracts counter-ions from the solution, forming an electrical double layer (EDL). This EDL effectively screens off the charge, and in physiologically relevant conditions ~100 millimolar (mM), the characteristic charge screening length (Debye length) is less than a nanometer (nm). Thus, in high ionic strength solutions, charge based (DC) detection is fundamentally impeded6-8
We overcome charge screening effects by detecting molecular dipoles rather than charges at high frequency, by operating carbon nanotube field effect transistors as high frequency mixers9-11
. At high frequencies, the AC drive force can no longer overcome the solution drag and the ions in solution do not have sufficient time to form the EDL. Further, frequency mixing technique allows us to operate at frequencies high enough to overcome ionic screening, and yet detect the sensing signals at lower frequencies11-12
. Also, the high transconductance of SWNT transistors provides an internal gain for the sensing signal, which obviates the need for external signal amplifier.
Here, we describe the protocol to (a) fabricate SWNT transistors, (b) functionalize biomolecules to the nanotube13
, (c) design and stamp a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-fluidic chamber14
onto the device, and (d) carry out high frequency sensing in different ionic strength solutions11
Bioengineering, Issue 77, Chemical Engineering, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Electrical Engineering, Nanotechnology, Biosensing Techniques, carbon nanotubes (synthesis and properties), bioelectronic instruments (theory and techniques), Carbon nanotube, biosensor, frequency mixing, biotin, streptavidin, poly-dimethylsiloxane
A Toolkit to Enable Hydrocarbon Conversion in Aqueous Environments
Institutions: Delft University of Technology, Delft University of Technology.
This work puts forward a toolkit that enables the conversion of alkanes by Escherichia coli
and presents a proof of principle of its applicability. The toolkit consists of multiple standard interchangeable parts (BioBricks)9
addressing the conversion of alkanes, regulation of gene expression and survival in toxic hydrocarbon-rich environments.
A three-step pathway for alkane degradation was implemented in E. coli
to enable the conversion of medium- and long-chain alkanes to their respective alkanols, alkanals and ultimately alkanoic-acids. The latter were metabolized via the native β-oxidation pathway. To facilitate the oxidation of medium-chain alkanes (C5-C13) and cycloalkanes (C5-C8), four genes (alkB2
) of the alkane hydroxylase system from Gordonia
were transformed into E. coli
. For the conversion of long-chain alkanes (C15-C36), theladA
gene from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans
was implemented. For the required further steps of the degradation process, ADH
and ALDH (
originating from G. thermodenitrificans
) were introduced10,11
. The activity was measured by resting cell assays. For each oxidative step, enzyme activity was observed.
To optimize the process efficiency, the expression was only induced under low glucose conditions: a substrate-regulated promoter, pCaiF, was used. pCaiF is present in E. coli
K12 and regulates the expression of the genes involved in the degradation of non-glucose carbon sources.
The last part of the toolkit - targeting survival - was implemented using solvent tolerance genes, PhPFDα and β, both from Pyrococcus horikoshii
OT3. Organic solvents can induce cell stress and decreased survivability by negatively affecting protein folding. As chaperones, PhPFDα and β improve the protein folding process e.g.
under the presence of alkanes. The expression of these genes led to an improved hydrocarbon tolerance shown by an increased growth rate (up to 50%) in the presences of 10% n
-hexane in the culture medium were observed.
Summarizing, the results indicate that the toolkit enables E. coli
to convert and tolerate hydrocarbons in aqueous environments. As such, it represents an initial step towards a sustainable solution for oil-remediation using a synthetic biology approach.
Bioengineering, Issue 68, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Oil remediation, alkane metabolism, alkane hydroxylase system, resting cell assay, prefoldin, Escherichia coli, synthetic biology, homologous interaction mapping, mathematical model, BioBrick, iGEM
Mapping Bacterial Functional Networks and Pathways in Escherichia Coli using Synthetic Genetic Arrays
Institutions: University of Toronto, University of Toronto, University of Regina.
Phenotypes are determined by a complex series of physical (e.g.
protein-protein) and functional (e.g.
gene-gene or genetic) interactions (GI)1
. While physical interactions can indicate which bacterial proteins are associated as complexes, they do not necessarily reveal pathway-level functional relationships1. GI screens, in which the growth of double mutants bearing two deleted or inactivated genes is measured and compared to the corresponding single mutants, can illuminate epistatic dependencies between loci and hence provide a means to query and discover novel functional relationships2
. Large-scale GI maps have been reported for eukaryotic organisms like yeast3-7
, but GI information remains sparse for prokaryotes8
, which hinders the functional annotation of bacterial genomes. To this end, we and others have developed high-throughput quantitative bacterial GI screening methods9, 10
Here, we present the key steps required to perform quantitative E. coli
Synthetic Genetic Array (eSGA) screening procedure on a genome-scale9
, using natural bacterial conjugation and homologous recombination to systemically generate and measure the fitness of large numbers of double mutants in a colony array format.
Briefly, a robot is used to transfer, through conjugation, chloramphenicol (Cm) - marked mutant alleles from engineered Hfr (High frequency of recombination) 'donor strains' into an ordered array of kanamycin (Kan) - marked F- recipient strains. Typically, we use loss-of-function single mutants bearing non-essential gene deletions (e.g.
the 'Keio' collection11
) and essential gene hypomorphic mutations (i.e.
alleles conferring reduced protein expression, stability, or activity9, 12, 13
) to query the functional associations of non-essential and essential genes, respectively. After conjugation and ensuing genetic exchange mediated by homologous recombination, the resulting double mutants are selected on solid medium containing both antibiotics. After outgrowth, the plates are digitally imaged and colony sizes are quantitatively scored using an in-house automated image processing system14
. GIs are revealed when the growth rate of a double mutant is either significantly better or worse than expected9
. Aggravating (or negative) GIs often result between loss-of-function mutations in pairs of genes from compensatory pathways that impinge on the same essential process2
. Here, the loss of a single gene is buffered, such that either single mutant is viable. However, the loss of both pathways is deleterious and results in synthetic lethality or sickness (i.e.
slow growth). Conversely, alleviating (or positive) interactions can occur between genes in the same pathway or protein complex2
as the deletion of either gene alone is often sufficient to perturb the normal function of the pathway or complex such that additional perturbations do not reduce activity, and hence growth, further. Overall, systematically identifying and analyzing GI networks can provide unbiased, global maps of the functional relationships between large numbers of genes, from which pathway-level information missed by other approaches can be inferred9
Genetics, Issue 69, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Aggravating, alleviating, conjugation, double mutant, Escherichia coli, genetic interaction, Gram-negative bacteria, homologous recombination, network, synthetic lethality or sickness, suppression
Determining Cell Number During Cell Culture using the Scepter Cell Counter
Institutions: Millipore Inc.
Counting cells is often a necessary but tedious step for in vitro
cell culture. Consistent cell concentrations ensure experimental reproducibility and accuracy. Cell counts are important for monitoring cell health and proliferation rate, assessing immortalization or transformation, seeding cells for subsequent experiments, transfection or infection, and preparing for cell-based assays. It is important that cell counts be accurate, consistent, and fast, particularly for quantitative measurements of cellular responses.
Despite this need for speed and accuracy in cell counting, 71% of 400 researchers surveyed1
who count cells using a hemocytometer. While hemocytometry is inexpensive, it is laborious and subject to user bias and misuse, which results in inaccurate counts. Hemocytometers are made of special optical glass on which cell suspensions are loaded in specified volumes and counted under a microscope. Sources of errors in hemocytometry include: uneven cell distribution in the sample, too many or too few cells in the sample, subjective decisions as to whether a given cell falls within the defined counting area, contamination of the hemocytometer, user-to-user variation, and variation of hemocytometer filling rate2
To alleviate the tedium associated with manual counting, 29% of researchers count cells using automated cell counting devices; these include vision-based counters, systems that detect cells using the Coulter principle, or flow cytometry1
. For most researchers, the main barrier to using an automated system is the price associated with these large benchtop instruments1
The Scepter cell counter is an automated handheld device that offers the automation and accuracy of Coulter counting at a relatively low cost. The system employs the Coulter principle of impedance-based particle detection3
in a miniaturized format using a combination of analog and digital hardware for sensing, signal processing, data storage, and graphical display. The disposable tip is engineered with a microfabricated, cell- sensing zone that enables discrimination by cell size and cell volume at sub-micron and sub-picoliter resolution. Enhanced with precision liquid-handling channels and electronics, the Scepter cell counter reports cell population statistics graphically displayed as a histogram.
Cellular Biology, Issue 45, Scepter, cell counting, cell culture, hemocytometer, Coulter, Impedance-based particle detection
Qualitative Identification of Carboxylic Acids, Boronic Acids, and Amines Using Cruciform Fluorophores
Institutions: Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, University of Houston.
Molecular cruciforms are X-shaped systems in which two conjugation axes intersect at a central core. If one axis of these molecules is substituted with electron-donors, and the other with electron-acceptors, cruciforms' HOMO will localize along the electron-rich and LUMO along the electron-poor axis. This spatial isolation of cruciforms' frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) is essential to their use as sensors, since analyte binding to the cruciform invariably changes its HOMO-LUMO gap and the associated optical properties. Using this principle, Bunz and Miljanić groups developed 1,4-distyryl-2,5-bis(arylethynyl)benzene and benzobisoxazole cruciforms, respectively, which act as fluorescent sensors for metal ions, carboxylic acids, boronic acids, phenols, amines, and anions. The emission colors observed when these cruciform are mixed with analytes are highly sensitive to the details of analyte's structure and - because of cruciforms' charge-separated excited states - to the solvent in which emission is observed. Structurally closely related species can be qualitatively distinguished within several analyte classes: (a
) carboxylic acids; (b
) boronic acids, and (c
) metals. Using a hybrid sensing system composed from benzobisoxazole cruciforms and boronic acid additives, we were also able to discern among structurally similar: (d
) small organic and inorganic anions, (e
) amines, and (f
) phenols. The method used for this qualitative distinction is exceedingly simple. Dilute solutions (typically 10-6
M) of cruciforms in several off-the-shelf solvents are placed in UV/Vis vials. Then, analytes of interest are added, either directly as solids or in concentrated solution. Fluorescence changes occur virtually instantaneously and can be recorded through standard digital photography using a semi-professional digital camera in a dark room. With minimal graphic manipulation, representative cut-outs of emission color photographs can be arranged into panels which permit quick naked-eye distinction among analytes. For quantification purposes, Red/Green/Blue values can be extracted from these photographs and the obtained numeric data can be statistically processed.
Chemistry, Issue 78, Chemical Engineering, Organic Chemistry, Amines, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, spectrophotometry (application), spectroscopic chemical analysis (application), Heterocyclic Compounds, fluorescence, cruciform, benzobisoxazole, alkyne, pharmaceuticals, quality control, imaging
Hollow Microneedle-based Sensor for Multiplexed Transdermal Electrochemical Sensing
Institutions: University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Sandia National Laboratories.
The development of a minimally invasive multiplexed monitoring system for rapid analysis of biologically-relevant molecules could offer individuals suffering from chronic medical conditions facile assessment of their immediate physiological state. Furthermore, it could serve as a research tool for analysis of complex, multifactorial medical conditions. In order for such a multianalyte sensor to be realized, it must be minimally invasive, sampling of interstitial fluid must occur without pain or harm to the user, and analysis must be rapid as well as selective.
Initially developed for pain-free drug delivery, microneedles have been used to deliver vaccines and pharmacologic agents (e.g., insulin) through the skin.1-2
Since these devices access the interstitial space, microneedles that are integrated with microelectrodes can be used as transdermal electrochemical sensors. Selective detection of glucose, glutamate, lactate, hydrogen peroxide, and ascorbic acid has been demonstrated using integrated microneedle-electrode devices with carbon fibers, modified carbon pastes, and platinum-coated polymer microneedles serving as transducing elements.3-7,8
This microneedle sensor technology has enabled a novel and sophisticated analytical approach for in situ and simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. Multiplexing offers the possibility of monitoring complex microenvironments, which are otherwise difficult to characterize in a rapid and minimally invasive manner. For example, this technology could be utilized for simultaneous monitoring of extracellular levels of, glucose, lactate and pH,9
which are important metabolic indicators of disease states7,10-14
(e.g., cancer proliferation) and exercise-induced acidosis.15
Bioengineering, Issue 64, Biomedical Engineering, Microneedle, Microneedle sensors, multiplexed detection, electrochemistry, stereolithography
Nanomechanics of Drug-target Interactions and Antibacterial Resistance Detection
Institutions: University College London.
The cantilever sensor, which acts as a transducer of reactions between model bacterial cell wall matrix immobilized on its surface and antibiotic drugs in solution, has shown considerable potential in biochemical sensing applications with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity1-5
. The drug-target interactions generate surface stress, causing the cantilever to bend, and the signal can be analyzed optically when it is illuminated by a laser. The change in surface stress measured with nano-scale precision allows disruptions of the biomechanics of model bacterial cell wall targets to be tracked in real time. Despite offering considerable advantages, multiple cantilever sensor arrays have never been applied in quantifying drug-target binding interactions.
Here, we report on the use of silicon multiple cantilever arrays coated with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers mimicking bacterial cell wall matrix to quantitatively study antibiotic binding interactions. To understand the impact of vancomycin on the mechanics of bacterial cell wall structures1,6,7
. We developed a new model1
which proposes that cantilever bending can be described by two independent factors; i) namely a chemical factor, which is given by a classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm, from which we calculate the thermodynamic equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd
) and ii) a geometrical factor, essentially a measure of how bacterial peptide receptors are distributed on the cantilever surface. The surface distribution of peptide receptors (p
) is used to investigate the dependence of geometry and ligand loading. It is shown that a threshold value of p ~
10% is critical to sensing applications. Below which there is no detectable bending signal while above this value, the bending signal increases almost linearly, revealing that stress is a product of a local chemical binding factor and a geometrical factor combined by the mechanical connectivity of reacted regions and provides a new paradigm for design of powerful agents to combat superbug infections.
Immunology, Issue 80, Engineering, Technology, Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Early Diagnosis, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Lipids, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, Chemical Actions and Uses, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, Surface stress, vancomycin, mucopeptides, cantilever sensor
Cortical Source Analysis of High-Density EEG Recordings in Children
Institutions: UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London.
EEG is traditionally described as a neuroimaging technique with high temporal and low spatial resolution. Recent advances in biophysical modelling and signal processing make it possible to exploit information from other imaging modalities like structural MRI that provide high spatial resolution to overcome this constraint1
. This is especially useful for investigations that require high resolution in the temporal as well as spatial domain. In addition, due to the easy application and low cost of EEG recordings, EEG is often the method of choice when working with populations, such as young children, that do not tolerate functional MRI scans well. However, in order to investigate which neural substrates are involved, anatomical information from structural MRI is still needed. Most EEG analysis packages work with standard head models that are based on adult anatomy. The accuracy of these models when used for children is limited2
, because the composition and spatial configuration of head tissues changes dramatically over development3
In the present paper, we provide an overview of our recent work in utilizing head models based on individual structural MRI scans or age specific head models to reconstruct the cortical generators of high density EEG. This article describes how EEG recordings are acquired, processed, and analyzed with pediatric populations at the London Baby Lab, including laboratory setup, task design, EEG preprocessing, MRI processing, and EEG channel level and source analysis.
Behavior, Issue 88, EEG, electroencephalogram, development, source analysis, pediatric, minimum-norm estimation, cognitive neuroscience, event-related potentials
A Method for Selecting Structure-switching Aptamers Applied to a Colorimetric Gold Nanoparticle Assay
Institutions: Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, The Henry M. Jackson Foundation, UES, Inc..
Small molecules provide rich targets for biosensing applications due to their physiological implications as biomarkers of various aspects of human health and performance. Nucleic acid aptamers have been increasingly applied as recognition elements on biosensor platforms, but selecting aptamers toward small molecule targets requires special design considerations. This work describes modification and critical steps of a method designed to select structure-switching aptamers to small molecule targets. Binding sequences from a DNA library hybridized to complementary DNA capture probes on magnetic beads are separated from nonbinders via a target-induced change in conformation. This method is advantageous because sequences binding the support matrix (beads) will not be further amplified, and it does not require immobilization of the target molecule. However, the melting temperature of the capture probe and library is kept at or slightly above RT, such that sequences that dehybridize based on thermodynamics will also be present in the supernatant solution. This effectively limits the partitioning efficiency (ability to separate target binding sequences from nonbinders), and therefore many selection rounds will be required to remove background sequences. The reported method differs from previous structure-switching aptamer selections due to implementation of negative selection steps, simplified enrichment monitoring, and extension of the length of the capture probe following selection enrichment to provide enhanced stringency. The selected structure-switching aptamers are advantageous in a gold nanoparticle assay platform that reports the presence of a target molecule by the conformational change of the aptamer. The gold nanoparticle assay was applied because it provides a simple, rapid colorimetric readout that is beneficial in a clinical or deployed environment. Design and optimization considerations are presented for the assay as proof-of-principle work in buffer to provide a foundation for further extension of the work toward small molecule biosensing in physiological fluids.
Molecular Biology, Issue 96, Aptamer, structure-switching, SELEX, small molecule, cortisol, next generation sequencing, gold nanoparticle, assay
Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish Embryos
Institutions: University of Torino, Vesalius Research Center, VIB.
High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause a change of cellular redox state towards oxidative stress condition. This situation causes oxidation of molecules (lipid, DNA, protein) and leads to cell death. Oxidative stress also impacts the progression of several pathological conditions such as diabetes, retinopathies, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Thus, it is important to define tools to investigate oxidative stress conditions not only at the level of single cells but also in the context of whole organisms. Here, we consider the zebrafish embryo as a useful in vivo
system to perform such studies and present a protocol to measure in vivo
oxidative stress. Taking advantage of fluorescent ROS probes and zebrafish transgenic fluorescent lines, we develop two different methods to measure oxidative stress in vivo
: i) a “whole embryo ROS-detection method” for qualitative measurement of oxidative stress and ii) a “single-cell ROS detection method” for quantitative measurements of oxidative stress. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of these procedures by increasing oxidative stress in tissues by oxidant agents and physiological or genetic methods. This protocol is amenable for forward genetic screens and it will help address cause-effect relationships of ROS in animal models of oxidative stress-related pathologies such as neurological disorders and cancer.
Developmental Biology, Issue 89, Danio rerio, zebrafish embryos, endothelial cells, redox state analysis, oxidative stress detection, in vivo ROS measurements, FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorter), molecular probes
Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing for the Quantification of Endothelial Proliferation, Barrier Function, and Motility
Institutions: Institute for Cardiovascular Research, VU University Medical Center, Institute for Cardiovascular Research, VU University Medical Center.
Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) is an in vitro
impedance measuring system to quantify the behavior of cells within adherent cell layers. To this end, cells are grown in special culture chambers on top of opposing, circular gold electrodes. A constant small alternating current is applied between the electrodes and the potential across is measured. The insulating properties of the cell membrane create a resistance towards the electrical current flow resulting in an increased electrical potential between the electrodes. Measuring cellular impedance in this manner allows the automated study of cell attachment, growth, morphology, function, and motility. Although the ECIS measurement itself is straightforward and easy to learn, the underlying theory is complex and selection of the right settings and correct analysis and interpretation of the data is not self-evident. Yet, a clear protocol describing the individual steps from the experimental design to preparation, realization, and analysis of the experiment is not available. In this article the basic measurement principle as well as possible applications, experimental considerations, advantages and limitations of the ECIS system are discussed. A guide is provided for the study of cell attachment, spreading and proliferation; quantification of cell behavior in a confluent layer, with regard to barrier function, cell motility, quality of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesions; and quantification of wound healing and cellular responses to vasoactive stimuli. Representative results are discussed based on human microvascular (MVEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but are applicable to all adherent growing cells.
Bioengineering, Issue 85, ECIS, Impedance Spectroscopy, Resistance, TEER, Endothelial Barrier, Cell Adhesions, Focal Adhesions, Proliferation, Migration, Motility, Wound Healing
In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions
Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ
characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3
(bpy = bipyridine), onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ
time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ
IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.
Chemistry, Issue 88, soft landing, mass selected ions, electrospray, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, organometallic, catalysis
Characterization of Complex Systems Using the Design of Experiments Approach: Transient Protein Expression in Tobacco as a Case Study
Institutions: RWTH Aachen University, Fraunhofer Gesellschaft.
Plants provide multiple benefits for the production of biopharmaceuticals including low costs, scalability, and safety. Transient expression offers the additional advantage of short development and production times, but expression levels can vary significantly between batches thus giving rise to regulatory concerns in the context of good manufacturing practice. We used a design of experiments (DoE) approach to determine the impact of major factors such as regulatory elements in the expression construct, plant growth and development parameters, and the incubation conditions during expression, on the variability of expression between batches. We tested plants expressing a model anti-HIV monoclonal antibody (2G12) and a fluorescent marker protein (DsRed). We discuss the rationale for selecting certain properties of the model and identify its potential limitations. The general approach can easily be transferred to other problems because the principles of the model are broadly applicable: knowledge-based parameter selection, complexity reduction by splitting the initial problem into smaller modules, software-guided setup of optimal experiment combinations and step-wise design augmentation. Therefore, the methodology is not only useful for characterizing protein expression in plants but also for the investigation of other complex systems lacking a mechanistic description. The predictive equations describing the interconnectivity between parameters can be used to establish mechanistic models for other complex systems.
Bioengineering, Issue 83, design of experiments (DoE), transient protein expression, plant-derived biopharmaceuticals, promoter, 5'UTR, fluorescent reporter protein, model building, incubation conditions, monoclonal antibody
Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy
Institutions: University of Maine.
Localization-based super resolution microscopy can be applied to obtain a spatial map (image) of the distribution of individual fluorescently labeled single molecules within a sample with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. Using either photoactivatable (PAFP) or photoswitchable (PSFP) fluorescent proteins fused to proteins of interest, or organic dyes conjugated to antibodies or other molecules of interest, fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) can simultaneously image multiple species of molecules within single cells. By using the following approach, populations of large numbers (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of individual molecules are imaged in single cells and localized with a precision of ~10-30 nm. Data obtained can be applied to understanding the nanoscale spatial distributions of multiple protein types within a cell. One primary advantage of this technique is the dramatic increase in spatial resolution: while diffraction limits resolution to ~200-250 nm in conventional light microscopy, FPALM can image length scales more than an order of magnitude smaller. As many biological hypotheses concern the spatial relationships among different biomolecules, the improved resolution of FPALM can provide insight into questions of cellular organization which have previously been inaccessible to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In addition to detailing the methods for sample preparation and data acquisition, we here describe the optical setup for FPALM. One additional consideration for researchers wishing to do super-resolution microscopy is cost: in-house setups are significantly cheaper than most commercially available imaging machines. Limitations of this technique include the need for optimizing the labeling of molecules of interest within cell samples, and the need for post-processing software to visualize results. We here describe the use of PAFP and PSFP expression to image two protein species in fixed cells. Extension of the technique to living cells is also described.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Microscopy, Super-resolution imaging, Multicolor, single molecule, FPALM, Localization microscopy, fluorescent proteins
From Voxels to Knowledge: A Practical Guide to the Segmentation of Complex Electron Microscopy 3D-Data
Institutions: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Modern 3D electron microscopy approaches have recently allowed unprecedented insight into the 3D ultrastructural organization of cells and tissues, enabling the visualization of large macromolecular machines, such as adhesion complexes, as well as higher-order structures, such as the cytoskeleton and cellular organelles in their respective cell and tissue context. Given the inherent complexity of cellular volumes, it is essential to first extract the features of interest in order to allow visualization, quantification, and therefore comprehension of their 3D organization. Each data set is defined by distinct characteristics, e.g.
, signal-to-noise ratio, crispness (sharpness) of the data, heterogeneity of its features, crowdedness of features, presence or absence of characteristic shapes that allow for easy identification, and the percentage of the entire volume that a specific region of interest occupies. All these characteristics need to be considered when deciding on which approach to take for segmentation.
The six different 3D ultrastructural data sets presented were obtained by three different imaging approaches: resin embedded stained electron tomography, focused ion beam- and serial block face- scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM, SBF-SEM) of mildly stained and heavily stained samples, respectively. For these data sets, four different segmentation approaches have been applied: (1) fully manual model building followed solely by visualization of the model, (2) manual tracing segmentation of the data followed by surface rendering, (3) semi-automated approaches followed by surface rendering, or (4) automated custom-designed segmentation algorithms followed by surface rendering and quantitative analysis. Depending on the combination of data set characteristics, it was found that typically one of these four categorical approaches outperforms the others, but depending on the exact sequence of criteria, more than one approach may be successful. Based on these data, we propose a triage scheme that categorizes both objective data set characteristics and subjective personal criteria for the analysis of the different data sets.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, 3D electron microscopy, feature extraction, segmentation, image analysis, reconstruction, manual tracing, thresholding
Electronic Tongue Generating Continuous Recognition Patterns for Protein Analysis
Institutions: Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, CEA-Grenoble, Université Paris-Sud, Institut de Biologie Structurale.
In current protocol, a combinatorial approach has been developed to simplify the design and production of sensing materials for the construction of electronic tongues (eT) for protein analysis. By mixing a small number of simple and easily accessible molecules with different physicochemical properties, used as building blocks (BBs), in varying and controlled proportions and allowing the mixtures to self-assemble on the gold surface of a prism, an array of combinatorial surfaces featuring appropriate properties for protein sensing was created. In this way, a great number of cross-reactive receptors can be rapidly and efficiently obtained. By combining such an array of combinatorial cross-reactive receptors (CoCRRs) with an optical detection system such as surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi), the obtained eT can monitor the binding events in real-time and generate continuous recognition patterns including 2D continuous evolution profile (CEP) and 3D continuous evolution landscape (CEL) for samples in liquid. Such an eT system is efficient for discrimination of common purified proteins.
Bioengineering, Issue 91, electronic tongue, combinatorial cross-reactive receptor, surface plasmon resonance imaging, pattern recognition, continuous evolution profiles, continuous evolution landscapes, protein analysis
Fabrication of Electrochemical-DNA Biosensors for the Reagentless Detection of Nucleic Acids, Proteins and Small Molecules
Institutions: University Of California Santa Barbara, University Of California Santa Barbara.
As medicine is currently practiced, doctors send specimens to a central laboratory for testing and thus must wait hours or days to
receive the results. Many patients would be better served by rapid, bedside tests. To this end our laboratory and others have developed a versatile, reagentless
biosensor platform that supports the quantitative, reagentless, electrochemical detection of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), proteins (including antibodies) and small
molecules analytes directly in unprocessed clinical and environmental samples. In this video, we demonstrate the preparation and use of several biosensors in this
"E-DNA" class. In particular, we fabricate and demonstrate sensors for the detection of a target DNA sequence in a polymerase chain reaction mixture, an HIV-specific antibody and the drug cocaine. The preparation procedure requires only three hours of hands-on effort followed by an overnight incubation, and their use requires only minutes.
Bioengineering, Issue 52, biosensor, chemistry, detection, electrochemistry, point of care, theranostics, diagnostics, antibody, instrument, electronic
Methods to Assess Subcellular Compartments of Muscle in C. elegans
Institutions: University of Nottingham.
Muscle is a dynamic tissue that responds to changes in nutrition, exercise, and disease state. The loss of muscle mass and function with disease and age are significant public health burdens. We currently understand little about the genetic regulation of muscle health with disease or age. The nematode C. elegans
is an established model for understanding the genomic regulation of biological processes of interest. This worm’s body wall muscles display a large degree of homology with the muscles of higher metazoan species. Since C. elegans
is a transparent organism, the localization of GFP to mitochondria and sarcomeres allows visualization of these structures in vivo
. Similarly, feeding animals cationic dyes, which accumulate based on the existence of a mitochondrial membrane potential, allows the assessment of mitochondrial function in vivo
. These methods, as well as assessment of muscle protein homeostasis, are combined with assessment of whole animal muscle function, in the form of movement assays, to allow correlation of sub-cellular defects with functional measures of muscle performance. Thus, C. elegans
provides a powerful platform with which to assess the impact of mutations, gene knockdown, and/or chemical compounds upon muscle structure and function. Lastly, as GFP, cationic dyes, and movement assays are assessed non-invasively, prospective studies of muscle structure and function can be conducted across the whole life course and this at present cannot be easily investigated in vivo
in any other organism.
Developmental Biology, Issue 93, Physiology, C. elegans, muscle, mitochondria, sarcomeres, ageing