Electrospinning is a highly adaptable method producing porous 3D fibrous scaffolds that can be exploited in in vitro cell culture. Alterations to intrinsic parameters within the process allow a high degree of control over scaffold characteristics including fiber diameter, alignment and porosity. By developing scaffolds with similar dimensions and topographies to organ- or tissue-specific extracellular matrices (ECM), micro-environments representative to those that cells are exposed to in situ can be created.
The airway bronchiole wall, comprised of three main micro-environments, was selected as a model tissue. Using decellularized airway ECM as a guide, we electrospun the non-degradable polymer, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), by three different protocols to produce three individual electrospun scaffolds optimized for epithelial, fibroblast or smooth muscle cell-culture. Using a commercially available bioreactor system, we stably co-cultured the three cell-types to provide an in vitro model of the airway wall over an extended time period.
This model highlights the potential for such methods being employed in in vitro diagnostic studies investigating important inter-cellular cross-talk mechanisms or assessing novel pharmaceutical targets, by providing a relevant platform to allow the culture of fully differentiated adult cells within 3D, tissue-specific environments.
16 Related JoVE Articles!
Athymic Rat Model for Evaluation of Engineered Anterior Cruciate Ligament Grafts
Institutions: University of California Los Angeles, University of California Los Angeles.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common ligamentous injury that often requires surgery because the ACL does not heal well without intervention. Current treatment strategies include ligament reconstruction with either autograft or allograft, which each have their associated limitations. Thus, there is interest in designing a tissue-engineered graft for use in ACL reconstruction. We describe the fabrication of an electrospun polymer graft for use in ACL tissue engineering. This polycaprolactone graft is biocompatible, biodegradable, porous, and is comprised of aligned fibers. Because an animal model is necessary to evaluate such a graft, this paper describes an intra-articular athymic rat model of ACL reconstruction that can be used to evaluate engineered grafts, including those seeded with xenogeneic cells. Representative histology and biomechanical testing results at 16 weeks postoperatively are presented, with grafts tested immediately post-implantation and contralateral native ACLs serving as controls. The present study provides a reproducible animal model with which to evaluate tissue engineered ACL grafts, and demonstrates the potential of a regenerative medicine approach to treatment of ACL rupture.
Bioengineering, Issue 97, Anterior cruciate ligament, tissue engineering, animal model, biodegradable scaffold, rat, knee
Postproduction Processing of Electrospun Fibres for Tissue Engineering
Institutions: University of Sheffield , University of Sheffield , University of Sheffield .
Electrospinning is a commonly used and versatile method to produce scaffolds (often biodegradable) for 3D tissue engineering.1, 2, 3
Many tissues in vivo
undergo biaxial distension to varying extents such as skin, bladder, pelvic floor and even the hard palate as children grow. In producing scaffolds for these purposes there is a need to develop scaffolds of appropriate biomechanical properties (whether achieved without or with cells) and which are sterile for clinical use. The focus of this paper is not how to establish basic electrospinning parameters (as there is extensive literature on electrospinning) but on how to modify spun scaffolds post production to make them fit for tissue engineering purposes - here thickness, mechanical properties and sterilisation (required for clinical use) are considered and we also describe how cells can be cultured on scaffolds and subjected to biaxial strain to condition them for specific applications.
Electrospinning tends to produce thin sheets; as the electrospinning collector becomes coated with insulating fibres it becomes a poor conductor such that fibres no longer deposit on it. Hence we describe approaches to produce thicker structures by heat or vapour annealing increasing the strength of scaffolds but not necessarily the elasticity. Sequential spinning of scaffolds of different polymers to achieve complex scaffolds is also described. Sterilisation methodologies can adversely affect strength and elasticity of scaffolds. We compare three methods for their effects on the biomechanical properties on electrospun scaffolds of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA).
Imaging of cells on scaffolds and assessment of production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by cells on scaffolds is described. Culturing cells on scaffolds in vitro
can improve scaffold strength and elasticity but the tissue engineering literature shows that cells often fail to produce appropriate ECM when cultured under static conditions. There are few commercial systems available that allow one to culture cells on scaffolds under dynamic conditioning regimes - one example is the Bose Electroforce 3100 which can be used to exert a conditioning programme on cells in scaffolds held using mechanical grips within a media filled chamber.4
An approach to a budget cell culture bioreactor for controlled distortion in 2 dimensions is described. We show that cells can be induced to produce elastin under these conditions. Finally assessment of the biomechanical properties of processed scaffolds cultured with or without cells is described.
Bioengineering, Issue 66, Materials Science, Biomedical Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Medicine, Chemistry, Electrospinning, bilayer, biaxial distension, heat and vapour annealing, mechanical testing, fibres
Self-reporting Scaffolds for 3-Dimensional Cell Culture
Institutions: University of Nottingham, University of Nottingham, University of Nottingham.
Culturing cells in 3D on appropriate scaffolds is thought to better mimic the in vivo
microenvironment and increase cell-cell interactions. The resulting 3D cellular construct can often be more relevant to studying the molecular events and cell-cell interactions than similar experiments studied in 2D. To create effective 3D cultures with high cell viability throughout the scaffold the culture conditions such as oxygen and pH need to be carefully controlled as gradients in analyte concentration can exist throughout the 3D construct. Here we describe the methods of preparing biocompatible pH responsive sol-gel nanosensors and their incorporation into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun scaffolds along with their subsequent preparation for the culture of mammalian cells. The pH responsive scaffolds can be used as tools to determine microenvironmental pH within a 3D cellular construct. Furthermore, we detail the delivery of pH responsive nanosensors to the intracellular environment of mammalian cells whose growth was supported by electrospun PLGA scaffolds. The cytoplasmic location of the pH responsive nanosensors can be utilized to monitor intracellular pH (pHi) during ongoing experimentation.
Bioengineering, Issue 81, Biocompatible Materials, Nanosensors, scaffold, electrospinning, 3D cell culture, PLGA
Optimizing Attachment of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Poly(ε-caprolactone) Electrospun Yarns
Institutions: The University of Manchester.
Research into biomaterials and tissue engineering often includes cell-based in vitro
investigations, which require initial knowledge of the starting cell number. While researchers commonly reference their seeding density this does not necessarily indicate the actual number of cells that have adhered to the material in question. This is particularly the case for materials, or scaffolds, that do not cover the base of standard cell culture well plates. This study investigates the initial attachment of human mesenchymal stem cells seeded at a known number onto electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) yarn after 4 hr in culture. Electrospun yarns were held within several different set-ups, including bioreactor vessels rotating at 9 rpm, cell culture inserts positioned in low binding well plates and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) troughs placed within petri dishes. The latter two were subjected to either static conditions or positioned on a shaker plate (30 rpm). After 4 hr incubation at 37 o
C, 5% CO2
, the location of seeded cells was determined by cell DNA assay. Scaffolds were removed from their containers and placed in lysis buffer. The media fraction was similarly removed and centrifuged – the supernatant discarded and pellet broken up with lysis buffer. Lysis buffer was added to each receptacle, or well, and scraped to free any cells that may be present. The cell DNA assay determined the percentage of cells present within the scaffold, media and well fractions. Cell attachment was low for all experimental set-ups, with greatest attachment (30%) for yarns held within cell culture inserts and subjected to shaking motion. This study raises awareness to the actual number of cells attaching to scaffolds irrespective of the stated cell seeding density.
Bioengineering, Issue 98, Human mesenchymal stem cells, Electrospinning, Cell seeding, Cell attachment, Scaffold, Rotary vessel bioreactor, Cell number, Cell DNA assay, SEM, Low binding well plate, Poly(ε-caprolactone), Electrospun yarn
Production, Characterization and Potential Uses of a 3D Tissue-engineered Human Esophageal Mucosal Model
Institutions: University of Sheffield, University of Sheffield, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.
The incidence of both esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett’s Metaplasia, are rising rapidly in the western world. Furthermore esophageal adenocarcinoma generally has a poor prognosis, with little improvement in survival rates in recent years. These are difficult conditions to study and there has been a lack of suitable experimental platforms to investigate disorders of the esophageal mucosa.
A model of the human esophageal mucosa has been developed in the MacNeil laboratory which, unlike conventional 2D cell culture systems, recapitulates the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions present in vivo
and produces a mature, stratified epithelium similar to that of the normal human esophagus. Briefly, the model utilizes non-transformed normal primary human esophageal fibroblasts and epithelial cells grown within a porcine-derived acellular esophageal scaffold. Immunohistochemical characterization of this model by CK4, CK14, Ki67 and involucrin staining demonstrates appropriate recapitulation of the histology of the normal human esophageal mucosa.
This model provides a robust, biologically relevant experimental model of the human esophageal mucosa. It can easily be manipulated to investigate a number of research questions including the effectiveness of pharmacological agents and the impact of exposure to environmental factors such as alcohol, toxins, high temperature or gastro-esophageal refluxate components. The model also facilitates extended culture periods not achievable with conventional 2D cell culture, enabling, inter alia
, the study of the impact of repeated exposure of a mature epithelium to the agent of interest for up to 20 days. Furthermore, a variety of cell lines, such as those derived from esophageal tumors or Barrett’s Metaplasia, can be incorporated into the model to investigate processes such as tumor invasion and drug responsiveness in a more biologically relevant environment.
Bioengineering, Issue 99, esophagus, epithelium, tissue engineering, 3D construct, esophageal cancer, Barrett’s Metaplasia
Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds with Gradations in Fiber Organization
Institutions: University of Nebraska Medical Center, Marshall University.
The goal of this protocol is to report a simple method for generating nanofiber scaffolds with gradations in fiber organization and test their possible applications in controlling cell morphology/orientation. Nanofiber organization is controlled with a new fabrication apparatus that enables the gradual decrease of fiber organization in a scaffold. Changing the alignment of fibers is achieved through decreasing deposition time of random electrospun fibers on a uniaxially aligned fiber mat. By covering the collector with a moving barrier/mask, along the same axis as fiber deposition, the organizational structure is easily controlled. For tissue engineering purposes, adipose-derived stem cells can be seeded to these scaffolds. Stem cells undergo morphological changes as a result of their position on the varied organizational structure, and can potentially differentiate into different cell types depending on their locations. Additionally, the graded organization of fibers enhances the biomimicry of nanofiber scaffolds so they more closely resemble the natural orientations of collagen nanofibers at tendon-to-bone insertion site compared to traditional scaffolds. Through nanoencapsulation, the gradated fibers also afford the possibility to construct chemical gradients in fiber scaffolds, and thereby further strengthen their potential applications in fast screening of cell-materials interaction and interfacial tissue regeneration. This technique enables the production of continuous gradient scaffolds, but it also can potentially produce fibers in discrete steps by controlling the movement of the moving barrier/mask in a discrete fashion.
Bioengineering, Issue 98, Electrospinning, Nanofiber scaffolds, Gradations, Stem cells, Tissue engineering, Nanoencapsulation
Generation of a Three-dimensional Full Thickness Skin Equivalent and Automated Wounding
Institutions: University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg Branch of the Fraunhofer-Institute Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, IGB.
models are a cost effective and ethical alternative to study cutaneous wound healing processes. Moreover, by using human cells, these models reflect the human wound situation better than animal models. Although two-dimensional models are widely used to investigate processes such as cellular migration and proliferation, models that are more complex are required to gain a deeper knowledge about wound healing. Besides a suitable model system, the generation of precise and reproducible wounds is crucial to ensure comparable results between different test runs. In this study, the generation of a three-dimensional full thickness skin equivalent to study wound healing is shown. The dermal part of the models is comprised of human dermal fibroblast embedded in a rat-tail collagen type I hydrogel. Following the inoculation with human epidermal keratinocytes and consequent culture at the air-liquid interface, a multilayered epidermis is formed on top of the models. To study the wound healing process, we additionally developed an automated wounding device, which generates standardized wounds in a sterile atmosphere.
Bioengineering, Issue 96, Tissue engineering, 3D in vitro models, test system, alternative to animal testing, full thickness, skin equivalent, skin injury, wound model, automation, wounding device
Generation and Grafting of Tissue-engineered Vessels in a Mouse Model
Institutions: King's College London BHF Centre.
The construction of vascular conduits is a fundamental strategy for surgical repair of damaged and injured vessels resulting from cardiovascular diseases. The current protocol presents an efficient and reproducible strategy in which functional tissue engineered vessel grafts can be generated using partially induced pluripotent stem cell (PiPSC) from human fibroblasts. We designed a decellularized vessel scaffold bioreactor, which closely mimics the matrix protein structure and blood flow that exists within a native vessel, for seeding of PiPSC-endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells prior to grafting into mice. This approach was demonstrated to be advantageous because immune-deficient mice engrafted with the PiPSC-derived grafts presented with markedly increased survival rate 3 weeks after surgery. This protocol represents a valuable tool for regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and potentially patient-specific cell-therapy in the near future.
Bioengineering, Issue 97, stem cells, partially induced pluripotent stem cells, tissue engineering, bioreactor, vascular differentiation, vessel graft, mouse models
Combination of Microstereolithography and Electrospinning to Produce Membranes Equipped with Niches for Corneal Regeneration
Institutions: University of Sheffield, University of Sheffield, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute.
Corneal problems affect millions of people worldwide reducing their quality of life significantly. Corneal disease can be caused by illnesses such as Aniridia or Steven Johnson Syndrome as well as by external factors such as chemical burns or radiation. Current treatments are (i) the use of corneal grafts and (ii) the use of stem cell expanded in the laboratory and delivered on carriers (e.g.
, amniotic membrane); these treatments are relatively successful but unfortunately they can fail after 3-5 years. There is a need to design and manufacture new corneal biomaterial devices able to mimic in detail the physiological environment where stem cells reside in the cornea. Limbal stem cells are located in the limbus (circular area between cornea and sclera) in specific niches known as the Palisades of Vogt. In this work we have developed a new platform technology which combines two cutting-edge manufacturing techniques (microstereolithography and electrospinning) for the fabrication of corneal membranes that mimic to a certain extent the limbus. Our membranes contain artificial micropockets which aim to provide cells with protection as the Palisades of Vogt do in the eye.
Bioengineering, Issue 91, electrospinning, microstereolithography, stem cell niche, storage, limbal explants
Construction and Characterization of a Novel Vocal Fold Bioreactor
Institutions: University of Delaware, University of Delaware.
engineering of mechanically active tissues requires the presentation of physiologically relevant mechanical conditions to cultured cells. To emulate the dynamic environment of vocal folds, a novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of producing vibratory stimulations at fundamental phonation frequencies is constructed and characterized. The device is composed of a function generator, a power amplifier, a speaker selector and parallel vibration chambers. Individual vibration chambers are created by sandwiching a custom-made silicone membrane between a pair of acrylic blocks. The silicone membrane not only serves as the bottom of the chamber but also provides a mechanism for securing the cell-laden scaffold. Vibration signals, generated by a speaker mounted underneath the bottom acrylic block, are transmitted to the membrane aerodynamically by the oscillating air. Eight identical vibration modules, fixed on two stationary metal bars, are housed in an anti-humidity chamber for long-term operation in a cell culture incubator. The vibration characteristics of the vocal fold bioreactor are analyzed non-destructively using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). The utility of the dynamic culture device is demonstrated by culturing cellular constructs in the presence of 200-Hz sinusoidal vibrations with a mid-membrane displacement of 40 µm. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the bioreactor respond to the vibratory signals by altering the synthesis and degradation of vocal fold-relevant, extracellular matrix components. The novel bioreactor system presented herein offers an excellent in vitro
platform for studying vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for the engineering of functional vocal fold tissues.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, vocal fold; bioreactor; speaker; silicone membrane; fibrous scaffold; mesenchymal stem cells; vibration; extracellular matrix
Electrospinning Growth Factor Releasing Microspheres into Fibrous Scaffolds
Institutions: Wayne State University.
This procedure describes a method to fabricate a multifaceted substrate to direct nerve cell growth. This system incorporates mechanical, topographical, adhesive and chemical signals. Mechanical properties are controlled by the type of material used to fabricate the electrospun fibers. In this protocol we use 30% methacrylated Hyaluronic Acid (HA), which has a tensile modulus of ~500 Pa, to produce a soft fibrous scaffold. Electrospinning on to a rotating mandrel produces aligned fibers to create a topographical cue. Adhesion is achieved by coating the scaffold with fibronectin. The primary challenge addressed herein is providing a chemical signal throughout the depth of the scaffold for extended periods. This procedure describes fabricating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres that contain Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and directly impregnating the scaffold with these microspheres during the electrospinning process. Due to the harsh production environment, including high sheer forces and electrical charges, protein viability is measured after production. The system provides protein release for over 60 days and has been shown to promote primary nerve cell growth.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, Electrospinning, Hyaluronic Acid, PLGA, Microspheres, Controlled Release, Neural Tissue Engineering, Directed Cell Migration
A Full Skin Defect Model to Evaluate Vascularization of Biomaterials In Vivo
Institutions: Technische Universität München, University of Lübeck, University Hospital Zürich, Universidad de Chile.
Insufficient vascularization is considered to be one of the main factors limiting the clinical success of tissue-engineered constructs. In order to evaluate new strategies that aim at improving vascularization, reliable methods are required to make the in-growth of new blood vessels into bio-artificial scaffolds visible and quantify the results. Over the past couple of years, our group has introduced a full skin defect model that enables the direct visualization of blood vessels by transillumination and provides the possibility of quantification through digital segmentation. In this model, one surgically creates full skin defects in the back of mice and replaces them with the material tested. Molecules or cells of interest can also be incorporated in such materials to study their potential effect. After an observation time of one’s own choice, materials are explanted for evaluation. Bilateral wounds provide the possibility of making internal comparisons that minimize artifacts among individuals as well as of decreasing the number of animals needed for the study. In comparison to other approaches, our method offers a simple, reliable and cost effective analysis. We have implemented this model as a routine tool to perform high-resolution screening when testing vascularization of different biomaterials and bio-activation approaches.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, Biomaterials, vascularization, tissue engineering, transillumination, digital segmentation, skin defect, scaffold, matrix, in vivo model
Ex vivo Mimicry of Normal and Abnormal Human Hematopoiesis
Institutions: Imperial College London , Imperial College London .
Hematopoietic stem cells require a unique microenvironment in order to sustain blood cell formation1
; the bone marrow (BM) is a complex three-dimensional (3D) tissue wherein hematopoiesis is regulated by spatially organized cellular microenvironments termed niches2-4
. The organization of the BM niches is critical for the function or dysfunction of normal or malignant BM5
. Therefore a better understanding of the in vivo
microenvironment using an ex vivo
mimicry would help us elucidate the molecular, cellular and microenvironmental determinants of leukemogenesis6
Currently, hematopoietic cells are cultured in vitro
in two-dimensional (2D) tissue culture flasks/well-plates7
requiring either co-culture with allogenic or xenogenic stromal cells or addition of exogenous cytokines8
. These conditions are artificial and differ from the in vivo
microenvironment in that they lack the 3D cellular niches and expose the cells to abnormally high cytokine concentrations which can result in differentiation and loss of pluripotency9,10
Herein, we present a novel 3D bone marrow culture system that simulates the in vivo
3D growth environment and supports multilineage hematopoiesis in the absence of exogenous growth factors. The highly porous scaffold used in this system made of polyurethane (PU), facilitates high-density cell growth across a higher specific surface area than the conventional monolayer culture in 2D11
. Our work has indicated that this model supported the growth of human cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells (MNC)12
and primary leukemic cells in the absence of exogenous cytokines. This novel 3D mimicry provides a viable platform for the development of a human experimental model to study hematopoiesis and to explore novel treatments for leukemia.
Bioengineering, Issue 62, three-dimensional culture, hematopoiesis, leukemia, cord blood
Preparation of 3D Fibrin Scaffolds for Stem Cell Culture Applications
Institutions: University of Victoria , University of Victoria .
Stem cells are found in naturally occurring 3D microenvironments in vivo
, which are often referred to as the stem cell niche 1
. Culturing stem cells inside of 3D biomaterial scaffolds provides a way to accurately mimic these microenvironments, providing an advantage over traditional 2D culture methods using polystyrene as well as a method for engineering replacement tissues 2
. While 2D tissue culture polystrene has been used for the majority of cell culture experiments, 3D biomaterial scaffolds can more closely replicate the microenvironments found in vivo
by enabling more accurate establishment of cell polarity in the environment and possessing biochemical and mechanical properties similar to soft tissue.3
A variety of naturally derived and synthetic biomaterial scaffolds have been investigated as 3D environments for supporting stem cell growth. While synthetic scaffolds can be synthesized to have a greater range of mechanical and chemical properties and often have greater reproducibility, natural biomaterials are often composed of proteins and polysaccharides found in the extracelluar matrix and as a result contain binding sites for cell adhesion and readily support cell culture. Fibrin scaffolds, produced by polymerizing the protein fibrinogen obtained from plasma, have been widely investigated for a variety of tissue engineering applications both in vitro
and in vivo 4
. Such scaffolds can be modified using a variety of methods to incorporate controlled release systems for delivering therapeutic factors 5
. Previous work has shown that such scaffolds can be used to successfully culture embryonic stem cells and this scaffold-based culture system can be used to screen the effects of various growth factors on the differentiation of the stem cells seeded inside 6,7
This protocol details the process of polymerizing fibrin scaffolds from fibrinogen solutions using the enzymatic activity of thrombin. The process takes 2 days to complete, including an overnight dialysis step for the fibrinogen solution to remove citrates that inhibit polymerization. These detailed methods rely on fibrinogen concentrations determined to be optimal for embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell culture. Other groups have further investigated fibrin scaffolds for a wide range of cell types and applications - demonstrating the versatility of this approach 8-12
Bioengineering, Issue 61, Extracellular matrix, stem cells, biomaterials, drug delivery, cell culture
Tri-layered Electrospinning to Mimic Native Arterial Architecture using Polycaprolactone, Elastin, and Collagen: A Preliminary Study
Institutions: Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia Commonwealth University, University Hospital of Geneva.
Throughout native artery, collagen and elastin play an important role, providing a mechanical backbone, preventing vessel rupture, and promoting recovery under pulsatile deformations. The goal of this study was to mimic the structure of native artery by fabricating a multi-layered electrospun conduit composed of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) with the addition of elastin and collagen with blends of 45-45-10, 55-35-10, and 65-25-10 PCL-ELAS-COL to demonstrate mechanical properties indicative of native arterial tissue, while remaining conducive to tissue regeneration. Whole grafts and individual layers were analyzed using uniaxial tensile testing, dynamic compliance, suture retention, and burst strength. Compliance results revealed that changes to the middle/medial layer changed overall graft behavior with whole graft compliance values ranging from 0.8 - 2.8 % / 100 mmHg, while uniaxial results demonstrated an average modulus range of 2.0 - 11.8 MPa. Both modulus and compliance data displayed values within the range of native artery. Mathematical modeling was implemented to show how changes in layer stiffness affect the overall circumferential wall stress, and as a design aid to achieve the best mechanical combination of materials. Overall, the results indicated that a graft can be designed to mimic a tri-layered structure by altering layer properties.
Bioengineering, Issue 47, Electrospinning, Vascular Graft, Multilayer, Polycaprolactone, Elastin
Electrospinning Fibrous Polymer Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Cell Culture
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania .
As the field of tissue engineering evolves, there is a tremendous demand to produce more suitable materials and processing techniques in order to address the requirements (e.g., mechanics and vascularity) of more intricate organs and tissues. Electrospinning is a popular technique to create fibrous scaffolds that mimic the architecture and size scale of the native extracellular matrix. These fibrous scaffolds are also useful as cell culture substrates since the fibers can be used to direct cellular behavior, including stem cell differentiation (see extensive reviews by Mauck et al.
and Sill et al.
for more information). In this article, we describe the general process of electrospinning polymers and as an example, electrospin a reactive hyaluronic acid capable of crosslinking with light exposure (see Ifkovits et al.
for a review on photocrosslinkable materials). We also introduce further processing capabilities such as photopatterning and multi-polymer scaffold formation. Photopatterning can be used to create scaffolds with channels and multi-scale porosity to increase cellular infiltration and tissue distribution. Multi-polymer scaffolds are useful to better tune the properties (mechanics and degradation) of a scaffold, including tailored porosity for cellular infiltration. Furthermore, these techniques can be extended to include a wide array of polymers and reactive macromers to create complex scaffolds that provide the cues necessary for the development of successful tissue engineered constructs.
Cellular Biology, Issue 32, Electrospinning, Photocrosslinking, Photopatterning, Tissue Engineering, Scaffolds, Biomaterials, Bioengineering